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AS/NZS 4667

AS/NZS 4667:2000

Australian/New Zealand Standard

Quality requirements for cut-to-size and processed glass

AS/NZS 4667 AS/NZS 4667:2000 Australian/New Zealand Standard ™ Quality requirements for cut-to-size and processed glass

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AS/NZS 4667:2000

This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical Committee BD/7, Glazing and Fixing of Glass. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 12 May 2000 and on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 15 May 2000. It was published on 28 June 2000.

The following interests are represented on Committee BD/7:

Architectural Aluminium Fabricators Association Australian Association of Certification Bodies Australian Building Codes Board Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry Australian Glass and Glazing Association Australian Industry Group Australian Institute of Building Surveyors Australian Window Association Building Research Association of New Zealand CSIRO—Building, Construction and Engineering Department of Local Government W.A. Housing Industry Association Institution of Engineers Australia Master Builders Australia Monash University New Zealand Safety Glass Association Plastics and Chemicals Industries Association University of New South Wales University of Sydney Window Association of New Zealand

Keeping Standards up-to-date Standards are living documents which reflect progress in science, technology and systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments which may have been published since the Standard was purchased. Detailed information about joint Australian/New Zealand Standards can be found by visiting the Standards Australia web site at www.standards.com.au or Standards New Zealand web site at www.standards.co.nz and looking up the relevant Standard in the on-line catalogue. Alternatively, both organizations publish an annual printed Catalogue with full details of all current Standards. For more frequent listings or notification of revisions, amendments and withdrawals, Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand offer a number of update options. For information about these services, users should contact their respective national Standards organization. We also welcome suggestions for improvement in our Standards, and especially encourage readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Please address your comments to the Chief Executive of either Standards Australia International or Standards New Zealand at the address shown on the back cover.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 98492.

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AS/NZS 4667:2000

Australian/New Zealand Standard

Quality requirements for cut-to-size and processed glass

First published as AS/NZS 4667:2000.

COPYRIGHT

© Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand

All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher.

Jointly published by Standards Australia International Ltd, PO Box 1055, Strathfield, NSW 2135 and Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6020

ISBN 0 7337 3445 6

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PREFACE

This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee BD/7, Glazing and Fixing of Glass.

The objective of this Standard is to provide manufactures and users of glass with specifications covering the quality requirements for cut sizes of flat, transparent, clear ordinary annealed, toughened, laminated tinted heat-absorbing, patterned and wired glass for general glazing and/or further processing.

Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables are deemed to be requirements of this Standard.

CONTENTS

 

Page

1 SCOPE

3

2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

3

3 DEFINITIONS

3

4 TYPES OF GLASS

6

5 INTENDED USE OF FLAT GLASS

6

6 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

7

7 FLATNESS REQUIREMENTS

8

8 GLASS QUALITY

9

9 TEST METHODS

11

3

AS/NZS 4667:2000

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STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

Australian/New Zealand Standard Quality requirements for cut-to-size and processed glass

1 SCOPE

This Standard specifies requirements for the following:

(a)

Cut sizes of flat, clear ordinary annealed and tinted heat-absorbing glass with glossy, apparently plane and smooth surface, which are used for general and architectural glazing, or similar.

(b)

Cut sizes of flat, clear ordinary annealed and tinted heat-absorbing processing glass used for Grade A safety requirements (i.e. toughened or laminated).

(c)

Cut sizes of ordinary annealed, patterned and wired glass used in decorative and general glazing applications.

(d)

Cut sizes of wired glass used for Grade B safety and general glazing applications.

(e)

Processed laminated and toughened glass.

NOTE:

1 This Standard is not intended to restrict the use of materials or methods of test not specified herein, where such materials or methods of test can be demonstrated to be the equal to, or superior to, those specified.

2 This Standard is not intended to cover glass for mirrors.

3 All other quality requirements not covered in the Standard, such as delamination of laminated glass, should be agreed between the manufacturer and the customer.

2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

The following documents are referred to in this Standard:

AS

1288

Glass in buildings—Selection and installation

NZS

4223

Glazing in Buildings

4223.3

Part 3:

Human Impact Safety Requirements

3 DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this Standard the definitions in AS 1288 and those below apply:

NOTE: The definitions do not apply to in-service damage.

3.1 Vision interference angle

The acute angle between the pane of the glass and the vertical plane perpendicular to the wall, such plane including the observer when the glass is examined in accordance with Clause 9.2.4.

