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DISTILLATION: McCABE-THIELE DIAGRAMS AND SHORTCUT METHODS

ChE 3G4 Spreadsheet

Distillation columns can typically be described by the schematic diagram shown to the right.

A column contains N trays, each of which is at a particular temperature and pressure. Vapour-liquid
equilibrium is established across each of these trays, with a vapour flow rate of V and liquid flow rate
of L. A feed stream of molar flow F, mole fraction composition z i and quality q (q=0 is a saturated
vapour; q=1 is a saturated liquid) is fed to the column at an optimized tray N FEED. The vapour from
the top of the column (molar flow rate V) is totally condensed, with part of the condensate returned to
the column (molar flow rate L) and part removed as a distillate product (molar flow rate D with mole
fraction composition xi,DIST). Similarly, the liquid from the bottom of the column is partially reboiled
back to the column, with the remaining liquid portion removed as a bottoms product (molar flow rate
B with a mole fraction composition xi,BOT). Unlike in a flash drum, the product distillate and bottoms
streams are NOT themselves in equilibrium, only the vapour and liquid compositions of each single
tray.

Distillation processes are frequently used in industry to do perform well-defined separations, often
using a cascade of columns in sequence to achieve the desired product compositions. As a result,
it's important we find a way to design columns to meet specific product stream specifications. A
variety of methods can be used, the most obvious of which is performing tray-by-tray balances within
the column. Since each tray is at a constant pressure, this essentially amounts to performing a flash
calculation on each single tray up and down the column. While computer simulation programs can
do such calculations, they are very cumbersome and difficult to do with a spreadsheet. However, we
can use shortcut methods to estimate the number of trays and external (L/D) and internal (L/V) reflux
ratios required to produce product streams of specified compositions.

In designing a column, we can identify two practical limiting cases for the reflux ratios L/V and L/D:

(1) L=V; that is, we do not take any distillate (or bottoms) product

In this case, we need a minimum number of trays to perform the separation since we have no incoming or outgoing flow. This
predicted using the Fenske equation, expressed either in terms of the mole fractions (x) of components A and B or the fractio
in the distillate and bottom stream. Here, A is the light key component (ie. a component present in both the distillate and botto
and B is the heavy key component (ie. a component present in both the distillate and bottoms but recovered primarily in the bo
two components whose recovery in the distillate and/or bottoms is specified in the problem in a multi-component distillation pro

N min =
ln
{( ) ( ) }
xA
xB DIST
/
xA
xB BOT
N min=
ln
{ ( FR A ) DIST ( FR B )BOT
[ 1( FR A )DIST ][ 1( FR B )BOT ] }
ln AB ln AB

The parameter AB in these equations is the relative volatility of A with respect to B, which (assuming ideal conditions) can be e

yA P A

xA

PA
where PA* and PB* are the vapour pressures of components A and B (from Antoin
P
AB= =
yB P B PB
xB P

yA P A

xA P PA
AB= =
yB P B PB
xB P

A key assumption to this approach is that the relative volatility is constant throught the entire column, despite the fact that a ran
different trays. Several approaches are taken to get the "best" estimate of this average relative volatility; in this spreadsheet, t
calculated and the partial pressure ratio at the midpoint of these temperatures is used.

(1) L/Dmin - the external reflux ratio at which the specified separation is just achieved with an infinite number of trays

As we continue to take more and more product off the top, we reduce the amount of product returned to the column and conse
molecule stays within the column. Eventually, we reach a point where an "infinite" number of stages is required to separate the
specifications. This minimum external reflux ratio L/D min can be predicted using the Underwood equations given below:

i Fzi (1) i Dxi , DIST (2)


V FEED= =F (1q ) V min = Lmin =V min D
i i i i

To solve these equations, we first find the value of the parameter which satisfies equation (1). We can then substitute this va
calculated based on the feed flow and composition and the specified mole fractions and/or fractional recoveries of the compon
3. These equations can be used for any number of different components within the column; however, if solved in this fashion (
assume that any light or heavy non-key components (ie. components with relative volatilities higher and lower than the light an
either do not distribute at all (ie. all light non-key ends up in the distillate and all heavy non-key in the bottoms) or distribute acc
N
CBmin
( FR C )DIST =
( FR B ) BOT N
+ CBmin
1( FR B )BOT

