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Biografie e carriera[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Lee Alexander McQueen (Londra, 17 marzo 1969 Londra, 11 febbraio 2010) stato
uno stilista inglese. Figlio di un tassista, McQueen lascia la scuola all'et di 16 anni per entrare subito
nel mondo del lavoro. Dopo aver lavorato per Savile Row, per Gieves & Hawkes e per i celebri
costumisti teatrali Angels e Bermans, all'et di 20 anni si trasferisce a Milano per lavorare per Romeo
Gigli. Nel 1992 ritorna a Londra per completare la propria formazione presso la prestigiosa Saint
Martin's School of Art.

Nel 1996 McQueen viene assunto come direttore creativo di Givenchy al posto di John Galliano, con
cui, fra alti e bassi, rimarr fino al 2001, anno in cui lascer la maison definendola costrittiva per la
propria creativit. In questo periodo Alexander McQueen fa conoscere il proprio nome nella scena
dell'alta moda con sfilate trasgressive e scioccanti, al punto di essere definito hooligan della moda.

Nel 1999, a Londra, ha realizzato una sfilata provocatoria in cui comparivano la modella Aimee Mullins,
amputata delle gambe, che a grandi passi ha attraversato la passerella su protesi in legno finemente
intagliato, e deirobot per la verniciatura delle auto che spruzzavano su abiti di cotone bianco.

Dal 2001 lo stilista entrato a far parte del gruppo fiorentino Gucci, ed ha espanso la propria
produzione aprendo nuove boutique a Londra, Milano e New York, e lanciando sul mercato il
profumo Kingdom. Nel 2003 ha collaborato con la Puma per la realizzazione di una linea di scarpe da
ginnastica.

Nel corso della propria carriera, McQueen ha vinto il riconoscimento di "stilista inglese dell'anno" per
quattro volte dal 1996 al 2003, ed ha vinto il premio "stilista dell'anno" dal consiglio Fashion Designer
Awards nel 2003.

stato trovato morto impiccato nella sua abitazione londinese l'11 febbraio 2010 all'et di 40 anni[1].

Stile ed influenze stilistiche[modifica | modifica wikitesto]


Isabella Blow: icona del fashion system, e intima amica di Alexander e morta suicida nel 2007,
ha permesso al giovane designer di iniziare la sua carriera.

Cifre stilistiche: creativit visionaria, legata ad un immaginario gotico e legato al concetto di


morte, show e spettacolarizzazione, tailoring e grande soire. Per la comunicazione si affida
allartista-fotografo Nick Knight.

Ispirazioni: Damien Hirst, Marina Abramovi, Elsa Schiaparelli (abito cassa toracica, 1938),
estetica gotica e punk, Rinascimento, Medioevo, Epoca vittoriana, arte
simbolista (principalmente Gustave Moreau), cyborg style, sado-guerriera, jack-the-ripper style,
insolito e bizzarro, mutazione, Philip Treacy
Lee Alexander McQueen, CBE (17 March 1969 11 February 2010) was a British fashion designer
and couturier.[2] He is known for having worked as chief designer at Givenchy from 1996 to 2001 and for
founding his own Alexander McQueen label.[2] His achievements in fashion earned him four British
Designer of the Year awards (1996, 1997, 2001 and 2003), as well as the CFDA's International
Designer of the Year award in 2003.[2]

Contents

[hide]

1 Early life and education

2 Career

o 2.1 Givenchy appointment

o 2.2 VOSS

o 2.3 Accomplishments

o 2.4 Company

3 Personal life

4 Death and memorial

5 Tributes

6 Final show

7 See also

8 Further reading

o 8.1 Biographies

9 References

10 External links

Early life and education[edit]

