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yl:information technology

Pseudocode algorithms

NNAATTAALLEEEE AA JJOOHHNNSSOONN

Contributor

G OOD DAY, students. This is lesson 19 in our series of lessons. In this week’s lesson we will continue to look at algorithms.

Let us examine the parts of a pseudocode algorithm in more details.

INPUT STATEMENTS

The input statement is used to get data from outside the computer from a particular input device into a variable for manipulation by the pseudocode. The key words we will use for input will be ‘input’ or ‘read’. To read data into a variable you write the word input or read followed by the variable name.

This is the way in which it will be written:

READ VARIABLE_NAME

The variable_name is the name given to the location where the value is to be stored, as you learnt previously. For example, if I am reading a math score into a variable, my variable name could be ‘score’ and the read statement would therefore be:

be ‘score’ and the read statement would therefore be: OUTPUT STATEMENTS The output statement is used

OUTPUT STATEMENTS

The output statement is used to get information to the programmer or to the user. The key words we will use for output are: ‘display’, ‘print’ and ‘output’. To output information to the user, you write the word Print, a statement followed by a variable_name or the word Print followed by a variable_name.

THIS IS THE WAY IN WHICH IT WILL BE WRITTEN:

Print ‘statement’, variable_name or Print variable_name

For example, if you were required to read two numbers, find the

sum of the numbers and output the sum of the numbers, the output statement would be:

the sum of the numbers, the output statement would be: OUTPUT STATEMENTS We also have a

OUTPUT STATEMENTS

We also have a statement called the prompt statement. A prompt statement is actually an output statement which displays on the screen a message indicating to the user what actions to take based on the program written. For example, you may be asked to write a pseudocode algorithm to accept two numbers and prompt the user to enter the numbers (this would be done via the keyboard). This is how you would write the prompt statement.

keyboard). This is how you would write the prompt statement. ASSIGNMENT STATEMENT Assignment statements are used

ASSIGNMENT STATEMENT

Assignment statements are used to give initial value to variables and to change the value assigned to a variable. The assignment statement has two parts, the Left value and the Right value. The Left value refers to the variable as the storage location where the Right value will be stored. The Right value refers to a value, which may be the result of an expression or the content of another variable. The assignment statement will be written as follows:

vvaarriiaabbllee

nnaammee

== eexxpprreessssiioonn

An assignment statement may involve an arithmetic operation such as:

statement may involve an arithmetic operation such as: While some assignment statements just involve assigning

While some assignment statements just involve assigning values to variables (initialization), such as:

Count –– 1 Highest_Price –– 0

Control Structures (Sequence, Selection, Repetition)

These statements are used to control the amount of time a statement or sequence of statements is carried out based on some condition. We will look at each of these separately in the next lesson.

An algorithm can be represented using a pseudocode or a flowchart. Below is an example of a pseudocode representation of an algorithm, where you will be able to observe the different parts of an algorithm we have discussed thus far.

Example 1

Write a pseudocode algorithm to find the square of a number. Output the square of the number.

Start Algorithm Square_of_number {The algorithm header}

This algorithm finds the square of a number. {The Declaration} Declare number and square as integer {Indicating the data type of the variables}

as integer {Indicating the data type of the variables} We have come to the end of

We have come to the end of this lesson. See you next week when will continue to look at pseudocode algorithms. Remember, if you fail to prepare, you prepare to fail.

Natalee A. Johnson teaches at Ardenne High School.Send questions and comments to kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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FEBRUARY 21-27, 2017

yl: history

Enslaved Africans & major revolts

DDEEBBBBIIOONN HHYYMMAANN

Contributor

OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

a) Identify the key personalities in the Berbice (1763), Barbados (1816), Demerara (1823) and

Jamaica (1831) revolts.

b) Explain TWO causes for the revolts identified in ‘a’ above.

c) Describe the nature and consequences of the revolts named in ‘a’ above.

Berbice(1763) Coffy
Berbice(1763)
Coffy
Barbados(1816) Bussa,Roach,Jackey FranklinCainDavis
Barbados(1816)
Bussa,Roach,Jackey
FranklinCainDavis

Jamaica(1831-1832) SamSharpe
Jamaica(1831-1832)
SamSharpe
Demerara(1823) JackGladstone& Quamina
Demerara(1823)
JackGladstone&
Quamina

BERBICE 1763

CCAAUUSSEESS The Berbice Revolt was as a result of the enslaved population being treated inhumanely by white personnel and also due to the fact that there were inadequate provisions for daily existences supplied on the estates. The enslaved population had meagre rations and whenever there were shortages, they would be adversely affected.