We can then use these extreme results (ie. the minimum possible number of trays and the minimum possible external reflux ra
reflux ratio required in a real column using the Gilliland correlation. A design value for L/D is first specified, usually as some fa
1.05 and 1.25). The following values are then calculated and fit to the correlation developed by Gilliland:
L
D
( L D) min
N N min
x= Abscissa=
L y=
D
+1 N +1
We can therefore solve for N as well as the optimum feed location in a real column, based on the N/N min

N F=N F ,min
( ) N
N min N F ,min =
ln
{( ) ( )}
xA
xB DIST
/
zA
zB
ln AB

Practically, the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland approach gives rough, first-pass estimates of the number of stages required to pe
assumption of constant relative volatility can be inaccurate in some cases, particularly in columns with highly non-ideal compo

Stage-by-stage calculations can be performed graphically using the McCabe-Thiele method. In this approach, the y vs x VLE
eliminating the uncertainty regarding the constant relative volatility estimate. This means we need to perform dew or bubble p
equilibrium data; in this spreadsheet, we use an ideal bubble point calculation to produce this data. The curve is then fit to a fo
to give us an algebraic expression for the y vs x equilibrium line, allowing us to calculate its intercepts with the other lines. On
lines:

q 1
y A= xA+ z
q1 1q A , FEED
Feed Line: q 1
y A= xA+ z
q1 1q A , FEED
L L
Top Operating Line:
( )
y A= x A + 1 x A , DIST
V V
L L
y = x +(1 ) x
Bottom Operating Line:
A A A , BOT
V V
We also plot the simple y=x line on the graph. A typical McCabe-Thiele plot is shown below (with the polynomial y vs x VLE fit

Starting at the specified mole fraction of component A (the lighter component) in the distillate on the y=x line, we can step dow
equilibrium data curve and either the top or bottom operating lines as our step limits. The top operating line is used when the c
the x value of the feed line - y vs x VLE curve intercept; the bottom operating line is used at mole fractions below the intercept.
column with any specifications (ie. we are not limited to total reflux or minimum reflux). However, by setting L/V equal to one, w
check that the Fenske calculation of Nmin is accurate. In the case of minimum reflux, we can obviously not plot an infinite numb
method; however a "pinch point" will be visible on the graph in which the operating and equilibrium lines touch.

This spreadsheet will allow you to use both the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland and the McCabe-Thiele approach to design distill

Cells highlighed in YELLOW require input from you


Cells highlighted in BLUE require you to perform a manual GoalSeek procedure on that cell to get a converged solution

Cells with a red triangle in the upper right-hand corner have comments which will give you more information about what the va
value for that variable.
UT METHODS

V D
xi,DIST

1
L

V
NFEED
F
zi
L
q

B
xi,BOT

e no incoming or outgoing flow. This minimum number of trays (N min) can be


of components A and B or the fractional recoveries (FR) of components A and B
resent in both the distillate and bottoms but recovered primarily in the distillate)
oms but recovered primarily in the bottoms). The light and heavy keys are the
m in a multi-component distillation problem:

Dx A , DIST
FR A ) DIST ( FR B )BOT
R A )DIST ][ 1( FR B )BOT ] } where
( FR A ) DIST = Fz A
Bx A , BOT
( FRB ) BOT = Fz A
(assuming ideal conditions) can be estimated as:

s of components A and B (from Antoine's equation)


ire column, despite the fact that a range of temperatures are present on the
lative volatility; in this spreadsheet, the dew and bubble temperatures are

an infinite number of trays

uct returned to the column and consequently reduce the total time an average
r of stages is required to separate the components according to the column
rwood equations given below:

(3)
Lmin =V min D

on (1). We can then substitute this value into (2) to calculate V min. D can be
r fractional recoveries of the components. L min can be calculated using equation
mn; however, if solved in this fashion (ie. with a single value of ), it is required to
es higher and lower than the light and heavy key components respectively)
n-key in the bottoms) or distribute according to the Fenske equation prediction:

e minimum possible external reflux ratio) to predict the number of trays and
is first specified, usually as some factor of (L/D) min (typical values are between
ed by Gilliland:

d on the N/N min scaling and the Fenske optimum feed prediction:

the number of stages required to perform a given separation. However, the


columns with highly non-ideal components and/or a large temperature range.

od. In this approach, the y vs x VLE relationship is plotted directly on the graph,
we need to perform dew or bubble point calculations to generate the y vs x
this data. The curve is then fit to a fourth-order polynomial expression in order
s intercepts with the other lines. On the same graph, we plot three additional
ow (with the polynomial y vs x VLE fit)

ate on the y=x line, we can step down the curves, using the y vs. x VLE
top operating line is used when the component A mole fraction is greater than
at mole fractions below the intercept. This method can be used to design any
owever, by setting L/V equal to one, we can use the McCabe-Thiele diagram to
an obviously not plot an infinite number of stages using the McCabe-Thiele
quilibrium lines touch.

abe-Thiele approach to design distillation columns.

ell to get a converged solution

more information about what the variable in the cell means or how to select a
ANTOINE EQUATION COEFFICIENTS
B

P =10
( A
T C )
Use the numbers in column B to choose your components in the subsequent spr

No. Substance Formula Range (C) A B


1 Acetaldehyde C2H4O -0.2 to 34.4 8.00552 1600.017
2 Acetic Acid C2H4O2 29.8 to 126.5 7.38782 1533.313
3 Acetic Acid C2H4O2 0 to 36 7.18807 1416.700
4 Acetic Anhydride C4H6O3 62.8 to 139.4 7.14948 1444.718
5 Acetone C3H6O -12.9 to 55.3 7.11714 1210.595
6 Acrylic Acid C3H4O2 5.65204 648.629
7 Ammonia NH3 7.55466 1002.711
8 Aniline C6H7N 7.32010 1731.515
9 Benzene C6H6 6.89272 1203.531
10 n-Butane n-C4H10 6.82485 943.453
11 i-Butane i-C4H10 6.78866 899.617
12 1-Butanol C4H10O 7.36366 1305.198
13 2-Butanol C4H10O 7.20131 1157.000
14 1-Butene C4H8 6.53101 810.261
15 Butyric Acid C4H8O2 8.71019 2433.014
16 Carbon disulfide CS2 6.94279 1169.110
17 Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 6.87926 1212.021
18 Cholorobenzene C6H5Cl 0 to 42 7.10690 1500.000
19 Cholorobenzene C6H5Cl 42 to 230 6.94504 1413.120
20 Chloroform CHCl3 -30 to 150 6.90328 1163.030
21 Cumene C9H12 6.93619 1460.310
22 Cyclohexane C6H12 6.84941 1206.001
23 Cyclohexanol C6H12O 6.25530 912.866
24 n-Decane n-C10H22 6.95707 1503.568
25 1-Decene 6.95433 1497.527
26 1,1-Dicholoroethane 6.97702 1174.022
27 1,2-Dicholoroethane 7.02530 1271.254
28 Dicholoromethane 7.40916 1325.938
29 Diethyl ether 6.92032 1064.066
30 Diethyl ketone 7.02529 1310.281
31 Dimethylamine 7.08212 860.242
32 N,N-Dimethylformamide 6.92796 1400.869
33 1,4-Dioxane 7.43155 1554.679
34 Ethanol 19.6 to 93.4 8.11220 1592.864
35 Ethanolamine 7.45680 1577.670
36 Ethyl acetate -20 to 150 7.09808 1238.710
37 Ethyl chloride 6.98647 1030.007
38 Ethylbenzene 56.5 to 137.1 6.95650 1423.543
39 Ethylene glycol 8.09083 2088.936
40 Ethylene oxide 8.69016 2005.779
41 1,2-Ethylenediamine 7.16871 1336.235
42 Formaldehyde 7.19578 970.595
43 Formic Acid 7.58178 1699.173
44 Glycerol 6.16501 1036.056
45 n-Heptane 6.90253 1267.828
46 i-Heptane 6.87689 1238.122
47 n-Hexane 6.88555 1175.817
48 i-Hexane 6.86839 1151.041
49 Hydrogen Cyanide 7.52823 1329.490
50 Methanol -20 to 140 7.87863 1473.110
51 Methyl acetate 7.06524 1157.630
52 Methyl bromide 7.09084 1046.066
53 Methyl choride 7.09349 948.582
54 Methyl ethyl ketone 7.06356 1261.339
55 Methyl isobutyl ketone 6.67272 1168.408
56 Methyl methacrylate 8.40919 2050.467
57 Methylamine 7.33690 1011.532
58 Methylcyclohexane 6.82827 1273.673
59 Naphthalene 7.03358 1756.328
60 Nitrobenzene 7.11562 1746.586
61 Nitromethane 7.28166 1446.937
62 n-Nonane 6.93764 1430.459
63 1-Nonane 6.95777 1437.862
64 n-Octane 6.91874 1351.756
65 i-Octane 6.88814 1319.529
66 1-Octene 6.93637 1355.779
67 n-Pentane 6.84471 1060.793
68 i-Pentane 6.73457 992.019
69 1-Pentanol 7.18246 1287.625
70 1-Pentene 6.84268 1043.206
71 Phenol 7.13301 1516.790
72 1-Propanol 7.74416 1437.686
73 2-Propanol 7.74021 1359.517
74 Propionic acid 7.71423 1733.418
75 Propylene oxide 7.01443 1086.369
76 Pyridine 7.04115 1373.799
77 Styrene 7.06623 1507.434
78 Toluene 6.95805 1346.773
79 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 8.64344 2136.621
80 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 6.95185 1314.410
81 Trichloroethylene 6.95185 1314.410
82 Vinyl acetate 7.21010 1296.130
83 Water1 0 to 60 8.10765 1750.286
84 Water2 60 to 150 7.96681 1668.210
85 m-Xylene 7.00646 1460.183
86 o-Xylene 7.00154 1476.393
87 p-Xylene 6.98820 1451.792
ur components in the subsequent spreadsheets