Born on 17 March 1969 in Lewisham, London, to Scottish[3] taxi driver Ronald[4] and social science
teacher Joyce, McQueen was the youngest of six children. [5][6] While he reportedly grew up in a council
flat,[7] the McQueens had lived in a terraced house in Stratford since McQueen was less than a year old.
[8]
He attended Carpenters Road Primary School, started making dresses for his three sisters at a young
age, and announced his intention to become a fashion designer.[9]
McQueen later attended Rokeby School and left aged 16 in 1985 with one O-level in art,[5] going on to
serve an apprenticeship with Savile Row tailors Anderson & Sheppard, before joining Gieves &
Hawkes and, later, the theatrical costumiers Angels and Bermans.[10] The skills he learned as an
apprentice on Savile Row helped earn him a reputation in the fashion world as an expert in creating an
impeccably tailored look. [11]

Career[edit]

While on Savile Row, McQueen's clients included Mikhail Gorbachev and Prince Charles. At the age of
20, he spent a period of time working for Koji Tatsuno before travelling to Milan, Italy and working
for Romeo Gigli.[9]

McQueen returned to London in 1994 and applied to Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, to
work as a pattern cutter tutor. Because of the strength of his portfolio he was persuaded by Bobby
Hillson, the Head of the Masters course, to enroll in the course as a student. [8][9][12] He received his
master's degree in fashion design and his graduation collection was bought in its entirety by influential
fashion stylist Isabella Blow, who was said to have persuaded McQueen to become known as
Alexander (his middle name) when he subsequently launched his fashion career.[6][9]

It was during this period that McQueen relocated to Hoxton, which housed other new designers,
including Hussein Chalayan and Pauric Sweeney.[13] It was shortly after creating his second
collection,"McQueen's Theatre of Cruelty", that McQueen met Katy England, his soon to be "right hand
woman",[14] when outside of a "high profile fashion show" trying to "blag her way in". [15] He promptly
asked her to join him for his third collection, "The Birds" at Kings Cross, as "creative director". [15] Katy
England continued to work with McQueen thereafter, greatly influencing his work his "second
opinion".[14]

McQueen designed wardrobe for David Bowie's tours in 1996-1997, as well as the Union Jack coat
worn by Bowie on the cover of his 1997 album Earthling. Icelandic singer Bjrk sought McQueen's work
for the cover of her album Homogenic in 1997.[16] McQueen also directed the music video for her song
"Alarm Call" from the same album[17] and later contributed the iconic topless dress to her video for
"Pagan Poetry".[18] McQueen also collaborated with dancer Sylvie Guillem, director Robert Lepage and
choreographer Russell Maliphant, designing wardrobe for theater show "Eonnagata", directed by
Robert Lepage. The film "Sylvie Guillem, on the edge" produced by French production company A
DROITE DE LA LUNE, traces whole history of the creation of the show, from first rehearsals which took
place in Quebec until world premiere which was held in 2008 at Sadler's Wells theater in London.
Camilla Belle in a 2009 dress by Alexander McQueen, listed among "100 Best Dresses of the Decade"
byInStyle magazine.[19]

McQueen's early runway collections developed his reputation for controversy and shock tactics (earning
the title "l'enfant terrible" and "the hooligan of English fashion"),[4] with trousers aptly named "bumsters"
and a collection titled "Highland Rape".[5][20][21] In 2004, journalist Caroline Evans also wrote of McQueen's
"theatrical staging of cruelty", in 032c magazine, referring to his dark and tortured renderings of Scottish
history.[22] McQueen was known for his lavish, unconventional runway shows: a recreation of a
shipwreck for his spring 2003 collection; spring 2005's human chess game; and his autumn 2006 show
"Widows of Culloden", which featured a life-sizedhologram of supermodel Kate Moss dressed in yards
of rippling fabric.[23]

McQueen's "bumsters" spawned a trend in low rise jeans; on their debut they attracted many comments
and debate.[11] Michael Oliveira-Salac, the director of Blow PR and a friend of McQueen's said, "The
bumster for me is what defined McQueen."[11] McQueen also became known for using skulls in his
designs. A scarf bearing the motif became a celebrity must-have and was copied around the world. [11]