NATURE & CONSEQUENCES

The revolt began on Plantation Magdalenburg on the Conje River on February 23, 1763. By March 1763, the revolt had spread to the Berbice River. The enslaved peoples were able to capture several plantations along the river and Coffy played an instrumental role in this area. Though Coffy committed suicide, the enslaved peoples were still committed to the cause of freedom. The colony

was controlled by blacks for 10 months, showing the active thrust by enslaved peoples to end the system of chattel slavery.

BARBADOS, 1816

CCAAUUSSEESS The revolt began as the enslaved population believed that emancipation was being withheld by the local establishment; in actuality, they had misinterpreted information that they had heard on the Slave Registration Bill with emancipation. The activities of the nonconformist missionaries among the enslaved population were also another cause of the Barbados revolt.

NATURE & CONSEQUENCES

Bussa and Jackey started the Berbice Revolt in April 1816. The revolt would then quickly spread to areas such as St Philip, St John and St George. Within days, martial law was declared and Bussa was killed. Almost 200 enslaved Africans were killed, 200 executed, and another 100 enslaved peoples exiled to Sierra Leone. The colony would suffer economically as, with the damage or total destruction of sugar estates, the sugar industry was impacted.

DEMERARA, 1823

CCAAUUSSEESS The underlying cause of the revolt was that the enslaved peoples believed that their ‘free paper’ was being withheld by the island’s governor.

NATURE & CONSEQUENCES

Enslaved Africans refused to return to work until verification of claims of a ‘free paper.’ In the ensuing violence, more than 100 slaves were killed; several others were executed after holding court martials.

JAMAICA, 1831

CCAAUUSSEESS The underlying cause of the rebellion was the widespread belief that freedom was being withheld by the local authorities. The activities of nonconformist missionaries amongst the enslaved population were also another factor.

NATURE & CONSEQUENCES

Sam Sharpe’s civil disobedience quickly evolved from a general strike on the Kensington Estate (St James) into an open revolt. It would quickly spread to several parishes such as Trelawny, Hanover, Westmoreland and St Elizabeth. The 1831 rebellion is symbolic as it was the largest and most widespread rebellion in the British Caribbean, and it was the last major revolt in British Caribbean before emancipation. It resulted in over 100 enslaved persons being executed, including Sharpe, and 100 flogged. Several Baptist and Moravian missionaries were persecuted, as well as their churches and chapels destroyed.

SOURCES

1. LLiibbeerrttiieess LLoosstt:: CCaarriibbbbeeaann IInnddiiggeennoouuss SSoocciieettiieess aanndd SSllaavvee SSyysstteemmss Hilary Beckles & Verene

Shepherd

2. CCaarriibbbbeeaann SSttoorryy,, BBkk 11 William Claypole & John Robottom

3. CCaarriibbbbeeaann RReevviissiioonn HHiissttoorryy ffoorr CCXXCC Peter Ashdown & Francis Humphreys

Debbion Hyman is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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11

Limestone

JJUUDDIITTHH HHEENNRRYY

Contributor

FOCUS QUESTIONS:

What is limestone?

What are the characteristics of limestone?

What are the processes leading to the formation of limestone features created on the surface

and underground?

LIMESTONE

Is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) in the form of the

mineral calcite.

It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters.

It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral,

algal, and fecal debris.

Can also be a chemical sedimentary rock formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from

lake or ocean water.

Is generally light-coloured.

Is a permeable rock - meaning that water can enter limestone through pores, joints or cracks in

the rock.

Is laid down in layers or ‘beds’, as limestone is a sedimentary rock, separated by ‘bedding

planes’ which are caused by changes in deposition rates or content of material deposited.

Can be slowly dissolved by water.

Limestone is formed from the solidification of minerals out of solution into rock form. Because the

chemicals in limestone can be readily dissolved by acidic solutions and water, they can form karst topography.

