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ZXMP S385

SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment


Maintenance Manual

Version 1.10

ZTE CORPORATION
ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South,
Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Nanshan District, Shenzhen,
P. R. China
518057
Tel: (86) 755 26771900 800-9830-9830
Fax: (86) 755 26772236
URL: http://support.zte.com.cn
E-mail: doc@zte.com.cn
LEGAL INFORMATION

Copyright 2005 ZTE CORPORATION.

The contents of this document are protected by copyright laws and international treaties. Any reproduction or distribution of
this document or any portion of this document, in any form by any means, without the prior written consent of ZTE
CORPORATION is prohibited. Additionally, the contents of this document are protected by contractual confidentiality
obligations.

All company, brand and product names are trade or service marks, or registered trade or service marks, of ZTE
CORPORATION or of their respective owners.

This document is provided as is, and all express, implied, or statutory warranties, representations or conditions are
disclaimed, including without limitation any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title or non-
infringement. ZTE CORPORATION and its licensors shall not be liable for damages resulting from the use of or reliance on
the information contained herein.

ZTE CORPORATION or its licensors may have current or pending intellectual property rights or applications covering the
subject matter of this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license between ZTE CORPORATION and its
licensee, the user of this document shall not acquire any license to the subject matter herein.

The contents of this document and all policies of ZTE CORPORATION, including without limitation policies related to support
or training are subject to change without notice.

Revision History

Date Revision No. Serial No. Description


2005/10/11 R1.0 sjzl20051588 First version
2006/04/12 R1.1 Second version. Appendix B NCP Application/Logic
sjzl20051588
Upgrade is updated in this version.
ZTE CORPORATION
Values Your Comments & Suggestions!
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documentation and offer better services to our customers.

Please fax to: (86) 755-26772236; or mail to Publications R&D Department, ZTE
CORPORATION, ZTE Plaza, A Wing, Keji Road South, Hi-Tech Industrial Park,
Shenzhen, P. R. China 518057.

Thank you for your cooperation!

Document ZXMP S385 (V1.10) SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment


Name Maintenance Manual
Product Document
V1.10 R1.1
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Contents

About this Maintenance Manual .............................................................xiii


About the Manual Suit...........................................................................................xiii
Purpose of this Manual ..........................................................................................xiv
Typographical Conventions.................................................................................... xv
Mouse Operation Conventions................................................................................ xv
Safety Signs.........................................................................................................xvi
How to Get in Touch ............................................................................................xvii
Customer Support................................................................................................................xvii
Documentation Support........................................................................................................xvii

Chapter 1................................................................................... 19
Safety Instructions.................................................................................. 19

Chapter 2................................................................................... 21
Maintenance Overview............................................................................ 21
Maintenance Classification ..................................................................................... 21
Routine Maintenance .............................................................................................................21
Performance Message Handling..............................................................................................21
Alarm Message Handling........................................................................................................21
Emergency Maintenance........................................................................................................22

Requirements of Tools and Instruments.................................................................. 22


Maintenance Tools.................................................................................................................22
Instruments/Meters...............................................................................................................23

Equipment Room Maintenance Rules...................................................................... 23


Work Rules ...........................................................................................................................23
Shift Handover Rules .............................................................................................................24

Basic Maintenance Operations ............................................................................... 24


Unplugging/Plugging Fiber Pigtail ...........................................................................................25
Loopback ..............................................................................................................................26
Optical Power Test.................................................................................................................28
Bit Error Test.........................................................................................................................30
Inserting Alarm to Judge the Switching Status ........................................................................31
Switching Configuration .........................................................................................................32
APS Start/Stop/Reset Settings ...............................................................................................32
Obliged State Settings of CS Card ..........................................................................................33
Laser State Settings ..............................................................................................................33
Card Switching......................................................................................................................33
Using Multimeter to Test Service Cables .................................................................................34
Making of the Network Cable .................................................................................................34
Card Reset............................................................................................................................36

Maintenance Precautions....................................................................................... 36
Card Maintenance Precautions ...............................................................................................36
Precautions in Optical Card Maintenance.................................................................................37
Precautions in Equipment Maintenance...................................................................................37
EMS Maintenance Precautions................................................................................................38

Chapter 3................................................................................... 39
Routine Maintenance .............................................................................. 39
List of Routine Maintenance Items.......................................................................... 39
Environment Maintenance ..................................................................................... 40
Equipment Room Temperature ..............................................................................................40
Equipment Room Humidity ....................................................................................................40
Dustproof Requirements of the Equipment Room....................................................................40
Clear Height..........................................................................................................................41
Wall Treatment in the Equipment Room .................................................................................41
Lighting in the Equipment Room ............................................................................................41
Chutes and Apertures in the Equipment Room........................................................................41
Equipment Power Supply.......................................................................................................41
AC Power Supply...................................................................................................................42
Air Conditioning System.........................................................................................................42
Fire Protection Facilities..........................................................................................................42
Maintenance Space ...............................................................................................................42

Equipment Maintenance Operations ....................................................................... 43


Audio Alarm Check ................................................................................................................43
Cabinet Indicator Lights Observation ......................................................................................43
Card Indicator Lights Observation ..........................................................................................44
Fan Check.............................................................................................................................49
Dustproof Unit Cleansing .......................................................................................................50
Order Wire Phone Check........................................................................................................50
Service Inspection Bit Error Test..........................................................................................51

Routine EMS Maintenance Operations..................................................................... 51


User Management.................................................................................................................52
Connection with the EMS .......................................................................................................52
Topology Map Monitoring.......................................................................................................53
Alarm Monitoring...................................................................................................................54
Performance Monitoring.........................................................................................................55
System Configuration Query ..................................................................................................55
Querying User Operation Logs ...............................................................................................56
Report Printing ......................................................................................................................57
Data Backup .........................................................................................................................57
Data Recovery ......................................................................................................................58

Chapter 4................................................................................... 59
Performance Message and Handling...................................................... 59
Performance Message Categories........................................................................... 59
SDH Interface Performance Messages ....................................................................................59
Analog Performance Messages...............................................................................................61
Ethernet Interface Performance Messages ..............................................................................61

Physical Interface Performance Events and Solutions ............................................... 63


Overview ..............................................................................................................................63
Event Causes ........................................................................................................................63
Influence on Equipment.........................................................................................................64
Solutions...............................................................................................................................64

Regenerator Section Performance Events and Solutions........................................... 65


Overview ..............................................................................................................................65
Event Causes ........................................................................................................................65
Influence on Equipment.........................................................................................................65
Solutions...............................................................................................................................65

Multiplex Section Performance Events and Solutions ................................................ 66


Overview ..............................................................................................................................66
Event Causes ........................................................................................................................66
Influence on Equipment.........................................................................................................67
Solutions...............................................................................................................................67

Higher-Order Path Performance Event and Solutions ............................................... 67


Overview ..............................................................................................................................67
Event Causes ........................................................................................................................68
Influence on Equipment.........................................................................................................68
Solutions...............................................................................................................................68

Lower-Order Path Performance Event and Solutions ................................................ 69


Overview ..............................................................................................................................69
Event Causes ........................................................................................................................69
Influence on Equipment.........................................................................................................69
Solutions...............................................................................................................................69
Pointer Justification Performance Event and Solutions .............................................. 70
Overview ..............................................................................................................................70
Event Causes ........................................................................................................................70
Influence on Equipment.........................................................................................................71
Solutions...............................................................................................................................71

Chapter 5................................................................................... 73
Alarm Message and Handling ................................................................. 73
Overview of Alarm Message................................................................................... 73
Alarm Categories...................................................................................................................73
Alarm Levels .........................................................................................................................73
Alarm Priorities......................................................................................................................73
Alarm Summary....................................................................................................................74

Common Alarm Messages and Solutions................................................................. 78

Chapter 6................................................................................. 129


Troubleshooting .................................................................................... 129
Troubleshooting Procedures................................................................................. 129
Basic Principles of Troubleshooting ....................................................................... 130
Observing ...........................................................................................................................130
Query .................................................................................................................................131
Thinking..............................................................................................................................131
Action .................................................................................................................................131

Basic Considerations for Fault Locating ................................................................. 131


Causes................................................................................................................................131

Common Methods of Fault Locating...................................................................... 133


Observation & Analysis Method ............................................................................................133
Test Method........................................................................................................................133
Unplugging/Plugging ...........................................................................................................134
Replacement Method...........................................................................................................134
Configuration Data Analysis Method .....................................................................................135
Reconfiguration Method .......................................................................................................135
Instrument Test Method ......................................................................................................135
Processing by Experiences ...................................................................................................136

Typical Troubleshooting....................................................................................... 136


Communication Fault...........................................................................................................136
Service Interruption Fault ....................................................................................................138
Bit Error Fault......................................................................................................................141
Clock Synchronization Fault .................................................................................................145
EMS Connection Fault..........................................................................................................148
Order Wire Fault..................................................................................................................150
Fan Fault.............................................................................................................................151
Equipment Interconnection Fault..........................................................................................152

Appendix A .............................................................................. 155


NE Address Definition and Route Configuration .................................. 155
Definition of the NE IP Address ............................................................................ 155
Example of Network Address Coding of NEs .......................................................... 156
Address/Route Configuration of the EMS Host ....................................................... 158

Appendix B .............................................................................. 161


NCP Application/Logic Upgrade ........................................................... 161
Description of NCP Card ...................................................................................... 161
Description of BOOTROM Module on NCP Card ...................................................... 162
Functions of BOOTROM Module on NCP ................................................................................162
BOOTROM State Switching ..................................................................................................163

Upgrade Instruction ............................................................................................ 163


Local Upgrade .....................................................................................................................163
Remote Upgrade .................................................................................................................175

Appendix C .............................................................................. 187


Common Maintenance Forms ............................................................... 187
Half-day Maintenance Record .............................................................................. 188
Daily Maintenance Record ................................................................................... 189
Weekly Maintenance Record ................................................................................ 190
Login Password Change Record............................................................................ 191

Appendix D ............................................................................. 193


Card Replacement ................................................................................. 193
Card Plugging/Unplugging ................................................................................... 193
Unplugging the Card............................................................................................................193
Plugging the Card................................................................................................................194
Card Operations Precautions ................................................................................................195

General Flow of Card Replacement....................................................................... 196


Preparing the Spare Card.....................................................................................................197
Preparing the Label .............................................................................................................197
Service Switching ................................................................................................................197
Unplugging the Card............................................................................................................197
Labeling the Faulty Card ......................................................................................................197
Plugging the Card................................................................................................................198
Restoring the Service Function.............................................................................................198

Card Replacement Procedure............................................................................... 198


NE Control Processor (NCP) .................................................................................................198
Cross-connect and Clock Card (CSA)....................................................................................199
Order Wire Card (OW).........................................................................................................199
Optical Line Card (OL16/OL4/OL1) .......................................................................................199
Line Processor (LP1)............................................................................................................200
Electrical Processor (EPE1)...................................................................................................200
Ethernet Card (TGE2B/SEC) ................................................................................................201

Appendix E............................................................................... 203


Equipment Upgrade .............................................................................. 203
Version Overview................................................................................................ 203
Hardware Upgrade.............................................................................................. 204
EMS Software Upgrade ....................................................................................... 205
Card Software Upgrade....................................................................................... 206

Appendix F............................................................................... 207


Common Instruments and Meters........................................................ 207
PMS-1A Optical Power Meter................................................................................ 207
Function..............................................................................................................................207
Panel Description.................................................................................................................208
Operation Flow....................................................................................................................209
Precautions .........................................................................................................................209

ALL-11 Chip Burner ............................................................................................ 210


Function..............................................................................................................................210
Panel Description.................................................................................................................211
Operation Flow....................................................................................................................212
Precautions .........................................................................................................................213

YGBERT-2M 2 M BER Tester ................................................................................ 213


Function..............................................................................................................................213
Panel Description.................................................................................................................214
Operation Flow....................................................................................................................215
Precautions .........................................................................................................................215

SDH Analyzer..................................................................................................... 216

Appendix G.............................................................................. 217


Alarm Quick Reference Table................................................................ 217

Appendix H ............................................................................. 221


Abbreviations ........................................................................................ 221

Figures........................................................................................ 227

Tables ......................................................................................... 229


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About this Maintenance
Manual

About the Manual Suit


The ZXMP S385 is an SDH based multi-service node equipment with the
highest transmission rate of 2.5 Gbit/s. It can apply to the long distance
backbone transmission network, backbone area transmission network and
metropolitan area transmission network (access layer and convergence
layer).

The whole ZXMP S385 manual suite is listed as follows:

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V1.10) SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment


Technical Manual
It describes the system architecture, system features, system
functions, technical specifications of the ZXMP S385 (V1.10) and gives
application examples.

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V1.10) SDH Based Multi-Service Node Equipment


Hardware Manual
It describes the hardware equipment, including cabinet, power
distribution box, dustproof unit, ventilation unit, sub-racks, cards and
interfaces.

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V1.10) SDH based Multi-service Node Equipment


Installation Manual
It describes the equipment installation procedures, including
installation preparation, hardware installation, cable layout, installation
check and the detailed power on/off operations.

Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V1.10) SDH based Multi-service Node Equipment


Maintenance Manual
It describes the content and operations of daily maintenance,
emphasizing common alarms, reasons and handlings of typical faults.
It also gives typical cases for maintenance reference.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Purpose of this Manual


This manual is the Unitrans ZXMP S385 (V1.10) SDH Based Multi-Service
Node Equipment Maintenance Manual. The content of this manual is as
follows:

Chapter 1 Safety Instructions, gives the safety precautions for equipment


maintenance.

Chapter 2 Maintenance Overview, gives the basic knowledge of equipment


maintenance, including maintenance classification, tools and instruments
for maintenance, basic operation and noticeable issues of equipment
maintenance.

Chapter 3 Routine Maintenance, describes the routine maintenance issues,


maintenance interval, and operation methods.

Chapter 4 Performance Message and Handling, summarizes the ZXMP


S385 performances; describes the mechanism, effect and handlings of
various performance events.

Chapter 5 Alarm and Handling, gives the classification, severity levels, and
priorities of alarms; summarizes the alarms; describes the alarm causes
and handlings.

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting, describes the troubleshooting flow, locating


faults, and troubleshooting analysis method; classifies the typical faults of
the ZXMP S385, and describes the fault causes and handlings in details.

Appendix A NE Address Definition and Route Configuration, describes how


to define the NE address and configure the route of the network
management server.

Appendix B NCP Application/Logic Upgrade, describes how to download the


NCP program/logic of the ZXMP S385.

Appendix C Common Maintenance Forms, gives the tables for recording


the routine maintenances.

Appendix D Card Replacement, describes the card replacement issues,


including preparations, operation steps and noticeable issues.

Appendix E Equipment Upgrade, describes the version information of the


ZXMP S385, and the equipment upgrade operations.

Appendix F Common Instruments and Meters, describes the commonly


used instruments during maintenance.

Appendix G Alarm Quick Reference Table summarizes the common alarms.


The user can quickly look up the alarm causes and handlings in this table.

Appendix H Abbreviations gives the abbreviations and terms used in this


manual.

xiv Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


About this Maintenance Manual

Typographical Conventions
ZTE documents employ with the following typographical conventions.

TABLE 1 TYPOGRAPHICAL CONVENTIONS

Typeface Meaning
Italics References to other guides and documents.
Quotes Links on screens.
Bold Menus, menu options, function names, input fields, radio
button names, check boxes, drop-down lists, dialog box
names, window names.
CAPS Keys on the keycard and buttons on screens and company
name.
Constant width Text that you type, program code, files and directory names,
and function names.
[] Optional parameters
{} Mandatory parameters
| Select one of the parameters that are delimited by it

Note: Provides additional information about a certain topic.

Checkpoint: Indicates that a particular step needs to be


checked before proceeding further.

Tip: Indicates a suggestion or hint to make things easier or


more productive for the reader.

Mouse Operation Conventions


TABLE 2 MOUSE OPERATION CONVENTIONS

Typeface Meaning
Click Refers to clicking the primary mouse button (usually the left
mouse button) once.
Double-click Refers to quickly clicking the primary mouse button (usually
the left mouse button) twice.
Right-click Refers to clicking the secondary mouse button (usually the
right mouse button) once.
Drag Refers to pressing and holding a mouse button and moving the
mouse.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Safety Signs
TABLE 3 S AFETY SIGNS

Safety Signs Meaning


Danger: Indicates an imminently hazardous situation, which if
not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This signal
word should be limited to only extreme situations.

Warning: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if


not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.

Caution: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not


avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. It may also
be used to alert against unsafe practices.

Erosion: Beware of erosion.

Electric shock: There is a risk of electric shock.

Electrostatic: The device may be sensitive to static electricity.

Microwave: Beware of strong electromagnetic field.

Laser: Beware of strong laser beam.

No flammables: No flammables can be stored.

No touching: Do not touch.

No smoking: Smoking is forbidden.

xvi Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


About this Maintenance Manual

How to Get in Touch


The following sections provide information on how to obtain support for
the documentation and the software.

Customer Support
If you have problems, questions, comments, or suggestions regarding
your product, contact us by e-mail at support@zte.com.cn. You can also
call our customer support center at (86) 755 26771900 and (86) 800-
9830-9830.

Documentation Support
ZTE welcomes your comments and suggestions on the quality and
usefulness of this document. For further questions, comments, or
suggestions on the documentation, you can contact us by e-mail at
doc@zte.com.cn; or you can fax your comments and suggestions to (86)
755 26772236. You can also explore our website at
http://support.zte.com.cn, which contains various interesting subjects like
documentation, knowledge base, forum and service request.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION xvii


ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

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xviii Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 1

Safety Instructions

High temperature and high voltages exist in this equipment. Only qualified
professionals are entitled to install, operate and maintain the equipment.

Abide the local safety rules and related operation regulations during the
equipment installation, operation and maintenance, to avoid personal
injuries or equipment damages. The safety precautions in this manual are
only a supplement to the local safety rules.

ZTE Corporation assumes no responsibility for consequences resulted from


violation of general safety operation specifications or of safety rules for
design, production and use of equipment.

Refer to Safety Signs for the signs of the safety precautions during the
equipment installation, operation and maintenance.

Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION 19


ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

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20 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 2

Maintenance Overview

In this chapter, you will learn about:


Maintenance classification
Tools and instruments required for the maintenance
Equipment room maintenance regulations
Basic operations and precautions of the equipment maintenance

Maintenance Classification
Equipment maintenance is divided into routine maintenance, performance
message handling, alarm message handling and emergency maintenance.

Routine Maintenance
Routine maintenance involves checking the equipment operation status
periodically, and handling the problems promptly; so as to find hidden
trouble, prevent accident, find fault and handle them as early as possible.

Performance Message Handling


Performance message handling involves analyzing the performance
messages during the system operation, judging whether there is any
abnormity, and taking corresponding measures.

Alarm Message Handling


Alarm message handling involves analyzing the alarm messages during
equipment operation, judging the equipment running condition, and taking
corresponding measures.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Emergency Maintenance
Emergency maintenance is also called troubleshooting. It involves
maintenance tasks brought by transmission equipment faults or network
adjustments, such as the maintenance tasks to handle equipment damage,
line faults, and emergency events found and recorded in routine
maintenance.

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting elaborates the specific handling methods of


emergencies.

Requirements of Tools and


Instruments
This section describes the tools and instruments required during the
equipment maintenance.

Maintenance Tools
Table 4 lists the maintenance tools in the equipment room.

TABLE 4 M AINTENANCE TOOLS

Name Name

Tape Crimper
Screwdrivers (one each for straight/cross screwdriver
40 W Electric iron
respectively in large, medium and small sizes)
Long straight screwdriver (equipment accessory) Clamping pincers
Tweezers Chip puller
Adjustable wrench Antistatic wrist strap
Diagonal pliers Insulating tape
Sharp nose pliers Strap
Wire stripper Pliers
Scissors Fiber puller
Straight-through cable (the length depends on the actual
requirement)

The following items need to be prepared for the equipment maintenance:


absolute alcohol, dust-free paper, soldering-tin cord, rosin, insulating tape,
strap, 2 M self-loop cable and fiber-pigtail jumper. For equipment upgrade,
the maintenance personnel should also prepare appropriate number of
NCP BOOTROOM chips and card program chips.

22 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 2 - Maintenance Overview

Instruments/Meters
Meters for Environment Monitoring
Include thermometers and hygrometers. They should be always prepared
in the equipment room for detecting the equipment operating environment.

Instruments/Meters for Maintenance


Include one each for digital multimeter, optical power meter, optical
attenuator and PDH bit error tester.

If possible, prepare one SDH synthetic analyzer to replace the optical


power meter and PDH bit error tester.

If it is necessary to temporarily access the EMS for maintenance at some


sites, prepare a portable PC (with built-in modem, Ethernet adapter, and a
straight-through cable).

Other Instruments
Chip burner: For equipment upgrading, if no chips of new version are
burned, a chip burner should be prepared.

Optical communication instruments and computers: As they are expensive,


one transmission network project can be equipped with only one or several
major sites depending on the network scale. Other sites can share these
instruments.

Caution: All the instruments/meters should be checked and calibrated before using,
to ensure their accuracies and good conditions.

Equipment Room Maintenance


Rules
A complete set of effective maintenance rules should be developed to
ensure that the equipment room environment satisfies the equipment
running requirements, and for better equipment maintenance. All the
maintenance personnel should observe these rules. This section lists the
work rules and shift rules of the equipment room for users reference.

Work Rules
1. Keep the equipment room tidy and clean. Change shoes at the door,
keep the floor clean, keep the equipment dust-free, arrange the
equipment properly; Ensure that the instruments are precise, the tools
are ready and the materials are complete.
2. Do not smoke, eat, play games, or talk loudly in the equipment room.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

3. Do not put personal articles around in the equipment room, and do not
do anything irrelevant to the job.
4. Do not bring inflammable or explosive articles into the equipment room.
Unauthorized entry into the equipment room is not allowed.
5. Put on antistatic wrist strap before operating the equipment.
6. Take care of the public properties in the equipment room.
7. Do not disclose any confidential information.
8. Keep proper records and statistics of the original data. Make sure that
the technical documents and original records are authentic and
complete.
9. The person on duty must be dutiful. Handle and report any major fault
and accident promptly.
10. There should be leaders who conduct regular checks for the equipment
room, and make continuous improvement.