McQueen has been credited with bringing drama and extravagance to the catwalk. [11] He used new
technology and innovation to add a different twist to his shows and often shocked and surprised
audiences. The silhouettes that he created have been credited for adding a sense of fantasy and
rebellion to fashion.[11] McQueen became one of the first designers to use Indian models in London. [11]

Givenchy appointment[edit]

The president of LVMH, Bernard Arnault, caused a stir when he appointed McQueen head designer
at Givenchy in 1996, succeeding John Galliano.[9] Upon arrival at Givenchy, McQueen insulted the
founder by calling him "irrelevant". His first couture collection with Givenchy was unsuccessful, with
even McQueen telling Vogue in October 1997 that the collection was "crap". McQueen toned down his
designs at Givenchy, but continued to indulge his rebellious streak, causing controversy in autumn 1998
with a show which included double amputee model Aimee Mullins striding down the catwalk on
intricately carved wooden legs.[9][21] This year also saw McQueen complete one of his most famous
runway shows previewing Spring/Summer 1999, where a single model, Shalom Harlow graced the
runway in a strapless white dress, before being rotated slowly on a revolving section of the catwalk
whilst being sprayed with paint by two robotic guns.[24] Givenchy designs released by Vogue Patterns
during this period may be credited to the late designer.[25] McQueen stayed with Givenchy until March
2001, when the contract he said was "constraining his creativity" ended. [9]

VOSS[edit]

McQueen's most celebrated and dramatic catwalk show was his 2001 Spring/Summer collection,
named VOSS. The centre piece tableau that dominated the room was an enormous glass box. But
because the room outside the box was lit and the inside of the box was unlit, the glass walls appeared
as large mirrors, so that the seated audience saw only their own reflection. Finally, after an hour, and
when the show began, lights came on in inside the enormous glass case and revealed the interior to be
filled with moths and, at the centre, a naked model on a chaise longue with her face obscured by a gas
mask. The glass walls then fell away and smashed on the ground.

The model chosen by McQueen to be the centre of the show was the British writer Michelle Olley. (The
show also featured Kate Moss and Erin O'Connor). McQueen said that the tableau was based on
the Joel Peter Witkin image Sanitorium.[26] The British fashion photographer Nick Knight later said of the
VOSS show on his SHOWstudio.com blog:

"The girl in the box was Michelle Olley. She modelled for me in a story I did called Sister Honey... She
was a writer and I remember she wrote a great piece on being the Butterfly Girl in the middle of that
(McQueen) Glass Box show. I was sat on the front row, inbetween Alexandra Schulman and Gwyneth
Paltrow. It was is probably one of the best pieces of Fashion Theatre I have ever witnessed." [27]

Alexander McQueen later described his thoughts on the idea used during VOSS of forcing his audience
to stare at their own reflection in the mirrored walls for over an hour:

"Ha! I was really pleased about that. I was looking at it on the monitor, watching everyone trying not to
look at themselves. It was a great thing to do in the fashion industryturn it back on them! God, Ive
had some freaky shows." [28]

In Spring 2011, Michelle Olley was asked by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York to contribute
to their Alexander McQueen exhibition, Savage Beauty.[29] She was interviewed by The Met about VOSS
for the audio guide to the show. Olley's detailed diary/journal of modelling for McQueen written
between 1827 September as the show was being planned and staged was included in the Met
Museum website coverage of the Savage Beauty exhibition.[30] The VOSS diary relates details of the
show and encounters with McQueen, ending with how Olley returned home after the show to find:
"...a MASSIVE bouquet of flowers has arrived, with a note [from McQueen] saying, "Thank you for
everything you were beautiful! Lee xxx" "[31]

Accomplishments[edit]

Some of McQueen's accomplishments included being one of the youngest designers to achieve the title
"British Designer of the Year", which he won four times between 1996 and 2003;[10] he was also awarded
the CBE and named International Designer of the Year by the Council of Fashion Designers in 2003.[32]

December 2000 saw a new partnership for McQueen, with the Gucci Group's acquiring 51% of his
company and McQueen's serving as Creative Director.[5] Plans for expansion included the opening of
stores in London, Milan, and New York, and the launch of his perfumes Kingdom and, most recently, My
Queen. In 2005, McQueen collaborated with Puma to create a special line of trainers for the shoe
brand.[33] In 2006, he launched McQ, a younger, more renegade lower-priced line for men and women.

