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Scott (2016).

Title: Heat of Solution and determining solubility of polar and nonpolar substances

Grade level: 11 Unit Title: Solutions

GLO A2: Recognize that scientific knowledge is based on evidence, models, and explanations, and
evolves as new evidence appears and new conceptualizations develop.
GLO A5: Recognize that science and technology interact with and advance one another.
GLO C1: Recognize safety symbols and practices related to scientific and technological activities
and to their daily lives, and apply this knowledge in appropriate situations.
GLO C2: Demonstrate appropriate scientific inquiry skills when seeking answers to questions.

C11-4-04: Explain heat of solution with reference to specific applications.
C11-4-05: Perform a lab to illustrate the formation of solutions in terms of the polar and non-polar
nature of substances. Include: soluble, insoluble, miscible, immiscible
Rationale for Activity:
In this lesson, students will be active participants in the inquiry of knowledge regarding different
types of chemical reactions including heat of solution and solubility of polar and nonpolar
substances. Additionally, the lesson provides students with the chance to practice and strengthen
their lab skills.
To begin with, homework questions are reviewed in order to activate thinking on the topics from
the previous day. A demonstration of both an exothermic and an endothermic reaction is
performed for students to begin thinking about what the cause of the temperature changes are a
result of. A demonstration is used rather than a student lab as large quantities of both lithium
chloride and potassium chloride are required and students are able to view the results more
quickly and easily as a demonstration. Following the demonstration, students are presented with
notes in order to provide a written copy of the ideas presented in the class that students can refer
back to and review when necessary.
Afterwards, the polar and nonpolar substances lab is run where students use an inquiry method to
determine the relationship and solubilities of polar and nonpolar substances. Students already
know the structural and electrical differences between the two types of substances but have not yet
been exposed to their solubility. Once they have completed the lab students must then answer
questions in which they relate their findings to the situations provided.
Lastly, the class is finished again with notes so that students have a hard copy that they are able to
use when necessary.
This lesson includes lots of hands on and relevant applications of the concepts presented that
students are able to use an inquiry method to learn from. Once students have been provided with
the opportunity to reach their own conclusions based on their scientific findings, clarification and
greater detail of the ideas can be presented through notes in order to ensure that all students have
been presented with the same information.

Materials Needed: In advance

2 Styrofoam cups Set up all lab stations with polar and
Thermometer nonpolar substances
lithium chloride Collect appropriate lab materials
potassium chloride Print notes and lab sheets
Water Weigh out and prepare the heat of
Instant ice pack solution demonstration
Variety of polar and nonpolar
substances -7 in total (eg. Vinegar, sugar,
canola oil, lighter fluid, baby oil, copper
(II) sulfate)
Test tubes with racks OR well plates
Glass stir rods
Notes booklet/PowerPoint
Computer and projector
Personal protective equipment

Timeframe and Description of Activities:

0 5 min Review previous day by providing answers to the homework questions.

5 10 min Introduce and demonstrate the idea of heat of solution using the reactions between
lithium chloride with water and potassium chloride with water. The temperatures
can be recorded prior to and during the demonstration to illustrate both
endothermic and exothermic reactions.

10 15 min Explanation of endothermic reactions using notes and PowerPoint. The application
of these types of reactions can be explained using an instant ice-pack. Students can
pass around the provided ice-pack while taking notes.

15 20 min YouTube video describing the chemistry of icepacks is shown.

20 25 min The concepts of exothermic reactions are explained using notes and PowerPoint.
Click-heat packs can be described as a real-life application.

25 55 min Students perform the Polar and non-polar substances lab. When students are
finished they must clean up their stations and equipment and may then work to
answer the follow-up questions.

55 70 min The concepts of solubility are introduced using notes and PowerPoint and can be
related back to the lab. Students can answer concept check questions at the end of
the notes section to self-assess their understanding of the presented topics.

Be sure to take all necessary safety precautions when performing the lab and
Ensure adequate clean-up time for the lab
If time remains in the class an introduction to the factors that affect solubility can be done.

1. Province of Manitoba. (2003). Senior 2 science: A foundation for implementation
2. L. Thorn., (2016). Solutions lab: Polar and non-polar substances.