Shift Handover Rules


1. The shift handover rules are very important for uninterrupted
communications and should be strictly followed by each maintenance
person.
2. The persons on duty should perform shift handover seriously. The
responsibilities and formalities should be clearly defined to ensure
smooth shift handover.
3. The person on the previous shift should, before going off duty, provide
clear information about his shift to the person on the next shift; The
person on the next shift should conduct careful checks before taking
over the duty.
4. Make sure during the shift handover that: the equipment running
status, the state of the tools and instruments are clear; various
drawings and records are complete.
5. The person on the previous shift should stay on duty until the person
on the next shift arrives and the shift handover is completed.
6. After proper shift handover, the persons of both shifts should sign on
the work log as a written record, indicating that the equipment has
been handed over to the next shift.
7. If fault occurs during shift handover, the persons of both shifts should
be responsible for the troubleshooting.

Basic Maintenance Operations


Proper maintenance operations can locate and clear the fault when
abnormities occur in the system.

The ZXMP S385 maintenance can be classified into equipment


maintenance and network management system (EMS) maintenance.

24 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Chapter 2 - Maintenance Overview

The equipment maintenance operations refer to operations on the


equipment hardware, such as unplugging/plugging fiber pigtails and
hardware loopback.
The EMS maintenance operations refer to operations on the equipment
through the EMS, such as inserting bit errors and software loopback.
Refer to the relevant EMS manual for the detailed EMS maintenance
operations.

Caution: Once the test and diagnosis finish, the maintenance operations conducted
should be canceled in time, so that the equipment operation will not be affected.

Unplugging/Plugging Fiber Pigtail


A fiber pigtail is a segment of optical fiber connecting the external optical
interface of the equipment or the ring flange of the optical distribution
frame (ODF). It has connectors (i.e. fiber pigtail plugs) at both ends.

The common fiber pigtail connectors are listed in Table 5.

TABLE 5 COMMON FIBER PIGTAIL CONNECTORS (PLUGS)

Type Description Picture Type Description Picture

Round fiber Round fiber


connector/polished connector/polished
FC/PC FC/APC
slightly convex convex sphere at
sphere 8o

Square fiber Square fiber


connector/polished connector/polished
SC/PC SC/APC
slightly convex convex sphere at
sphere 8o

Round bayonet Round bayonet


fiber connector fiber connector/
ST/PC ST/APC
/polished slightly polished convex
convex sphere sphere at 8o

Square bayonet
Square bayonet fiber connector
MT-RJ LC/PC
fiber connector /polished slightly
convex sphere

Note: The fiber pigtail connector type of the ZXMP S385 is LC/PC.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

To plug a fiber pigtail with LC/PC plug

1. Hold the fiber pigtail plug with your thumb and forefinger; align the
spring piece on the plug with the grove of the optical interface flange;
push the pigtail inward with a moderate force. Avoid damaging the
ceramic inner pipe of the optical adaptor or the connector end surface.

2. Push in the pigtail connector as far as possible until it clicks to place.

To unplug a fiber pigtail with LC/PC plug

1. Hold the pigtail connector with your thumb and index finger or with an
extractor, and press down the spring piece on the connector.

2. Pull out the connector with moderate force.

3. Protect the fiber pigtail plug with a dustproof cap to avoid end surface
contamination caused by the dust.

Laser: During optical fiber operation, do not look staight at the laser beam of the
optical interface or inside the optical fiber to avoid eye hurt.

Loopback
Loopback is the operation of sending information from the transmitting
interface of an NE, and receiving the information from the receiving
interface of that NE. It is a usual measure for detecting the fault of
transmission channel.

The loopback can locate the faulty point of the NE level by level in case of
separate communication links, and detect the working status of nodes and
transmission lines. It helps locate the faulty NE and even the faulty card
quickly and accurately. It also facilitates the equipment commissioning and
debugging.

The loopback includes the hardware/software loopback.

The loopback signal may be optical or electrical.

Caution: The loopback may cause service interruption. Be cautious to use it.

Hardware Loopback
The hardware loopback connects the receiving/transmitting interfaces of
one signal via physical method. In terms of the signal flow direction, the
hardware loopback orients towards the equipment inside, so it is also
called hardware self-loop. The self-loops of the electrical signal and optical
signal are similar. The following content takes the optical interface
hardware self-loop as an example.

The optical interface hardware self-loop connects the


receiving/transmitting optical interfaces of an optical line card via fiber

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Chapter 2 - Maintenance Overview

pigtail, to achieve signal loopback. The optical interface hardware self-loop


include local self-loop and cross self-loop.

The local self-loop connects the receiving (R)/transmitting (T) optical


interfaces of one optical direction in the local equipment via fiber
pigtail.
The cross self-loop connects the transmitting/receiving (T/R) optical
interfaces of an optical direction with the receiving/transmitting (R/T)
optical interfaces of another optical direction in the local equipment via
fiber pigtail.

Warning: When using fiber pigtail to do optical interface hardware self-loop, an


appropriate optical attenuator must be added to the front of the optical interface of
the receiving end, to avoid damage to the optical interface due to excessive optical
power. Resume the original optical link after the loopback test.

Software Loopback
The software loopback employs the EMS software to implement loopback.
It can configure not only the optical/electrical signal self-loop equivalent to
the hardware loopback, but also the line loopback or single channel
loopback.

Classification according to the loopback direction


According to the loopback direction, the software loopback is divided
into line side loopback and terminal side loopback.

The loopback from a line card to a line interface is called line side
loopback; The loopback in the reverse direction is called terminal
side loopback.
The loopback from a tributary card to a tributary interface is called
terminal side loopback; The loopback in the reverse direction is
called line side loopback.
Software loopback in different directions are shown in Figure 1.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

FIGURE 1 THE ZXMP S385 SOFTWARE LOOPBACK IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS

Line side loopback Terminal side


loopback
Equipment
Line interface
inward

Line card

Terminal side loopback Line side


loopback
Tributary Equipment
interface inward

Tributary card

Loopback channel types


Software loopback can control the receiving/transmitting connection of one
channel via the EMS.

For the ZXMP S385, the channels that can implement software loopback
include: administrative unit AU4, cascade administrative unit AU4-nc, and
tributary unit VC12.

The correspondence between loopback points and cards are listed in Table
6.

TABLE 6 LOOPBACK POINTS AND CORRESPONDING CARDS

Loopback Point Card Type


AU4 Optical line card, STM-1 electrical processor
AU4-nc Optical line card above STM-4
VC12 2 M electrical tributary card

Note: The loopback principle is to minimize the effect on services. Avoid using the
AU loopback if the fault can be located via tributary unit loopback.

Optical Power Test


This section describes the test methods of transmitting/receiving optical
power, and the cautions of the test.

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Transmitting Optical Power Test


The test method of transmitting optical power is shown in Figure 2.

FIGURE 2 TRANSMITTING OPTICAL POWER TEST

Fiber
pigtail
R

Optical interface of
optical line card
Optical power meter

To test the transmitting optical power

1. Set the receiving optical wavelength of the optical power meter to the
same as the transmitting optical wavelength of the tested optical line
card.

2. Connect one end of the fiber pigtail to the transmitting optical


interface of the tested optical card, and the other end to the test input
interface of the optical power meter. Read the stable optical power
value of the optical power meter, i.e. the transmitting optical power
value of this optical line card.

Receiving Optical Power Test

To test the receiving optical power

1. Set the receiving optical wavelength of the optical power meter to the
same as the tested optical wavelength.

2. Select at the local site the fiber pigtail that connects to the
transmitting optical interface of the adjacent site. Normally, this fiber
pigtail is connected to the receiving optical interface of the optical line
card at the local site. Connect the fiber pigtail to the test input
interface of the optical power meter. Read the stable optical power
value of the optical power meter, i.e. the receiving optical power value
of this optical line card.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Cautions of Optical Power Test


Make sure that fiber pigtail connectors are clean; Make sure that the
connecting devices of the ring flanges on the optical card panel and the
optical power meter are well coupled.
Measure the attenuation of the fiber pigtail before the test, to make
sure that this fiber pigtail has good transmission performance. For
optical cards using single-mode and multi-mode optical interfaces, use
different fiber pigtails for test accordingly.
If necessary, the attenuation values of the optical connector and the
testing fiber can be considered known, serving to amend the mean
transmitting optical power read from the optical power meter. For
higher test accuracy, take the average value of multiple test results,
and then amend it with the attenuation values of the optical connector
and the testing fiber.

Bit Error Test


The ZXMP S385 can implement two types of bit error test: test with a bit
error tester and test via software.

Test with Bit Error Tester


The test with bit error tester may be implemented online or offline. The
test point for bit error is the service access point that the equipment
provides for the user, such as the 2 M and 155 M physical interfaces.

On-line test
Select a service channel in use, directly connect the bit error tester to
the monitoring connector of the DDF or ODF that connects with the
corresponding interface of the channel, and perform online monitoring.

In normal case, the tester should show no bit error.

Off-line test
Select a service channel, and find the PDH/SDH interface of this
channel at both the local site and the remote site.
Perform a line side loopback at the remote PDH/SDH interface via
the EMS software, or a hardware loopback on the DDF.
Perform bit error test at the corresponding PDH/SDH interface via
the bit error tester.
In normal case, the tester should show no bit error.

Caution: Make sure that the meter is well grounded. Do not turn on/off any other
electrical appliances during the test.

EMS Software Test


In the EMS software, execute the Insert Error Code command to forcibly
insert bit error into the signal channel. If the insertion is successful, the

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corresponding bit error performance value can be queried at the opposite


end of the channel. The bit error insertion can be used to judge the status
of channels.

The correspondences between the bit error insertion points, bit error types
and cards are listed in Table 7.

TABLE 7 THE CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE BIT ERROR INSERTION POINTS, BIT
ERROR TYPES AND CARDS

Insertion
Bit Error Type Card Type
Point
VC12 V5 2 M electrical tributary card and Ethernet card
VC3 B3 Ethernet card
VC4 B3 Optical line card and STM-1 electrical processor
MS B2 Optical line card and STM-1 electrical processor
RS B1 Optical line card and STM-1 electrical processor
VC3-nc B3 Optical line card
VC4-nc B3 Optical line card above STM-4

The manually-inserted B2/B3/V5 bit errors have no influence on the


services, and can not be detected by the instruments. They can only be
queried from the EMS terminal. If the insertion point is a higher-order VC3
channel virtual container and it is configured as a bidirectional service, the
same amount of remote bit errors should be detected on the card where
the insertion point locates.

Inserting Alarm to Judge the Switching


Status
Alarm insertion uses a manually-generated alarm to monitor the system.
For the ZXMP S385, the AIS alarm can be inserted via the EMS software,
to judge whether the switching of the self-healing ring network is normal.

The correspondences between the alarm insertion points and cards are
listed in Table 8.

TABLE 8 AL ARM INSERTION POINTS AND CORRESPONDING CARDS

Insertion point Card Type


TU12 2 M electrical tributary card and Ethernet card
TU3 Ethernet card
MS Optical line card and STM-1 electrical processor
AU4-nc Optical line card above STM-4
AU4 Optical line card and STM-1 electrical processor

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Once the alarm insertion succeeds, the AIS alarm should be reported in
the corresponding channel at the receiving end. If the insertion point is
TU3/TU12 and is configured as bidirectional service, the insertion point
should also report the Remote Defect Indication (RDI) alarm. When the
alarm insertion succeeds, if the service is not interrupted in a protected
network, it indicates that the switching is normal; if the service is
interrupted, it indicates that the switching is abnormal. Check the line and
related cards.

Switching Configuration
The ZXMP S385 can implement the multiplex section (MS) protection and
sub-network connection protection. The MS protection includes two-fiber
bidirectional MS shared protection, and 1+1/1:1 MS dedicated protection.
The sub-network connection protection includes the AU4, TU3 and TU12
levels protections. When the working sub-network connection fails or the
performance is lower than a necessary level, it will be replaced by the
protection sub-network connection.

The Protection Switch command in the EMS software can be used to


configure the switching status of the equipment. The external switching
operations include Lock, Forced Switching, Manual Switching and
Exercise. The priorities of the operations from high to low are: Lock
Forced Switching Manual Switching Exercise.

The meanings of the switching operations are:

Lock: Refuses any access to the protection section/path.


Forced Switching: Unless a switching instruction of equal or higher
priority is taking effect, the system will switch to the working
/protection sections and working/protection paths, no matter if the
switching section/path is faulty.
Manual Switching: Unless a switching instruction of equal or higher
priority is taking effect or the switching section/path is faulty, the
system will switch to the working /protection sections and
working/protection paths according to the request.
Exercise: Only processes the APS protocol, and does not implement
switching.

APS Start/Stop/Reset Settings


When the network topology is a ring and MS protection is used, a unique
ID should be configured for an NE in the ring network. This ID is the APS.
The following APS-related operations can be implemented via the EMS
software:

APS start
It means that the equipment APS protocol is in normal working status, and
the MS protection ring is in the automatic protection switching status.
When the MS protection ring is configured, the APS should be started.

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APS stop
It stops the equipment APS protocol, and keeps the data before the stop.
For example, if the MS protection switching has happened at a site before
the APS stop, this MS protection switching operation will be maintained
after the APS stop configuration, and the new data will not be processed.

APS reset
When the equipment receives the APS reset command, it will clear all
current APS data, save the equipment initialization data, and then return
to the normal working status, waiting for the new data and automatic
protection switching. In addition, when the equipment receives the APS
reset command, it directly enters the APS started status.

Obliged State Settings of CS Card


The ZXMP S385 employs the dual-bus design. Each service interface card
is connected with two CS cards through two sets of buses (each set of bus
includes service bus and overhead bus). The two sets of buses are
independent of each other, so are the two CS cards. The two CS cards
select the service bus and overhead bus according to principle of
concurrently transmitting and preferred receiving.

The Obliged state of the CS card command in the EMS software can be
used to set the CSA card bus used by card.

Note: All cards except for the NCP and CSA cards support operations of CS card
obliged state.

Laser State Settings


The laser state of the equipment is the laser state of the optical line card
and the optical amplifier. The Diagnosis function of the EMS software
may be employed to set the laser state.

The laser of the ZXMP S385 supports two modes: open and shutdown.
When a laser is open, the optical line card is in light emitting state; when
the laser is shut down, the optical power is zero and the optical line card is
in no light state. Laser shutdown is often used to shut down an
unconnected optical interface and protects operating personnel engaged in
optical line maintenance.

Card Switching
The ZXMP S385 can implement the 1:N protection. For the NE configured
with card protection, the standby card works in standby mode when the
master card works normally. When the master card is abnormal, the
standby card switches to the active mode and works instead of the master
card, to ensure the normal services.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Card switching switches the services of the master card to the standby
card, to protect the services. Tributary cards support the card switching
operation.

The card switching types include protect switching, Forced switching,


manual switching and clear switching. The types are described below:

Protect switching: The EMS sends this command and forces the master
card to work, no matter whether the master card works normally.
Forced switching: The EMS sends this command and forcibly switches
services to the configured card, no matter whether the card works
normally.
Manual switching: The EMS sends this command. If the configured card
works normally, the system forcibly switches services to it; otherwise,
the active card before the command is sent still works.
Clear switching: The active card will stop working once it detects
abnormality, and will notify the standby card about its status. The
standby card that works normal will switch to active status at once and
work instead of the faulty card. This command is the default EMS
configuration.

Using Multimeter to Test Service Cables


During the construction and maintenance, the service cables need to be
tested often, to check if there are any false soldering, open solder joint,
short circuit, and wrong cable connection on the DDF.

To test the cable using multimeter

1. Short-circuit the signal core and shielded layer with a short conducting
wire or tweezers at one end of the cable, and then measure the
resistance between the signal core and shielded layer at the other end.
The resistance value got should be zero.

2. Remove the above short-circuit. Measure the resistance at the other


end of the cable, and the value should be infinite.

If the results of the above two tests are normal, the tested ends are of the
same cable, and the cable is normal. Otherwise, the cable has short-circuit
or break somewhere; the cable plug has false soldering, open solder point
or short circuit; or the tested ends are not of the same cable.

Making of the Network Cable


Two types of network cables can be used for connection between the EMS
computer and the NEs: crossover network cable and straight-through
network cable.

Figure 3 illustrates network cable.

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FIGURE 3 NETWORK CABLE

A V ie w

1
A
8

R J 4 5 p lu g R J 4 5 p lu g

A network cable has an RJ45 plug at either end. Figure 3 shows how the
pins are numbered in an RJ45 plug.

The crossover network cable directly connects the ZXMP S385


equipment and EMS computer.
Table 9 lists the color spectrums and connection relations of the
crossover cable.

TABLE 9 COLOR SPECTRUMS AND CONNECTION RELATIONS OF THE CROSSOVER CABLE

No. of the RJ45


Plug Pins at the 1 2 3 6 4 5 7 8
Equipment End
Color Spectrums White Orange White Green Blue White White Brown
of the Category-
5 network cable &orange &green &blue &brown

No. of the RJ45


Plug Pins at the 3 6 1 2 4 5 7 8
User End

The straight-through network cable connects the ZXMP S385


equipment and EMS computer through a hub.
Table 10 lists the color spectrums and connection relations of the straight-
through network cable.

TABLE 10 COLOR SPECTRUMS AND CONNECTION RELATIONS OF THE STRAIGHT-THROUGH


NETWORK CABLE

No. of the RJ45


Plug Pins at the 1 2 3 6 4 5 7 8
Equipment End
Color Spectrums White Orange White Green Blue White White Brown
of the Category-
5 Network Cable &orange &green &blue &brown

No. of the RJ45


Plug Pins at the 1 2 3 6 4 5 7 8
User End

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Card Reset
Card reset operations include the hardware reset and software reset.

Warning: Only reset the card to recover its normal work. Do not reset the card
unless the card function is confirmed to be affected by the processor fault.

Hardware reset
There is a reset hole with reset switch in it on the card front panel.
Press down the reset switch to reset the CPU and other chips of the
card.

Software reset
The software reset resets the card via the EMS software. The software
reset itself includes hard-reset and soft-reset.

Hard-reset resets all the chips including the CPU.


Soft-reset resets the application programs of the card. It has two
levels:
i. CPU level: Only resets the CPU application programs.

ii. IC level: Resets application programs of the CPU and ICs on the
card

Caution: Resetting the NCP card will interrupt the EMS monitoring of the NEs.

Maintenance Precautions
Before the maintenance operations on the ZXMP S385, the operator
should learn not only the basic precautions for maintaining general
communication equipment, but also the special precautions for
maintaining transmission equipment, to ensure safety of both human and
equipment.

Card Maintenance Precautions


Take proper antistatic measures in equipment maintenance to avoid
any damage to the equipment. As human body may generate static
electromagnetic field that persists for long, one should wear antistatic
wrist straps and well ground them at the other end before touching the
equipment, in order to prevent human static electricity from damaging
sensitive components and devices. The cards not in use should be kept
in the antistatic bags.

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Pay attention to the damp-proof handling of the cards. The


environment temperature and humidity effect must be taken into
consideration for standby card storage. Usually, put some desiccant in
the antistatic bags of the card, to keep the bag inside dry. When a card
is moved from a colder and drier place to a hotter and damper place,
wait for at least 30 minutes before unpacking it. Otherwise, moisture
may condense on the card surface and damage the components.
Be careful to plug/unplug the cards. There are many pins in each card
slot on the equipment backplane. If any pin is distorted or falls
accidentally, the normal running of the entire system will be affected,
or even worse, short circuit may be caused and make the equipment
down.

Precautions in Optical Card Maintenance


Be sure to cover the unused optical interfaces of the optical interface
card with the dustproof caps. This not only protects the maintenance
persons eyes during their casual direct viewing on the optical ports,
but also protects optical interfaces against dust. Once dust enters the
optical interface, it may affect the output optical power of the
transmitting optical interface and the receiving sensitivity of the
receiving optical interface.
Be sure to cover fiber pigtail connectors with dust caps once unplugged.
Do not look straight into the optical interface on the optical card to
protect your eyes from being burnt by laser.
Use dust-free paper dipped in absolute alcohol to clean fiber pigtail
connectors carefully. Do not use ordinary industrial alcohol, medical
alcohol or water.
When replacing an optical card, be sure to unplug the fiber pigtails on
it before unplugging this optical card.

Precautions in Equipment Maintenance


To power on the equipment

1. Make sure the hardware installation and cable layout are correct, the
input power of the equipment satisfies the requirement, there is no
short circuit inside the equipment, and the fan installation is correct.

2. Turn on the power supply switch for the equipment in the equipment
room.

3. Set the air switch of the power distribution box to "ON" to power on
the equipment. The green indicator light at the cabinet top should on,
the fan should run normally.

To power off the equipment

1. Set the air switch on the power distributor box to OFF to shut down
the equipment.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

2. Turn off the power supply switch for the equipment in the equipment
room. Disconnect the input power supply of the equipment.

Warning: Powering off the equipment will make the equipment exit running state,
resulting in the interruption of all services of the NE. Since the transmission
equipment is very important in the network, power-off operation should be avoided
once the equipment is in service.

Never install or disconnect any power cables without turning off the
power switch. Otherwise, electric sparks or electric arc may occur,
causing a fire or eye hurt. Be sure to turn off the power switch before
installing or disconnecting a power cable.
Once the equipment is in service, pulling out the fan without reason is
forbidden. Clean the dust filter mesh of the fan regularly according to
the equipment room environment conditions to ensure good heat
dissipation of the equipment.
After the maintenance operations on the equipment, close the cabinet
door to ensure the equipment always has an excellent anti
electromagnetic-interference performance.

EMS Maintenance Precautions


Do not exit the EMS when the system is running normally. Exiting the
EMS will make the EMS unable to monitor the equipment, and destroy
the continuity of equipment monitoring; although it will not interrupt
services.
Assign different EMS login accounts for different users, allocate the
related operation authority to them, and periodically change the EMS
password, to ensure its security.
Do not use the EMS to dispatch services during a service peak, as any
error will impose great influence on the equipment. Dispatch services
in case of minimum traffic.
Backup data timely after a service dispatch to ensure a quick service
recovery in case of fault.
Do not play games on the EMS computer, nor copy any irrelevant files
or software to it. Kill virus regularly on the EMS computer to protect it
from virus.