McQueen became the first designer to participate in MAC's promotion of cosmetic releases created by
fashion designers. The collection, McQueen, was released on 11 October 2007 and reflected the looks
used on the Autumn/Winter McQueen catwalk. The inspiration for the collection was the 1963 Elizabeth
Taylor movie Cleopatra, and thus the models sported intense blue, green, and teal eyes with strong
black liner extended Egyptian-style. McQueen handpicked the makeup.

Company[edit]

McQueen boutique in London (2013)

By the end of 2007, Alexander McQueen had boutiques in London, New York, Los Angeles, Milan,
and Las Vegas. Celebrity patrons, including Nicole Kidman, Penlope Cruz, Sarah Jessica Parker,
and Rihanna, and J-popqueens, such as Ayumi Hamasaki, Namie Amuro, and Koda Kumi, have
frequently been spotted wearing Alexander McQueen clothing to events. [34] Bjrk, Ayumi
Hamasaki and Lady Gaga have often incorporated Alexander McQueen pieces in their music videos. [35]

Personal life[edit]

McQueen was openly gay and said he realized his sexual orientation when he was six years old.[36] He
told his family when he was 18 and, after a rocky period, they accepted his sexuality.[5] He
described coming out at a young age by saying, "I was sure of myself and my sexuality and I've got
nothing to hide. I went straight from my mother's womb onto the gay parade". [37]

In the summer of 2000, McQueen had a marriage ceremony with his partner George Forsyth, a
documentary filmmaker, on a yacht in Ibiza.[38] The marriage was not official, as same-sex marriage in
Spain was not legal then. The relationship ended a year later and McQueen and Forsyth maintained a
close friendship.[39]

McQueen received press attention after the May 2007 suicide of international style icon Isabella Blow.
Rumours were published that there was a rift between McQueen and Blow at the time of her death,
focusing on McQueen's under-appreciation of Blow.[40] In response to these rumours, McQueen told an
interviewer:[23]

It's so much bollocks. These people just don't know what they're talking about. They don't know me.
They don't know my relationship with Isabella. It's complete bullshit. People can talk; you can ask her
sisters ... That part of the industry, they should stay away from my life, or mine and Isabella's life. What I
had with Isabella was completely dissociated from fashion, beyond fashion.

McQueen was an avid scuba diver and used his passion as a source of inspiration in his designs,
including spring 2010's "Plato's Atlantis". Much of his diving was done around the Maldives. [41]

Death and memorial[edit]

McQueen's death was announced on the afternoon of 11 February 2010. In the morning, his
housekeeper found him hanging at his home on Green Street, London W1.[42] Paramedics were called
and they pronounced him dead at the scene.[1]

McQueen died nine days after his mother Joyce had died from cancer at the age of 75. [43] David
LaChapelle, a friend of the designer, said that McQueen "was doing a lot of drugs and was very
unhappy" at the time of his death.[44] McQueen's death came just days before London Fashion Week,
although he was not scheduled to appear there.[45]

