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Scope :

The BallParam_Batch spreadsheet was designed to be used - in conjunction with the Ball Mill Grinding Simulators
BallSim_Direct and BallSim_Reverse - in the "tuning" of such simulators to any specific actual grinding system, via the
estimation of the various Model Parameters that characterize the grindability of any given ore. In other words, the
attached spreadsheets provide an effective algorithm to search for the set of parameter values that best approximate the
model response to the actual experimental measurements available (obtained from Batch, Laboratory Scale Mills),
based on a typical non-linear, least-squares criterion.

Theoretical Framework :

The reference ball mill model is described with further details in the About ... worksheets of the BallSim_Direct or
BallSim_Reverse files.

Such model is based on the so called Modern Theory of Comminution. This theory introduced two new sets of
parameters : the Selection Function S and the Breakage Function B. The first set also referred to as Grindability
relates to the grinding kinetics of each independent particle and the second set also referred to as Distribution of
Primary Fragments characterizes the size distribution of the fragments produced as a result of breakage events.

The size-dependence of the Selection and Breakage Parameters is represented by the following relationships :

- For the Selection Function :

SiE = 0 (di*)1 / [ 1 + (di* / dcrit)2 ] (1)


with :
di* = (di di+1)0.5 = average particle size of the i-th fraction.

An expanded form of this expression - also available in this simulation routine - is given by :

SiE = [1/(1+02/01)] { 01 (di*)11 / [ 1 + (di* / dcrit)2 ] + 02 (di*)12 } (1e)

- For the Breakage Function :

Bij = 0 (di/dj+1)1 + (1- 0) (di/dj+1)2 (2)

An expanded form of this expression - also available in this estimation routine - is obtained by replacing 0 in
Equation 2 by :

0j = 00(dj+1/1000) -01 , never > 1 (2e)

These expanded forms for Si and Bij are intended to provide the model greater descriptive flexibility when tuning
the model to actual specific grinding systems but, since they increment the total number of ore characteristic
parameters to be estimated, its use should be avoided whenever possible. In any case, the proposed expanded
forms reduce to the normal forms if 02 and 01 are set equal to zero.

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On the basis of Laboratory Scale Data, like those typically obtained from batch grinding tests in small diameter ball mills,
the BallParam_Batch routine allows for the calculation of all 's and 's (including dcrit) that minimize the least-squares
Objective Function :

= wi [(fi - fi)/fi]2 (3)


i=1

where the fi's represent the experimental size distribution of the mill product (as % retained on screen 'i' ) and the fi's
represent the model response for each corresponding fi, for a given set of model parameters. The 's and 's (including
dcrit) that yield the minimum possible value of are so considered to be representative of the particular ore under analysis.

Also in Equation 3, the wi's represent user defined Weighting Factors that quantify the relative quality and reliability of
each particular mesh value with respect to the other screens data. Relatively high values of such weighting factors indicate
more reliable measurements. At the extreme, a wi factor equal to zero means that this particular measurement is not being
included in the Objective Function.

The minimization problem stated above may be readily solved with the aid of the Excel Subroutine Solver.

Data Input and Program Execution :

Most of the data required by the algorithm must be defined in each corresponding unprotected white background cell -
inside the red double-lined border - of the here attached Data_File worksheet. Gray background cells contain the results
of the corresponding formulas there defined and are protected to avoid any accidental editing.

The remaining information required to run the program is entered in the Control_Panel worksheet, where the user is
requested to provide initial guesses of the grinding parameters listed above.

To run the program, select the objective function Cell E27 in Control_Panel and then, from the Tools Menu, select Solver
..., then Min and then By Changing any combination of Cells E10:E24 (see Useful Hints below). Clicking on the Solve
button will execute the desired calculations.
Important Notice : Solver ... must be run every time any element of input data gets to be modified. Otherwise, the
current outputs are not valid.

Calculation results are summarized in the Reports worksheet.

An interesting feature of this routine is that the user has the option to save for later reference every analyzed data set by
copying the Data_File worksheet into as many as required Test 1, Test 2, etc. worksheets. For reprocessing these data,
simply copy the information back to the Data_File and re-run the Solver routine.

New Moly-Cop Tools users are invited to explore the brief comments inserted in each relevant cell, rendering the whole
utilization of the worksheets self-explanatory. Eventually, the user may wish to remove the view of the comments by
selecting Tools / Options / View / Comments / None.