3.2 Blemishes in flat glass

3.2.1 Bow

Deviation from straightness or flatness.

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3.2.2 Bubble

Gas-filled cavity in the glass. If close to the surface it may appear as an ‘open’ bubble, i.e. a hemisphere at the surface. Bubbles may be spherical or elongated (also called blister or seed).

3.2.3 Bubble line

Gassing where strings of bubbles are clustered around longitudinal lines.

3.2.4 Chip

A

small shallow piece of glass that has become detached from the plate edge and attached

to

the face of the sheet. The word ‘chip’ is also often taken to denote the blemish that is left

at

the edge after the chip has fallen out.

3.2.5 Corners on/off

Nib on or near a corner of a sheet.

3.2.6 Distortion

Undulations in the glass, which cause objects to appear distorted or wavy, when viewed through the glass.

3.2.7 Edge quality

Edge defect includes vents, shells, flakes, chips, wave, sharks teeth, nibs, corners on/off.

3.2.8 Edge vent

Cracks that run in from the edge of the glass.

3.2.9 Flange

Bevel-like protrusion above the cut edge, but different from a corner ‘on’ in that it often has a razor sharp edge.

3.2.10 Inclusion

A crystalline or a non-crystalline particle entrapped in glass.

3.2.11 Nib

Section of glass remaining on or removed from the edge of a sheet, caused by a score mark not continuing right through to the traverse mark.

3.2.12 Process surface imperfections

Slight surface imperfections that originated in the process, which can be small particles of foreign materials on either surface or surface irregularities.

3.2.13 Rub

Abrasion on the glass surfaces producing a frosted appearance. A rub differs from a scratch

in that it has an appreciable width.

3.2.14 Ream

Regions of different compositions within the glass mass, usually seen as bands of lines parallel to an edge on float glass.

3.2.15 Shark’s teeth

Prominent features in the cut edges, extending from the score mark through part or all of the thickness.

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3.2.16 Scar

Scratch on the surface of the glass.

3.2.17 Scratch

Any marking or tearing of the surface produced during manufacturing or handling, appearing as though it were done by a sharp or rough instrument.

3.2.18 Shell

Similar to a chip, but often larger and occurring on the face opposite the score mark.

3.2.19 Stain

Breakdown of the glass surface due to the presence of other chemicals, e.g. concrete splash. May be difficult to detect unless silvered or coated with ceramic paint.

3.2.20 Vent

See edge vent.

3.2.21 Vented inclusion

Crack in the glass surface caused by the existence of an inclusion.

3.3

Descriptions of terms specific to this Standard

3.3.1

Laminated glass

Glass consisting of two or more sheets of glass permanently bonded together by one or more sheets of plastic interlayer.

3.3.2 Laminated safety glass

Laminated glass that satisfies the test requirements of the relevant safety glazing material standards.

3.3.3 Ordinary annealed glass

Glass cooled gradually during manufacture in an annealing operation to reduce residual stresses and strains that occur during cooling.

3.3.4 Patterned annealed glass

Rolled flat glass having a pattern on one or both surfaces.

3.3.5 Toughened glass

Glass that is subjected to special heat or chemical treatment so that the residual surface compression stress and the edge compression stress is greater than heat-strengthened glass.

NOTE: Toughened glass is also known as tempered glass.

3.3.6 Toughened safety glass

Glass converted to a safety glass by subjection to a process of prestressing so that if fractured, the entire piece disintegrates into small, relatively harmless particles. The residual surface compression is a minimum of 69 Mpa.

3.3.7 Wired glass

A single sheet of glass with wire completely embedded in the glass.

3.3.8 Wired safety glass

A single sheet of glass with wire completely embedded in the glass, which meets the test requirements of the relevant safety glazing standards.

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3.3.9 Heat-absorbing glass

Glass for absorbing appreciable portions of radiant energy, especially solar energy.

3.3.10 Tinted (toned) glass

Glass with a material added to give it a light and/or heat-reducing capability and colour.

NOTE: The colour of tinted, heat-absorbing glass is a major consideration for either design or aesthetic reasons or for colour matching requirements. Tinted heat-absorbing glass should be viewed as installed for colour comparison. Colours may vary considerably from manufacturer to manufacturer and from run to run.

4

TYPES OF GLASS

4.1

Type 1

Annealed glass, clear or tinted (heat-absorbing)–general glazing, and multi-glazing, quality.

4.2 Type 2

Toughened glass, including toughened safety glass, clear or tinted (heat-absorbing)–general glazing and multi-glazing quality.