McQueen left a note saying, "Look after my dogs, sorry, I love you, Lee." [46] The Metropolitan
Police stated that the death was not suspicious, but did not confirm that the death was a suicide. [47] On
17 February 2010, Westminster Coroner's Court was told that apost-mortem examination found that
McQueen's death was due to asphyxiation and hanging. The inquest was adjourned until 28 April 2010,
where McQueen's death was officially recorded as suicide.[48][49] McQueen, who had been diagnosed with
mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, took an overdose prior to hanging himself. He had taken drug
overdoses in May and July 2009.[50] Prior to hanging himself with his "favourite brown belt", the inquest
recorded that he had slashed his wrists with a ceremonial dagger and a meat cleaver.[51] Coroner
Dr. Paul Knapman reported finding "a significant level of cocaine, sleeping pills, and tranquillizers in the
blood samples taken after the designer's death."[52]
On behalf of Lee McQueen's family, Alexander McQueen [the company] today announces the tragic
news that Lee McQueen, the founder and designer of the Alexander McQueen brand, has been found
dead at his home. At this stage it is inappropriate to comment on this tragic news beyond saying that we
are devastated and are sharing a sense of shock and grief with Lee's family. Lee's family has asked for
privacy in order to come to terms with this terrible news and we hope the media will respect this.

Alexander McQueen Office, Official Website, 11 February 2010[53]

On 3 February 2010, McQueen wrote on his Twitter page that his mother had died the day before,
adding: "RIP mumxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx." Four days later, he wrote that he had had an "awful
week" but said "friends have been great", adding: "now i have to some how pull myself together". [54] His
mother's funeral took place on 12 February 2010. [43] McQueen is survived by his father, three sisters,
and two brothers.[55]

McQueen's funeral took place on 25 February 2010 at St. Paul's Church, Knightsbridge, West London.
[56]
His ashes were later scattered on the Isle of Skye.[57]

A memorial was held for McQueen at St. Paul's Cathedral on 20 September 2010. It was attended
by Bjrk, Kate Moss, Sarah Jessica Parker, Naomi Campbell, Stella McCartney and Anna
Wintour[58] amongst 2,500 other invited guests.[59] On 18 February 2010, Robert Polet, the president and
chief executive of the Gucci Group, announced that the Alexander McQueen business would carry on
without its founder and creative director.[60]

The BBC reported that McQueen had reserved 50,000 ($82,000) of his wealth for his pet dogs so they
could live in the lap of luxury for the rest of their lives. He also bequeathed 100,000 ($164,315) each to
four charities; these include the Battersea Dogs and Cats Home in south London, and the Blue
Cross animal welfare charity in Burford, Oxfordshire.[61]

Tributes[edit]
A dedication by a fan at an Alexander McQueen store after McQueen's death.

On 16 February 2010, pop musician and friend Lady Gaga performed an acoustic, jazz rendition of her
hit single "Telephone" and segued into "Dance in the Dark" at the 2010 Brit Awards. During the
performance, Gaga paid tribute to McQueen, by dedicating a song to him. [62] She also commemorated
McQueen after accepting her award for Best International Artist, Best International Female, and Best
International Album. Gaga dedicated a song to him, titled "Fashion of His Love", on the special edition
of her third album, Born This Way.[citation needed]

Bjrk, wearing a McQueen outfit, sang her rendition of "Gloomy Sunday" at the memorial at St. Paul's
Cathedral in London. Various other musicians, who were friends and collaborators with McQueen,
commentated on his death, including Kanye West, Courtney Love, and Katy Perry.[63]

In March 2010, celebrities including Naomi Campbell, Kate Moss and Annabelle Neilson, among others,
paid visual tribute to McQueen by wearing his distinctive 'manta' dresses. [64] The 'manta' dresses,
inspired by a scuba-diving holiday McQueen took to the Maldives in 2009, [64] came from McQueen's
'Plato's Atlantis' collection of Spring-Summer 2010 which was at the time currently available to
purchase. 'Manta' dresses had been worn by celebrities such as Daphne Guinness, Noot Seear, Anna
Paquin, and Lily Cole prior to his death, and following the announcement that he had died, remaining
stocks sold out despite prices starting at 2,800. [64]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City hosted a posthumous exhibition of McQueen's work
in 2011 titled Savage Beauty. The exhibitions elaborate staging includes unique architectural finishes
and soundtracks for each room.[65] Despite being open for only three months, it was one of the most
popular exhibitions in the museum's history.[66] The exhibition was so successful that Alexander
McQueen fans and industry professionals worldwide began rallying at Change.org to "Please Make
Alexander McQueen's Savage Beauty a Traveling Exhibition"[67] to bring honour to McQueen and see
his vision become a reality: to share his work with the entire world. [68] The exhibition is set to appear in
London's Victoria & Albert Museum between 14 March and 19 July 2015.[69]