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Useful Hints :

The proper utilization of the parameter estimation spreadsheets - like BallParam_Batch - is by far the most complex task
to be undertaken with Moly-Cop Tools. There is no set of firm recommendations to obey, but the following hints may help
guiding the user in the search of the most representative set of grinding parameters :

1. It is not required to run the Solver search for all parameters at the same time. In fact, this is strongly not recommended,
as the search algorithm will most likely fail to find the minimizing optimum when dealing with too many parameters at once.
To exclude any given parameter off the search, remove the corresponding cell reference (in the E10:E24 range in
Control_Panel) off the By Changing list of cells in Solver and that parameter value will then remain constant and equal to
its original guess during the whole search.

2. When multiple experimental data sets are available (the most desirable condition) for various ore types (hard, soft, etc.)
or grinding conditions (mill filling, ball size, % solids, etc.), always attempt to obtain a reasonable model fit of these data
with the same average parameter values for all sets. If that is not acceptable, proceed to allow differences in the most
critical parameters in the following sequence : 0, dcrit, 0, 1and 1. Keep in mind that a larger number of adjustable
parameters in the search (that is, included in the By Changing list) will necessarily yield lower Objective Function (Cell
E27) values, but the values of the parameters that achieve such minimum will be less reliable in statistical terms and
therefore, from one data set to another, these parameters will exhibit significant variability and covariance amongst them,
rendering them meaningless.

3. An advisable starting run of the algorithm for each independent available data set should considered a search for
parameters 0, 1, dcrit and 0; leaving the others fix at nominal values : 2 = 3.0, 1 = 0.5 and 2 = 4.0. Use the
table below the Control_Panel area to summarize the results of your search with the various
available data sets. Be careful to follow the instructions provided at the bottom of such table. If the model fits appear
to be reasonable, then you should attempt to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. Look for the one parameter that
exhibit the least Coefficient of Variation (the ratio of its standard deviation to its average value, for all data sets) and set it
green background
fix at its average value and equal for all data sets, for the next runs of the search. Continue removing the remaining
adjustable parameters off the By Changing list, one at a time, until the model fit is no longer judged acceptable. The
concept behind this parameter screening process is to lump the impact of whatever ore properties or process variable
are being investigated into the least possible number of parameters in order to improve the statistical significance of the
estimations and facilitate the derivation of valid conclusions regarding such effects. For instance, it is believed that the
distribution of ball sizes in the mill only affects the parameters 0 and dcrit. Similarly, hardness variations of the same ore
source may be well described by changes in the 0 parameter only. Not all grinding systems require a finite value of
dcrit; whenever the estimated value of this parameter tends to be greater than the top mesh opening, set it fix at 100,000
and remove it from the By Changing list.

4. If the step above does not provide satisfactory model fits, then you should add 1 to the list of adjustable parameters and
eventually, include 01, 02 and 12 (one at a time, in that order). If the model fits are still not satisfactory, there is a good
chance the data contains significant experimental errors and should be discarded.

5. Never run a search for 2 or 2, as these parameters have little effect on the objective function and may just confuse the
search algorithm. When in doubt, simply try assigning them values between 2 and 4 and observe the response of the
Objective Function (Cell E27). In other words, these two parameters are better optimized by a very basic trial-and-error
procedure, not via the Solver routine.

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Moly-Cop Tools / 351526653.xls Page 5 04/13/2017 / 06:20:37
used - in conjunction with the Ball Mill Grinding Simulators
of such simulators to any specific actual grinding system, via the
cterize the grindability of any given ore. In other words, the
search for the set of parameter values that best approximate the
nts available (obtained from Batch, Laboratory Scale Mills),

etails in the About ... worksheets of the BallSim_Direct or

of Comminution. This theory introduced two new sets of


ge Function B. The first set also referred to as Grindability
cle and the second set also referred to as Distribution of
n of the fragments produced as a result of breakage events.

Parameters is represented by the following relationships :

/ dcrit)2 ] (1)

size of the i-th fraction.

in this simulation routine - is given by :

+ (di* / dcrit)2 ] + 02 (di*)12 } (1e)

0) (di/dj+1)2 (2)

in this estimation routine - is obtained by replacing 0 in

, never > 1 (2e)

provide the model greater descriptive flexibility when tuning


nce they increment the total number of ore characteristic
ed whenever possible. In any case, the proposed expanded
qual to zero.