C
291.809
222.309
225.000
199.817
229.664
154.683
247.885
206.049
219.888
239.711
241.942
173.427
168.279
228.066
255.189
241.593
226.409
224.000
216.000
227.400
207.701
223.148
226.232
194.738
197.056
229.060
222.927
252.616
228.799
214.192
221.667
196.434
240.337
226.184
173.368
217.000
238.612
213.091
203.454
334.765
194.366
244.124
260.714
28.097
216.823
219.783
224.867
228.477
260.418
230.000
219.726
244.914
249.336
221.969
191.944
274.369
233.286
221.723
204.842
201.783
227.600
201.808
205.814
209.100
211.625
213.022
231.541
229.564
161.330
233.344
174.954
198.463
197.527
217.724
228.594
214.979
214.985
219.693
302.769
209.197
209.197
226.655
235.000
228.000
214.827
213.872
215.110
TWO-COMPONENT DISTILLATION: ESTIMATION OF RELATIVE VOLATILITY

Parameters for Chosen Set of Components

Component A 34 Ethanol Component B 84 Water2

Antoine's Equation Coefficients for Ethanol Antoine's Equation Coefficients for Water2
A= 8.1122 B
A= 7.96681
B= 1592.864
P =10
( A
T C ) B= 1668.21
P =10
B
( A T C )
C= 226.184 C= 228

z1, FEED 0.02 Ethanol z2, FEED 0.98 Water2

Partial Pressure Temperature = 80.000 C Partial Pressure Temperature = 80.000


P1*(T) 812.625 mm Hg P2*(T) 355.258 mm Hg

Component A should be the more volatile of the two components (higher P*(T) value) - switch the components if this is not the case.