McQueen is also given homage in the popular MMO World of Warcraft. There is an NPC dedicated to
Alexander McQueen that is a Tailoring Trainer. This trainer is also the only one on the horde side that
gives a special quest Cloth Scavenging.[70]

In February 2015, on the fifth anniversary of McQueen's death, a new play based on the designer was
unveiled. 'McQueen', written by James Phillips, will be set over one night in London and follows a girl
who breaks into the designers home to steal a dress and is caught by McQueen. The production takes
inspiration from his imaginative runway shows and will be directed by John Caird. It has been described
by McQueen's sister Janet as 'true to his spirit'.[71] Stephen Wight and Dianna Agron will play the leading
roles.

Final show[edit]
Right before Alexander McQueen's death, he had an eighty percent unfinished Autumn/Winter
collection, 16 pieces, presented during Paris Fashion Week on 8 March 2010, to a select handful of
fashion editors in a mirrored, gilded salon at the 18th-century Htel de Clermont-Tonnerre.

Fashion editors picked his final designs. Editors said the show was hard to watch because it showed
how McQueen was obsessed with the afterlife. The clothes had a medieval and religious look. Basic
colours that were repetitively used were red, gold and silver with detailed embroidery. His models were
accessorised to show his love for theatrical imagery. "Each piece is unique, as was he", McQueen's
fashion house said in a statement that was released with the collection.

After company owner Gucci confirmed that the brand would continue, McQueen's long-term
assistant Sarah Burton was named as the new creative director of Alexander McQueen in May 2010.
[72]
In September 2010, Burton presented her first womenswear collection in Paris. [73]

John Charles Galliano[2] CBE, RDI (born 1960) is a Gibraltar-born Italian-British fashion designer who
was the head designer of French fashion companies Givenchy (July 1995 to October 1996), Christian
Dior (October 1996 to March 2011), and his own label John Galliano (1988 to 2011). [3] At present,
Galliano is set to take over the creative direction of Paris-based fashion house Maison Martin Margiela.
[4]

Contents
[hide]

1 Family

2 Early career

3 Paris

4 Givenchy
5 Dior

6 Controversy

7 Comeback

8 Honours

9 Personal life

10 References

11 External links

Family[edit]
He was born in Gibraltar to a Gibraltarian father, Juan Galliano, and a Spanish mother, Anita, and has
two sisters and one brother, Colombian popular singing star Galy Galliano. [1] Galliano's father was a
plumber.[5] His family moved to England in pursuit of work when Galliano was six, and settled
in Streatham, South London, before moving to Dulwich[6][7] and later to Brockley.[8] He was raised in a
strict Roman Catholic family. Galliano, who was shy and diffident, often spoke of his struggle to fit in.
Recalling his early days, he once admitted: "I don't think people here understood where I was coming
from." His mother, a flamenco teacher, would dress him in his "smartest" outfit even for a trip to the local
shops. This, combined with his creative sensibilities, saw him frequently bullied at the London boys'
grammar school he attended.[6]

Early career[edit]
After attending St. Anthony's School and Wilson's Grammar School in London, Galliano went on to
study at Saint Martin's School of Art, from which he graduated in 1988 with a first class honours degree
in Fashion Design. His first collection was inspired by theFrench Revolution and entitled Les
Incroyables, with a music soundtrack mixed by DJ Jeremy Healy. The collection received positive
reviews and was bought in its entirety for resale in the London fashion boutique Browns. Galliano then
started his own fashion label alongside long-term collaborators Amanda Harlech, at that time stylist
with Harpers and Queen, and Stephen Jones, a milliner.[9][10][11]