In many limestone areas, the chemical weathering processes of solution and carbonation have produced distinctive landscapes known as karst landscapes. Formation of limestone features created on the surface

EXAMPLES OF LIMESTONE FEATURES ON THE SURFACE:

Clints and grykes

Cockpits

Swallow holes

Surface depressions

Limestone pavements are bare limestone rock surfaces composed of slabs of rock separated by

variable-width vertical crack.

The most characteristic surface features of limestone pavements are:

Their division into blocks, called clints.

Their being bound by deep, vertical fissures known as grykes.

Clints are the blocks of limestone that constitute the paving; their area and shape are directly dependent upon the frequency and pattern of grykes. Grykes are the fissures that isolate the individual clints.

The most dominant gryke system runs almost north to south and there is a secondary, less-

developed system at right angles to it.

Grykes take many thousands of years to form under the soil, as the rate of solution is slow.

Grykes can stretch for hundreds of feet until they suddenly terminate or are lost beneath

superficial deposits.

yl:geography

Grykes are usually straight but are occasionally curvilinear.

are usually straight but are occasionally curvilinear. Diagram showing clint and gryke formations. Clints and

Diagram showing clint and gryke formations.

Clints and grikes form under relatively deep cover of soil where water, carrying carbonic acid which is formed from dissolved carbon dioxide as well as organic acids from decaying vegetation, picks out vertical lines of weakness (joints) in the rock. These fissures widen over the years as the acidic water preferentially attacks the lines of weakness.

COCKPIT

On the map of Jamaica below, the Cockpit Country is shown as an area outlined in pink.

the Cockpit Country is shown as an area outlined in pink. COCKPIT COUNTRY: ✔ Is a

COCKPIT COUNTRY:

Is a large area with many small hills and depressions.

Is formed in an area with white limestone.

Features rocks with many joints. These joints cross each other as some run from east to west

and others run generally from north to south.

Has water collected in these joints.

Has rocks, near the joints, which dissolved relatively quickly, forming depressions.

There are many caves and sinkholes within the Cockpit Country.

No rivers or streams can be found on the surface in the area because they have all disappeared

into swallow holes and flow underground through caves.

There are at least two theories as to how cockpit karst forms. The ‘solution’ theory proposes that heavy tropical rainfall washing through a fissured limestone plateau over millions of years dissolved, eroded the fissures, washed the debris through the sinkholes, and eventually out to sea. The ‘collapse’ theory maintains that the formation and subsequent collapse of cave systems is the primary mechanism for cockpit karst formation.

Judith Henry teaches at Ardenne High School. Send questions and comments to kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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FEBRUARY 21-27, 2017

yl:biology

Studying the environment

MMOONNAACCIIAA WWIILLLLIIAAMMSS

Contributor

W ELL, HELLO again, students. How are you all this week? Now that we have completed our lessons on Section C, we need to focus our attention on another topic. I hope everything went well for you last week and that this week will be equally good! Right now, we will be

looking at some of the practical principles involved in the study of the environment. These, along with the identification and classification of organisms, form the basis of many of the structured questions on Paper 02. Before we begin, you will need to familiarise yourself with some key terms. These are terms that will be used in the questions that you will be asked to answer; if you do not know what they mean, then you will not be able to answer the questions adequately.

KEY WORDS AND TERMS

PPooppuullaattiioonn:: A group of organisms of the same kind (species) found in a particular area. CCoommmmuunniittyy:: Several populations living together in a particular place, e.g., all the organisms living under a fallen tree or all the organisms living on a Barbados cherry tree. NNiicchhee:: The position occupied by a particular type of organism within the community. HHaabbiittaatt:: This is the place where the organism lives. Habitats can be either terrestrial – on land – or aquatic - fresh water (rivers, lakes), sea water (marine), brackish water (estuaries). EEccoossyysstteemm:: The interaction of living organisms with their environment. Species density: The average number of organisms belonging to a particular species captured in 10 throws of a 1m 2 quadrat.

e.g., Calculation of the species density of grasshoppers in an abandoned playing field. PPeerrcceennttaaggee ccoovveerr:: This is used to describe the distribution of organisms that are not easily separated into individual units and cannot be easily counted. These include organisms such as grass lichens, and small molluscs on the seashore, such as periwinkles. Percentage cover is the proportion of a measured ground area covered by that portion of the organism that is above the ground.