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Chapter 3

Routine Maintenance

In this chapter, you will learn about:


Items and periods of routine maintenance
Routine maintenance operations

List of Routine Maintenance


Items
The routine maintenance items and periods of the ZXMP S385 are listed in
Table 11.

TABLE 11 LIST OF ROUTINE M AINTEN ANCE ITEMS OF THE ZXMP S385

Maintenance item Period


Environment Maintenance Daily
Check audio alarms of the equipment Daily
Observe cabinet indicator lights Daily

Equipment Observe card indicator lights 0.5 day


maintenance Check the fan, clean the air filter 2 weeks
Check order wire telephones 2 weeks
Check services 2 weeks
EMS maintenance Manage users (change login password) Monthly
Check the EMS connection Daily
Monitor topology map Daily
Monitor alarms Daily
Monitor performances Daily
Query system configurations Irregularly
Query user operation logs Irregularly

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Maintenance item Period


Print reports Irregularly
Back up data Irregularly

Environment Maintenance
The ZXMP S385 is precise electronic equipment that requires good
equipment room environment to ensure stable and reliable operation. This
section gives the equipment room environment requirements for the ZXMP
S385. The maintenance personnel should conduct regular checks on these
items, and make immediate remedies and improvements in case of non-
conformity, so as to guarantee the normal running of the equipment.

Equipment Room Temperature


Long-term operating condition: +5 C to +40 C

Short-term operating condition: 0 C to +45 C

In normal operating conditions, the equipment room temperature is


measured at a place 1.5 m above the floor and 0.4 m in front of the
equipment cabinet. The short-term running means that the running
duration of the equipment is no more than 48 hours, and the yearly
accumulative running time is no more than 15 days.

Equipment Room Humidity


Long-term operating condition: 20% to 80%

Short-term operating condition: 10% to 90%

Under normal operating conditions, the equipment room humidity is


measured at a place 1.5 m above the floor and 0.4 m in front of the
equipment cabinet. The short-term operating condition means that the
operating duration of the equipment is no more than 48 hours, and the
yearly accumulative operating time is no more than 15 days.

Dustproof Requirements of the Equipment


Room
No explosive, conductive, magneto-conductive and corrosive dust particles
in the equipment room. Density of dust particles with diameter of more
than 5 m should be no greater than 3104/m3. The floor should be clean,
and windows and doors should have airproof equipment.

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Clear Height
The clear height of the equipment room should be no less than 3 m.

Note: Clear height of the equipment room refers to the vertical distance from the
bottom of the beam or air duct to the upper surface of the antistatic floor.

Wall Treatment in the Equipment Room


The surface materials on the wall and ceiling should not easily get
powdered, and should not be dirt-susceptible or flake-susceptible. The
decorative materials should be fire-retardant.

Protect wall surfaces with wallpapers or lusterless paint.

Lighting in the Equipment Room


Avoid direct sunlight. Average luminance should be 300 lx to 450 lx. The
light source should be not dizzy. Use the fluorescent lamp embedded in
the ceiling.

Prepare accident lighting or standby lighting system according to the


specific conditions of the equipment room. Install emergency light at
proper positions.

Chutes and Apertures in the Equipment


Room
All the drainage pipes should bypass the equipment room.

The quantity, location and size of reserved underground pipes, ground


chutes and apertures in the equipment room should meet the cable laying
requirement and the craft design requirements.

All the chutes should have damp-proof measures and well trimmed at the
edges and corners. Lay the lighting/ power cables in a hidden manner.

Equipment Power Supply


The ZXMP S385 uses the nominal -48 V power, with the allowed voltage
fluctuation range of -57 V to -40 V.

The routing, quantity and the layout of DC power cables installed in the
equipment room should meet the general specifications of
telecommunications projects. The conductor type (aluminum/copper bar or
rubber-skinned wire), the equipment insulation strength and the fuse
capacities should meet the design requirements.

Use complete segment cable for the power cable. No joints in the middle
of the power cable.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

AC Power Supply
Prepare 220 V/2000 W AC power socket outlet in the equipment room,
since some electric tools and instruments are needed for equipment
installation, debugging and maintenance. The AC power socket outlet
should have both two-pin and three-pin multifunctional power sockets. The
socket quantities and positions should satisfy the debugging requirements
for all the equipment.

Air Conditioning System


To ensure long-term reliable operation of the ZXMP S385, the temperature
and humidity of the equipment operating environment should meet certain
requirements. If the local weather conditions cannot satisfy the
temperature and humidity requirements all the year, install air-
conditioning system in the equipment room.

Select the air condition according to the equipment heat quantity. The
formula below is generally used for heat quantity calculation.

Q = 0 . 8 2 V A ( K W / h o u r ) , where

Q The equipment heat quantity

V DC power supply voltage (V)

A Average current (A)

0 . 8 2 The coefficient to transfer 1 W electric energy to heat energy is


0.86; The coefficient to transfer 1 W electric energy to heat energy in the
equipment room is 0.95. 0 . 8 2 is the product of these two coefficients.

Calculate the actual air condition capacity according to the equipment


room area and the equipment heat quantity. Refer to related engineering
design specification documents for calculation method.

Install the air conditioning system before powering on/debugging the


ZXMP S385 equipment. Make sure that the air conditioning system works
properly.

Fire Protection Facilities


Prepare appropriate fire protection facilities in the equipment room, such
as some portable dry powder type fire extinguishers. Make sure that the
fire protection facilities can be easily seen and reached.

Large equipment rooms should be equipped with an automatic fire


protection system.

Maintenance Space
The front maintenance space of the ZXMP S385 should be greater than
800 mm.

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Chapter 3 - Routine Maintenance

The front maintenance space for two ZXMP S385 cabinets installed face to
face should be greater than 1000 mm.

Equipment Maintenance
Operations
Common equipment maintenance operations include audio alarm check,
cabinet indicator light observation, card indicator light observation, fan
plug-in box check, regular dustproof unit cleaning, and service check.

Audio Alarm Check


Operation Purpose
The audio alarms can attract the maintenance personnels attention more
easily. Make sure that the equipment can sound normally in routine
maintenance.

Operation Method
Generate alarms manually. For example, use EMS software to perform the
Alarm Inversion operation to check the alarm sound.

Inspection Criteria
When alarm occurs, the ZXMP S385 and the column head cabinet should
be able to make alarm sound.

Troubleshooting
Check if the ring interception switch is in the Normal state.
Check the cable connections between the alarm door panel,
ALARM_SHOW interface in the SCI card and the ring trip switch.
If the alarm of the ZXMP S385 is connected externally to the column
head cabinet, check the external alarm cable connection.

Cabinet Indicator Lights Observation


Operation Purpose
Cabinet indicator lights are used to monitor the operating status of the
equipment, and play an important role in the routine maintenance.
Regularly check if the indicator lights on the alarm panel of the column
head cabinet and the equipment work normally. Ensure that the status of
the indicator lights can properly indicate the alarm occurrences and levels.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Operation Method
Observe the status of the indicator lights on the top of the cabinet.

Inspection Criteria
When the equipment works normally, only the green cabinet indicator light
on the cabinet is on. The relationships between the cabinet indicator lights
and the equipment operating status are described below:

The indicator lights of the ZXMP S385 are located in the top middle of the
cabinet front door, including red, yellow and green lights. Table 12
describes the meanings of the indicators.

TABLE 12 MEANINGS OF THE ZXMP S385 CABINET INDICATORS

Indicator Status
Name
Light On Off
Critical/major A critical or major alarm occurs No critical or major
Red light alarm indicator in the equipment, usually with alarm in the
light an audio alarm. equipment
Yellow Minor alarm A minor alarm occurs in the No minor alarm in
light indicator light equipment the equipment
Green Power indicator Equipment power supply is Equipment power
light light normal supply is cut off

Troubleshooting
When the red and yellow indicator lights of the cabinet are on, further
check the card indicator lights, and notify the EMS operators at the central
site in time to check the alarm and performance message of the
equipment.

Card Indicator Lights Observation


Operation Purpose
The status of the indicator lights on the top of the cabinet can only
indicate the latent faults of local equipment or the existing faults of the
opposite-side equipment. Therefore, further check the card indicator lights
to keep aware of the operating status of the equipment after observing the
cabinet indicator lights.

Operation Method
Observe the status of the indicator lights of the card.

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Inspection Criteria
Indicator light status of the cards
When the card works normally, only the green indicator light flashes.
The indicator light status of the ZXMP S385 common cards are
described below.

NE Control Processor (NCP)


Correspondences between the working status and the indicator
light status of the NCP card are listed in Table 13.

TABLE 13 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE NCP CARD

NCP Working Indicator Light Status


Status Green NOM light Yellow ALM1 light Red ALM2 light Green MS light
Working normally Flashes Off Off -
NE minor alarm Flashes On - -
NE major alarm Flashes - On -
Active Flashes - - On

Note: The NCP card transmits running and monitor information between the NE
and EMS. Its indicator light status also indicates the running status of the current
NE. The NCP card alarms are mainly caused by the alarms of other cards.

Order Wire (OW) card


Correspondences between the working status and the indicator
light status of the OW card are listed in Table 14.

TABLE 14 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE OW CARD

Indicator Light Status


Working Status
Green NOM Light Yellow ALM1 Light Red ALM2 Light
Working normally Flashes Off Off
Off-hook Flashes On -
Card alarm Flashes - On

CSA card (CSA)


Correspondences between the working status and the indicator
light status of the CSA card are listed in Table 15.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

TABLE 15 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE CS A CARD

Indicator Light Status


Working
Status Green NOM Yellow ALM1 Red ALM2 Green CKS1 Green CKS2 Green MS Green TCS
Light Light Light Light Light Light Light
Working
Flashed Off Off - - - -
normally
Card minor
Flashed On - - - - -
alarm
Card major
Flashed - On - - - -
alarm
Clock lock
(normal Flashes Off Off On On - -
tracing)
Clock holding Flashes - - On Off - -
Clock fast
Flashes - - Off On - -
capture
Clock free
Flashes - - Off Off - -
oscillation
Active CSA Flashes - - - - On -
Standby CSA Flashes - - - - Off -
TCS in position Flashes - - - - - On
TCS in position
and working Flashes - - - - - Flashes
normally

STM-1 Line Processor (LP1)


Correspondences between the working status and the indicator
light status of the LP1 card are listed in Table 16.

TABLE 16 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE LP1 CARD

Indicator Light Status


Working Status Green NOM Yellow ALM1 Red ALM2 Green TX Green RX
Light Light Light Light Light
Working normally Flashes Off Off - -
Card alarm Flashes - On - -
Corresponding interface
Flashes - - On On
working normally
Bit errors occur to the
Flashes - - Flashes Flashes
corresponding interface
Corresponding interfaces
Flashes - - Off Off
have no signal

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Electrical Tributary Card (EPE1)


Correspondences between the working status and the indicator
light status of the EPE1 card are listed in Table 17.

TABLE 17 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE EPE1 CARD

Indicator Light Status


Working Status
Green NOM Light Yellow ALM1 Light Red ALM2 Light
Working normally Flashes Off Off
Card alarm Flashes - On

Optical Line Cards (OL1/OL4/OL16)


Correspondences between the working status and the indicator
light status of the optical line cards are listed in Table 18.

TABLE 18 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE OPTICAL LINE CARDS

Indicator Light Status


Working Status Green NOM Yellow ALM1 Red ALM2 Green TX Green RX
Light Light Light Light Light
Working normally Flashes Off Off - -
Card alarm Flashes - On - -
Corresponding optical
Flashes - - On On
interface working normally
Bit errors occur to the
corresponding optical Flashes - - - Flashes
interface
LOS occurs to the
corresponding optical Flashes - - - Off
interface
The corresponding optical
Flashes - - Off -
interface laser is off

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Ethernet Cards (TGE2B/SEC)


Correspondences between the working status and the indicator
light status of the TGE2B card are listed in Table 19.

TABLE 19 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE TGE2B CARD

Indicator Light Status


Working Status Green NOM Yellow ALM1 Red ALM2 Green TX Green RX
Light Light Light Light Light
Working normally Flashes Off Off - -
Card alarm Flashes - On - -
Corresponding GE optical
interface connects Flashes - - On
successfully
Corresponding GE optical
interface receives optical Flashes - - - On
signal

Correspondences between the working status and the indicator light status
of the SEC card are listed in Table 20.

TABLE 20 CORRESPONDENCES BETWEEN THE WORKING STATUS AND THE INDICATOR


LIGHT STATUS OF THE SEC CARD

Indicator Light Status


Working Status Green Yellow Red ALM2 Green Green Green Green
NOM Light ALM1 Light Light LAn Light SPn Light LA Light SD Light
Working normally Flashes Off Off -
Card alarm Flashes - On -
Corresponding FE
optical interface Flashes - - On On
is in Link status
Corresponding FE
optical interface Flashes - - - Flashes
is in Active status
The rate of the Flashes - - - - - -
corresponding FE
optical interface
is 100M
GE optical Flashes - - - - On -
interface is in
Link state
GE optical Flashes - - - - Flashes -
interface is in
Active state
GE optical Flashes - - - - - On
interface receives
optical signal

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Indicator light status of cards in 1:N protection group


For the active/standby cards in the protection group, the yellow
indicator light lights up when protection switching occurs. The yellow
indicators turn off after the protection switching is cancelled.

For interface bridge cards, the green indicator light is constantly on


after the cards are powered on.

For the electrical interface switching cards, the green indicator light is
constantly on and the yellow light is off after the cards are powered on.
The yellow light lights up when the switching occurs, and it turns off
when the switching is cancelled.

Troubleshooting
When the red/yellow indicator light of the card is on, notify the EMS
operators at the central site in time to check the alarm/performance
message of the equipment and card.

Fan Check
Operation Purpose
Good heat dissipation function is critical for long-term normal running of
the equipment. Make sure the fan is working normally when the
equipment is running.

Therefore, it is necessary to check the working status and cooling function


of the fan periodically.

Operation Method
Observe the working status of the fan, and execute the Fan Config
command in the EMS software to query the configuration information of
the fan.

Inspection Criteria
The fan runs stably at regular rotation speed, and buzzes continuously
without abnormal sound.

Troubleshooting
If the fan rotates at irregular speed or has abnormal sound, check
immediately whether foreign substance exists in the fan box, and
whether the fan is damaged.
If the fan does not run, check immediately if the fan in the plug-in box
is damaged.

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Dustproof Unit Cleansing


Operation Purpose
After the equipment runs for a long time, dust may block the dustproof
unit at the lower part of the fan plug-in box, thus results in bad heat
dissipation and may even damage the equipment. Therefore, it is
necessary to clean the dustproof unit periodically.

Operation Method
Take out the air filter from the lower part of the dustproof unit and check
it.

Inspection Criteria
The air filter of the dustproof unit is free from accrued dust.

Trouble Shooting
Clear away the accrued dust of the air filter by using clean water to scrub
the air filter and air-dry it before inserting it back to the lower part of
dustproof unit.

Order Wire Phone Check


Operation Purpose
Being an important communication tool for the network maintenance
personnel in troubleshooting, order wire telephone plays a special role in
system maintenance. Therefore, some routine checks on them are
necessary to ensure smooth order wire calls.

Operation Method
If the local site is not a central site, make order wire calls periodically
from the local site to the central site, and request the central site to
dial back, so as to test the order wire telephone.
The central site should also make order wire calls periodically to other
sites in turn to check the order wire telephones.

Inspection Criteria
The order wire calls get through among every site and can be clearly
heard without noise.

Troubleshooting
Use other method to check if the called site has ringed off.
If the called site has ringed off, check the configured data and
performance/alarm message through the EMS software, to find out the
problem and solve it.

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Service Inspection Bit Error Test


Operation Purpose
Bit error characteristic test is a test on the long-term stable running
performance of the entire transmission network. During the routine
maintenance, make periodical sampling test on traffic channels, on
condition that no current operating service is affected, so as to check if the
performances of all the traffic channels are normal.

Operation Method
In respect of idle traffic channels between two sites, the test can be
performed on the idle channels to test the traffic channel quality
between two sites.
If there is no idle traffic channel between two sites, a traffic channel
originally used for protection can be temporarily disconnected, when
the traffic is small, for accepting an error test and checking the quality
of traffic channels between the two sites.
If both of the above two circumstances are not applicable, use the EMS
software to query the service performance and alarms, and make sure
of the quality of traffic channels between the two sites.

Note: Refer to Bit Error Test for the detailed operations of bit error test.

Inspection Criteria
No bit error exists on any traffic channel.

Troubleshooting
When there is bit error in the traffic channel, refer to Bit Error Fault for
troubleshooting.

Routine EMS Maintenance


Operations
The NE Management System (EMS) is an important tool for routine
maintenance. To ensure that the equipment runs safely and reliably, the
maintenance personnel at the EMS site should check the running status of
the equipment through the EMS everyday.

This section briefly introduces the EMS maintenance operations. Refer to


the related EMS software manuals for more details.

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User Management
Operation Purpose
In order to prevent illegal access to the EMS software and ensure normal
running of equipment and service security, it is necessary to change the
login password of the EMS users periodically, and assign proper authorities
to the EMS operators.

Operation Method
The EMS software provides four levels of users: system administrator,
system maintainer, system operator and system monitor. Each level of
user has specific operation authorities. Assign unique username,
password and management objects for each EMS operator, and assign
different user levels according to the specific operation authorities of
each user.
Change the login password of the EMS operators periodically.

Note: Since the system administrators possess all the operation authorities, if they
login to the EMS and perform any improper operation, it may cause severe
consequences. Therefore, in routine maintenance, it is not recommended for the
user to log into the EMS as a system administrator. Instead, a system monitor
user should be created, and used to log into the EMS for routine maintenance.

Inspection Criteria
The EMS operators should be able to log in to the EMS with an
assigned username, and have the assigned operation authorities.
The EMS operators should be able to change the login password
periodically.

Troubleshooting
If the EMS operators have wrong operation authorities or cannot
change the password, they should request the system administrator to
check the user configuration data or reset the user authorities and
password.
To troubleshoot faults of EMS connections, refer to EMS Connection
Fault.

Connection with the EMS


Operation Purpose
Check the connection between the equipment and the EMS in order to
make sure that the EMS software can reflect the running conditions of the
equipment timely and accurately, and to ensure that the EMS software
performs effective monitoring on the equipment.

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Operation Method
Log in to the EMS and check the NE ID.

Inspection Criteria
The EMS can be logged in normally, and the screen of the computer
marked in the EMS is blue.
The NE icon is not grey. It should be green representing for normal
running, or other colors representing for certain alarm levels. The
default relationships between icon colors and alarms are listed in Table
21.

TABLE 21 THE DEFAULT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ICON COLORS AND AL ARMS

Alarm Level NE Icon Color


Critical alarm Red
Major alarm Orange
Minor alarm Yellow
Warning Purple
The icon frame is purple, and the icon
Warning confirmed
inside is green
Uncertain alarm Blue

The grey NE icon indicates that the NE is offline or loses connection


with the EMS.
The green NE icon indicates that the communication between the
NE and EMS is normal and there is no alarm.
If the NE icon is in some color of certain alarm level, it indicates
that the communication between the NE and EMS is normal, but
alarm exists. The NE icon color indicates the highest level of alarms.

Troubleshooting
To troubleshoot faults of EMS connections, refer to EMS Connection Fault.

Topology Map Monitoring


Operation Purpose
In the ZXONM E300 EMS software, audible and visual alarms are provided.
The user can monitor the running status of the current subnet and NE
through the navigation tree, topology map, NE icon and the NE installation
window; and can judge the alarm level through the sound or color given
with the alarm.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Operation Method
In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, check the NE icon
in the navigation tree and the topology map.

Inspection Criteria
The NE icon is not grey. It should be green representing for normal
running, or other colors representing for certain alarm levels. The
default relationships between icon colors and alarms are listed in Table
21.
The grey NE icon indicates that the NE is offline or loses connection
with the EMS.
The green NE icon indicates that the communication between the
NE and EMS is normal and there is no alarm.
If the NE icon is in some color of certain alarm level, it indicates
that the communication between the NE and EMS is normal, but
alarm exists. The NE icon color indicates the highest level of alarms.
The solid line between two NEs indicates that the optical connection is
normal. And the dotted line indicates that the optical connection
between NEs is broken.

Troubleshooting
To troubleshoot faults of EMS connections, please refer to EMS
Connection Fault.
When alarm indicator exists on the NE icon, query the alarm details via
the current alarm monitoring dialog box or monitoring window. For the
handling of alarm message, refer to Common Alarm Messages and
Solutions.
If the line indicative of the optical connection is a dotted line, check the
corresponding optical cable and pigtail.

Note: The EMS software can perform monitoring and management only on the NEs
that are in a status of normal communication with the EMS host.

Alarm Monitoring
Operation Purpose
In the ZXONM E300 EMS software, the user can monitor the alarm
message of the NE; thus keep aware of the current working status of the
NE, and detect/handle the alarm message of the NE in time.

Operation Method
In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, open the
monitoring window to monitor the alarm message of all NEs in real
time.

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In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, query the


current or history alarm message of the NEs.

Inspection Criteria
The NE has no current alarm message.
The NE has no unconfirmed history alarm message.

Troubleshooting
To troubleshoot faults of EMS connections, refer to EMS Connection Fault.

To handle the alarm message, refer to Common Alarm Messages and


Solutions.

Performance Monitoring
Operation Purpose
In the ZXONM E300 EMS software, the user can monitor the performance
message of the NE; thus keep aware of the current service performance of
the NE, and detect/handle the performance message of the NE in time.

Operation Method
In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, query the latest
15 minutes and 24 hours performance data of the NE.

Inspection Criteria
The NE has no performance over-threshold event.

Troubleshooting
For the handling of performance message, refer to Chapter 4.

System Configuration Query


Operation Purpose
In the ZXONM E300 EMS software, the user can query the configuration
information of the network through the configuration menus. The result of
this query is the network configuration in the EMS software, not
necessarily the actual configuration of the NE. To obtain the actual
configuration and current working status of the NE, the user need to
perform the operations such as uploading data, obtaining the current
status, and querying the switching information.

Operation Method
In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, query the
current network configuration information.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Query the current configuration data of the NE.