Bubble Temperature (BUBBLE T) Calculation

Pressure 760 mm Hg

x1 0.02 Ethanol x2 0.98 Water2

TBP= 92.116 C
PTOTAL= 583.8104061499 mm Hg Bubble T Equation: PTOTAL=x 1 P1 (T bp )+x 2 P2 (T bp )

P1* 25.641 mm Hg
P2* 558.169 mm Hg P1*+P2* 583.810 mm Hg
y1 0.044
y2 0.956

Dew Temperature (DEW T) Calculation

Pressure 760 mm Hg

y1 0.02 Ethanol y2 0.98 Water2

TDP= 98.777 C y P y P
xi 1.0333 Dew T Equation: x i= P1 (TTOTAL) + P2 (TTOTAL) =1
x1 1 dp 2 dp
0.009
x2 1.024

0 0
Estimate the Relative Volatility of the Two Components 1 1

Average Temperature 95.446 C yA P



A

xA P PA
AB= =
yB P B P B
xB P

Partial Pressure Temperature = 95.446 C Partial Pressure Temperature = 95.446 C


P1*(T) 1444.556 mm Hg P2*(T) 644.470 mm Hg

Relative Volatility AB 2.2414629868 Relative Volatility BA 0.4461371907

Equilibrium Data - for y vs. x Operating Line on McCabe-Thiele Diagram

Use Bubble T calculation approach:

xA PTOTAL TBP, C yA
0.0 1097.3513 110.6 0.000
0.1 1056.5918 106.1 0.197
0.2 1019.2441 102.1 0.357
0.3 985.1738 98.5 0.489
0.4 954.1272 95.1 0.599
0.5 925.8149 92.1 0.692
0.6 899.9436 89.3 0.772
0.7 876.2460 86.8 0.841
0.8 854.4733 84.4 0.901
0.9 834.4103 82.2 0.954
1.0 815.8669 80.1 1.000
COLUMN DESIGN EQUATIONS - TWO COMPONENTS

Parameters for Chosen Set of Components

Component A 34 Ethanol Component B 84 Water2

AB 2.46 BB 1
AA 1 BA 0.406504065
zA, FEED 0.5 Ethanol zB, FEED 0.5 Water2

Quality of Feed (q) 1


Basis Flow 100 mol/hr

Fenske Equation

Problem A: Given: fractional recovery of A in distillate and Problem B: Given: mole fraction of A or B in distillate and
B in bottoms bottoms product

N min=
ln
{ ( FR A ) DIST ( FR B )BOT
[ 1( FR A )DIST ][ 1( FR B )BOT ] } ln
{( ) ( ) }
xA
xB DIST
/
xA
xB BOT
ln AB N min =
ln AB
FRA, DISTILLATE 0.95 Ethanol xA, DISTILLATE 0.979269497 Ethanol
FRB, BOTTOM 0.95 Water2 xB, BOTTOM 0.99462004 Water2

Nmin 6.5420248922 Nmin 10.09337884


Nmin, feed 1.567154753

Underwood Equation

VFEED 0
AB Fz A BB FzB
1.7299967254 V FEED= + =F( 1q )
VFEED, TEST 99.998936924 AB BB
D 50 AB Dx A , DIST BB Dx B , DIST
VMIN 156.64310222 V min= +
LMIN
AB BB
106.64310222
(L/D)MIN 2.1328620444 Lmin =V minD
Problem A: Given: fractional recovery of A in distillate and Problem B: Given: mole fraction of A or B in distillate and
B in bottoms - calculate mole fractions bottoms product - calculate fractional recoveries

xA, DISTILLATE 0.95 Ethanol FRA, DISTILLATE 0.979269497 Ethanol


xB, BOTTOM 0.95 Water2 FRB, BOTTOM 0.99462004 Water2
Nmin, feed 3.2710124461
Dx Bx A , BOT

{( ) ( )}
xA zA A , DIST
ln / ( FR A ) DIST = Fz ( FRB ) BOT = Fz A
xB DIST zB A
N F ,min =
ln AB

Gilliland Correlation

L/D Scaling 1.5 Gilliland Correlation under different Abscissa Ranges:


L
L/D (actual) 3.1992930666 D
(L D) min
[N-Nmin]/(N+1) 0<x<0.01 -3.7163232989
Abscissa 0.2539548932 Abscissa =
L
0.01<x<0.9 0.4064336199
[N-Nmin]/(N+1) +1
0.4064336199 D 0.9<x<1 0.1238061855
Nactual 11.70628719
N
Nmin, feed
Nfeed, actual
3.2710124461
5.8531435951
N F =N F ,min
( ) N min
McCABE-THIELE DIAGRAMS FOR SOLVING DISTILLATION PROBLEMS

Parameters for Chosen Set of Components

Component A 34 Ethanol Component B 84 Water2

zA, FEED 0.5 Ethanol zB, FEED 0.98 Water2


xA,DIST 0.95 xB,DIST 0.05
xA,BOT 0.05 xB,BOT 0.95

L/D T Type "T" for total reflux


L/V 1.00

Quality of Feed (q) 0


Basis Flow 10 mol/hr

y vs. x Equilibrium Relationship

Use Bubble T calculation approach: PTOTAL=x 1 P1 (T bp )+x 2 P2 (T bp )


The y vs x values are automatically entered into this table if you've solved the
bubble T calculation using the Ideal T - 2 cpts worksheet
xA yA yA
0.0 0.000 0.000
0.1 0.197 0.208 Polynomial Fit: Input these coefficients yourself from graph:
0.2 0.357 0.376
0.3 0.489 0.512 y A = Ax 4 +Bx 3 +Cx 2 + Dx+ E
0.4 0.599 0.622 A= -0.4811
0.5 0.692 0.713 B= 1.6316
0.6 0.772 0.790 C= -2.4594
0.7 0.841 0.855 D= 2.3081
0.8 0.901 0.911 E= 0.0004
0.9 0.954 0.959
1.0 1.000 1.000

Feed and Operating Lines

FEED LINE TOP OPERATING LINE BOTTOM OPERATING LINE


Slope 0 Slope 1.00 x1 0.5
Intercept 0.5 Intercept 0.00 y1 0.5
x2 0.05
q 1 L L
y A= x + z
q1 A 1q A , FEED V V ( )
y A= x A + 1 x A , DIST y2
Slope
0.05
1
xA yA xA yA Intercept 0
0 0.5 0 0
L L
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.3
V ( )
y A= x A + 1 x A , BOT
V
0.399999 0.5 0.4 0.4 xA yA
0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0
0.400001 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.2
0.6 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.3
0.7 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.4
0.8 0.5 1 1 0.5 0.5
0.9 0.5 0.6 0.6
1 0.5 0.7 0.7
0.8 0.8
0.9 0.9
1 1

Feed Line/VLE Intercept

If q is not 1: y difference 0.000 If q is equal to 1: xA 0.500


xA 0.291 yA 0.71348125
yA 0.5002365317

Appropriate Intercept Value: xA 0.2907489187


yA 0.5002365317
Stepping off Stages

Keep copying the four-row block at the end (ie. A134-->F137) until you have found the total number of equilibrium trays

