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1 Nouns
Proper nouns
Common nouns
Countable and uncountable nouns

Spelling rules for plural:

Noun Rule Examples

Most nouns Add s Book books
Nouns ending in Change y to i Baby babies
consonant +- y
Nouns ending in Add s Boy boys
vowel +- y Day days
Nouns ending in Add es Match
: matches
-ch Brush brushes
-sh Dress dresses
-ss Box boxes
Nouns ending in Add s or es Video videos
-o Photo - photos
Tomato -
Nouns ending Change f to es Shelf shelves
in: Knife - knives

Determiners :

a few a little
Many much, plenty of
a lot of
2 Articles

A, an, the
vowel & consonant sound
a consonant sounds (singular)
an vowel sounds (singular)

o 1. The one and only moon, KLCC, Penang
Bridge etc

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o 2
2. More than one books, shops etc
o 3. Mention second time this is a cat. The cat
is fat.
o 4. Superlatives - Ali is the tallest boy in class.
o 5. Names of musical instrument, places,
countries the piano, the Hilton, the USA

3 Pronouns and Possessives

Subject Sh
I you he it we you they
Pronouns e
Object hi
me you Her it us you them
Pronouns m
ve it
my your his Her our your their
Adjective s
min your Her our your their
ve his -
e s s s s s

this, that, these, those

s, s
Everything, something
Anything, nothing

4 Adjectives

We use adj to describe about people or things.

Comes before a noun : a small house
After a verb to be : the house is small
Comparative adj :
Short adj : older than, smaller than etc
Long adj : more carefull, more intelligent
Superlative adj :
Short adj : the oldest, the smallest
Long adj : the most expensive, the most popular

5 Verbs to be

6 Adverbs
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We use adverbs to describe how someone or
something does something : I read slowly
Usually add ly : angrily, quickly, greedily etc
Always : the bus is always crowded.
Usually : the bus is usually crowded.
Often : the bus is often crowded.
Sometimes : the bus is sometimes crowded.
Never : the bus is never crowded.

7 Present Tenses

I Xs Am swim have do
You Xs Are swim have do
We Xs Are swim have do
They Xs Are swim have do
He /s Is swims has does
She /s Is swims has does
It /s Is Swims has does

Song : I, you, we, they

Spelling rules for he, she, it :

Verbs Rule Examples
Most verbs add s read reads
Verbs ending change -y to fly flies
in cons. +- y i study studies
Verbs ending add s buy buys
in vowel +-y play plays
Verbs ending add es watch
in watches
-ch finish
-sh finishes
-ss miss misses
-s fix fixes
-x go goes
do - does

8 Past Tenses
We use past simple of be to talk about the past.
I was
You Were
We Were
They Were had did
He Was
She Was
It Was

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Spelling rules for verbs +-ed 2
Verb Rule Examples
Most verbs add -ed ask asked
help helped
Verbs ending in: add d arrive arrived
-e agree agreed
Verbs ending in: change y to study studied
+- y -i try tried
Verbs ending in double the stop stopped
one vowel + final plan planned
one consonant consonant #
Verbs ending in add -ed rain rained
two vowels + repeat -
consonants repeated

9 Question words

10 Infinitives
to : after to use root word

11 Conjunctions / Linking Words

and, but, or, because, so etc
first, next, then, after that, finally

12 Prepositions
in, into, inside
on, onto
in front of

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Irregular Verbs

Bil Infinitive Past Simple
1 Be was/were been
2 beat beat beaten
3 become became become
4 begin began begun
5 Bite bit bitten
6 blow blew blown
7 break broke broken
8 bring brought brought
9 build built built
10 buy bought bought
11 catch caught caught
12 choose chose chosen
13 come came came
14 cost cost cost
15 cut cut cut
16 Do did done
17 draw drew drawn
dreamt/drea dreamt/drea
18 dream
med med
19 drink drank drunk
20 drive drove driven
21 eat ate eaten
23 fall fell fallen
24 feel felt felt
25 fight fought fought
26 find found found
27 Fly flew flown
28 forget forgot forgotten
29 get got got
30 give gave given
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31 go 2
went gone
32 grow grew grown
33 hang hung hung
34 have had had
35 hear heard heard
36 hit hit hit
37 hold held held
38 hurt hurt hurt
39 keep kept kept
40 know knew known
learnt/learn learnt/learn
41 learn
ed ed
42 leave left left
43 lend lent lent
44 let let let
45 lie lie lie
46 lose lost lost
47 make made made
48 mean meant meant
49 meet met met
50 pay paid paid
51 put put put
52 read read read
53 ride rode ridden
54 ring rang rung
55 run ran run
56 say said said
57 see saw seen
58 sell sold sold
59 send sent sent
60 set set set
61 show showed shown
62 shut shut shut
63 sing sang sung
64 sit sat sat
65 sleep slept slept
smelled/sm smelled/sm
66 smell
elt elt
67 speak spoke spoken
spelt/spelle spelt/spelle
68 spell
d d
69 spend spent spent
70 stand stood stood
71 steal stole stolen
72 swim swam swum
73 take took taken
74 teach taught taught
75 tell told told
76 think thought thought
77 throw threw thrown

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underst 2
78 understood understood
79 wake woke waken
80 wear wore worn
81 win won won
82 write wrote written

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