Query the switching information of the NE.

Inspection Criteria
The current network/NE configurations agree with the actual
networking.
There is no switching event.

Troubleshooting
If the current network/NE configurations conflict with the actual
networking:
If the current service meets the user requirements, the network
configuration data should be corrected to comply with the actual
networking.
If the current service does not meet the user requirements, the
network configuration data should be corrected to comply with the
user requirements.
For the handling of switching events, refer to Chapter 4.

Querying User Operation Logs


Operation Purpose
The ZXONM E300 EMS software can record all the operations performed by
the user into the user operation log. It is one of the security guarantees.
Query the user operation log periodically; and check whether there is any
illegal access and any improper operation affecting the system running.

Operation Method
In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, query the user
operation log.

Inspection Criteria
No illegal login.
No user operations affecting system operation or service functions.

Troubleshooting
When any illegal user or operation is found, use the user management
function of the EMS software to check the user identity and the authority
settings, and change the user password in time.

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Report Printing
Operation Purpose
With the printing function of the EMS software, the user can print out the
network configuration, user operation log, equipment performance and
alarm message. The printed reports are a basis for operation/maintenance
records and network analysis.

Operation Method
Print the reports in the client-side operation window of the EMS software.

Inspection Criteria
None

Troubleshooting
If the ZXONM E300 on Windows platform cannot print reports, check
whether the Report Server is started up. The Report Server can be started
up through the Windows menu of Startup-> Programs-> ZXONM E300
-> Report Server.

Data Backup
Operation Purpose
In the ZXONM E300 EMS software, database backup is primarily used to
copy and save the data of the Manager database. In the network operation
& maintenance, it is necessary to backup the system data often so that
the network data is quickly recoverable in case of network fault and EMS
data loss.

Operation Method
In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, perform the
operation of data backup.

Note: It is recommended to save the backup data in a mobile storage device lest
backup loss in case of hard disk fault of the EMS host.

Inspection Criteria
None

Troubleshooting
None

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Data Recovery
Operation Purpose
In case of network fault or EMS data loss, use the ZXONM E300 EMS
software to recover the data that is backed up at the EMS database side.
The recovery implemented by the ZXONM E300 covers all the current data.

Operation Method
In the client-side operation window of the EMS software, perform the
operation of data recovery.

Inspection Criteria
None

Troubleshooting
None

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Chapter 4

Performance Message and


Handling

In this chapter, you will learn about:


List of performance messages of the ZXMP S385
Detailed causes, influence and troubleshooting methods of various
performance events

Performance Message
Categories
Performance messages of the ZXMP S385 include SDH interface
performance messages, equipment analog performance messages, and
Ethernet port performance messages.

SDH Interface Performance Messages


Detectable SDH interface performance message of the ZXMP S385 are
listed in Table 22.

TABLE 22 LIST OF SDH INTERFACE PERFORM ANCE MESSAGES

Performance
Detection Point Description
Message
2 Mbit/s PDH physical
CV Coding Violation
interface
BBE Background Block Error
ES Errored Second
Regenerator section SES Severely Errored Second
UAS Unavailable Second
OFS Out-of-Frame Second

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Performance
Detection Point Description
Message
BBE Background Block Error
ES Errored Second
SES Severely Errored Second
UAS Unavailable Second
Multiplex section
FEBBE Far End Background Block Error
FEES Far End Errored Second
FESES Far End Severely Errored Second
FEUAS Far End Unavailable Second
BBE Background Block Error
ES Errored Second
SES Severely Errored Second

Higher-order path UAS Unavailable Second


VC3/VC4 FEBBE Far End Background Block Error
FEES Far End Errored Second
FESES Far End Severely Errored Second
FEUAS Far End Unavailable Second
BBE Background Block Error
ES Errored Second
SES Severely Errored Second

Lower-order path UAS Unavailable Second


VC12 FEBBE Far End Background Block Error
FEES Far End Errored Second
FESES Far End Severely Errored Second
FEUAS Far End Unavailable Second

Administrative unit AU4 PJE+ AU4 Pointer Justification E+


AU AU4 PJE- AU4 Pointer Justification E-
TU3 PJE+ TU3 Pointer Justification E+
Tributary unit TU3
TU3 PJE- TU3 Pointer Justification E-
TU12 PJE+ TU12 Pointer Justification E+
Tributary unit TU12
TU12 PJE- TU12 Pointer Justification E-

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Analog Performance Messages


Table 23 lists detectable analog performance messages of the ZXMP S385.

TABLE 23 LIST OF AN ALOGUE PERFORMANCE MESSAGES

Detection Point Performance Message Unit

Input optical power dBm


STM-1 to STM-16
Output optical power dBm
optical interfaces
Working current of laser mA
Card Detection point temperature C

Ethernet Interface Performance Messages


Table 24 lists the SDH performance messages detectable by the
Ethernet card of the ZXMP S385.

TABLE 24 LIST OF SDH PERFORM ANCE MESSAGES DETECTABLE BY THE ETHERNET CARD

Detection Performance
Description
Point Message

BBE Background Block Error


ES Errored Second
SES Severely Errored Second
CSES Consecutive Severely Errored Second
VC4/VC3/ UAS Unavailable Second
VC12/VC11 FEBBE Far End Background Block Error
FEES Far End Errored Second
FESES Far End Severely Errored Second
FCSES Far-end Consecutive Severely Errored Second
FEUAS Far End Unavailable Second
PJC+ Positive Pointer Justification Count
AU4
PJC Negative Pointer Justification Count

Table 25 lists the analogue performance messages detectable by the


Ethernet card of the ZXMP S385.

TABLE 25 LIST OF AN ALOGUE PERFORMANCE MESSAGES DETECTABLE BY THE ETHERNET


CARD

Detection Point Performance Message Unit


o
The average temperature of the detection point C
o
Card The maximum temperature of the detection point C
o
The minimum temperature of the detection point C

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Table 26 lists the data performance messages of the ZXMP S385 Ethernet
card.

TABLE 26 DATA PERFORM ANCE MESSAGES OF THE ZXMP S385 ETHERNET CARD

Detection
Performance Message Description
Point

Receive Undersize Frames Number of received undersize frames


Receive Oversize Frames Number of received oversize frames
Receive CRC Error Frames Number of received CRC errored frames
Receive Discard Frames Number of received discarded frames
Receive Frame Bytes Number of received frame bytes
Receive Flow Control Frames Number of received Flow Control Frames
Receive Broadcast Frames Number of received Broadcast Frames
Receive Frames with Length of 64 Bytes Number of received Frames with Length of 64 Bytes
Receive Frames with Length between 65 Number of received Frames with Length between 65
Bytes~127 Bytes Bytes~127 Bytes
Receive Frames with Length between 128 Number of received Frames with Length between
Bytes~255 Bytes 128 Bytes~255 Bytes
Receive Frames with Length between 256 Number of received Frames with Length between
Bytes~511 Bytes 256 Bytes~511 Bytes
Receive Frames with Length between 512 Number of received Frames with Length between
Bytes~1023 Bytes 512 Bytes~1023 Bytes
VCG
Receive Frames with Length between Number of received Frames with Length between
(EOS) por
1024 Bytes~1522 Bytes 1024 Bytes~1522 Bytes
Receive Unicast Frames Number of received Unicast Frames
Send Bytes Number of sent Bytes
Send Unicast Frames Number of sent Unicast Frames
Send Flow Control Frames Number of sent Flow Control Frames
Send Multicast Frames Number of sent Multicast Frames
Send Broadcast Frames Number of sent Broadcast Frames
Send Delay Exceed Frames Number of sent Delay Exceed Frames
Send Delay Collision Frames Number of sent Delay Collision Frames
Send Frames with One Collision Number of sent Frames with One Collision
Send Frames with More Collisions Number of sent Frames with More Collisions
Receive GFP Control Frames Number of received GFP Control Frames
Receive GFP CHEC Error Frames Number of received GFP CHEC Error Frames
Receive GFP THEC Error Frames Number of received GFP THEC Error Frames
Receive GFP EHEC Error Frames Number of received GFP EHEC Error Frames
Receive GFP FCS Error Frames Number of received GFP FCS Error Frames
Receive GFP Frame Bytes Number of received GFP Frame Bytes
Receive GFP User Data Frames Number of received GFP User Data Frames
Receive GFP Idle Frames Number of received GFP Idle Frames
Receive GFP Client Management Frames Number of received GFP Client Management Frames

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Detection
Performance Message Description
Point

VCG Send GFP Data Frames Number of sent GFP Data Frames
(EOS) port Send GFP Idle Frames Number of sent GFP Idle Frames
Send GFP Client Management Frames Number of sent GFP Client Management Frames
Send GFP Frame Bytes Number of sent GFP Frame Bytes
Receive GFP Dropped Frames Number of received GFP Dropped Frames
Receive PPP/HDLC Frames Number of received PPP/HDLC Frames
Receive PPP/HDLC Frame Bytes Number of received PPP/HDLC Frame Bytes
Receive PPP/HDLC Dropped Frames Number of received PPP/HDLC Dropped Frames
Receive PPP/HDLC FCS Error Frames Receive PPP/HDLC FCS Error Frames
Receive PPP/HDLC Aborted Frames Number of received PPP/HDLC Aborted Frames
Send PPP/HDLC Frames Number of sent PPP/HDLC Frames
Send PPP/HDLC Frame Bytes Number of sent PPP/HDLC Frame Bytes

Physical Interface Performance


Events and Solutions
Overview
The performance detections of the 1.5 M, 2 M, 34 M, and 45 M physical
interfaces are implemented via Coding Violation (CV), which detects the
electrical signal codes.

The 2 Mbit/s signal of the ZXMP S385 employs HDB3 code. When the
equipment detects signal code error, it will report CV to the EMS.

Event Causes
The causes of CV are similar for electrical signals of different rates. Taking
the commonly used 2 M signal as an example, the possible causes include:

Poor performance of the interface of the tributary card.


At the moment of plugging/unplugging the interface cable, a slight CV
count will be generated at the tributary port.
Poor welding or splice of the cable.
Inferior cable.
If almost all the tributaries report CV, the cause may be that the
switch and transmission equipment do not have the common ground.

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Influence on Equipment
If CV values are small, only a few or no CVs occur in 15 minutes, or
just a few are reported in 24 hours, it will impose no influence on the
service.
If CV values are large in 15 minutes and they keep increasing, the
service may be affected, and voice noise or illegible characters of data
may occur, even with the possibility of service interruption.
If significant CV values burst out, the service will be interrupted
instantly.

Solutions
Isolate the switch equipment from the transmission equipment. Use a
bit error tester to test the corresponding clear transmission channel of
the two equipment respectively, and check whether the CV is reported
from the switch equipment or transmission equipment.
If the CV is reported from the transmission equipment, cut off the
service connection of this channel, find out the NE reporting this CV
through the EMS, and locate the fault. There are different solutions to
different causes:
If the CV is caused by the interface performance of the 2 M
tributary card, it can be judged through hardware loopback.
Replacing the tributary card will probably solve the problem.
If the CV is caused by poor cable connection, weld or splice the
cable again.
If the CV is caused by inferior cable, replace the cable.
If the CV is caused by poor grounding, it is usually because the
service interface ground cables of the equipment are designed
differently by different manufacturers. To solve this problem,
remake the ground cable, or connect a capacitor in series at the
originating core. The capacitor can be 0.1u to 1u Tantalum.

Warning: In the ZXMP S385 equipment room, the case of the cable distribution
frame should connect with the protection ground. The grounding resistances of the
protection ground and the DC working ground should be less than 1 , and the
ground cables should be highly interference-resistant.

If the CV is reported from the switch equipment, refer to the user


manual of switch equipment, or refer to the solutions to the CV
reported from transmission equipment.
During normal running of the equipment, the user can connect the bit
error tester at idle transmission channels to test for 24 hours and
select those with good performance as standby transmission channels.
When a large number of CVs burst out, the services can be switched to
these standby transmission channels.

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Regenerator Section
Performance Events and
Solutions
Overview
The regenerator section performance events are detected via the B1 byte,
which is the regenerator section overhead byte. B1 byte uses 8 bits for
parity check. It is detected and terminated at the receiving NE, and will
not be transferred to the next NE.

Event Causes
External causes: The fiber connectors are dirty or connected
improperly. The fiber has deteriorated performance and incurs a high
loss.
Equipment causes: Inferior quality of the receiving and transmitting
optical modules of the optical line card, the CSA card, or the clock.
Man-made causes: Somebody inserted bit errors at the regenerator
section using EMS software, and did not delete them.

Influence on Equipment
In case of sporadic and minor bit errors, which occur regularly, several
times in 24 hours, or once in a few days, or occur continuously,
averaging one BBE per errored second, they generate no low-level bit
errors, and impose little influence on the service.
In case of major bit errors, which occur regularly, several times in 24
hours, or once in a few days, averaging at least 5 BBEs per errored
second, occasionally with transient out-of-frame alarms (lasting for 5
to 6 seconds) and OFS count, they will result in B2 and B3 bit errors,
and impose influence on all services. Especially, they will cause
transitory mosaic or frame suspension of the video service, but they
are scarcely perceptible in the telephone or data services.
In case of burst of continuous major bit errors, the system will report
performance over-threshold alarm along with out-of-frame alarm, the
unavailable time will begin, and transient interruption of services will
occur frequently.

Solutions
Perform the line-side self loopback of the optical interface at the local
equipment, and adjust the insertion depth of the fiber properly. If the
alarm disappears, the alarm cause lies in too strong or too weak
optical power.

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In case of too strong optical power, add an attenuator into the line
to adjust it.
In case of too weak optical power, cleanse the fiber pigtail and
connect it again, or replace the optical modules which have strong
transmitting optical power.
If it is caused by inferior optical line card or CSA card, replace the card.
If it is caused by bit errors inserted in the EMS software, delete the bit
errors in the EMS, and issue the command.

Multiplex Section Performance


Events and Solutions
Overview
Multiplex section performance events are detected by the multiplex section
(MS) overhead B2, K1 and K2 bytes. K1/K2 bytes are used for MS-PSD
and MS-PSC performance events, and B2 is used for monitoring MS bit
errors.

The MS bit errors detection use three B2 bytes, i.e., 24 bits, for parity
check. MS bit errors will not be transferred to the next NE. The receiving
NE which deals with the MS overhead will terminate MS bit errors, and
send the remote alarm message back to the transmitting NE at the same
time. Since REG equipment does not deal with MS overhead, B2 byte will
not be changed by REG and will be sent to the next NE. However, since
the ADM and TM equipment deal with the MS overhead, they will terminate
B2 byte, restart parity check counting, and send the remote alarm
message to the transmitting NE.

Note: Remote alarm message is a message returned by the receiving end to the
transmitting end as an acknowledgement, so that the transmitting end can know
about the bit error status of the receiving end.

For B2, its remote alarm message byte is the M1 byte in the MS overhead,
i.e., the MS remote block error indication byte. After the receiving NE
detects the B2, it will store the performance value of B2 into the M1 byte,
and send it back to the transmitting NE. After the transmitting NE detects
the M1, it will report the M1 value (B2 FEES/FEBBE/FESES/FEUAS).
Therefore, the B2 FEBBE/FEES/FESES/FEUAS of the transmitting NE
always occur with the B2 BBE/ES/SES/UAS of the receiving NE.

Event Causes
Possible causes of the MS performance events include:

B1 bit error can result in B2 bit error. The causes are the same as B1
bit error. Refer to Regenerator Section Performance Events and
Solutions.

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Damaged optical line card.


Somebody inserted MS bit errors using the EMS software, and did not
delete them.
MS switching event occurs in the network.

Influence on Equipment
If B2 bit errors are few, they impose little influence on the system. When
the performance keeps deteriorating and the bit errors cross the
performance threshold, the performance over-threshold alarm will be
reported.

If the EMS reports the out-of-frame alarm and the B2 performance over-
threshold alarm concurrently, the MS switching will occur for the network
configured with the MS protection, and MS-PSD and MS-PSC start to count.
In case of normal switching, MS-PSC count is an even number; in case of
switching back, the MS-PSD count is cleared to zero, waiting for recount at
the next switching.

Solutions
If B2 bit error occurs along with B1 bit error, solve B1 bit error first.
For how to handle B1 bit error, refer to Regenerator Section
Performance Events and Solutions.
If B2 bit error is caused by bit errors inserted in the EMS software,
delete the bit errors in the EMS, and issue the command.
When MS switching events occur in the network, if the MS-PSC count is
an odd number, follow the steps below:
Check whether these problems occur in the network: unplugged or
faulty NCP card, self loopback of optical interface, protection
configuration error, suspended APS, inconsistent APS-ID,
inconsistent switching control command, and abnormal transmitting
of the K byte between the protection optical line card pairs.
If such problems exist, solve them first. If they do not exist, issue
the Reset APS command to all the points in the MS ring to solve
the problem.

Higher-Order Path Performance


Event and Solutions
Overview
Higher-order path performance events are detected by the higher-order
path overhead B3 byte. The B3 byte monitors the bit error performance of
VC4 transmitted in the STM-N frame. It uses 8 bits for parity check on the
higher-order path. The B3 byte is originated by the transmitting NE of the

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path, and transparently transmitted through the ZXMP S385 in the path,
without being processed. It is terminated at the termination NE of the
whole path.

The remote alarm byte of B3 bit error is the higher-order path overhead
G1. G1 sends the status and performance message of the terminal in the
path back to the VC4 path source equipment, so as to enable monitoring
on the status and performance of the whole bidirectional path at any end
or any point of the path. The B3 BBE/ES/SES/UAS of the NE occurs along
with the B3 FEBBE/FEES/FESES/FEUAS of the opposite NE.

Event Causes
B3 bit errors usually occur along with B1 and B2 bit errors. Its possible
causes are:

External causes: The optical power is too strong or too weak.


Equipment causes: The optical line card or the CSA card has faults.
Man-made causes: Somebody inserted bit errors in the higher-order
path using EMS software, and did not delete them.

Influence on Equipment
If B3 bit errors are few, they will impose little influence on the equipment.

If the performance keeps deteriorating, and the B3 bit errors cross the
threshold, the B3 bit error performance over-threshold alarm will be
reported, and the transmission quality of the path will deteriorate.

Solutions
First, check whether the B1 or B2 bit errors exist. If they exist, handle
as described in Regenerator Section Performance Events and Solutions,
and Multiplex Section Performance Events and Solutions.
If no B1 or B2 bit error exists, find the starting point of the B3 bit error
in the path where the B3 bit error is reported. After resolving the B3
bit error at the starting point, find the next starting point of B3 bit
error along the path. Carry on until all the bit errors are solved.
If it is caused by bit errors inserted in the EMS software, delete the bit
errors in the EMS, and issue the command.

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Lower-Order Path Performance


Event and Solutions
Overview
Lower-order path performance events are detected by the lower-order
path overhead V5 byte. The first and second bits of V5 byte employ two-
bit parity check to monitor the bit error of the lower-order path. And the
third bit of V5 byte is the indicator of the remote bit error on the lower-
order path, sending the bit error number detected by the receiving NE
back to the transmitting NE. The lower-path performance is transferred
and has the remote alarm message. Therefore, the B3 BBE/ES/SES/UAS of
the NE occurs along with the B3 FEBBE/FEES/FESES/FEUAS of the
opposite NE.

Event Causes
The possible causes of V5 bit errors are:

Bit errors of regenerator or multiplex section.


Tributary card faults.
Somebody inserted bit errors in the lower-order path using EMS
software, and did not delete them.

Influence on Equipment
If V5 bit errors are few, they will impose little influence on the equipment.

If the performance keeps deteriorating, and the V5 bit errors cross the
threshold, the performance over-threshold alarm will be reported, and the
transmission quality will deteriorate.

Solutions
If V5 bit error is caused by bit errors of regenerator or multiplex
section, and the B1/B2/B3 bit errors exist, handle B1/B2/B3 bit errors
first. Refer to the solutions described in Regenerator Section
Performance Events and Solutions, Multiplex Section Performance
Events and Solutions, and Higher-Order Path Performance Event.
If it is caused by tributary card faults, replace the tributary card.
If it is caused by bit errors inserted in the EMS software, delete the bit
errors in the EMS, and issue the command.

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Pointer Justification Performance


Event and Solutions
Overview
In the SDH frame structure, several bytes at specific positions are used to
record the starting position of the data information in the SDH frame. Such
bytes are used to represent the phase of the data information, they are
called pointer.

When the network is in synchronous working status, pointers are used for
phase alignment between synchronous signals. When the network is out of
synchronization, the frequency and phase can be aligned through pointer
justification. Depending on the running speed of the NE clocks carried by
various signals, pointer justification can be divided into positive pointer
justification and negative pointer justification. The pointer justification
byte is detected and terminated at the receiving NE, and will not be
transferred to the next NE.

During the multiplexing and mapping of SDH, three types of pointers are
involved: AU-4, TU-12, and TU-3.

The AU-4 pointer locates at the first nine bytes of the fourth line in the
SDH frame structure, and is used for determining the starting position
of VC-4 in the AU.
The TU-3 pointer locates in the TUG-3. It has a total of nine bytes to
determine the starting position of VC-3 in the TU-3.
The TU-12 pointer has three bytes in total to determine the starting
position of VC-12 in the TU-12.

Event Causes
External causes: The clock is unlocked, or the clock source is of poor
quality; or the CSA card, and the optical line card are worn away after
long-term running.
Equipment causes: The CSA card, and the optical card are faulty. For
TU-3/TU-12, tributary card fault can also cause pointer justification.
EMS causes: Manually forced switching command is not cancelled; or
there are configuration errors of clock source.

Note: The AU4 pointer justification may result in TU3/TU12 pointer justification
events.

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Influence on Equipment
A pointer justification event indicates that there is problem of network
synchronization. Slight point justification events impose little influence
on the equipment. Major pointer justification events indicate symptoms
such as unlocked clock, which mean that the service quality is at risk.
Major pointer justifications should be handled immediately.
If the network is out of synchronization and keeps deteriorating, when
the pointer justification value crosses the threshold, the EMS will report
the corresponding performance over-threshold alarm.