On the back of this success, Galliano rented studio space in London, but his talent was not matched by
a head for business. Moreover, he would take his enjoyment of London's nightlife to extremes. [6] Initially,
financial backing came from Johan Brun, and when this agreement came to an end, Danish
entrepreneur Peder Bertelsen, owner of firm Aguecheek, who were also backing Katharine Hamnett at
the time, took over. This agreement ended in 1988 and by 1990, he was bankrupt and, after his own
London-based label failed to re-ignite his fortunes, he moved to Paris in search of financial backing and
a strong client base. .[6] Galliano secured the backing of Paris-based Moroccan designer Faycal Amor
(owner and creative director of fashion label Plein Sud) who invited him to set up his base in Paris at
the Plein Sud headquarters. His first show was in 1989 as part of Paris Fashion Week.
Media fashion celebrity Susannah Constantine has worked for Galliano,[12] and he has also aided the
future success of other designers including shoe designer Patrick Cox. In 1991, he collaborated
with Kylie Minogue, designing the costumes for her Let's Get to It Tour.[citation needed]

Paris[edit]
In 1993, Galliano's financial agreement with Amor ended and he did not have a showing in October,
missing the season. With the help of American Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour and Andr Leon
Talley, then European Correspondent at Vanity Fair, Galliano was introduced to Portuguese socialite
and fashion patron Sao Schlumberger and financial backers of venture firm Arbela Inc, John Bult and
Mark Rice. It was through this partnership that Galliano received the financial backing and high society
stamp needed to give him credibility in Paris. This collection was important in the development of
Galliano as a fashion house, and is regarded as a 'fashion moment' in high fashion circles. [13][14]

Givenchy[edit]
In July 1995, he was appointed as the designer of Givenchy by Bernard Arnault, owner of luxury goods
conglomerate LVMH, thus becoming the first British designer to head a French haute couture house.
[citation needed]
On 21 January 1996, Galliano presented his first couture show at the helm of Givenchy at the
Stade de France. The collection received high praise within the fashion media. [citation needed] Some of
Galliano's designs for Givenchy were licensed to Vogue Patterns.[15]

Dior[edit]

Galliano ballgowns designed for Dior as exhibited in Moscow, 2011


Galliano dior newspaper dress at the ROM. Donated by Kara Alloway.

See also: Spring 2004 Dior couture collection

In October 1996, LVMH moved Galliano to Christian Dior, replacing Italian designer Gianfranco Ferr.[16]

In 2010, Galliano identified his love of theatre and femininity as central to his creations; he said "my role
is to seduce", and credited Standard Oil heiress Millicent Rogers as an influence.[17]

Controversy[edit]
On 25 February 2011, Dior announced they had suspended Galliano following his arrest over an
alleged anti-Semitic tirade in a Paris bar.[18] The same day, Paris-based citizen journalism
site Citizenside received video of Galliano on a similar rant in the same bar the previous December. In
the video a drunk Galliano, seated at a caf table, insults a group of Italian women and declares "I
love Hitler... People like you would be dead. Your mothers, your forefathers would all be fucking
gassed." This incident happened just before the Paris Fashion Week for Autumn/Winter 2011-12.

The show-business industry expressed mixed feelings towards the designer's anti-semitic speech [19][20]

Galliano denied the allegations through his lawyer,[21] and launched a defamation lawsuit against the
couple accusing him of antisemitism.[22] On 1 March 2011, Dior announced that it had begun procedures
of dismissal for Galliano, with Dior's chief executive Sidney Toledano stating, "I very firmly condemn
what was said by John Galliano".[21] Dior announced it will continue to support the Galliano brand
financially due to licence despite the scandal, and Bill Gaytten would replace John Galliano as creative
director at the helm of Dior and the Galliano brand.[23]