4.3 Type 3

Laminated glass, including laminated safety glass, clear or tinted (heat-absorbing)—general glazing and multi-glazing quality.

4.4 Type 4

Patterned annealed glass—general glazing and multi-glazing quality.

4.5 Type 5

Patterned laminated glass—general glazing and multi-glazing quality.

4.6 Type 6

Patterned toughened glass, clear or tinted (heat-absorbing)–general glazing and multi- glazing quality.

4.7 Type 7

Wired, clear or tinted glass—general glazing and multi-glazing quality.

5

INTENDED USE OF FLAT GLASS

5.1

Ordinary annealed glass

Ordinary annealed glass is intended for general glazing where functional or aesthetic characteristics are a consideration and where limited, minor surface blemishes are not a major concern.

5.2 Toughened glass

Toughened glass is intended for general glazing applications, where toughened glass is the appropriate glass for strength.

5.3 Toughened safety glass

Toughened safety glass is intended for general glazing applications that have a requirement for Grade A safety glazing material, in accordance with AS 1288.

5.4 Laminated glass

Laminated glass is intended for general glazing applications where resistance to fallout is desirable, and where laminated glass is the appropriate glass.

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5.5 Laminated safety glass

Laminated safety glass is intended for general glazing applications that have a requirement for a Grade A safety glazing material, in accordance with AS 1288 or NZS 4223.3.

5.6 Wired glass

Wired glass is intended for general glazing applications, where resistance to fallout is desirable and where wired glass is the appropriate glass.

5.7 Wired safety glass

Wired safety glass is intended for general glazing applications that have a requirement for a Grade B safety glazing material, in accordance with AS 1288.

5.8 Multi-glazing glass

Multi-glazing glass is intended for assembly as a component part of an insulating glass unit.

5.9 Patterned glass

Patterned glass is intended for general glazing where decorative characteristics are a consideration and, where limited, minor surface blemishes are not a major concern.

6

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

6.1

Edge

An edge shall be cut or otherwise treated as required, such as ground or sanded to remove sharp edges only, polished, bevelled or mitred.

6.2 Dimensional tolerances

Tolerances for length, width, thickness, squareness, flatness shall be in accordance with Tables 1, 2 and 3, as appropriate.

6.3 Imperfections

Imperfections shall not be greater than those listed in Table 4.

TABLE

1

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES FOR GLASS TYPES 1 AND 2

millimetres

   

Glass thickness

 

Parameter

Up to and including 6

Greater than 6 and less than 15

15

19

25

Nominal thickness

±0.2

±0.3

±0.5

±1.0

±1.5

Length/width

±2.0

±3.0

±3

±3

±3

Edges

Not to exceed a thickness reduction/increase of more than 0.02 within 25 of the edge

Squareness

Difference in diagonals of 5 max. for panels with largest dimension less than 1200. Difference in diagonals of 10 max. for panels with largest dimension greater than 1200

NOTES:

1 Refer to Clause 9 for test methods.

2 Linear

interpolation

as

defined

thicknesses.

in

AS 1288

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apply

for

non-standard

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TABLE

2

DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES FOR GLASS TYPES 3, 4, 5, 6 AND 7

millimetres

   

Range

 

Parameter

Type 3

Type 5

Types 4 and 6

Type 7

   

Patterned annealed

 

Nominal

Laminated

Patterned laminated

and patterned

Wired

thickness

toughened

3

 

 

— 2.5–3.9

4

 

 

— 3.5–4.5

5

4.6–5.4

 

— 4.5–5.5

6

5.6–6.4

5.3–7.1

5.5–6.5

5.0–6.8

8

7.6–8.4

7.4–8.7

9.0–10.8

10

9.6–10.4

9.3–10.7

11.0–13.5

12

11.6–12.4

 

——

16

15.4–16.6

Length/width (tolerance) for glass < 1200

±2

Glass thickness 3, 4, 5 & 6

Glass thickness 8, 10 & 12

Glass thickness 3, 4, 5 & 6

Glass thickness 8, 10 & 12

Glass thickness 3, 4, 5 & 6

Glass thickness 8, 10 & 12

   

±3

±4

±3

±4

±3

±4

Length/width (tolerance) for glass 1200

Glass

Glass

Glass thickness 3, 4, 5, 6

Glass

Glass thickness 3, 4, 5, 6

Glass thickness 8, 10, 12

Glass thickness 3, 4, 5, 6

Glass thickness 8, 10, 12

thickness

thickness

thickness

< 10

10

8,10,12

 