Solutions
Handling AU4 Pointer Justification Event
If the clock is unlocked, check whether the clock switches. If the clock
does not switch, the event may be caused by fault/wear-down of
optical line card or CSA card. Replace the corresponding cards.
If the clock switches, check the configuration of the clock source,
especially the data configuration, clock source level configuration, clock
source extraction configuration and the setting of clock switching rules.
If the clock source configuration is correct, check the hardware fault of
the switched clock source. If hardware fault exists, replace the
corresponding card.
If the external clock is unlocked, follow the above three steps to locate
the fault and solve it.
If poor clock lock quality results in the pointer justification event, it
may be caused by fault/wear-down of optical card or CSA card.
Replace the corresponding cards.

Handling TU3 Pointer Justification Event


If TU-3 pointer justification event concurs with AU-4 pointer justification
event, solve the AU-4 pointer justification event first.

Handling TU12 Pointer Justification Event


If TU-12 pointer justification event concurs with AU-4 pointer
justification event, solve the AU-4 pointer justification event first.
If it is caused by fault of 2 M electrical tributary card, replace the
corresponding card.

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Chapter 5

Alarm Message and Handling

In this chapter, you will learn about:


Overview of alarm messages.
Detailed causes and troubleshooting methods of common alarm
messages.

Overview of Alarm Message


This section describes the categories, severity levels, and priorities of
alarm messages.

Alarm Categories
Communication alarm: The alarm which directly affects the service
layer, and indicates that the communication signals are interrupted or
deteriorated at a certain layer.
Synchronization alarm: The alarm for clock-related faults.
Equipment alarm: The alarm directly caused by internal fault of the
equipment, including power failure, card fault, card out-of-position,
and inconsistency between the EMS configuration and the hardware
installed on the equipment.

Alarm Levels
Alarms can be classified into four severity levels: critical, major, minor,
and warning alarms, which are in order from higher severity to lower
severity. Every alarm message has a default severity. The user can modify
the alarm level in the EMS as required.

Alarm Priorities
Alarm priorities of the transmission equipment are as the follows:

Communication interruption alarms have higher priorities than


communication bit error alarms.

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Regenerator section alarms have higher priorities than multiplex


section alarms.
Multiplex section alarms have higher priorities than higher-order path
alarms.
Higher-order alarms have higher priorities than lower-order path
alarms.
A higher-priority alarm will result in lower-priority alarms. Therefore, when
a fault occurs, it is necessary to handle the higher-priority alarm first, and
then observe whether the lower-priority alarms disappear. If they do not
disappear, handle them accordingly; if they disappear, it means they
result from the higher-priority alarm.

Alarm Summary
Table 27 lists the possible alarm messages of the ZXMP S385.

TABLE 27 ALARM MESSAGES OF THE ZXMP S385

Alarm Detection
Alarm Category Alarm Name Alarm Level
Point

Loss of optical receiving signal Critical


Transmitting optical power over-
Major
SDH optical threshold
interface Receiving optical power over-
Major
threshold
Laser bias current over-threshold Minor
SDH electrical
Loss of Signal (LOS) Critical
interface
PDH electrical Loss of Signal (LOS) Critical
interface PDH alarm indication signal Major
Loss of frame Critical
Out of frame Critical
Communication Unavailable Second (UAS) Major
alarms
DCCR connection failure Major
Regenerator Regenerator section signal
Minor
section deterioration
Trace identifier mismatch of
Major
regenerator section
Regenerator section BER over-
Major
threshold
Alarm indication signal (AIS) of
Major
multiplex section
Multiplex section Remote defect indication (RDI)
Minor
of multiplex section

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Alarm Detection
Alarm Category Alarm Name Alarm Level
Point

Signal deterioration (SD) of


Minor
multiplex section
Communication Multiplex section Unavailable Second (UAS) Major
alarms B2 bit error over-threshold Major
DCCM connection failure Major
Loss of AU pointer (LOP) Critical
AU4/AU4-nc Alarm indication signal (AIS) of
Major
AU path
Loss of TU pointer (LOP) Critical
TU3/TU12 Alarm indication signal (AIS) of
Major
TU path
Payload mismatch (PLM) of
Critical
higher-order path
Loss of multiframe (LOM) Critical
Trace ID Mismatch (TIM) of
Major
higher-order path
VC4/VC3/VC4-nc/ Higher-order path unequipped
Major
VC3-nc (UNED)
Remote defect indication (RDI) Minor
Signal deterioration (SD) of
Minor
higher-order path
Unavailable Second (UAS) Major
Error rate cross-threshold (EXC) Major
Lower-order path unequipped
Major
(UNEQ)
Payload mismatch (PLM) of
Major
lower-order path
Unavailable Second (UAS) Major
Remote defect indication (RDI) Minor
VC12/VC11
Trace ID Mismatch (TIM) of
Major
lower-order path
Error rate cross-threshold (EXC) Major
Extension signal label mismatch
Major
(ExSLM)
Remote Failure Indication (RFI) Minor
Synchronization Synchronous Loss of frame of timing input
Major
alarms timing source signal (LOF)
Alarm indication signal (AIS) of
Major
timing input signal
BER over-threshold of timing
Major
input signal

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Alarm Detection
Alarm Category Alarm Name Alarm Level
Point

Timing input loss Critical


Timing output loss Critical
Synchronous timing source
Major
mismatch
Card out of position Critical
Card type mismatch Critical
Omitted card Major
Unknown card type Major
Card ejector lever not in position Major
Card
Interface card type mismatch Critical
Interface card not in position Critical
Interface card working
Critical
abnormally
Card working abnormally Critical
Module temperature over-
Minor
threshold
Loss of EDFA receiving signal Critical
Output optical power over-
EDFA Major
threshold
Equipment alarms Input optical power over-
Major
threshold
Transmitting optical power failure Critical
Laser bias current over-threshold Minor
Laser temperature over-
Minor
threshold
Outgoing fiber power over-
EDFA laser Minor
threshold of pumping laser
Cooling current over-threshold of
Minor
pumping laser
Fan fault Major
Excessive humidity Warning
Environment High temperature Warning
Fire alarm Warning
Temperature Temperature over-threshold of
Minor
detection point detection point

The alarm messages of the ZXMP S385 Ethernet card are listed in Table 28.

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TABLE 28 ALARM MESSAGES OF THE ZXMP S385 ETHERNET CARD

Detection Alarm
Alarm Name
Point Level

Ethernet
electrical Ethernet interface unconnected Critical
interface
Ethernet interface unconnected Critical
Ethernet optical Loss of Signal (LOS) Critical
interface Missing Laser Module Critical
Laser Module Fault Critical
Loss of Pointer (LOP) Critical
AU4/TU3/TU12
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) Major
Trace ID MismatchTIM Major
Remote Defect IndicationRDI Minor
Enhanced Remote Defect Indication of Payload
Minor
Defect ( E-RDI Payload Defect)
Enhanced Remote Defect Indication of Connectivity
Minor
Defect (E-RDI Connectivity Defect)
Enhanced Remote Defect Indication of Server
VC4/VC3 Minor
Defect (E-RDI Server Defect)
Payload Mismatch (PLM) Critical
Signal Deterioration ( SD) Minor
Path Unequipped ( UNEQ) Major
Loss of Multi-frameLOM Critical
BER Cross-threshold (EXC) Major
Unavailable Second (UAS) Major
Trace ID Mismatch (TIM) Major
Remote Defect Indication (RDI) Minor
Enhanced Remote Defect Indication of Payload
Minor
Defect ( E-RDI Payload Defect)
Enhanced Remote Defect Indication of Connectivity
Minor
Defect (E-RDI Connectivity Defect)
VC12 Enhanced Remote Defect Indication of Server
Minor
Defect (E-RDI Server Defect)
Payload Mismatch (PLM) Critical
Signal Deterioration ( SD) Major
BER Cross-threshold (EXC) Major
Extended Signal Label Mismatch ( ExSLM) Major
Unavailable Second (UAS) Major
Interface card type mismatch Critical
Interface card out of position Critical
Card
Interface card running abnormality Critical
Detection point temperature over-threshold Minor

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Detection Alarm
Alarm Name
Point Level

Loss of Frame (LOF) Critical


Out of Frame (OOF) Critical
Backplane Signal Deterioration (SD) Minor
BER Cross-threshold (EXC) Major
Unavailable Second (UAS) Major
Mismatch of User Payload ID (MUPI) Major
Customer Signal Failure (CSF) Major
VCG
Loss of Frame localization (LFD) Major
(EOS) port
VCG group LossVCG LOS Major
Out Of Frame of Receiving PPP or HDLC Frame Major

Common Alarm Messages and


Solutions
Table 29 through Table 95 list the causes and troubleshooting of the
common alarms for users reference.

TABLE 29 LOSS OF RECEIVED 2.5 G OPTICAL SIGNAL

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of received 2.5 G optical signal (LOS)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the optical physical layer, and the local end
explanation receives no optical signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL16
Related
None
overhead
Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on, and the receiving indicator
Alarm
light is constantly off.
indication
EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Alarm cause Inadequate coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of optical receiving module on the local end optical line card
Fault of optical transmitting module on the opposite end optical line card
Local end optical line card receives light of different rate levels.

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Item Description

Take care of the optical line


Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Solutions Replace the local end optical line card.
Replace the opposite end optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line

Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of the SDH physical
Remarks
interface (SPI)

TABLE 30 LOSS OF RECEIVED 622 M OPTICAL SIGNAL

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of received 622 M optical signal (LOS)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the optical physical layer, and the local end
explanation receives no optical signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL4
Related
None
overhead
Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on, and the receiving indicator
Alarm
light is constantly off.
indication
EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Alarm cause Inadequate coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of optical receiving module on the local end optical line card
Fault of optical transmitting module on the opposite end optical line card
Local end optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Solutions Replace the local end optical line card.
Replace the opposite end optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line

Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of the SDH physical
Remarks
interface (SPI)

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TABLE 31 LOSS OF RECEIVED 155 M OPTICAL SIGNAL

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of received 155 M optical signal (LOS)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the optical physical layer, and the local end
explanation receives no optical signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1
Related
None
overhead
Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on, and the receiving indicator
Alarm
light is constantly off.
indication
EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Alarm cause Inadequate coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of optical receiving module on the local end optical line card
Fault of optical transmitting module on the opposite end optical line card
Local end optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Solutions Replace the local end optical line card.
Replace the opposite end optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line

Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of the SDH physical
Remarks
interface (SPI)

TABLE 32 LOSS OF 155 M ELECTRICAL SIGNAL

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of 155 M electrical signal (LOS)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the electrical physical layer, and the local end
explanation receives no electrical signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card ESS1, LP1
Related
None
overhead

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Item Description

Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.


indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
155 M cable is connected inversely.
155 M cable is cut off.
Alarm cause
155 M interface is faulty.
The external equipment connected with the 155 M interface is faulty.
Correct the connection direction of the 155 M cable.
Adjust the 155 M cable.
Solutions
Replace the corresponding card.
Repair the equipment connected with the 155 M interface.
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of the PDH physical
Remarks
interface (PPI)

TABLE 33 LOSS OF 2 M ELECTRICAL SIGNAL

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of 2 M electrical signal (LOS)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the electrical physical layer, and the local end
explanation receives no electrical signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card EPE1
Related
None
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
2 M cable is connected inversely.
2 M cable is cut off.
Alarm cause
2 M interface is faulty.
The external equipment connected with the 2 M interface is faulty.
Correct the connection direction of the 2 M cable.
Adjust the 2 M cable.
Solutions
Replace the corresponding card.
Repair the equipment connected with the 2 M interface.
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of the PDH physical
Remarks
interface (PPI)

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TABLE 34 CV PERFORM ANCE OVER THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name CV (Coding Violation) performance over threshold


Alarm level Warning
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates that the 2 M physical interface is damaged or interconnected
explanation improperly.
Alarm card EPE1
Related
None
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is purple alarm identifier.
Inferior welding of the cable connector
Improper DDF common ground
Alarm cause Poor performance of the tributary card interface
Switches or other equipment connected with the transmission equipment are
faulty.
Weld the cable connector again.
Make a new ground cable.
Solutions
Replace the corresponding card.
Take care of the peripheral equipment.
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of the PDH physical
Remarks
interface (PPI).

TABLE 35 RECEIVING OPTICAL POWER OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name Receiving optical power over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm
None
explanation
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
None
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Improper tightness of fiber connection in the receiving direction
Alarm cause
LOS alarm reported from the optical receiving signal

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Item Description

Adjust the tightness of the fiber connector


Solutions Find out the cause of the LOS alarm. This alarm will disappear after resolving the
LOS alarm.
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of the SDH physical
Remarks
interface (SPI).

TABLE 36 LOSS OF FRAME

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of Frame (LOF)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the regenerator section layer, and the local
explanation end receives no optical modulation signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
A1, A2
overhead
Card: The red alarm indicator is constantly on, and the receiving indicator light
Alarm
flashes.
indication
EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

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TABLE 37 UNAV AIL ABLE TIME STARTS (REGENERATOR SECTION)

Item Description

Alarm name Unavailable time starts (RS)


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the regenerator section layer, and the local
explanation end receives no optical modulation signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
A1, A2, B1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane
Take care of the optical line.
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components.
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship.
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card.
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line.
Replace the CSA card.
Replace the backplane.
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

T A B L E 3 8 B 1 U AS P E R F O R M A N C E O V E R - T H R E S H O L D

Item Description

Alarm name B1 UAS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the regenerator section layer, and the local
explanation end receives no optical modulation signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16

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Item Description

Related
A1, A2, B1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

TABLE 39 OUT OF FRAME

Item Description

Alarm name Out of frame (OOF)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the regenerator section layer, and the system cannot
Alarm locate frame headers of five consequent frames of optical modulation signal
explanation received by the local end from the opposite end, then the equipment enters the
out-of-frame status.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
A1, A2
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

TABLE 40 OFS PERFORMANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name OFS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the regenerator section layer, and the system cannot
Alarm locate frame headers of five consequent frames of optical modulation signal
explanation received by the local end from the opposite end, then the equipment enters the
out-of-frame status.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
A1, A2
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

TABLE 41 REGENERATOR SECTION SIGNAL DEGRADED

Item Description

Alarm name Regenerator section signal degraded


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the regenerator section layer, the optical modulation
Alarm
signal received by the local end from the opposite end degrades, resulting in the
explanation
BER of RS worse than 10-3.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

TABLE 42 B1 SES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B1 SES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the regenerator section layer, there is SES (Severely
Alarm
Errored Second) in the optical modulation signal received by the local end from
explanation
the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

TABLE 43 B1 ES PERFORMANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B1 ES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the regenerator section layer, there is ES (Errored
Alarm
Second) in the optical modulation signal received by the local end from the
explanation
opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

TABLE 44 B1 BBE PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B1 BBE performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the regenerator section layer, there is BBE
Alarm
(Background Block Error) in the optical modulation signal received by the local
explanation
end from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of regenerator section
Remarks terminal (RST)

TABLE 45 MULTIPLEX SECTION AL ARM INDICATION SIGNAL (MS- AIS)

Item Description

Alarm name Multiplex section alarm indication signal


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the multiplex section layer, the local end
explanation receives no multiplex signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
K2
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Item Description

Take care of the optical line


Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 46 UNAVAILABLE TIME (MULTIPLEX SECTION)

Item Description

Alarm name Unavailable time (multiplex section)


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the multiplex section layer, the local end
explanation receives no multiplex signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane

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Item Description
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 47 MULTIPLEX SECTION REMOTE DEFECT INDICATION (MS-RDI)

Item Description

Alarm name Multiplex section remote defect indication (MS-RDI)


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the multiplex section layer, the opposite end
explanation receives no multiplex signal from the local end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.
This alarm message occurs in pair with MS-AIS, the causes are the same with
those of MS-AIS, which can be:
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Alarm cause
Fault of local optical line card
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

T A B L E 4 8 B 2 U AS P E R F O R M A N C E O V E R - T H R E S H O L D

Item Description

Alarm name B2 UAS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the multiplex section layer, the local end
explanation receives no multiplex signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

T A B L E 4 9 B 2 F E U AS P E R F O R M A N C E O V E R - T H R E S H O L D

Item Description

Alarm name B2 FEUAS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the multiplex section layer, the opposite end
explanation receives no multiplex signal from the local end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16

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Item Description

Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
This alarm message occurs in pair with the alarm message of B2 UAS
Performance Over-Threshold. The causes are the same that can be:
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Alarm cause
Fault of local optical line card
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Fault of backplane
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 50 MULTIPLEX SECTION SIGNAL DEGRADED (MS-DEG)

Item Description

Alarm name Multiplex section signal degraded (MS-DEG)


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, the optical modulation
Alarm
signal received by the local end from the opposite end degrades, resulting in the
explanation
BER of MS worse than 10-3.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 51 B2 BIT ERRORS CROSS-THRESHOLD (MS-EXC)

Item Description

Alarm name B2 bit errors cross-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, there are severely bit
Alarm
errors in the optical modulation signal received by the local end from the opposite
explanation
end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 52 B2 SES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B2 SES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, there is SES (Severely
Alarm
Errored Second) in the optical modulation signal received by the local end from
explanation
the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 53 B2 FESES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B2 FESES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, there is SES (Severely
Alarm
Errored Second) in the optical modulation signal received by the opposite end
explanation
from the local end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

This alarm message occurs in pair with the alarm message of B2 SES
Performance Over-Threshold. The causes are the same that can be:
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Alarm cause
Fault of local optical line card
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 54 B2 ES PERFORMANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B2 ES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, there is errored second in
explanation the optical modulation signal received by the local end from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 55 B2 FEES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B2 FEES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, there is errored second in
explanation the optical modulation signal received by the opposite end from the local end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

This alarm message occurs in pair with the alarm message of B2 ES Performance
Over-Threshold. The causes are the same that can be:
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Alarm cause
Fault of local optical line card
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 56 B2 BBE PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B2 BBE performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, there are background
Alarm
block errors in the optical modulation signal received by the local end from the
explanation
opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of external optical line


Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Fault of local optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 57 B2 FEBBE PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name B2 FEBBE performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the multiplex section layer, there are background
Alarm
block errors in the optical modulation signal received by the opposite end from
explanation
the local end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
B2, M1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

This alarm message occurs in pair with the alarm message of B2 BBE
Performance Over-Threshold. The causes are the same that can be:
Fault of external optical line
Fault of fiber pigtails and coupling components
Inferior coupling or wrong transmitting-receiving relationship
Alarm cause
Fault of local optical line card
Fault of opposite optical line card
Local optical line card receives light of different rate levels.
Fault of CSA card
Improper plugging of cards and backplane pins
Take care of the optical line
Replace the fiber pigtails or coupling components
Ensure good coupling, and correct the transmitting-receiving relationship
Replace the local optical line card.
Solutions Replace the opposite optical line card
Check the rate level of the optical connection line, and connect a correct optical
line
Replace the CSA card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks terminal (MST)

TABLE 58 MULTIPLEX SECTION PROTECTION SWITCHING EVENT

Item Description

Alarm name Multiplex section protection switching event


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm message occurs in the network protected by multiplex section
explanation switching. It indicates occurrence of multiplex section protection switching.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16
Related
K1, K2
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.

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Item Description

When an optical line card detects "loss of receiving signal", "loss of frame", or
"RS/MS AIS" alarms, or when the BER of the RS/MS reaches 10-3, the MS
protection switching will occur. And the EMS will report the "MS protection
Alarm cause switching event" alarm.
Fault of APS configuration on the local/opposite optical line card.
Physical fault of APS protocol processing module on the local/opposite optical line
card
Handle higher level alarms. After handling the higher level faults, the Multiplex
section protection switching event alarm will automatically disappear at the end
Solutions of APS automatic recovery.
Reset APS startup/stop status and issue the command.
Replace the local/opposite optical line card.
Logical functional block of the fault: Basic functional block of multiplex section
Remarks
protection (MSP)

TABLE 59 AU4 P ATH AL ARM INDICATION SIGNAL, UNAVAILABLE TIME

Item Description

Alarm name AU4 path alarm indication signal, unavailable time


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates that local end receives no signal on the higher-order path
explanation from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
AU pointer, B3
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause Fault of CSA card
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Damage of backplane
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot or replace the backplane

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Item Description
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
interface (HOI)
Remarks If one NE is configured with timeslot straight-through at AU4-level, since the AU4
path alarm indication signal will not be terminated, the EMS will report this alarm
which is a normal indication.