ESTIMATING POPULATIONS

Not only is it almost impossible to count the total number of individuals in a population, but doing so would also cause unacceptable levels of damage, both to the organisms and their habitats. However, population numbers is information that one needs to know in order to study populations, hence estimates of population numbers have to be made. How do we estimate population numbers? It is done using sampling methods. Let us look now at some of these methods:

QUADRAT SAMPLING

A quadrat is a square of a known area, usually 1m, made out of wood or metal. It is most commonly used for estimating the size of plant populations, but it can also be used for estimating the size of slow-moving or sessile (not mobile) animals, e.g., those on the rocks of the seashore.

This square of 1m can be further subdivided into smaller squares (see diagram below). In order to use the quadrat accurately, certain conditions must be met. These include:

The size of quadrat to be used.

The number of quadrats to be used.

The placing or positioning of the quadrats.

At this level of your studies, the third point is the most important of the three. In order to reduce

bias, the placing of the quadrats should be done randomly. Simply throwing the quadrat over your shoulder will give some degree of randomness, but there are more accurate ways of doing this. This can be done by dividing the area to be studied into squares and using computer-generated random numbers as coordinates. For example, if random numbers 3, 4 are generated, then walking 3 squares

if random numbers 3, 4 are generated, then walking 3 squares from one corner in a
if random numbers 3, 4 are generated, then walking 3 squares from one corner in a

from one corner in a straight line along one edge and then 4 squares down into the field would indicate the position to place the quadrat.

TRANSECTS

Transects are useful for estimating populations where one type of habitat is changing to another, for example, along a shoreline moving from the water on to land. They can also be used to show the zones different species occupy. The line transect is a straight line crossing an area, recording all the species that actually touch the line as it crosses the habitat. Alternatively, the line can be marked at regular intervals, for example, every 5 to 10m, and the organisms present at these points recorded. The transect can be formed using a rope or a piece of string or a wire; a rope is more commonly used since it is not only flexible, but is also strong. The line transect can be converted to a belt

transect by placing a second line at a measured distance, usually 0.5m 2 from the first. All of the species within the two lines are then recorded. A line transect can also be used to place quadrats; the quadrats are placed at regular intervals along the line and the species within the quadrats are recorded. Next week, we will look at some of the different methods that can be used to collect animals. In the meantime, read through this information a few times until you become comfortable with it, because you will soon be using it to answer questions. Have a blessed week!

Monacia Williams is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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yl:chemistry

Identification of ions and gases

FFRRAANNCCIINNEE TTAAYYLLOORR--CCAAMMPPBBEELLLL

Contributor

YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

Identify the following cations; Pb 2+ , Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ , NH 4+ and Cu 2+

Metallic ions or cations are identified based on the colour and solubility of the hydroxides formed from their reaction with aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide.

Fe 2+ produces a dirty-green precipitate, which is insoluble in excess aq NH3 and NaOH.

Fe 3+ produces a rust-brown precipitate, which is insoluble in excess aq NH3 and NaOH

Cu 2+ forms a blue precipitate, which is insoluble in excess aq NaOH, but soluble in excess aq NH3.

These cations can clearly be identified based on their colours alone.

Al 3+ and Pb 2+ both form white precipitates when reacted with aq NaOH and NH3. In aq NaOH, the precipitates are soluble in

excess, while in aq NH3, they are insoluble in excess. As can be

seen, Al 3+ and Pb 2+ give the same results so, to differentiate between them, other reactions must be taken into consideration. Pb 2+ will form precipitates with I-, Cl- and SO4 2- ions (PbI2

(yellow), PbCl2 (white), PbSO4 (white), while Al 3+ will not.

Two other cations form white precipitates. Zn 2+ forms a white precipitate, which is soluble both in excess aq NaOH and NH3.

Ca 2+ forms a white precipitate, which is insoluble in excess NaOH but does not form a precipitate when treated with ammonia. The NH 4+ ion can be identified based on the evolution of ammonia (NH3) gas when warmed with aq NaOH.

Another method of identifying metallic ions is the flame test. This is based on the fact that compounds containing metallic ions produce different coloured flames when heated.

HOW IS THE FLAME TEST CARRIED OUT?

Nichrome wire is first dipped into concentrated hydrochloric acid. A small amount of the compound to be tested is then placed on the wire and the loop is held into blue flame (from a Bunsen burner). The colour of the flame produced is noted and used to identify the metallic ion present. The colours of the common ions are shown.