±2

±3

±4

±5

±4

±5

±4

±5

Squareness

Difference in diagonals 5 max. for panels with largest dimension less than 1200 Difference in diagonals 10 max. for panels with largest dimension greater than 1200

NOTES:

1

For Type 3 glass (laminated) the thickness shown does not include the thickness of interlayer; e.g. 6 mm applies to 6.38 mm, 6.76 mm, 7.52 mm, etc. and the thickness of the interlayer (which itself has a thickness tolerance of ± 0.03 mm per 0.38 mm interlayer) should be added including the interlayer e.g. 6.38 mm = 2.8 + 0.35 + 2.8 = 5.95 mm minimum and 3.2 + 0.41 + 3.2 = 6.81 mm maximum.

2

The standard nominal thickness and thickness tolerances apply to common glass thicknesses and common manufacturing tolerances for float glass, laminated glass, laminated float glass, patterned glass and wired glass.

3

Linear interpolation as defined in AS 1288 shall apply for non-standard thicknesses.

7

FLATNESS REQUIREMENTS

The flatness of panels shall be within the following limits:

(a)

Localized warp 1.0 mm over any 200 mm span.

(b)

Overall bow and warpage as given in Table 3.

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TABLE 3

BOW (FLATNESS) LIMITS FOR GLASS OF STANDARD NOMINAL THICKNESS (ALL TYPES)

millimetres

   

Horizontal glass dimension

Glass thickness

0 to 1500

1501 to 3000

3001 to 5000

3

1 in 200

1 in 150

4

1 in 200

1 in 150

5

1 in 300

1 in 200

1 in 200

6

1 in 350

1 in 250

1 in 200

8

1 in 400

1 in 300

1 in 250

10

1 in 400

1 in 300

1 in 250

12

1 in 400

1 in 300

1 in 250

15

1 in 400

1 in 300

1 in 250

19

1 in 400

1 in 300

1 in 250

25

1 in 400

1 in 300

1 in 250

NOTES:

1 Refer to Clause 9 for test methods.

2 Flatness measurements shall be checked against a straightedge with the panel standing within 5° of vertical and measurements taken horizontally.

3 For non-standard glass thicknesses, interpolation will be required.

4 Linear interpolation as defined in AS 1288 shall apply for non-standard thicknesses.

8 GLASS QUALITY

Blemishes shall not be greater than those listed in Table 4.

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TABLE

4

GLASS QUALITY—MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE IMPERFECTIONS FOR THICKNESSES 6.0 MM OR LESS

   

Blemish size and limit of frequency

 

Blemish type

Types 1 and 2

Types 4 and 6

Type 7

 

Types 3 and 5

Up to 2.5 m2

Over 2.5 m2

Up to 2.5 m2

Over 2.5 m2

Up to 2.5 m2

Over 2.5 m2

Up to 2.5 m2

Over 2.5 m2

Bubbles and inclusions

               

< 1.0 mm 1.0 mm—5.0 mm > 5.0 mm

No limit

No limit

No limit

No limit

No limit

 

No limit

No limit

No limit

1

2

2

2

2

4

2

4

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Stains

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

Nil

Nil

Nil

Scratches, scars and rubs

 

Refer Clause 9.2.5

 

Ream and other linear distortion

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

Nil

Nil

Nil

Edge quality

               

—shells/flanges

Max. size equal to glass thickness

Max. size equal to glass thickness

Max. size equal to glass thickness

Nil

Nil

 

Nil

Nil

Nil

— broken corners and corners on/off

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

— vented edges

Nil

Nil

Nil

— shark’s teeth

Less than 100% of glass thickness with no venting

Less than 100% of glass thickness with no venting

Less than 100% of glass thickness with no venting

Surface vent

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

Nil

Nil

Nil

Surface blisters

Nil

Nil

> 15 mm – Nil (6 to 15 mm) – 1 (3 to 6 mm ) – 4 (not clustered)

>15 mm – Nil (6 to 15 mm) – 2 (3 to 6 mm ) – 6 (not clustered)

>15 mm – Nil (6 to 15 mm) – 1 (3 to 6 mm ) – 4 (not clustered)

>15 mm – Nil (6 to 15 mm) – 2

Nil

Nil

(3

to 6 mm ) – 6

(not clustered)

Process surface imperfections

 

Refer Clause 9.2.4

 

NOTES:

1

Glass greater than 6.0 mm in thickness may contain proportionally more and larger imperfections.