In France, expressing anti-semitic ideas is illegal. It was reported on 2 March 2011 that Galliano was to
face trial in Paris for allegedly "making racist comments to customers in a caf". The trial commenced
on 22 June 2011.[24][25] Galliano's lawyer argued that the "series of public outbursts during which he
uttered racist and anti-Semitic insults in a Paris caf" were the result of "work-related stress and
multiple addictions."[26] On 8 September 2011, Galliano was found guilty of making anti-Semitic remarks
and sentenced to pay a total of 6,000 in suspended fines after a French court found him guilty of
voicing public insults on account of race.[27]

A Paris commercial court, in March 2011, rejected a claim for damages by Gallianos
company, Cheyenne Freedom, "following the termination of its consultancy agreements with Christian
Dior Couture SA".[26] The court ordered Cheyenne Freedom to pay Dior 1.17 million "for hurting the
companys image and reputation".[26]

On 21 November 2013, the Paris Court of Appeals rejected an appeal by Christian Dior Couture SA,
which was seeking to move the case to a commercial court from the Conseil de prudhommes (Labour
Relations Court) and ordered Christian Dior Couture SA and John Galliano SA to each pay the Galliano
2,500 and court costs.[26] Galliano "is seeking compensation in the range of 6 million euros".[26] Jean
Nret of Jeantet Associs is representing Christian Dior Couture SA and John Galliano SA. [26] Chantal
Giraud-van Gaver of Coblence & Associs represents John Galliano. [26]

Comeback[edit]
In early 2013, Galliano accepted an invitation from Oscar de la Renta, brokered by Anna Wintour, for a
temporary residency at de la Renta's design studio to help prepare for a showing of his Fall 2013 ready-
to-wear collection during February New York Fashion Week.[28] Galliano also received a measure of
absolution from the Anti-Defamation League, which lauded his efforts to atone for his misdeeds and
wished him well.[29] The ADL again came to his defence after the New York Post ran a photo of him on
his way to the de la Renta show dressed in what it claimed was Hasidic-like garb.[30][31] Galliano remained
backstage at the show, which received favourable reviews [32][33] amid speculation about his future,
including as a possible successor to Mr. de la Renta[34] and that Galliano may take up a teaching post
at Parsons The New School for Design.[35] On 12 June 2013, John Galliano's first filmed interview since
his dismissal from Christian Dior was broadcast on United States television. He closed this
conversation by stating "I am able to create. I am ready to create...[and] I hope through my atonement
I'll be given a second chance."[36]

On October 6, 2014, the OTB Group announced that John Galliano joined Maison Martin Margiela to
take the responsibility of the creative direction of the house, [37] marking the designers return to fashion.
Just a few weeks later, on the occasion of the annual British Fashion Awards, Galliano presented the
Outstanding Achievement Award to Anna Wintour who wore Gallianos first creation for Maison Martin
Margiela Margiela, an unambiguous fashion blessing from the Editor in Chief of
American Vogue according to Vanessa Friedman, Fashion Director of the New York Times.[38]

Galliano exhibited his first couture collection for Margiela during London Collections: Men, on January
12, 2015.

Honours[edit]
British Designer of the Year (1987, 1994, 1995, 1997). In 1997, he shared the award
with Alexander McQueen, his successor at Givenchy.
Commander of the Order of the British Empire) in the 2001 Birthday Honours List[39] for his
services to the Fashion Industry as a Fashion Designer. He received his CBE on 27 November
2001 at Buckingham Palace in London, England.

RDI for his contribution to the fashion industry (2002).

Appearance on The Independent on Sunday's 2007 "pink list" for being one of "the most
influential gay people in Britain."[40]

French Legion of Honour (2009).[41] The medal was withdrawn by decree of the president of the
Republic, Franois Hollande, published in the official journal on 20 August 2012.[42]

Personal life[edit]
In interviews, Galliano has given his full name as Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano-Guilln.[1] Galliano
shared his Paris home with his long-term boyfriend Alexis Roche, a style consultant. Galliano became a
familiar figure on the streets of Le Marais,[citation needed] an area of Paris popular for its gay and Jewish
communities.