Head of the Caribbean School of Nursing, Dr Adella Campbell, pinning first-year nursing student Shafeeqah

Head of the Caribbean School of Nursing, Dr Adella Campbell, pinning first-year nursing student Shafeeqah Abdul-Jabbar.

EXAMINATION-TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Describe what is observed (with the aid of equations) in each

of the following reactions:

(a)

Aqueous NaOH is added to aq iron(III) sulphate.

(b)

Dilute HCl is added to solid sodium carbonate.

(a)

Aqueous barium chloride is added to dilute sulphuric acid.

(b)

Aqueous silver nitrate is added to aq sodium chloride. (88

MMAARRKKSS)

(a) A rust-brown precipitate is formed which is insoluble in

excess NaOH.

Fe 3+ (aq) + 3OH-(aq) == Fe(OH) 3 (s)

(b) Sodium carbonate would dissolve and a gas would be given

off. Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl (aq) == 2NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) + CO 2 (g)

(c) A white precipitate will be seen which will remain insoluble.

Ba 2+ (aq) + SO4 2 -(aq) == BaSO4(s)

(d) The silver nitrate would react with the chloride ions to form

a white precipitate of silver chloride. Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) == AgCl (s)

2. When manganese (II) nitrate Mn(NO3)2 is heated, the only

products are manganese (IV) oxide and a brown gas Q. When manganese (IV) oxide is added to hydrogen peroxide, a colourless gas, R, is given off. R relights a glowing splint. When manganese (IV) oxide is added to hot concentrated hydrochloric

acid, a yellow-green gas is given off. S bleaches damp litmus paper.

(a)

Identify the gases represented by the letters Q, R and S.

(b)

State the formula of manganese (IV) oxide.

(c)

Write equations for the action of heat on (i) sodium nitrate

(ii) lead (II) nitrate.

(d) Oxygen can react with metals and non-metals to form

oxides. Write a balanced equation to show how oxygen reacts

with (i) sodium (ii) sulphur.

(e) What would you observe if water is added to the product

formed in each of the reactions and the solution tested with a few drops of litmus solution?

(a) The gases Q, R, S are nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxygen (O2),

and chlorine (Cl2), respectively.

(b)

Formula of manganese (IV) oxide - MnO2

(c)

2NaNO3(s) ? 2NaNO2(s) + O2(g);

2Pb(NO3)2 ? 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2 (g)

(d)

Na (s) + O2(g) ? 2Na2O(s); S (s) + O2(g) ? SO2 (g)

(e)

A very vigorous reaction would take place when water is

added to sodium oxide, which would also dissolve. This solution would cause no change to the blue litmus solution. The sulphur dioxide produced would dissolve in the water, forming a solution which would change the blue litmus solution to red.

Francine Taylor-Campbell is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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FEBRUARY 21-27, 2017

yl:principles of accounts

Control accounts and subsidiary ledgers

RROOXXAANNNNEE WWRRIIGGHHTT

Contributor

WORKED EXAMPLE:

 

All purchases and purchase returns were subject to a trade discount of 10% off the list price. [>1] You are required to:

1. Select the appropriate balances and prepare the purchases ledger control account for the month

of March 2015.

2. Identify TWO advantages of preparing control accounts.

REASONING:

[>1] Trade discount is not a part of double-entry accounting and should be ignored in this account.

Kingston College team members (from left) Shemar Henry (captain), Josephat Ononiwu, Lowarne Martin and Zackarie

Kingston College team members (from left) Shemar Henry (captain), Josephat Ononiwu, Lowarne Martin and Zackarie Campbell.

SOLUTION:

 

 

1. PURCHASES LEDGER CONTROL ACCOUNT

2. TWO advantages of preparing control accounts are to:

i. Find the total figures of debtors, creditors, stock, et al, at any given time without having to add all the figures on the individual records. ii. Have a cross-check on the accuracy of the subsidiary records.

Follow us as we trend towards doing a comprehensive coverage of the key areas of the syllabus.

Roxanne Wright teaches at Immaculate Academy. Send questions and comments to kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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15

yl:principles of business

Legal aspects of a business – Part 3: Contracts

YYVVOONNNNEE HHAARRVVEEYY

Contribtor

H I, IT’S POB time again. This week, we will complete the elements of a valid contract and then look at mistakes in contracts,

and termination or discharge of contracts. The final part of the lesson will consider, briefly, breach of contracts. First, let us consider POSSIBILITY as an element of the valid contract.