TABLE 60 LOSS OF AU4 POINTER

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of AU4 pointer (LOP)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates that local end receives no signal on the higher-order path
explanation from the opposite end. It is caused by excessive pointer justification.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
AU pointer
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Damage of backplane
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 61 REMOTE DEFECT INDICATION (HIGHER-ORDER VC4 P ATH VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name Remote defect indication (RDI)


Alarm level Minor

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Item Description

Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates that opposite end receives no signal on the higher-order path
explanation from the local end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
G1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.
This alarm occurs in pair with the AU4 path alarm indication signal, unavailable
time. The causes are the same that can be:
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Alarm cause Fault of optical line card
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Damage of backplane
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

T A B L E 6 2 B 3 U AS P E R F O R M A N C E O V E R - T H R E S H O L D ( H I G H E R - O R D E R V C 4 P A T H
VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 UAS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates that local end receives no signal on the higher-order path
explanation from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
B3
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Wrong cross-connect configuration


Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Damage of backplane
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

T A B L E 6 3 B 3 F E U AS P E R F O R M A N C E O V E R - T H R E S H O L D ( H I G H E R - O R D E R V C 4 P A T H
VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 FEUAS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates that opposite end receives no signal on the higher-order path
explanation from the local end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
G1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
This alarm message occurs in pair with the B3 UAS performance over-threshold.
The causes are the same that can be:
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Alarm cause Fault of optical line card
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Damage of backplane

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Item Description

Correct the timeslot configuration


Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot or replace the backplane
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 64 VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH SIGNAL DEGRADED

Item Description

Alarm name VC4 higher-order path signal degraded


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the higher-order path layer. The optical modulation
Alarm
signal received at the local end from the opposite end degrades, resulting in the
explanation
BER of higher-order path worse than 10-3.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
B3
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

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TABLE 65 B3 SES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD (VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH


VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 SES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the higher-order path layer. The optical modulation
Alarm
signal received at the local end from the opposite end degrades and there is SES
explanation
(Severely Errored Second).
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
B3
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 66 B3 FESES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD (VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH


VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 FESES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the higher-order path layer. The optical modulation
Alarm
signal received at the opposite end from the local end degrades and there is SES
explanation
(Severely Errored Second).
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1

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Item Description

Related
G1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 67 B3 ES PERFORMANCE OVER-THRESHOLD (VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH VIRTUAL


CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 ES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the higher-order path layer. The optical modulation
Alarm
signal received at the local end from the opposite end degrades and there is SES
explanation
(Severely Errored Second).
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
B3
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins

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Chapter 5 - Alarm Message and Handling

Item Description

Correct the timeslot configuration


Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 68 B3 FEES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD (VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH


VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 FEES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the higher-order path layer. The optical modulation
Alarm
signal received at the opposite end from the local end degrades and there is ES
explanation
(Errored Second).
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
G1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

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TABLE 69 B3 BBE PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD (VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH


VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 BBE performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the higher-order path layer. The optical modulation
Alarm
signal received at the local end from the opposite end degrades and there is BBE
explanation
(Background Block Error).
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
B3
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 70 B3 FEBBE PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD (VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH


VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name B3 FEBBE performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the higher-order path layer. The optical modulation
Alarm
signal received at the opposite end from the local end degrades, resulting the
explanation
BER of higher-order path worse than 10-3.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1

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Item Description

Related
G1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Wrong clock configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins
Correct the timeslot configuration
Correct the clock configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 71 VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH UNEQUIPPED

Item Description

Alarm name VC4 higher-order path unequipped


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm
C2 byte is zero
explanation
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
C2
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
C2 byre is wrongly configured to 00H
Wrong cross-connect configuration
Fault of optical line card
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card or clock
Fault of tributary card
Fault of backplane pins

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Item Description

Rewrite C2 byte
Correct the timeslot configuration
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 72 VC4 HIGHER-ORDER P ATH TRACE ID MISM ATCH

Item Description

Alarm name VC4 higher-order path trace ID mismatch


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm The path trace identifier that should be received at the local end disagrees with
explanation the path trace identifier sent from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1
Related
J1
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator is normally on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong J1 configuration
J1 configurations are inconsistent when different equipment or different
manufacturers equipment are interconnected via optical interface
Alarm cause Fault of optical line card
CSA card fault
Tributary card fault
Backplane pins fault
Rewrite J1
Make J1 configuration consistent.
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

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TABLE 73 VC4 SIGNAL LABEL MISM ATCH

Item Description

Alarm name VC4 signal label mismatch


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm The signal identifier that should be received at the local end disagrees with the
explanation path trace identifier sent from the opposite end.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
C2
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator is normally on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong C2 configuration
C2 configurations are inconsistent when different equipment or different
manufacturers equipment are interconnected via optical interface
Alarm cause Fault of optical line card
CSA card fault
Tributary card fault
Backplane pins fault
Rewrite C2
Make C2 configuration consistent.
Replace the optical line card
Solutions
Replace the CSA card
Replace the tributary card
Change the slot
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
Remarks interface (HOI)

TABLE 74 AU4 PJE+/PJE- PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name AU4 PJE+/PJE- performance over-threshold


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates synchronous fault on the higher-order path of the local end,
explanation and the clock accuracy degrades.
Alarm card OL1, OL4, OL16, LP1, EPE1
Related
AU-PTR
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator is normally on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Wrong clock source configuration


Fault of external clock source
Alarm cause
Fault of the CSA card internal clock or phase-lock ring clock
Fault of the clock extraction part of the optical line card
Correct the wrong clock source configuration
Replace the external clock, check and replace the cable
Solutions
Replace the optical line card
Replace the CSA card
Logical functional blocks of the fault: multiplexing functional block of higher-order
interface (HOI), auxiliary functional block of synchronous equipment timing source
Remarks (SETS), auxiliary functional block of synchronous equipment timing physical
interface (SETPI)

TABLE 75 AU4 PROTECTION SWITCHING EVENT

Item Description

Alarm name AU4 protection switching event


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm message occurs in the network protected by path switching. It
explanation indicates occurrence of higher-order path protection switching.
Alarm card CSA card
Related
None
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.
When an optical line card detects optical line interruption, the path protection
switching will occur. And the EMS will report the "AU4 protection switching event"
Alarm cause alarm.
Wrong timeslot configuration.
Physical fault of CSA card.
Handle higher level alarms. After handling the higher level faults, the AU4
protection switching event alarm will automatically disappear.
Solutions
Correct the wrong timeslot configuration.
Replace the CSA card.
Logical functional block of the fault: the multiplexing functional block of higher-
Remarks
order interface (HOI)

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TABLE 76 TU12 P ATH AL ARM INDICATION SIGNAL, UNAV AIL ABLE TIME

Item Description

Alarm name TU12 path alarm indication signal, unavailable time


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption on the lower-order path layer, the local end
explanation receives no lower-order electrical signal from the opposite end.
Alarm card EPE1
Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong timeslot configuration
Alarm cause Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Fault of CSA card
Correct the timeslot configuration
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions
Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 77 LOSS OF TU12 POINTER

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of TU12 pointer (LOP)


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates interruption at the lower-order path layer, the local end
Alarm
receives no lower-order electrical signal from the opposite end. Eight consecutive
explanation
NDF or eight multiframes of invalid pointer are detected.
Alarm card EPE1
Related
TU12 pointer
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Wrong timeslot configuration
Alarm cause Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Fault of CSA card

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Item Description

Correct the timeslot configuration


Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions
Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 78 REMOTE DEFECT INDICATION (LOWER-ORDER VC12 P ATH VIRTUAL CONTAINER)

Item Description

Alarm name Remote defect indication (RDI)


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the lower-order path layer of the opposite
explanation end, the opposite end receives no electrical signal from the local end.
Alarm card EPE1
Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.
This alarm occurs in pair with the Lower-order path alarm indication signal. The
causes can be:
Alarm cause Wrong timeslot configuration
Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Fault of CSA card
Correct the timeslot configuration
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions
Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

T A B L E 7 9 V 5 U AS P E R F O R M A N C E O V E R - T H R E S H O L D

Item Description

Alarm name V5 UAS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the lower-order path layer, the local end
explanation receives no lower-order electrical signal from the opposite end.

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Item Description

Alarm card EPE1


Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Wrong timeslot configuration
Alarm cause Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Fault of CSA card
Correct the timeslot configuration
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions
Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

T A B L E 8 0 V 5 F E U AS P E R F O R M A N C E O V E R - T H R E S H O L D

Item Description

Alarm name V5 FEUAS performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates interruption at the lower-order path layer of the opposite
Alarm
end, the opposite end receives no electrical signal on the lower-order path from
explanation
the local end.
Alarm card EPE1
Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
This alarm occurs in pair with the Lower-order path alarm indication signal and
V5 UAS performance over-threshold alarms. The causes can be:
Alarm cause Wrong timeslot configuration
Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Fault of CSA card
Correct the timeslot configuration
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions
Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

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TABLE 81 V5 SES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name V5 SES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the electrical physical layer. The electrical signal
Alarm
received at the local end from the opposite end degrades and there is SES
explanation
(Severely Errored Second).
Alarm card EPE1
Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of some tributaries of 2 M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 82 V5 FESES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name V5 FESES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the electrical physical layer. The electrical signal
Alarm
received at the opposite end from the local end degrades and there is SES
explanation
(Severely Errored Second).
Alarm card EPE1
Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card

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Item Description
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI).
Alarms of higher level automatically mask the alarms of lower level.

TABLE 83 V5 ES PERFORMANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name V5 ES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the electrical physical layer. The electrical signal
Alarm
received at the local end from the opposite end degrades and there is SES
explanation
(Severely Errored Second).
Alarm card EPE1
Related
B3
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 84 V5 FEES PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name V5 FEES performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the electrical physical layer. The electrical signal
Alarm
received at the opposite end from the local end degrades and there is ES (Errored
explanation
Second).
Alarm card EPE1
Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end


Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 85 V5 BBE PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name V5 BBE performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates fault at the electrical physical layer. The electrical signal
Alarm
received at the local end from the opposite end degrades and there is BBE
explanation
(Background Block Error).
Alarm card EPE1
Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Alarm cause Fault of 2M tributary card (EPE1) at the local/opposite end
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 86 V5 FEBBE PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name V5 FEBBE performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates fault at the electrical physical layer. The electrical signal
explanation received at the opposite end from the local end degrades, and there is BBE.
Alarm card EPE1

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Item Description

Related
V5
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is orange alarm identifier.
Fault of some tributaries of 2M tributary card at the local/opposite end
Alarm cause
Fault of CSA card
Replace the EPE1 card
Solutions Switch between the active/standby CSA card; reset the CSA card; or replace the
CSA card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 87 TU12 PJE+/PJE- PERFORM ANCE OVER-THRESHOLD

Item Description

Alarm name TU12 PJE+/PJE- performance over-threshold


Alarm level Major
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates fault of tributary pointer justification, tributary synchronous
explanation performance degrades.
Alarm card EPE1
Related
TU-PTR
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator is normally on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Higher-order pointer justification (AU PJE+/AU PJE-)
Alarm cause
Fault of EPE1 card
Handle the higher-order pointer justification
Solutions
Replace the EPE1 card
Logical functional block of the fault: multiplexing functional block of lower-order
Remarks interface (LOI)

TABLE 88 TU12 PROTECTION SWITCHING EVENT

Item Description

Alarm name TU12 protection switching event


Alarm level Minor
Alarm
Communication alarm
category

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Item Description

Alarm This alarm message occurs in the network protected by path switching. It
explanation indicates occurrence of lower-order path protection switching.
Alarm card CSA card
Related
None
overhead
Alarm Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is yellow alarm identifier.
When the CSA card detects higher-order path alarm on the optical line card, the
path protection switching will occur. And the EMS will report the "TU12 protection
Alarm cause
switching event" alarm.
Wrong timeslot configuration.
Handle higher level alarms.
Solutions
Correct the wrong timeslot configuration.
Logical functional block of the fault: the multiplexing functional block of lower-
Remarks
order interface (LOI)

TABLE 89 LOSS OF TIMING INPUT

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of timing input


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Synchronization alarm
category
Alarm occurs on the optical line card of that extracts the clock. When the STM-
N signal raises alarms, the optical line card will notify the alarm status to the
CSA card, and the CSA card will report the "loss of timing input" alarm, and
select the available higher-priority timing source as indicated by the S1 byte.
The alarm statuses include: loss of signal at the optical interface (LOS), loss of
frame (LOF) and out of frame (OOF), multiplex section alarm indication signal
(MS-AIS)
Alarm
For the 2 MHz or unframed 2 Mbits/s external clock, when the corresponding
explanation external clock inlet raises alarms, the "loss of timing input" alarm will be
reported. The alarm status includes: loss of signal (LOS) at the electrical
interface.
For the framed 2 Mbits/s external clock, when the corresponding external clock
inlet raises alarms, the "loss of timing input" alarm will be reported. The alarm
statuses include: loss of signal (LOS) at the electrical interface, LOF, OOF and
AIS.

Alarm card CSA and SCI cards


Related
S1
overhead
Alarm Card: The yellow ALM1 indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.

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Item Description

Fault of the optical line card that extracts the clock


Fault of the external clock import source and the import external clock part
Alarm cause
CSA card fault
Backplane fault
Resolve the alarm of optical line card, and the alarm of CSA card will disappear
Solutions along automatically
Check the cable of external clock; replace the external clock source
The alarm derives from the optical line card which is set to extract the clock.
Remarks
Alarm source is the external clock inlet ( the external clock inlet of the SCI card)

TABLE 90 LOSS OF TIMING OUTPUT

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of timing output


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Synchronization alarm
category
Invalid system clock signal is detected
Reset the clock card
If the reports can be sent to NCP normally, it indicates that a fault in the
Alarm
constant-temperature crystal oscillator of the clock card has caused output clock
explanation
signals to be invalid.
If the reports cannot be sent to NCP normally, it indicates that the clock card logic
has become invalid.

Alarm card CSA and SCI cards


Related
None
overhead
Alarm Card: The yellow ALM1 indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Fault of the optical line card that extracts the clock
Fault of the external clock import source and the import external clock part
Alarm cause
CSA card fault
Backplane fault
Resolve the alarm of optical line card, and the alarm of CSA card will disappear
Solutions along automatically
Check the cable of external clock; replace the external clock source
The alarm derives from the optical line card which is set to extract the clock.
Remarks
Alarm source is the external clock inlet ( the external clock inlet of the SCI card)

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TABLE 91 POWER SUPPLY FAULT

Item Description

Alarm name Power supply fault


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Equipment alarm
category
Alarm The secondary power supply input is faulty, and the power fault alarm is reported
explanation at the EMS.

Alarm card None


Related
None
overhead
Alarm Card: The red ALM2 indicator light is constantly on.
indication EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Alarm cause Improper connection of power cable
Solutions Reconnect the cable

Remarks The alarm source is the NCP card

TABLE 92 CARD OUT OF POSITION

Item Description

Alarm name Card out of position


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Equipment alarm
category
Alarm
The card is unplugged or is out of position
explanation
Alarm card All the cards except the NCP card
Related
None
overhead
Alarm
EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
indication
Alarm cause The card is unplugged.
Solutions Plug the card.

Remarks None

TABLE 93 CARD TYPE MISMATCH

Item Description

Alarm name Card type mismatch


Alarm level Critical

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Item Description

Alarm
Equipment alarm
category
Alarm
This alarm indicates that the NCP card lost the ability to manage other cards.
explanation
Alarm card All the cards except the NCP card
Related
None
overhead
Alarm EMS: The red alarm indicator light is off, and the green indicator light does not
indication flash.
The EMS configuration disagrees with the hardware version
Fault of card self test
Alarm cause
Fault of card hardware
Failure of communication between the NCP card and the card
Modify the EMS configuration to comply with the hardware version.
Reset the card
Solutions
Replace the card
Reset or replace the NCP card

Remarks None

TABLE 94 ETHERNET PHYSICAL ELECTRICAL INTERFACE ETHERNET PORT


UNCONNECTED

Item Description

Alarm name Ethernet physical electrical interface Ethernet port unconnected


Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
Alarm This alarm indicates interruption at the Ethernet side, the local end receives no
explanation Ethernet signal from the external equipment.

Alarm card SEC card


Related
None
overhead
Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on, the yellow indicator light of
Alarm
the SEC card Ethernet port is off.
indication
EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
The EMS has started using the user port, but it is not connection with the
Alarm cause
external equipment through cable.
Solutions Connect the user port with the external equipment using cable.

Remarks None

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TABLE 95 LOSS OF RECEIVED SIGNAL AT THE ETHERNET PHYSICAL OPTICAL INTERFACE

Item Description

Alarm name Loss of the receiving signal at the Ethernet physical optical interface (LOS)
Alarm level Critical
Alarm
Communication alarm
category
This alarm indicates interruption at the physical layer of the Ethernet optical
Alarm
interface and the external equipment, the local end receives no optical signal from
explanation the external equipment.

Alarm card SEC card


Related
None
overhead
Card: The red alarm indicator light is constantly on; the green GE indicator light
Alarm
of the SEC card Ethernet port is off.
indication
EMS: Open the card management dialog box, there is red alarm identifier.
Fault of the external cable
Alarm cause Fault of fiber pigtail or coupling components
Fault of the optical module of the local end Ethernet card
Take care of the cable.
Solutions Replace the fiber pigtail or coupling components.
Replace the local end Ethernet card

Remarks None

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Chapter 6

Troubleshooting

In this chapter, you will learn about:


General procedures and basic principles of troubleshooting.
Typical approaches and solutions of fault tracing.
Typical faults, their causes, and solutions.

Troubleshooting Procedures
The troubleshooting flow chart is shown in Figure 4.

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FIGURE 4 TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES

Find a fault and an alarm


Equipment room
maintenance personnel

Request related personnel for


troubleshooting
Equipment room
maintenance personnel

No
Troubleshooting
successful?

Inform local ZTE office of


the fault and the alarm
Equipment room
maintenance personnel

On-call troubleshooting by
local ZTE office
Local ZTE office/ equipment
room maintenance personnel

Yes Troubleshooting No
successful?

On-site troubleshooting by local


ZTE office
Yes Project maintenance personnel
/
equipment room maintenance
personnel

Make a fault record after


equipment recovery

Equipment room maintenance


personnel

Basic Principles of
Troubleshooting
In handling the equipment faults, the maintenance staff should follow
these basic principles: observe first, then query, think, and take action
finally.

Observing
After arriving at the site, the maintenance personnel should first observe
the fault phenomena carefully including the faulty point, alarm reason,
severity level and damage level. Only by fully considering fault reasons of
the equipment, can one feel the essence of problem.

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Chapter 6 - Troubleshooting

Query
Put questions to onsite operators after observing fault phenomena. Check
whether there is any direct cause of the fault, such as data modification,
file deletion, circuit board replacement, power supply fault or lightening.

Thinking
After observing the symptoms and querying the operators, the
maintenance person can analyze by using his own knowledge. Locate the
fault, find the faulty point, and work out the fault cause.

Action
After locating the faulty point through above given three steps, the
maintenance staff or technician can remove the fault by performing proper
fault eradication procedures, e.g., by modifying the configuration data or
by replacing the card.

Basic Considerations for Fault


Locating
This section describes the common fault causes and the basic principles of
fault locating.

Causes
The common fault causes include: engineering problems, external causes,
improper operations, equipment interconnection problems, and equipment
problems.

Engineering Problems
Project problem refers to substandard or inferior construction of project,
which may results in equipment fault. Such problems can be revealed
during the construction of project and there are some problems, which
cannot be revealed, until the equipment has operated for a certain time.
These are latent risks for the equipment.

The product engineering specifications are usually summed up according


to features of the product itself and some practical experiences. Therefore,
in order to prevent such problems, you should strictly observe the
engineering specifications to perform construction and installation. You
should carry out the single-site or entire-network debugging and test.

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External Causes
External causes refer to the environment and equipment factors, which
results in equipment fault. Such factors do not include transmission
equipment, but they do include:

1. Power failure, e.g., equipment power failure, too low supply voltage.
2. Switch fault.
3. Fiber fault: Performance deterioration of fiber due to its wear and tear,
fiber cut, ill contact of fiber connector.
4. Cable fault, e.g., relay dropped or broken due to ill contact of cable
connector.
5. The equipment is improperly grounded.
6. The equipment placed in unsuitable environment.

Improper Operations
Improper operations refer to inappropriate operations performed by
maintenance staff due to lack of in-depth understanding of equipment,
which results in equipment fault.

Improper operation is the most common phenomena while carrying out


equipment maintenance, especially in network reconstruction, upgrading,
and expansion, where the old and new devices are mixed or old and new
versions are mixed. The maintenance staff is usually unaware of the
difference between old and new devices or between the old and new
versions and tends to trigger off a fault.

Equipment Interconnection Problems


Various services are transmitted over the transmission equipment, which
is connected to various devices. In addition, different services require
different performance of transmission channels. There are equipment
faults, which are usually derived from improper equipment interconnection.
The interconnection problems include:

1. The cables connection is faulty.


2. The equipments improper grounding.
3. Out-of-sync clock between the transmission and switching networks
4. Inconsistent definition of overhead byte in SDH frames structure.

Equipment Problems
Equipment problems refer to the faults caused by the transmission
equipment itself, including equipment damage and inferior cooperation of
PCBs. After running for a long time, the PCBs are damaged due to aging
factor, which ultimately result in damaged equipment. The characteristics
of equipment damage are: the equipment has been in use for a long time
and has been running normally before the fault occurs; and the fault only
occurs at some certain point/PCB, or the fault occurs because of external
causes.

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Chapter 6 - Troubleshooting

Principles of Fault Locating


Since the transmission equipment covers the sites which are located far
away from each other, it becomes critical to locate the fault to the specific
site accurately. After finding the faulty site, concentrate on its
eradication/troubleshooting.

General principles of locating faults:

1. Check the external factors first, which can be fiber cut, switching fault,
or power failure, and after that consider the transmission equipment
faults.
2. Try to find out the faulty site first, and then locate the fault to the card.
3. The fault of optical line card causes alarms of tributary cards.
Therefore, consider the line first and then consider the tributaries.
While analyzing alarms, consider the higher priority alarms first, and
then analyze the lower priority alarms.

Common Methods of Fault


Locating
The common methods of fault locating include: observing & analysis
method, test method, unplugging/plugging method, replacement method,
configuration data analysis method, reconfiguration method, instrument
test method, and processing by experiences method.

Observation & Analysis Method


When the system gets faulty, alarm information will appear on the
equipment and at EMS. Observing the status of alarm indicator light on
equipment will help to find the fault timely.

When a fault arises, EMS will record abundant alarm events and
performance data. Analyze the information, combine it with the overhead
byte in SDH frame structure and the SDH alarm principle, to determinate
fault type and fault location primarily.

While collecting the alarm information and performance information


through EMS, make sure to set the current running time of NEs
synchronous to EMS time. Deviation of time setting will result in incorrect
or delayed collection of alarm and performance information of NEs.

Test Method
When the networking, service and fault information are complicated or
when equipment faces unidentifiable faults without reporting any clear
alarm or performance information, use the maintenance functions
provided by EMS to test the faulty point and fault type. The following
content takes loop-back operation as an example.

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Before performing loop-back operation, you need to determine the NE,


card, path and direction of loop-back. Since the paths concurrently faulty
are usually correlated to some extent. While selecting the loop-back path,
select one faulty NE, one faulty traffic channel, and then perform the loop-
back operation in each direction of selected traffic channel for analyzing.

When performing the loop-back operation, break up the business process


of the faulty traffic channel, draw a service route map, set out the service
source/sink, NEs that the service passes through, paths and timeslots
occupied, and then perform loop-back in each segment to locate the faulty
NE. After locating the fault to the NE, perform loop-back at the line side
and tributary side to locate the possible faulty card. Further, confirm the
faulty card with other methods, and replace it.

The loop-back operation does not require any in-depth analysis of alarms
and performance. It is a common and effective method for locating the
fault point. However, it may affect the services.

Unplugging/Plugging
After locating fault to specific card, unplug the card and external interface
connector. Plug them back to check ill contacts or abnormal card status.