2

Heat-strengthened and toughened glass may be subjected to spontaneous fracture due to the presence of inclusions such as nickel sulphide, silicones, and the like even when such inclusions are smaller than those allowed in the table above. Manufacturers apply proprietary testing methods to minimize the presence of such inclusions.

3

Linear interpolation as defined in AS 1288 shall apply for non-standard thicknesses.

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9

TEST METHODS

9.1

Determination of maximum and minimum thickness

9.1.1

Apparatus

The following apparatus is required:

(a)

Plate micrometer graduated to 0.01 mm and with 55 mm diameter plates.

(b)

Point micrometer with 60° included angle anvil with 0.3 mm radius, or apparatus to give an equivalent measurement.

9.1.2

Procedure

The procedure shall be as follows:

(a)

At four appropriate locations approximately equally spaced around the perimeter of the glass pane, measure the actual thickness using the plate micrometer. The maximum measured thickness shall be taken as the maximum thickness.

(b)

At four appropriate locations approximately equally spaced around the perimeter, measure the actual thickness using the point micrometer. The minimum thickness shall be taken as the minimum thickness.

NOTE: The appropriate locations for thickness measurement for patterned glass are at the peaks for maximum thickness measurements, and the bottom of valleys for minimum thickness measurements.

9.2

Edge and surface quality

9.2.1

General

Using a torch or other suitable lighting to highlight edge quality, visually inspect the glass for faults and/or blemishes, e.g. vents, flanges, flakes, chips, wave, shark’s teeth, nibs, corners on/off. Blemish size and frequency shall not be greater than shown in Table 4.

When assessing edge quality the following criteria shall be considered:

(a)

The distance the damage extends into the thickness of the glass.

(b)

Whether the edge defect is likely to cause breakage in transit or in a subsequent free falling, cutting or glazing process, or in use.

9.2.2

Bubble, inclusion, vented inclusion

Focus a 500 W lamp, or equivalent mercury vapour lamp, on a flat white screen positioned 3 m from the light source in a dark room. Place the glass in a vertical position parallel to and 1 m from the screen. Move the glass to an angle not parallel to the screen, which magnifies any faults. Circle all faults on the glass with a pen. Measure fault size using a PEAK Lupe 7 × magnifier or equivalent.

9.2.3 Stain and surface vent

Visually inspect glass from 2 m, against a sky background.

9.2.4 Process surface imperfection

Place specimen in a vertical position at a distance of approximately 1 m from a brick wall or similar background showing straight lines. Look through the sample at a distance of 1 m from the sample using daylight without direct sunlight or with background light suitable for observing each type of surface imperfection. View the sample at an angle of not less than 30° (vision interference angle). The line of vision shall be perpendicular to the wall.

The cleaned glass should be supported in a vertical position 900 mm in front of a well-lit background. The sheet should then be inspected by an observer, in a direction perpendicular to its surface. The imperfections shall not be visible from a distance of 3 m.

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9.2.5 Scratches, scars and rubs

Inspect the glass held in a perpendicular position using daylight without direct sunlight, or with a background light suitable for observing any imperfections. Imperfections shall not be visible from a distance of 3 m.

9.2.6 Flatness

Flatness measurements shall be checked against a straightedge with the panes standing within 5° of vertical and measurement taken horizontally. Interpolation will be required for non-standard thicknesses.

9.2.7 Distortion

The manufacturer and the customer shall agree on the following:

(a)

The tolerances for surface distortion.

(b)

The method of measurement and the magnitude of the distortion.

Surface distortion shall not be measured within a 150 mm band from the edge of the glass panel, as distortion in this area is a result of localized warpage.

NOTE: Glass surface distortion is a normal attribute of heat-treated glass and varies between manufacturers. This distortion becomes more pronounced as the angle of view becomes more acute.

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Standards Australia Standards Australia is an independent company, limited by guarantee, which prepares and publishes most of the voluntary technical and commercial standards used in Australia. These standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth government, Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak national standards body.

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The first national Standards organization was created in New Zealand in 1932. The Standards Council of New Zealand is the national authority responsible for the production of Standards. Standards New Zealand is the trading arm of the Standards Council established under the Standards Act 1988.

Australian/New Zealand Standards

Under an Active Co-operation Agreement between Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand, Australian/New Zealand Standards are prepared by committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other sectors. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. Australian/New Zealand Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

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