POSSIBILITY

This means that all parties to the contract must be capable of performing the acts in the contract.

GENUINENESS OF CONSENT OF THE PARTIES

This is also referred to as GOOD FAITH. Each party must have entered into the contract of his own free will. One should not have entered the contract through undue influence, duress, fraud or misrepresentation. A contract entered into under duress means that a person is forced to enter a contract against his will. Undue influence means that physical and/or mental pressure is applied, for example blackmail. Misrepresentation refers to a false statement which induces a person to make a contract.

We have now completed the elements of a valid contract. Let’s move on.

MISTAKES IN CONTRACTS

A mistake is an incorrect idea or opinion; things incorrectly done or thought.

There are three types of mistakes:

1. The common mistake. This is where both

parties make the same mistake. For example, Mr Singh sold a car to Mrs Whiteman. Unknown to both of them, the car was stolen property.

2. The mutual mistake. In this case, both

parties make a mistake, but the mistakes are different. For example, Mrs Carey has two Nissan cars – a grey and a white one. Misha agreed to purchase one of the cars. However, she was most upset when she discovered that she was being sold the white car instead of the

From left: Dale ‘Eli Di Viner’ Elliot vlogger; Danielle Savory, public relations manager at FLOW;

From left: Dale ‘Eli Di Viner’ Elliot vlogger; Danielle Savory, public relations manager at FLOW; Tashae Salmon, Mona High School student; and Constable Rose Morris share a moment on Safer Internet Day. The day, which is commemorated globally, was used to educate students about safe practices while using the Internet, as well as the avenues available should they encounter dangerous scenarios.

fully-loaded grey car. At no time did Mrs Carey intend to sell the grey one.

3. The unilateral mistake. Only one party

makes a mistake. The other party is aware of it, but does not reveal it. For example, Sandra buys a pair of gold earrings from Maria at a very high price. Maria is aware that the earrings are not genuine, but Sandra is ignorant of this fact.

The examples of mistakes used above are taken from CCXXCC PPrriinncciipplleess ooff BBuussiinneessss by

Karlene Robinson and Sybile Hamil.

TERMINATION/DISCHARGE OF CONTRACTS

Contracts can be terminated or brought to an

end under the following circumstances:

1. BByy PPeerrffoorrmmaannccee:: This is where both sides

have completed what they agreed to do.

2. BByy tthhee ssuubbjjeecctt mmaatttteerr cceeaassiinngg ttoo eexxiisstt:: For

example, if you agree to buy a horse which dies

before you take possession of it.

3. BByy ddeeaatthh oorr bbaannkkrruuppttccyy:: In this case, the

dead person’s debts may still have to be paid; and in the case of bankruptcy, it must be

proven.

4. BByy nnoottiiccee:: This is so, for example, in the

case of a contract of employment which can be

brought to an end by either party giving the required length of notice.

5. BByy llaappssee ooff ttiimmee:: If a time limit was a part

of the agreement.

6. BByy lleeggiissllaattiioonn:: In this case, something

which was legal at the beginning becomes

illegal by law before it can be performed.

7. BByy aann aaggrreeeedd eevveenntt ooccccuurrrriinngg:: The parties

would have agreed that a particular event, if it occurred, would nullify the agreement.

8. BByy ffrruussttrraattiioonn:: This is where an act, though

possible at the beginning, becomes impossible

later on.

9. BByy ggoovveerrnnmmeenntt iinntteerrffeerreennccee:This may

strike at the root of the contract and cause it to be terminated.

10. BByy mmuuttuuaall ccoonnsseenntt:: Both parties agree to

cancel the contract before it is completed.

11. BByy bbrreeaacchh:: In this case, the injured party

must be the one to decide that the contract should come to its end.

BREACH OF CONTRACT

This is also known as REPUDIATION and occurs when one or more parties to the contract breaks a condition or conditions of the contract.

What can be done if a contract is breached?

1. The other party to the contract may

discharge the contract.

2. Redress can be sought in a court of law.

3. Both parties can agree to redo the contract

or dissolve the contract.