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Moly-Cop Tools / 351526653.xls Page 7 04/13/2017 / 06:20:37
ally obtained from batch grinding tests in small diameter ball mills,
of all 's and 's (including dcrit) that minimize the least-squares

i
- fi)/fi]2 (3)

on of the mill product (as % retained on screen 'i' ) and the fi's
, for a given set of model parameters. The 's and 's (including
nsidered to be representative of the particular ore under analysis.

hting Factors that quantify the relative quality and reliability of


ens data. Relatively high values of such weighting factors indicate
equal to zero means that this particular measurement is not being

olved with the aid of the Excel Subroutine Solver.

ed in each corresponding unprotected white background cell -


Data_File worksheet. Gray background cells contain the results
ected to avoid any accidental editing.

entered in the Control_Panel worksheet, where the user is


meters listed above.

7 in Control_Panel and then, from the Tools Menu, select Solver


Cells E10:E24 (see Useful Hints below). Clicking on the Solve

ny element of input data gets to be modified. Otherwise, the

sheet.

he option to save for later reference every analyzed data set by


ed Test 1, Test 2, etc. worksheets. For reprocessing these data,
e-run the Solver routine.

ef comments inserted in each relevant cell, rendering the whole


the user may wish to remove the view of the comments by

Moly-Cop Tools / 351526653.xls Page 8 04/13/2017 / 06:20:37


dsheets - like BallParam_Batch - is by far the most complex task
of firm recommendations to obey, but the following hints may help
set of grinding parameters :

meters at the same time. In fact, this is strongly not recommended,


nimizing optimum when dealing with too many parameters at once.
he corresponding cell reference (in the E10:E24 range in
er and that parameter value will then remain constant and equal to

he most desirable condition) for various ore types (hard, soft, etc.)
tc.), always attempt to obtain a reasonable model fit of these data
hat is not acceptable, proceed to allow differences in the most
, 1and 1. Keep in mind that a larger number of adjustable
anging list) will necessarily yield lower Objective Function (Cell
ve such minimum will be less reliable in statistical terms and
s will exhibit significant variability and covariance amongst them,

ependent available data set should considered a search for


ominal values : 2 = 3.0, 1 = 0.5 and 2 = 4.0. Use the
area to summarize the results of your search with the various
ns provided at the bottom of such table. If the model fits appear
number of adjustable parameters. Look for the one parameter that
standard deviation to its average value, for all data sets) and set it
e next runs of the search. Continue removing the remaining
a time, until the model fit is no longer judged acceptable. The
ump the impact of whatever ore properties or process variable
parameters in order to improve the statistical significance of the
ons regarding such effects. For instance, it is believed that the
eters 0 and dcrit. Similarly, hardness variations of the same ore
meter only. Not all grinding systems require a finite value of
ds to be greater than the top mesh opening, set it fix at 100,000

fits, then you should add 1 to the list of adjustable parameters and
order). If the model fits are still not satisfactory, there is a good
and should be discarded.

have little effect on the objective function and may just confuse the
em values between 2 and 4 and observe the response of the
wo parameters are better optimized by a very basic trial-and-error

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Moly-Cop Tools TM

BALLPARAM_BATCH : Estimation of Grinding Parameters from Laboratory Data

Test N 1
100.00

SELECTION FUNCTION :

% Passing
alpha0 0.009180
alpha1 0.650
alpha2 2.5
Dcrit 6532
Expanded Form
alpha02 0.000000 10.00
alpha12 1.000

BREAKAGE FUNCTION :

Feed
beta0 0.20000
Disc harge (Exp.)
beta1 0.250 Disc harge (Adjusted)
beta2 4.0
Expanded Form
beta01 0.000 1.00
10 100 1000
Particle Size, microns 10000 100000

Objective Function 0.00 Note : Current calculations are not valid, if SOLVER has not been run after the last data modification.

(*) Suggested Default Values : alpha02 = 0 and beta01 = 0.

Moly-Cop Tools / 351526653.xls 04/13/2017 / 06:20:37


Moly-Cop Tools TM

BALLPARAM_BATCH : Estimation of Grinding Parameters from Laboratory Data

Remarks Base Case Example Test N 1

Mill Dimensions and Operating Conditions Net


Diameter Length Speed Charge Balls Interstitial Power Power Decomposition, kW
ft ft % Critical Filling, % Filling, % Slurry Filling,% kW Balls Overfilling Slurry
1.50 1.25 74.0 35.0 35.0 94.8 0.450 0.391 0.000 0.059
rpm 46.28