Warning: Ensure to conform with the operation specifications while


plugging/unplugging the card lest card get damaged, or may cause other problems
due to improper handling.

Replacement Method
Replacement method means replacing suspected faulty piece of equipment
with a new one such as a segment of cable, a card or a equipment, to
troubleshoot the fault. The replacement method is applicable to the
following circumstances:

4. Check the problems of external transmission devices, which may be:


the fiber, trunk cable, switch, or power supply equipment.
For instance, 2 M interface of a tributary card raises the CV
performance over-threshold or Loss of 2M signal alarm, and it may
be the switch or trunk fault; try troubleshooting by replacing it through
normal procedures. If the alarm transfers after replacement, it
indicates that external trunk cable or switch may be faulty. If the fault
persists even after replacement, it may be a transmission fault.
5. Check the problem on card after locating the fault to a specific site.
For instance, if an alarm occurs because of faulty optical line card, the
receiving fiber and transmitting fiber may be connected inversely, and
fault can be removed just by correcting the fiber connection.

6. Resolve the power supply and grounding problems.


The replacement method is simple and demands less for maintenance staff.
It is more practical but demands availability of spare parts and accessories.

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Chapter 6 - Troubleshooting

Configuration Data Analysis Method


Due to change of equipment configuration or improper operation of
maintenance staff, the equipment configuration data may be damaged or
changed, which will result in faults.

In this case, after locating the fault of distant NE site, query the current
configuration data and user operation log of equipment to analyze the
fault.

By configuration data analysis method we can find and analyze causes of


faults after locating the faulty NE. However, this method takes relatively
longer time and is more demanding. This method is applicable to the
experienced maintenance staff that has good familiarity with the
equipment.

Reconfiguration Method
This method is used to locate fault by modifying the equipment
configuration. It is applicable to checking configuration error after locating
fault to a specific site. The modifiable configurations include timeslot, slot
and card parameters.

Caution: Before modifying the equipment configuration, back up the original


configuration and keep a detailed record of operations being performed for
convenience of fault investigation and data recovery.

Here is an example of applying the reconfiguration method:

1. A typical application of reconfiguration method is to resolve the pointer


justification problem. To locate the pointer justification problem,
change the clock source configuration and clock extraction direction.
2. If you suspect that a tributary card or some of its paths are faulty,
configure the timeslot to another path or another tributary card. If you
suspect that a slot on the backplane is faulty, check it by modifying the
slot configuration.
3. In the upgrading, expansion and reconstruction, if you suspect error in
new configuration data, deliver the previous configuration data for
check up.
The reconfiguration method is complicated and demands more for
maintenance staff. Therefore, it is only used when the spares are short
and need to recover the services temporarily, or to tackle the pointer
justification problem. It is not recommended in ordinary circumstances.

Instrument Test Method


The instrument test method refers to quantitatively testing the working
parameters of equipment by means of instruments. It is mostly used for
checking the external problems of transmission devices and problems of
connecting with other devices.

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Here is an example of conducting the instrument test:

1. Use a multi-meter to test whether the supply voltage is high or low.


2. If the transmission device cannot be connected with other devices, and
it is suspected that the equipment grounding is improper, use a multi-
meter to measure the voltage between the transmitting signal ground,
and the receiving signal ground. If the voltage value is higher than 500
mV, you can conclude improper grounding of equipment.
3. If the transmission equipment cannot be interconnected with other
equipment and it is suspected that the interface signal is not
compatible, use a signal analyzer to observe whether the frame signal
is normal, whether the overhead bytes are normal, whether any
abnormal alarm occurs, so as to find out the cause of the fault.
This method features high accuracy, but it requires highly accurate
instruments and demands more for maintenance personnel.

Processing by Experiences
At some special occasions, the equipment card gets into abnormal working
status resulting in service interruption, ECC communication interruption,
but the equipment configuration data stays completely normal due to
instant abnormal power supply and strong external electromagnetic
interference. Practice tells us that in such cases, we can troubleshoot and
recover effectively in time by resetting card, restarting the equipment, and
by delivering the configuration data again..

The method demands thorough examination of the causes, and it is not


recommended until in emergencies. While handling complex/tricky
problems, the maintenance staff should request technical support from
nearest service center and try to eliminate the latent risks.

Typical Troubleshooting
The ZXMP S385 may come across some typical faults which are:
communication fault, service interruption, BER fault, synchronization fault,
order wire fault, equipment interconnection fault and EMS interconnection
fault.

Note: Communication faults generally refer to faults like path interruption or bit
error, and fault at both the switching side and transmission side. The faults
described hereunder other than communication faults usually occur in transmission
equipment.

Communication Fault
Causes
The faults at the transmission equipment or switching equipment result in
interruption of communication services or in large number of bit errors.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
The troubleshooting flow is shown in Figure 5.

FIGURE 5 COMMUNICATION FAULT TROUBLESHOOTING FLOW CHART

A fault occurs

On switch side
Fault analysis and
location

Cooperate with switch


On transmission side team in troubleshooting

Perform transmission
troubleshooting

1. After the fault occurs, activate the standby path to ensure normal
running of existing communication services.
2. Check whether the fault is at transmission side or switching side.
To locate the fault point, recommend to use the test method and
perform the loop-back operation. To perform loop-back, either perform
hardware loop-back at the DDF, or perform software loop-back for
transmission equipment and connect a BER tester to test the signal in
path loop. In case of software loop-back, you must tell tributary loop-
back from AU loop-back, and terminal side loop-back from line side
loop-back type.
3. If the fault is located to the switch side, coordinate with the switch
staff to handle it. If the fault is located to the transmission side,
determine the category of transmission fault according to Figure 6.

FIGURE 6 FAULT CATEGORY DETERMINATION FLOW CHART

A transmission
fault occurs

Fault classification on NMS

Error Clock synchronization


Service interruption problem

Perform troubleshooting Perform troubleshooting on


on service interruption clock synchronization problem

Perform error
troubleshooting

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4. After identifying the fault type, remove the fault according to


corresponding troubleshooting procedure.

Service Interruption Fault


Causes
1. External causes: power failure; fiber or cable failure.
2. Improper operation: due to improper operation, loop back is
mistakenly set for optical/tributary path or the configuration data is
modified.
3. Equipment concerned causes: The card fails or has poor performance.

Troubleshooting Procedure
1. Connect the BER tester to the tributary receiving/transmitting port of
the faulty path at the local NE, and use test method to perform loop-
back of the path segment by segment to locate the faulty NE, as
shown in Figure 7.

FIGURE 7 LOOP-BACK SEGMENT BY SEGMENT

Remote Remote
Local Local Local

Local NE Adjacent NE Next adjacent Termniating


NE NE

If the fault is located to the higher order path, perform the following
operations consecutively:
Perform terminal-side loop-back for the faulty AU from the faulty
optical direction at the local NE.
Perform line-side loop-back for the faulty AU of the local optical
path at the adjacent NE.
Perform terminal-side loop-back for faulty AU of remote optical
path at the adjacent NE.
Perform line-side loop-back for faulty AU of the local optical path at
next adjacent NE.
Perform terminal-side loop-back for faulty AU of the remote optical
path at next adjacent NE, and so on.
Perform line-side loop-back for faulty AU of the local optical path at
the terminating NE.
Perform line-side loop-back for the corresponding tributary at the
terminating NE.
If the fault is located to the lower order path, perform the following
operations consecutively:

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At the adjacent NE, next adjacent NE, ..., terminating NE, modify
the tributary timeslot configuration at the local end from Optical
path cut-through to Lower tributary segment by segment; and
perform line-side loop-back for the reconfigured tributaries in turn.

2. Observe status of the equipment indicator lights and analyze the fault.
If both the red and green indicator lights of a card are off and other
cards are normal, this card may be invalid or faulty. Replace this card.
3. Analyze the alarms and performance events of EMS. According to
alarms and performance events caused by faults, locate the faulty card
and replace it.
Step 2 and step 3 can be performed concurrently, and can be combined
with the unplugging/plugging method and replacement method.

Typical Faults and Analysis


1. Symptom: Service cannot get through, and the loss of optical signal
alarm is reported at EMS.
Analyzing and handling:
Check the status of fiber to see if the fiber slot is connected
improperly.
Check the received optical power of the optical line card, test
whether the receiving/transmitting light is normal and adjust the
optical interface to see whether alarm disappears.
Check the receiving/transmitting light of optical line card at
preceding point, test whether the receiving/transmitting light is
normal and adjust the optical interface to see whether the alarm
disappears.
If the alarm persists after above given inspections, follow the
procedures described in this section, perform self-loop test on the
optical line card, so as to locate the faulty point and remove the
fault.

Waring: If the received optical power is too strong, it will result in signal
deterioration or service blockage. Therefore, when the sites are closely located, an
optical attenuator must be installed in between them on the optical path.

2. Symptom: Service is blocked and no alarm is reported.


Analyzing and handling:
Check whether loop back is performed between the blocked sites. If
loop back exists between optical line cards, cancel the loop back
and connect them properly.
If the not loop back exists, follow the service interruption fault
troubleshooting procedure to perform self-loop test on optical line
card, so as to locate the fault point.
Determine the faulty optical line card and conclude that this card
incurs transmitting/receiving fault, because, when an optical line
card receives no optical signal and cannot detect any fault itself, it

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will not raise alarm and the opposite optical line card cannot
receive any remote alarm either.
3. Symptom: The transmitted optical power of the optical line card is
normal, but the service is interrupted. The Multiplexing section AIS
alarm is reported at the receiving NE and Multiplexing section RDI
alarm is reported at the transmitting NE. Loss of multiplexing section
occurs even if performing self loop-back using fiber pigtail.
Analyzing and handling:
The symptoms show that the optical line card gives light normally but
does not scramble. In this case, use the empirical method, reset
software or re-plug the card to solve the problem. However, it is
preferable to replace the optical line card.
4. Symptom: 2 M service is blocked
Analyzing and handling:
Check the quantity of blocked 2 M services. If the quantity is
considerable, consider the optical path problem first.
If only one or several 2 M services are blocked, check whether the
timeslot is configured correctly or not. Execute the download command
in EMS to apply the correct timeslot configuration data to the tributary
card. If the tributary is still out of signal, reset the tributary card and
the alarm will disappear if there is no other hardware problem.
If the service is still blocked after the above step, follow the
troubleshooting procedure to perform terminal-side loop-back for the
2M tributary and connect a BER tester.
If the Loss of 2 M signal alarm persists on BER tester, the causes
may be improper interface of 2 M interface, 2 M line broken or the
improper welding of the coaxial connector of cable distribution
frame. Replace the interface to fix the problem.
If the BER tester alarm disappears, the problem lies in 2 M
interface card, CSA card or backplane. Replace 2 M interface
card/CSA card/backplane to fix the problem.
If the fault locates at 2 M interface card interconnected with third-party
equipment, the fault cause may lie in different ground voltage between
the interconnected equipment and the transmission equipment. In
order to eliminate the influence of voltage difference, following
methods are applicable:
Check the ground grid and make consistent ground voltage
between transmission equipment and the interconnected
equipment.
Ground the transmitting end of 2 M signal of the transmission
equipment and interconnected equipment, and do not ground the
receiving end.
Connect a 0.1 u~0.5 u capacitor in series with interconnected 2 M
signal cable.
5. Symptom: After the ZXMP S385 gets into service, the 2 M service is
blocked, no alarm or performance event is detected at the EMS, and no
bit errors are detected via the BER tester in the offline test.

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Analyzing and handling:


The main cause for this symptom is that the ODF is not grounded or
the transmission equipment does not share ground with the switch,
which results in a significant voltage difference. To fix this problem,
check the ground grid, and connect the ground cable properly.

Note: When the tributary service is blocked, check the connections of ground
cables.

Bit Error Fault


Causes
1. External causes: The optical fiber connector is not clean or is not
correctly connected; the optical fiber incurs deteriorated performance
and an excessive loss; the equipment is grounded improperly; there is
a strong interference source nearby; the equipment works in a high
temperature environment without proper heat dissipation.
2. Equipment causes: The CSA, line card, and tributary card are not
well interoperable; the clock synchronization performance is inferior;
card failure or underperformance.

Locating the Fault Point


Related overhead bytes include B1, B2, B3, and V5 bytes. Their levels
ranking in a descending order are B1 B2 B3 V5. For the
performance events reported by EMS, the higher-level performance events
should be handled first. Go on to handle the lower level performance
events if they are still reported after handling the higher-level
performance events. In normal cases, ensure the performance value
collected at any card by EMS is zero whenever the service is running.

1. Query the performance of faulty NE. If B1/B2 performance events exist


on EMS, it indicates that the optical path is improper. Follow the
procedure given below to locate the faulty point:
Check whether the received and transmitted optical powers falls in the
index range and the received optical power is less than the receiver
sensitivity or there is no incoming light; then check the fiber pigtail
connection and coupling conditions from the optical card inlet to the
ODF.
If the received optical power on the ODF at both transmitting and
receiving ends is too low or without incoming light, it indicates that the
optical line is faulty. Contact the optical line maintenance staff to fix
the problem in time and then check the fiber pigtail self-loop optical
card input/output to see whether the fault lies in local or opposite NE
optical interface. Self-loop must ensure that the receiving optical
power falls within the range allowed by this optical card (between
overload point and the received sensitivity).

Warning: Before testing the optical cable by means of OTDR, unplug the
connection fiber pigtail from the corresponding optical interface lest the strong
light emitted by OTDR damages the optical interface.

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Caution: While using a fiber pigtail to perform optical interface self-loop, add an
optical attenuator between the receiving and transmitting optical interfaces to
ensure that the received optical power at optical interface falls within the allowed
range of optical interface (between received sensitivity and the overload optical
power).

If no B1/B2 performance event is reported after performing self-loop of


local optical line card it means the local optical line card is normal.
Similarly, if no B1/B2 performance event is reported after performing
self-loop of the opposite optical card, it means the opposite optical
card is normal.
2. Check the performance of faulty NE, if no B1/B2 is reported at EMS
and only B3 is reported, it indicates improper high order path and the
fault lies in CSA or tributary card. Perform the CSA control operations
in EMS to switch over to CSA and locate the faulty card.
3. Check the performance of faulty NE. If only V5 performance event
exists on EMS, it indicates that the lower order path is improper and
the tributary card is faulty. In this case, reconfigure the timeslot to
lower tributary of adjacent NE or perform loop-back for AU to locate
whether the fault lies in local or opposite tributary card.

Troubleshooting Procedure
1. Use the test method to locate the source of bit error as instructed in
Troubleshooting Procedure.
2. If the bit error is derived from the optical line card, analyze the bit
error performance event of the optical line card to remove the line bit
errors. The procedures are:
First check the external factors, e.g., improper grounding, too high
working temperature, too low/high received optical power of optical
line card.
Then observe the bit errors of optical line card. If all the optical line
cards at one site have bit errors, the CSA card of this site might
have failed. Replace the CSA card. If only the optical line card
reports bit errors, the fault may lie in this optical line card, the
opposite line card or fiber.
3. If the bit errors derive from the tributary card, analyze the
performance event of the tributary card to remove the tributary bit
errors. If only the tributary has bit errors, the tributary card or the CSA
card may be faulty, so replace the tributary card or the CSA card.

Caution: The transmission maintenance staff must analyze the equipment


performance carefully, and locate the faulty card by analyzing the mechanism of
basic SDH overheads such as B1/B2/B3/V5. Do not restart or replace the faulty NE
without analysis.

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Typical Faults and Analysis


1. Symptom: Assume site A is connected with site B point to point.
Depending on the quantity of the B1/B2/B3 bit errors reported by EMS,
the troubleshooting methods vary and are described as under:
In case of sporadic minor bit errors on the optical line card of site A
which occurs regularly, may be several times in 24 hours, once in few
days or occur continuously averaging one BBE error per second without
B2/B3/V5 bit errors (one B2 BBE with three to five B1 BBEs, one B3
BBE with three to five B2 BBEs), or occasionally one V5 BBE at most,
these will impose little influence on the service.
Analyzing and handling:
First, check whether the received optical power of the optical line card
at site A is normal, whether it is too low (continuous major B1 BBE will
occur but it will be without major bit errors). If this is the case, check
whether the optical cable loss and the transmitted optical power at
point B are abnormal. If the receiving optical power of the optical line
card at site A is normal, it is concluded that the optical line card at site
B is faulty, which may be because of optical card performance problem
or very small dispersion tolerance of transmitting optical module
(caused by the fiber length > 100 km). If the bit errors do not occur
frequently, it is recommended not to replace the card.
In case of sporadic bit errors on the optical line card at site A, which
occur regularly, several times in 24 hours or once in few days and
averaging at least five BBEs per errored second, with occasional instant
out-of-frame (the alarm duration is 5~6 second) and OFS, they are
major bit errors and will surely result in B2/B3/V5 bit errors (B2/B3/
V5 > three BBE/ES), imposing influence on all services. e.g., will
influence video-conferencing services by transient mosaic and loss-of-
frame. For the telephone or data services, they are usually
imperceptible to the users. The base station is usually normal.
Analyzing and handling:
Such bit errors impose imperceptible influence on services, but they
must be handled immediately by replacing the optical line cards.
The occurrence of major bit errors burst continuously on the optical
line card at site A, the out-of-frame alarms are reported frequently and
the unavailable time begins.
Analyzing and handling:
In case of such bit errors, the service cannot be guaranteed. These bit
errors will not disappear automatically once they occur and need to be
handled immediately by replacing the optical line cards.
Major B2 BBEs occur continuously on the optical line card at site A, and
the Multiplex section signal degraded alarms are reported
occasionally.
Analyzing and handling:
The severity of bit errors may relate closely with the temperature.
Weather of high temperature, no air condition in the equipment room
or equipment fan damage may result in frequent bit errors. There is no

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B1 bit errors on the optical line card at site A at this time. Handle it
immediately by replacing the optical line card.

Warning: High working temperature of equipment will result in abnormal running


of the equipment. High temperature environment, air conditioning failure, cooling
fan failure, and air filter choking will result in frequent bit errors.

2. Symptom: Only a few 2M tributaries have bit errors


Analyzing and handling:

Confirm that the EMS software works normally and the existent bit
errors are not reported mistakenly.
Clear the performance count of this site and query its performance
value.
If the bit error performance of corresponding tributary is constantly
zero then use the software loop-back test method. Visit the site to
check whether 2 M card interface of both sites and 2 M cables are
connected normally.
If only the bit errors of local site are reported without remote bit error,
it indicates that the bit errors are derived from the local site. Check the
tributary performance of the opposite site, which should report remote
bit error indication. In this case, check whether the connections of the
cards at local site are correct. If they are correct, change the timeslot
configuration of tributary, the tributary interface or change the
tributary card to fix the problem.
If the local site bit errors and occasional remote bit errors are reported
together but only the local site bit errors are reported at the opposite
site, it indicates that fault lies in opposite site. Handle it as instructed
in the preceding paragraph.
If both the local and opposite sites have local and remote bit errors,
handle local site and opposite site separately. Check the card
performance of both sites that the services have passed through, and
handle them as described in previous lines.
3. Symptom: Almost all 2 M tributaries have bit errors
Analyzing and handling:
Confirm that the EMS software works normally and the existing bit
errors are not reported mistakenly.
Collect the current alarm information, and check if any other higher
priority or severer alarms occur.
Query the timeslot configuration of tributary reporting the bit errors
and locate the faulty site.
Query whether the optical line card reports bit errors and locate the
faulty point. While querying, discriminate the local bit errors from
remote bit errors.

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The possible causes of large amount of bit errors on 2 M tributaries are:


first the clock problem, then the optical line card fault, finally the CSA
card or 2 M tributary card fault. Take the following actions sequentially:
switch the clock source; if bit errors persist, check the
receiving/transmitting optical power of optical line card; if they are
normal, check other cards or traversed sites.

Clock Synchronization Fault


Causes
1. External causes: The optical fiber is wrongly connected or the
external clock is of poor quality.
2. Improper operation: Wrong clock source configuration, such as two
clock sources co-exist in a subnet; wrong setting of the clock source
priority; mutual extraction of clock.
3. Equipment problem: Optical line card fault, inferior line clock; clock
card fault, inferior clock source; CSA card fault, inferior working clock
allocated to the cards.

Troubleshooting Procedure
1. Check the clock configuration of EMS; avoid mutual extraction of clock
caused by human factors. Deliver correct clock configuration to the
NCP card to keep EMS data consistent with the NCP data.
2. Check through the EMS whether the optical path and tributaries have
AU PJE/TU PJE performance values. If only TU PJE exists in EMS, it
indicates that the tributary card is faulty. Just replace it.
3. If AU PJE/TU PJE exists concurrently, handle the AU PJE first and then
go on handling TU PJE if any.
Optical line cards and clock cards are the possible cards, which
generate AU PJE, and they are handled in the following procedure:

Check the received optical power, and query B1/B2 performance


value. If the received optical power is normal, and B1/B2
performance values of the optical line card are zero, it indicates
that AU PJE derives from inside the NE.
Check the status of clock locking at the CSA card. If the clock
cannot be locked, switch the standby clock card to active through
EMS operation.
If the clock can be locked and AU PJE disappears after the
switching of CSA card, replace the original active CSA card.
If the clock cannot be locked and AU PJE persists after switching
the CSA card, change the optical direction of the extraction line
clock. If AU PJE disappears, it indicates that the fault lies in the
optical interface of the original optical line card or that of the
opposite NE.