Well, friends, that’s it for this week. Next week will be our final lesson on contracts. We will discuss the types of contracts and end by

considering some questions on contracts. Bye for now.

Yvonne Harvey is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to

kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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The human resources office – Part 2

HHYYAACCIINNTTHH TTUUGGMMAANN

Contributor

H I, STUDENTS! I hope you have been making notes on the lessons we have done so far. I will continue to look at

other functions and the importance of the human resources office.

STAFF WELFARE

Staff welfare is concerned with the maintenance of safe working conditions and the provision of services for employees. These services include: pension scheme, superannuation schemes, medical scheme, and safety regulations.

PROMOTION, TRANSFER, LAYOFF AND DISMISSAL

As organisations change, they have different labour requirements. If a firm is expanding, new jobs are created. On the other hand, if the volume of work is reduced, the workforce declines. These factors usually influence promotion, transfer, layoff, and dismissal.

DISCIPLINARY PROCEDURES

It is the employees’ responsibility to familiarise themselves with the organisation’s rules and regulations. Organisations often provide employees with a staff handbook, a code of regulations, or other written document indicating the company’s disciplinary procedures.

This department at times may find it necessary to discipline employees on matters relating to poor performance, absence or not being punctual, gross misconduct, harassment, and misuse of the organisation’s facilities.

STATUTORY PROVISIONS FOR EMPLOYEE PROTECTION

There are statutory provisions for employee protection. Such provisions are legislated and outline such protection conditions as:

Employee’s leave rights

Public holidays leave/pay

Sick leave

CONTRIBUTED A young woman (Matilda Lutz) sacrifices herself to save her boyfriend in ‘Rings’.

CONTRIBUTED

A young woman (Matilda Lutz) sacrifices herself to save her boyfriend in ‘Rings’.

National minimum wage rate

Maximum work hours.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CLERK IN A HUMAN RESOURCES OFFICE

The clerk in this office usually carries out her duties under the supervision of the human resources manager/officer. Very strict confidentiality should be observed by this

person in dealing with personnel matters. The

duties include:

writing routine letters, e.g. a letter in

response to a request for information on a

vacancy; a letter inviting an applicant to an interview; a letter to successful applicant

arranging meetings for interviews

maintaining files and records, including

confidential records

sorting various forms, including

application, appraisal, etc.

providing information regarding job

vacancies, leave, insurance, etc.

CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT

A contract of employment is a document

which gives the employee certain particulars

pertaining to the conditions of the service. It usually indicates:

Date of commencement

Remuneration

Times of payment

Hours of work

Length of holidays

Welfare services and conditions

Name of department in which employee

will be located

Length of notice to be given by employer

and employee for termination of employment.

SERVICE RECORD

A service record indicates the date of the employee’s first appointment to the particular organisation, the position(s) he has held, and the length of time he has served in each post.

LEAVE

Leave may be granted with pay or without pay. The different categories of leave include:

study leave, vacation leave, sick leave, special leave, compassionate leave, maternity leave and no-pay leave. Again I am going to require of you to make notes on the different categories of leave.

PERSONAL HISTORY

This is usually recorded from the employee’s résumé. When the human resources office receives additional information pertaining to qualifications, training, promotion, marriage, change of address, etc., these details are added to the employee’s personal history.

APPRAISAL FORM

An employee appraisal form is a record of

performance evaluation. The appraisal form allows organisations to compare employees using the same criteria, and becomes part of each employee’s personal file. The

completion of the employee appraisal form must be both impersonal and impartial. See you next week.

Hyacinth Tugman is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to kkeerrrryy--aannnn hheeppbbuurrnn@@gglleeaanneerrjjmm ccoomm

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Separation of powers

MMAAUURREEEENN CCAAMMPPBBEELLLL

Contributor

B ARON DE Montesquieu, a French philosopher, expanded on these nascent ideas regarding

separation of power in TThhee SSppiirriitt ooff LLaawwss (1748), contending that a government’s executive,

judicial and legislative functions should be administered by separate branches.