Ore Weight, 11.1 kg Balls Weight, 102.0 kg App. Grinding Time, 5 min
Ore Density, 2.80 ton/m3 Balls Density, 7.75 ton/m3 Charge
% Solids (by weight) 72.0 % Balls Volume, 21.9 liters Density, Total Energy, 3.36 kWh/ton
Slurry Density, 1.862 ton/m3 ton/m3 Balls Energy, 2.92 kWh/ton
Slurry Weight, 15.5 kg Mill Volume, 62.7 liters 5.356
Slurry Volume, 8.3 liters
Overfilling, 0.0 liters
Feed Size Distributions Objective Function
Mill Feed Mill Disch. (exp) Mill Disch. (adj) %Ret. (smoothed) % wi wi ABS(error)
i Mesh Opening Mid-Size % Ret % Pass % Ret % Pass % Ret % Pass Exp Adj. Error

1 1.05 25400 100.00 100.00 100.00


2 0.742 19050 21997 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 1.42 1.42 0.00 3 0.00
3 0.525 12700 15554 2.35 97.65 0.55 99.45 0.55 99.45 2.35 2.35 0.00 4 0.00
4 0.371 9500 10984 6.65 91.00 0.87 98.58 0.87 98.58 3.31 3.31 0.00 5 0.00
5 3 6700 7978 5.98 85.02 0.93 97.65 0.93 97.65 4.46 4.46 0.00 5 0.00
6 4 4750 5641 4.83 80.19 0.96 96.69 0.96 96.69 5.49 5.49 0.00 5 0.00
7 6 3350 3989 4.43 75.76 1.15 95.54 1.15 95.54 6.82 6.82 (0.00) 5 0.00
8 8 2360 2812 4.41 71.36 1.58 93.96 1.58 93.96 9.22 9.22 (0.00) 5 0.00
9 10 1700 2003 4.49 66.87 2.20 91.76 2.20 91.76 12.65 12.65 (0.00) 5 0.00
10 14 1180 1416 5.38 61.49 3.33 88.43 3.33 88.43 17.43 17.43 (0.00) 5 0.00
11 20 850 1001 5.82 55.67 4.39 84.04 4.39 84.04 23.35 23.35 (0.00) 5 0.00
12 28 600 714 7.07 48.60 5.93 78.11 5.93 78.11 30.17 30.17 (0.00) 5 0.00
13 35 425 505 8.19 40.41 7.49 70.61 7.49 70.61 36.47 36.47 (0.00) 5 0.00
14 48 300 357 8.72 31.68 9.02 61.60 9.02 61.60 40.97 40.97 (0.00) 5 0.00
15 65 212 252 7.72 23.97 9.64 51.96 9.64 51.96 42.28 42.28 0.00 5 0.00
16 100 150 178 5.75 18.22 8.89 43.07 8.89 43.07 40.22 40.22 0.00 5 0.00
17 150 106 126 3.91 14.31 7.24 35.83 7.24 35.83 35.22 35.22 0.00 5 0.00
18 200 75 89 2.59 11.73 5.43 30.39 5.43 30.39 28.50 28.50 0.00 5 0.00
19 270 53 63 1.78 9.95 4.02 26.38 4.02 26.38 43.07 43.07 0.00 5 0.00
20 400 38 45 1.21 8.74 2.92 23.46 2.92 23.46 35.83 35.83 0.00 4 0.00
21 -400 0 19 8.74 0.00 23.46 0.00 23.46 0.00 30.39 30.39 0.00 3 0.00

sum 94.00 0.00

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Moly-Cop Tools / 351526653.xls 04/13/2017 / 06:20:38
Moly-Cop Tools TM
Test N 1
BALL_PARAM
Ball Mill Grinding Model Parameter Estimator

Remarks : Base Case Example

DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS


Configuration : BATCH

Ore, kg 11.1 Diameter, ft 1.50


Water, lt 4.3 Length, ft 1.25
Slurry, kg 15.5 Balls Filling, % 35.0
Slurry, lt 8.3 Speed, % Critical 74.0
Slurry Dens., kg/lt 1.862 App. Dens., ton/m3 5.356
% Solids (by weight) 72.0 Power, kW 0.45
Grinding Time, min 5.0 Energy, kWh/ton 3.36

Particle Size Distributions (Cumm. % Passing)

i Mesh Opening Feed Discharge


Exp. Adj.