TRAY NUMBER Variable Value x y


Starting Point: xA,DIST 0.95 0.95 0.95
yA 0.95 0.879 0.9500886
1 xA 0.879 Keep Counting Stages More Equilibrium Trays Required 0.879 0.8794414
yA 0.9500885914 0.742 0.8794815
Step Down 1 xA 0.879 0.742 0.7416845
yA 0.8794414102 0.535 0.7416979
2 xA 0.742 Keep Counting Stages More Equilibrium Trays Required 0.535 0.534965
yA 0.8794815257 0.320 0.5351726
Step Down 2 xA 0.742 0.320 0.3196619
yA 0.7416845013 0.164 0.3200558
3 xA 0.535 Keep Counting Stages More Equilibrium Trays Required 0.164 0.1642626
yA 0.7416978946 0.077 0.1643739
Step Down 3 xA 0.535 0.077 0.0770532
yA 0.5349650493 0.034 0.0760635
4 xA 0.320 Keep Counting Stages More Equilibrium Trays Required 0.034 0.033985
yA 0.5351725614 0.032 0.0711697
Step Down 4 xA 0.320 0.032 0.0317106
yA 0.3196619224 0.014 0.0316374
5 xA 0.164 Keep Counting Stages More Equilibrium Trays Required 0.014 0.013733
yA 0.3200557516 0.012 0.0271551
Step Down 5 xA 0.164 0.012 0.0117375
yA 0.164262605 0.005 0.011063
6 xA 0.077 Keep Counting Stages More Equilibrium Trays Required 0.005 0.0046427
yA 0.1643739355 0.002 0.0046365
Step Down 6 xA 0.077 0.002 0.0018391
yA 0.0770531582 0.001 0.0018224
7 xA 0.034 Last Required Stage 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required 0.001 0.0006167
yA 0.0760635337 0.000 0.0005956
Step Down 7 xA 0.034 0.000 8.48E-005
yA 0.0339849589 0.000 6.19E-005
8 xA 0.032 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required 0.000 -0.000146
yA 0.071169663
Step Down 8 xA 0.032
yA 0.0317105844
9 xA 0.014 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required
yA 0.0316374369
Step Down 9 xA 0.014
yA 0.0137329653
10 xA 0.012 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required
yA 0.027155113
Step Down 10 xA 0.012
yA 0.0117374951
11 xA 0.005 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required
yA 0.0110630378
Step Down 11 xA 0.005
yA 0.0046427308
12 xA 0.002 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required
yA 0.0046364657
Step Down 12 xA 0.002
yA 0.001839077
13 xA 0.001 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required
yA 0.0018224074
Step Down 13 xA 0.001
yA 0.0006166727
14 xA 0.000 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required
yA 0.0005956099
Step Down 14 xA 0.000
yA 0.000084757
15 xA 0.000 Calculation Complete 6.6281469539 Equilibrium Trays Required
yA 6.1853633E-005
Step Down 15 xA 0.000
yA -0.0001464813
xD line
0.95 0
0.95 1

xB line
0.05 0
0.05 1
1
f(x) = - 0.4209902342x^4 + 1.4215879197x^3 - 2.1647615018x^2 + 2.1634435115x + 0.000394172

0.8

0.6
yA

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
xA
xA,BOT y vs. x VLE Polynomial Fit: xA,DIST

VLE Equilibrium Line y = x Line Top Operating Line Bottom Operating Line Feed Line
THRE-COMPONENT DISTILLATION: ESTIMATION OF RELATIVE VOLATILITY

Parameters for Chosen Set of Components

LIGHT KEY COMPONENT HEAVY KEY COMPONENT NON-KEY COMPONENT


Component A 78 Toluene Component B 21 Cumene Component C 9 Benzene

Antoine's Equation Coefficients for Toluene Antoine's Equation Coefficients for Cumene Antoine's Equation Coefficients for Benzene
A= 6.95805 B
A= 6.93619 A= 6.89272 B
B= 1346.773
P =10
( A T C ) B= 1460.31
B
( AT C ) B= 1203.531
P =10
( A T C )
C= 219.693 C= 207.701 P =10 C= 219.888

z1, FEED 0.3 Toluene z2, FEED 0.3 Cumene z1, FEED 0.4 Benzene

Partial Pressure Temperature = 50.000 C Partial Pressure Temperature = 50.000 Partial Pressure Temperature = 50.000 C
P1*(T) 92.114 mm Hg P2*(T) 18.600 mm Hg P1*(T) 271.236 mm Hg

Bubble Temperature (BUBBLE T) Calculation

Pressure 760 mm Hg

x1 0.3 Toluene x2 0.3 Cumene x2 0.4 Benzene

TBP= 100.306 C
PTOTAL= 759.9999997241 mm Hg Bubble T Equation: PTOTAL=x 1 P1 ( T bp )+ x 2 P2 ( T bp )+ x 3 P3 ( T bp )

P1* 168.459 mm Hg
P2* 47.006 mm Hg P1*+P2* 623.866 mm Hg
P3* 408.401
y1 0.270
y2 0.075
y3 0.655