The term ‘separation of powers’ describes the distribution of power between different branches of government. In most Caribbean countries, this is between the executive, judicial and legislative responsibilities of a government which, to a large extent, are separate and distinct bodies. It is widely believed that a separation of power would prevent the abuse of power by an individual or any single governmental body.

of power by an individual or any single governmental body. Jamaica, our island home, is a

Jamaica, our island home, is a constitutional monarchy with a British parliamentary system of government. The Constitution of Jamaica is, therefore, based on the British sociopolitical culture and is modelled on the Westminster-Whitehall (British) system of government.

yl:social studies

THE IMPORTANCE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS

The separation of powers doctrine ensures that the balance of power is maintained within each arm of the state. As it relates to Jamaica, separation of powers exists as there are safeguards put in place to ensure that no institution overpowers the other or usurps its function.

The executive is kept in check by the Parliament to which it is accountable and, by a large extent, by the electorate. The judiciary also ensures that the executive does not abuse its power; the process of judicial review of the actions of the executive ensures this. In addition, the judiciary is given the power to declare legislation that goes against the Constitution of Jamaica as void. This safeguards the rights of the citizens and ensures that the executive does not wield arbitrary power.

THE LEGISLATURE

executive does not wield arbitrary power. THE LEGISLATURE The picture above depicts the Senate or the

The picture above depicts the Senate or the Upper House. Both sides of the House consist of both government and opposition senators.

THE LEGISLATURE AND ITS FUNCTIONS THE ROLE OF THE LEGISLATURE

To introduce new laws or statutes.

To amend or alter existing laws.

To ratify international treaties.

To repeal those laws which are no longer applicable or relevant to society.

To discuss matters of urgent public concern.

The Parliament of Jamaica is the legislative branch of the Government of Jamaica. It is a bicameral body, composed of an appointed Senate, also known as the Upper House, and an elected House of Representatives, also known as the Lower House. The governor general represents the queen in Parliament, and his role is a formal one. Once a year, at the official opening of Parliament, he delivers the Throne Speech.

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PATRICK PLANTER/ PHOTOGRAPHER From left: Dr Peter Ruddock, manager, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Department,

PATRICK PLANTER/

PHOTOGRAPHER

From left: Dr Peter Ruddock, manager, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Department, Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica; Lincoln McLntyre, chairman of the board of governors of the Wolmer’s Trust High School for Girls; Dr Andrew Wheatley, minister of science, energy and technology; Mrs Colleen Montague, principal, Wolmer’s Trust High School for Girls; Shanae Christian (head girl) and Suen Chang. Occasion was the Wolmer’s Trust High School for Girls Energy Intervention Projects handing over cermony on Friday,February 10.

Summary writing

MMEELLIISSSSAA MMCCKKEENNZZIIEE

Contributor

H ELLO, STUDENTS. This week, we will begin our focus on summary writing.

Here are the answers to the unscrambling exercise: BRIEF, EXTRACT, CONCISE, PARAPHRASE, CONDENSE These words are key aspects of summary writing and, as we explore this topic, you will appreciate their significance. Your ability to summarise is assessed in Paper 02, Section I of the English A examination. You are usually given an extract/passage to read; it is usually expository or persuasive in nature. This section is valued at 30 marks and you are graded for content, expression and language, with each area attracting 10 marks. Your finished summary should be no more than 120 words. Also, you are usually expected to complete your summary in 30 minutes, which means time management is important. This section of the paper has been quite challenging for some students over the years. It

is, therefore, necessary for us to work through the features of a summary and the various techniques you can undertake in order to improve your summary skills. Please note that summary writing is a life skill. It is not a skill that is merely needed for examination purposes, but summarising can be seen in every aspect of our lives. Have you ever written or listened to minutes, prepared a report, related an incident or watched the nightly news? All these involve elements of summarising.

THE FOLLOWING ARE BENEFITS OF SUMMARY WRITING:

Improvement of reading skills.

Development of vocabulary skills.

Enhancement of critical-thinking skills.

improvement of writing and editing skills.

Let us now look at the features of a summary.

DDeeffiinniittiioonn:: A summary is a shortened version of a longer piece of writing. Summary writing entails removing unnecessary details in order to retain the gist of the original information. For some students, the greatest challenge

they experience when they are to summarise a passage results from a lack of understanding of what they read and an inability to paraphrase the details they select. If you are going to produce a superior summary or even one that demonstrates competence, then the following summary skills are essential:

the ability to select key information – This

means extracting information that is relevant to your answer. Information that is relevant to your answer depends on the aspect(s) of the text you are to summarise.

The ability to condense information – This