1 1.05 25400 100.00 100.00 / 100.00


2 0.742 19050 100.00 100.00 / 100.00
3 0.525 12700 97.65 99.45 / 99.45
4 0.371 9500 91.00 98.58 / 98.58
5 3 6700 85.02 97.65 / 97.65
6 4 4750 80.19 96.69 / 96.69
7 6 3350 75.76 95.54 / 95.54
8 8 2360 71.36 93.96 / 93.96
9 10 1700 66.87 91.76 / 91.76
10 14 1180 61.49 88.43 / 88.43
11 20 850 55.67 84.04 / 84.04
12 28 600 48.60 78.11 / 78.11
13 35 425 40.41 70.61 / 70.61
14 48 300 31.68 61.60 / 61.60
15 65 212 23.97 51.96 / 51.96
16 100 150 18.22 43.07 / 43.07
17 150 106 14.31 35.83 / 35.83
18 200 75 11.73 30.39 / 30.39
19 270 53 9.95 26.38 / 26.38
20 400 38 8.74 23.46 / 23.46

D80, microns 4680 672 / 672

MODEL PARAMETERS
Selection Breakage
alpha01 0.009180 beta00 0.20000
alpha02 0.0000000 beta01 0.000
alpha11 0.650 beta1 0.250
alpha12 1.000 beta2 4.000
alpha2 2.500
Dcrit 6532 Obj. Function 0.00
Moly-Cop Tools / 351526653.xls 04/13/2017 / 06:20:38
Moly-Cop Tools TM

BALLPARAM_BATCH : Estimation of Grinding Parameters from Laboratory Data

Remarks Base Case Example Test N 1

Mill Dimensions and Operating Conditions Net


Diameter Length Speed Charge Balls Interstitial Power Power Decomposition, kW
ft ft % Critical Filling, % Filling, % Slurry Filling,% kW Balls Overfilling Slurry
1.50 1.25 74.0 35.0 35.0 94.8 0.450 0.391 0.000 0.059
rpm 46.28

Ore Weight, 11.1 kg Balls Weight, 102.0 kg App. Grinding Time, 5 min
Ore Density, 2.80 ton/m3 Balls Density, 7.75 ton/m3 Charge
% Solids (by weight) 72.0 % Balls Volume, 21.9 liters Density, Total Energy, 3.36 kWh/ton
Slurry Density, 1.862 ton/m3 ton/m3 Balls Energy, 2.92 kWh/ton
Slurry Weight, 15.5 kg Mill Volume, 62.7 liters 5.356
Slurry Volume, 8.3 liters
Overfilling, 0.0 liters
Feed Size Distributions Objective Function
Mill Feed Mill Disch. (exp) Mill Disch. (adj) %Ret. (smoothed) % wi wi ABS(error)
i Mesh Opening Mid-Size % Ret % Pass % Ret % Pass % Ret % Pass Exp Adj. Error

1 1.05 25400 100.00 100.00 100.00


2 0.742 19050 21997 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 1.42 1.42 0.00 3 0.00
3 0.525 12700 15554 2.35 97.65 0.55 99.45 0.55 99.45 2.35 2.35 0.00 4 0.00
4 0.371 9500 10984 6.65 91.00 0.87 98.58 0.87 98.58 3.31 3.31 0.00 5 0.00
5 3 6700 7978 5.98 85.02 0.93 97.65 0.93 97.65 4.46 4.46 0.00 5 0.00
6 4 4750 5641 4.83 80.19 0.96 96.69 0.96 96.69 5.49 5.49 0.00 5 0.00
7 6 3350 3989 4.43 75.76 1.15 95.54 1.15 95.54 6.82 6.82 (0.00) 5 0.00
8 8 2360 2812 4.41 71.36 1.58 93.96 1.58 93.96 9.22 9.22 (0.00) 5 0.00
9 10 1700 2003 4.49 66.87 2.20 91.76 2.20 91.76 12.65 12.65 (0.00) 5 0.00
10 14 1180 1416 5.38 61.49 3.33 88.43 3.33 88.43 17.43 17.43 (0.00) 5 0.00
11 20 850 1001 5.82 55.67 4.39 84.04 4.39 84.04 23.35 23.35 (0.00) 5 0.00
12 28 600 714 7.07 48.60 5.93 78.11 5.93 78.11 30.17 30.17 (0.00) 5 0.00
13 35 425 505 8.19 40.41 7.49 70.61 7.49 70.61 36.47 36.47 (0.00) 5 0.00
14 48 300 357 8.72 31.68 9.02 61.60 9.02 61.60 40.97 40.97 (0.00) 5 0.00
15 65 212 252 7.72 23.97 9.64 51.96 9.64 51.96 42.28 42.28 0.00 5 0.00
16 100 150 178 5.75 18.22 8.89 43.07 8.89 43.07 40.22 40.22 0.00 5 0.00

Moly-Cop Tools / 351526653.xls 04/13/2017 / 06:20:38


17 150 106 126 3.91 14.31 7.24 35.83 7.24 35.83 35.22 35.22 0.00 5 0.00
18 200 75 89 2.59 11.73 5.43 30.39 5.43 30.39 28.50 28.50 0.00 5 0.00

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