Dew Temperature (DEW T) Calculation

Pressure 760 mm Hg

y1 0.3 Toluene y2 0.3 Cumene y3 0.4 Benzene

TDP= 123.942 C
xi y P y P y P
x1
1.0000 Dew T Equation:
x i= P1 (TTOTAL) + P2 (TOTAL +
3 TOTAL
T ) P (T )
=1
0.208 1 dp 2 dp 3 dp
x2 0.668
x3 0.123

Estimate the Relative Volatilities of the Two Components



yA P A
Average Temperature 112.124 C xA

PA
P
AB= =
yB P B PB
xB P

Partial Pressure Temperature = 112.124 C Partial Pressure Temperature = 112.124 C Partial Pressure Temperature = 112.124 C
P1*(T) 792.987 mm Hg P2*(T) 234.543 mm Hg P2*(T) 1852.492 mm Hg

Relative Volatility AB 3.3809878333 Relative Volatility BB 1 Relative Volatility CB 7.898303479


Relative Volatility AA 1 Relative Volatility BA 0.2957715465 Relative Volatility CB 2.3360934344
COLUMN DESIGN EQUATIONS - MULTIPLE COMPONENTS

Parameters for Chosen Set of Components

LIGHT KEY COMPONENT HEAVY KEY COMPONENT


Component A 78 Toluene Component B

AB 3.3809878333 BB
AA 1 BA
zA, FEED 0.3 Toluene zB, FEED

Quality of Feed (q) 0


Basis Flow 100 mol/hr

Fenske Equation

In a multicomponent system, fractional recoveries are


usually specified:

FRA, DISTILLATE N min =


ln
{ ( FR A ) DIST ( FR B )
[ 1( FR A )DIST ][ 1( F
0.95 Toluene ln AB
FRB, BOTTOM 0.95 Cumene
N
Nmin 4.9184225125 CBmin
( FRC )DIST =
( FR B ) BOT N
FRC, DISTILLATE 0.9992688854
+ CBmi
1( FR B )BOT

Underwood Equation

VFEED 100 AB Fz A BB FzB CB


0.6010869816 V FEED= + +
VFEED, TEST AB BB CB
99.999999282
D 69.970755417 AB Dx A , DIST BB Dx B
VMIN 123.80952017 V min = +
AB BB
LMIN 53.838764748
(L/D)MIN 0.7694466699

xA, DISTILLATE
Lmin =V min D
0.4073130243 Toluene
xB, BOTTOM 0.9490748234 Cumene
xC, DISTILLATE 0.5712494481 Benzene Dx A , DIST
Nmin, feed 2.4171043403
( FR A ) DIST = Fz A

Gilliland Correlation

L/D Scaling 1.25 Gilliland Correlation under different


L L
L/D (actual)
Abscissa
0.9618083374
0.0980532419
D
( D )
min
[N-Nmin]/(N+1)
Abscissa =
L
+1
D
L
D
(L D) min
[N-Nmin]/(N+1)
Abscissa =
L
[N-Nmin]/(N+1) +1
0.4878361556 D
Nactual 10.555721039
N
Nmin, feed
Nfeed, actual
2.4171043403
5.1874923461
N F =N F ,min
( ) N min
KEY COMPONENT NON-KEY COMPONENT
21 Cumene Component C 9 Benzene

1 CB 7.89830348
0.295771546 CA 2.33609343
0.3 Cumene zA, FEED 0.4 Benzene

=
ln
{ ( FR A ) DIST ( FR B )BOT
[ 1( FR A )DIST ][ 1( FRB )BOT ] }
ln AB

N
CBmin
)DIST =
( FR B ) BOT N
+ CBmin
1( FR B )BOT

AB Fz A BB FzB CB FzC
= + + =F( 1q )
AB BB CB
AB Dx A , DIST BB Dx B , DIST CB DxC , DIST
+ +
AB BB CB

V min D N F ,min =
ln
{( ) ( )}
xA
xB DIST
/
zA
zB
ln AB
Dx A , DIST Bx A , BOT
ST
= ( FRB ) BOT = Fz
Fz A A

d Correlation under different Abscissa Ranges:


0<x<0.01 -0.8209957821
0.01<x<0.9 0.4878361556
0.9<x<1 0.1496780645