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Typical Faults and Analysis


1. Symptom: The pointer justification over-threshold alarm is reported
at the EMS.
Analyzing and handling:
The pointer justification alarm may occur at either unlocked or locked
clock status. In case of pointer justification alarm, check whether the
clock locking status is normal and handle the unlocked clock first.
Unlocked clock
Check whether any external factors are in effect, e.g., fiber cut.
Check whether the network data configurations and grade settings
of clock source are correct. Also, check if the clock becomes
unlocked due to clock switching failure upon fiber disconnection or
forced clock switching on the EMS. Check whether both sides are
wrongly configured with a line clock extracted from the peer and
whether the clock switching rules are missed. If data configuration
is correct, the fault usually lies in the clock source being in use
after switchover. A typical cause is hardware fault of card. Check
the optical line card or CSA card of local site and opposite site. In
case of fault, replace the faulty card.
If no clock switchover occurs but the clock is unlocked, a typical
cause is that the optical line card or CSA card is faulty. Consider to
replacing them of the local/opposite end.
Unlocked clock of the site configured with external clock
If unlocked clock occurs at site configured with external clock,
check the data configuration according to the operations described
in the preceding paragraph to see whether multiple strata of
external clock sources are configured mistakenly.
If no data error is found, check the CSA card, external clock line,
and external clock source, and consider replacing the faulty card or
cables.
If no external clock switchover occurs but the clock is unlocked, a
typical cause is that the card or line is damaged in the process of
operation. In this case, consider replacing the clock card, external
clock cable, or external clock source at the local point.
Inferior locking of clock
If pointer justification occurs in case of normal clock locking, it
indicates inferior locking of the clock. When the network is not
synchronous, the system compensates for it in a self-cure approach of
pointer justification. Network out-of-sync is usually caused by fault of
certain cards, e.g., clock card, optical card or by ill contact of the
backplane slot. Pointer justification is not transferred but terminated at
the local end. Adjust or replace the optical line card or CSA card at the
local end or adjacent NE, to fix the problem.
2. Symptom: The Loss of timing input alarm is reported at the EMS.
Analyzing and handling:

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The EMS detects loss of timing input, which indicates that the local CSA
card is normal. The causes include:
Fault of the external equipment. The opposite site CSA card connected
to this site is unplugged.
Fault of optical line card. Check the clock source configuration,
download the clock configuration, and reset the CSA card.
Loss of the local clock source. Check the clock source.
3. Symptom: The clock source of the NE is configured as line extraction
clock but the clock card cannot extract the line clock normally.
Analyzing and handling:
Query whether the loss of timing input alarm is reported at EMS. If
this alarm exists, it will be impossible to extract the line clock. After
resolving the alarm problem, the function of extracting line clock will
recover.
Query the utilization of SSM byte and the clock quality level via EMS.
When the clock quality level of ZXMP S385 was unknown and this
function was not enabled, the CSA card will deem this clock source
unavailable by default. In this case, modify the configuration via EMS.
Query via EMS whether locked clock source is set or not.
4. Symptom: In EMS, the NE originally set as external clock source is
reported as extraction line clock.
Analyzing and handling:
The clock may be looped. In this case, troubleshooting varies with the
types of networking mode:
Chain network
Check via EMS whether the mutual extraction of NE clock is performed
on two fiber pairs. If the mutual extraction of clock is performed on
two fiber pairs and the clock source fails, the chain network clock will
be abnormal. Configure the clock source as mutual extraction of the
same fiber pair.
Ring network
Check via EMS whether the mutual extraction of NE clock is
performed on same fiber pair. If not, see preceding paragraphs to
modify the setting of extraction clock.
Check the extraction clock direction of all NEs that are set as
extraction line clock. If the extraction clock forms a closed loop in
same direction, it may result in clock looping. Change the clock
source configuration, e.g., set an NE in the ring network as an
internal clock to damage the clock looping. If the network is a
single ring and only one external clock source exists, set the NE
clock source type as external clock source and the only clock
source, and set all other NEs as bidirectional mutual extraction.

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EMS Connection Fault


Causes
1. External causes: Power supply faults, such as equipment power
failure or too less power supply voltage; fiber faults, such as fiber
performance deterioration or too high loss.
2. Improper operation: There is wrong configuration.
3. Equipment faults: Network adapter fault, optical line card fault, CSA
card fault, or a lot of performance data is reported from NE to the EMS
resulting in ECC path block.

Troubleshooting Procedure
1. Check external causes, e.g., power failure or fiber performance
degradation.
2. Check whether the EMS configuration is correct or otherwise.
3. Use the test method to perform self-loop in each segment and locate
the faulty NE.
4. Use the alarm analysis method to check the optical card and CSA card.

Typical Faults and Analysis


1. Symptom: The EMS cannot get connected to NCP through the Qx
interface. It cannot ping through NCP but can ping through itself.
Analyzing and handling:
Check whether the network cable works normally, and whether its type
is correct (straight-through cable or crossover cable).
Check whether the computer network configuration is correct. The EMS
can ping through itself, it indicates that the network adaptor is
correctly installed and the network configuration takes effect. The EMS
cannot ping through NCP; it indicates that the EMS computer, the NE
IP address and the subnet mask may be in different network section.
Set the all the bits of the DIP switch of NCP to ON, setting the NCP to
be in DOWNLOAD status. Execute the t e l n e t 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1
command, and check whether the NE IP and server IP comply with the
EMS database configurations.
2. Symptom: Insufficient sub-manager management networks.
Analyzing and handling:
Check whether all the sub-managers have been started. If the ZXONM
E300 EMS runs on the UNIX platform, execute the command p s - e f
| g r e p s m g r to check whether they have been started; if the EMS runs
on the Windows 2000 platform, use the task manager to check it.
Check whether the NE is beyond the management capability of sub-
managers. It is recommended that the maximum number under the
management of each sub-manager should not exceed 100. If the
number exceeds this value, start another sub-manager.

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3. Symptom: EMS is unable to manage the access NE, or other NEs


except the access NE.
Analyzing and handling:
The current EMS and NEs do not belong to the same network section.
For an NE in the IP protocol stack version, EMS and the NE belong to
same network segment. However, the user does not set IP address of
the access NE as default gateway or do not set a route.
There are redundant IP routes in the EMS.
4. Symptom: The EMS can only normally manage some NEs in the
network.
Analyzing and handling:
Check whether the unmanageable NEs are offline, and set the offline
NEs to online NEs.
Check whether the optical connections between NEs are correct.
Check whether NCP versions of the unmanageable NEs are correct. If
they are incorrect, re-apply the NCP applications which support this
EMS.
When EMS runs on the UNIX platform, check whether the system
parameters of m a x f i l e s a n d n f i l e s are correct.
5. Symptom: Confusion in IP area division leads to abnormal NE
management.
Analyzing and handling:
In actual networking, try not to divide any area or use the backbone
area under any circumstances. Generally, when there are too many
NEs on a network (e.g., over 64), the NEs should be divided into
different areas. When the number of NEs exceeds 128, they should be
divided into different areas. In this case, since the network section
division is wrong, it becomes difficult for EMS to monitor all the NEs.
Check whether all the NEs distributed in different areas are directly
connected with the boundary NEs in backbone area.
Confirm that the total number of NEs exceed 128 either in the
backbone area or in non-backbone area, and are directly connected
with the border NEs If this value is exceeded the normal management
becomes impossible. In addition, it is recommended that each border
NE is to be directly connected with the one in non-backbone area.
Confirm whether the NEs in backbone area are connected properly.
Since the ECCs cannot directly work with each other in non-backbone
area, and can only work via backbone area, so please check for the
failure of NE in the ECC path between the backbone area and the
boundary.
Try to reduce the border NEs. At times, dividing NEs into many areas
may complicate inter-area relationship.

Note: Refer to Appendix A for the definitions of NE IP address and the principles of
routing.

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Order Wire Fault


Causes
1. External causes: The main power is off. The fiber is broken.
2. Manual causes: The OW card configuration or the optical line card
configuration is wrong.
3. Equipment concerned causes: The optical line card or the OW card
is faulty.

Troubleshooting Procedure
1. Check whether the optical path raises any alarm. Blocked optical path
will result in blocked order wire.
2. Check whether the order wire telephone is faulty. Use another
telephone for testing if necessary.
3. Check the OW card; observe the indicator lights and the EMS alarms.
Check whether the order wire card gets faulty by using the
unplugging/plugging method and replacement method.
4. Check the configuration of the OW card and optical line card.

Typical Faults and Analysis


1. Symptom: The order wire telephone cannot get through without
hearing any dial tone.
Analyzing and handling:
Check whether the optical line card raises any alarm. Resolve the
optical path alarm first, if any.
Reset the OW card at call originating point and the called site. Reset
the OW cards at the sites between originating and terminating points.
Check if the fibers at the sites are connected as the data configuration.
Check the phone sets.
Replace the OW card.
2. Symptom: Order wire card group call cannot get through.
Analyzing and handling:
Check whether the group call is set in EMS software.
Reset the card, locate the faulty card and replace it.
3. Symptom: The order wire call is accompanied by noise.
Analyzing and handling:
Check whether the order wire is looped. If so, set the loop-back site as
control point.
Check the optical line card. Replace it if necessary.
Check the OW card. Replace it if necessary.

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Check the telephone. Replace the faulty phone if necessary.


4. Symptom: The order wire group call is accompanied by howl/echo.
Analyzing and handling:
More than two order wire voice paths in the network will cause the
howl/echo in-group call, so that voice is self-excited and howl is
emitted.
Check whether the order wire is looped. If so, set the loop-back site as
control point.
Check if the order wire protection bytes in the interconnected optical
direction are set correctly. The order wire protection bytes may vary in
different equipment, but the order wire protection bytes of all the
interconnected optical interfaces must be identical.

Fan Fault
Causes
1. External causes: Fan cable failure, or ill contact between the fan box
and backplane.
2. Equipment causes: Fault of NCP card or fan control card (FAN).

Troubleshooting Procedure
1. Observe the running status of the fan and check the connection of
cables and interfaces. Check if there is any fault caused by external
factors.
2. Check the FAN card, and observe the indicator lights on the fan plug-in
box panel, observe the EMS alarms. Use the unplugging/plugging
method and replacement method to check if there is any fault in the
FAN card or NCP card.

Typical Faults and Analysis


1. Symptom: The EMS reports FAN card out-of-position alarm.
Analyzing and handling:

i. Check whether the indicator lights on fan plug-in box panel are
normal. In normal case, the green indicator light is constantly on,
and the red indicator light is constantly off.

ii. Check whether the fan box is completely inserted into the fan plug-
in box.

2. Symptom: The EMS reports the alarm of FAN card running blocked.
Analyzing and handling:

i. Check whether the indicator lights on fan plug-in box panel are
normal. In normal case, the green indicator light is constantly on,

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and the red indicator light is constantly off. If the red indicator light
is constantly on, it indicates that the fan running is blocked.

ii. Check whether the fan box is completely inserted into the fan plug-
in box.

iii. Replace the fan box.

Equipment Interconnection Fault


Causes
1. Incorrect connection of fiber or cable.
2. The equipment is interconnected with other manufacturers equipment,
and the equipment of one side is improperly grounded, or the
equipment of both sides do not share common ground.
3. The internal clocks of transmission network are synchronized and so
are the internal clocks of switching network, but the two networks are
not synchronized with each other.
4. Inconsistent definition of overhead bytes in the SDH frame structures
of different manufacturers.

Troubleshooting Procedure
1. Check whether the physical connections between the equipment are
correct. Avoid open solder point/cold joint of cable and ill cable contact.
2. Check the alarms and performance at both sides of interconnected
equipment, which help locating the fault.
3. Check grounding and the ground-sharing status of the equipment at
both sides.
Grounding problem is usually caused by two interconnected equipment
not sharing the ground properly. The grounding resistance fails to
reach the required index. The DDF is not grounded properly.
The equipment room usually adopts joint grounding. For the sites that
do not adopt joint grounding, conduct the test carefully during
hardware installation to ensure that the equipment at both sides share
common ground. Check the grounding status of shielding layer of the
coaxial port.
4. Check clock synchronization of whole network.
The switches and GSM equipment of some manufacturers impose high
requirements of clock synchronization throughout the network.
Through the SDH transmission network, if the clock of module office is
not synchronized with the clock of mother office, it may result in trunk
slip, dial-up access service interruption or even frequent call
interruption. Firstly, check if the clock of transmission equipment is
faulty. If it is normal, check whether the clock planning throughout the
network is rational. If not rational, adjust the clock synchronization
scheme, to synchronize clocks in the whole network.

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Chapter 6 - Troubleshooting

5. Check for the consistency of overhead bytes definition in the SDH


frame structure of interconnected equipment.

Typical Faults and Analysis


Symptom: When the ZXMP S385 NE is connected with other SDH
equipment of ZTE, the order wires between the NEs do not get through.

Analyzing and handling:

The order wire overhead bytes and order wire protection bytes are defined
differently in different type of SDH equipment. When the equipment are
interconnected, transfer of order wire protection bytes will affect the order
wire of whole network. Table 96 lists the order wire protection bytes of the
ZTE SDH equipment.

TABLE 96 ORDER WIRE PROTECTION BYTES OF THE ZTE SDH EQUIPMENT

SDH Equipment Order Wire Protection Bytes

E2, F1, D12, and the byte at the


ZXMP S320, ZXMP S330, ZXMP S385,
intersection of the second row and the
ZXMP S380, ZXMP S390
ninth column.
E2, F1, and the byte at the intersection of
ZXMP S360
the second row and the ninth column.

Check whether the order wire protection bytes in the interconnected


optical direction are set correctly. They are required to be exactly
consistent.

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Appendix A

NE Address Definition and


Route Configuration

This appendix describes how to set the NE IP address and EMS host IP
address.

Caution: While configuring initial information of NE, the IP addresses of this NE


and the EMS host should be determined and written to the NE NCP card, which
allows no random modification when the equipment operates normally.

Definition of the NE IP Address


The definition of the NE IP address is the same as that of the common IP
address. However, the meaning of each byte in NE IP address is redefined.
Therefore, conform to some special rules during the setting.

1. Format of the NE IP address


NE IP address format: byte 1.byte 2.byte 3.byte 4.
The NE IP address contains three parts: area code, NE code, and NCP
card number. Byte 1 serves as the area code, some address bits of
byte 2 and byte 3 serve as the NE code, and the remaining address
bits and byte 4 forms the NCP card number.
The relationship between NE IP address and TCP/IP based IP address is
as follows:
The area ID combined with NE ID corresponds to the network
address.
The NCP card number corresponds to the host address.
2. Definition of the NE IP subnet mask
NE IP subnet mask format: 255.byte 2.byte 3.0.
3. Definition of area ID
Byte 1 of NE IP address indicates the area ID of the NE. It represents
for the area that the NE belongs to. It ranges from 1 to 223. When the
IP ECC protocol is adopted, one network can be divided into multiple

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areas. It is recommended that there are no more than 64 NEs in one


area. The maximum number of NEs in single area is 128. Area 192 is
defined as the backbone area that connects to other areas. Normally, it
is recommended that the area IDs ranging from 193~201 are to be
used for non-backbone areas. The Non-backbone areas use backbone
network to communicate among themselves, and any other form of
connection shall not exist among them.
4. Definition of NE ID
An NE ID can be got by performing the logic AND operation on bytes 2,
3 of the NE IP; and the corresponding bytes of subnet mask. In the
same area, each NE must have a unique NE ID.
5. Definition of card number
The result of logic AND operation of bytes 2, 3, 4 of the NE IP; and the
reverse code of corresponding byte in the mask acts as NCP card
number. The NCP card number, as an explicit definition, stands for the
host ID of NE. The NCP card number should be more than 9 and less
than 100. Generally, 18 is recommended. The numbers of other cards
in an NE are automatically allocated according to the NCP card number.
In addition, card numbers of the same NE cannot be same while those
of different NEs can be same.

Example of Network Address


Coding of NEs
In Figure 8, the network topology shown is: NEs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8
are relatively centralized, among which there are many connections,
and they form the mesh topology. Therefore, they are allocated into
area 193. NEs 9, 11 and 12 are centralized to form a ring topology,
and they are allocated into area 194. There is a single connection
through NEs 7 and 10 between areas 193 and 194. Therefore, NEs 7
and 10 are taken out as the backbone area (area 192) for connecting
other areas.

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Appendix A - NE Address Definition and Route Configuration

FIGURE 8 NETWORK TOPOLOGY

EMS

2
Area 193

3 4 5

6 8

Area 192 7 10

9 11
Area 194
12

Area definitions and NE IP address configurations are listed in Table 97.

TABLE 97 AREA DEFINITIONS AND NE IP CONFIGURATIONS

NEs in the Area


Area Number
NE NE IP Address
Gateway NE 1 193.1.1.18
NE 2 193.1.2.18
NE 3 193.1.3.18
Area 193 NE 4 193.1.4.18
NE 5 193.1.5.18
NE 6 193.1.6.18
NE 8 193.1.8.18
NE 9 194.1.9.18
Area 194 NE 11 194.1.11.18
NE 12 194.1.12.18
NE 7 192.1.7.18
Area 192 (backbone area)
NE 10 192.1.10.18
Note: The network mask is 255.255.255.0 and EMS host address is 193.1.1.1.

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Of course, all the NEs can be simply allocated into one area, in which the
backbone area is not needed. For example, they may all be defined in area
193, and their NE addresses are listed in Table 98.

TABLE 98 NE IP CONFIGURATIONS OF THE NES DEFINED IN ARE A 193

NE NE IP Address NE NE IP Address

Gateway NE 1 193.1.1.18 NE 2 193.1.2.18


NE 3 193.1.3.18 NE 4 193.1.4.18
NE 5 193.1.5.18 NE 6 193.1.6.18
NE 7 193.1.7.18 NE 8 193.1.8.18
NE 9 193.1.9.18 NE 10 193.1.10.18
NE 11 193.1.11.18 NE 12 193.1.12.18
Note: The network mask is 255.255.255.0 and EMS host address is 193.1.1.1.

Although defining all NEs into the same area is simple, but the efficiency of
ECC route algorithm will be affected if the number of NEs is larger..
Therefore, this method only applies to applications with a small number of
NEs. Normally, the maximum number of NEs in one area should not
exceed 120.

Address/Route Configuration of
the EMS Host
In order to enable EMS to manage all the NEs properly, it is necessary to
set on the EMS host the IP routes that can reach the whole network.

Firstly, an IP address should be in the same network section, as the


gateway NE should be bound to the network adapter of EMS host. i.e, the
EMS host, and gateway NE should have the same network number.
Moreover, the host ID should be less than that of the gateway NE (namely,
the NCP card No.). It is recommended to select the host ID of the EMS
that ranges from 1 to 9, and starts with 1.

Consider the networking shown in Figure 8, for example, we may attach


an IP address 193.1.1.1 of the same network section as gateway NE 1,
with network adapter of the EMS host. Ensure that, EMS host is reachable
to the access NE along a route; then set the routes for EMS to reach other
NEs.

There are two methods to set the routes for EMS:

1. Run the OSPF dynamic routing protocol at the EMS host side. In this
method, no route needs the setting. However, be cautious when using
a dynamic route and do not advertise those invalid or possibly
repeated routes to the network, to avoid some unreachable NEs or too
large routing table. In addition, the application of dynamic routes
increases the operating load of EMS host. Therefore, it is

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Appendix A - NE Address Definition and Route Configuration

recommended that a static route or default route should be set to filter


out IP packets that are irrelevant to the network, thus increases the
operating efficiency of EMS.
2. Set a default route or static route to the NE, that directly connects the
EMS host. Delete other routes that are repeatedly configured. As an
example, consider the network shown in Figure 8, route of the EMS
host can be set as default route or static route, and that is discussed in
subsequent lines:
Set the default route
route add default 193.1.1.18

This default route means that all IP packets, without showing route
locally, have to pass NE 1.
Set static routes
route add 193.1.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 193.1.1.18
route add 194.1.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 193.1.1.18
route add 192.1.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 193.1.1.18

The three static routes mean that all IP packets shall pass NE 1 to
access the networks 193.1, 194.1, and 192.1. In this method, the
network adapter of the EMS host must be bound to corresponding IP
address, e.g., 193.1.1.1, 194.1.1.1, 192.1.1.1 of each different
network.
In Windows 2000, the r o u t e command may be used to add, delete,
and view the relevant routes. Besides, the Ping and Tracer commands
may be used to check, whether the destination NE is reachable, and
which NEs are passed by the route.
For example:
Add default route: r o u t e a d d 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 m a s k 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 1 9 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 8
Add route: route add 193.1.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0
193.1.1.18

Delete route: r o u t e delete 193.1.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0


193.1.1.18

View route: r o u t e p r i n t
Check whether the destination NE is reachable: p i n g 1 9 2 . 1 . 7 . 1 8
Check which NEs are passed by the route: t r a c e r t 1 9 2 . 1 . 7 . 1 8

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Appendix B

NCP Application/Logic
Upgrade

This appendix describes the operational procedures of NCP


application/logic download.

Note: The initial ZXMP S385 equipment cannot connect to the EMS terminal
computer for network data configuration or network management until the
application has been downloaded to the NCP card and the initial parameters have
been configured.

Description of NCP Card


1. ZXMP S385 equipment reserves two slots for NCP card (No. 18 and No.
19 slots. Generally, No. 18 slot is called the master slot, and No. 19
slot is called the standby slot). Therefore two NCP cards can be
installed simultaneously to implement the 1+1 protection for NCP cards.

Note: The EMS of ZXONM E300 3.16R2 version or later support the 1+1 protection
for NCP cards.

2. NCP card has an Ethernet interface (debugging interface) as shown in


Figure 9. The Ethernet interface is used to connect the NCP card
working in the Download status. QxI card also has an Ethernet
interface (EMS Qx interface) which is used to connect the NCP card
working in the master status. Refer to the section of BOOTROM State
Switching for the work states of NCP card.

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FIGURE 9 NCP PCB BOARD

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

S1

Backplane side

1. Card running indicator NOM 2. Minor alarm indicator ALM1


3. Severe alarm indicator ALM2 4. Dip switch S1
5. Ethernet interface (debugging interface) 6. Master status indicator MS
7. Reset button RST

3. If two NCP cards are installed simultaneously, only one NCP card is the
master card and the other is the standby card at any moment during
normal running. Only the Qx, S, and ECC interfaces of the master NCP
card can communicate normally; while those interfaces of the standby
NCP card are closed. The Ethernet port of QxI card only communicates
with the master card, i.e. it can only connect one NCP card (the master
NCP card) at any moment.

Description of BOOTROM
Module on NCP Card
This section describes the functions and state switching of BOOTROM
module on NCP card.

Functions of BOOTROM Module on NCP


1. Prepare for running the card application.
Download (burn) the NCP application program to the CF card on
NCP.
Download the configuration files to the CF card on NCP.
2. Start the NCP application program on NCP card.
3. Other functions
Format the CF card.
Delete the database and application program of NCP card.
Read and set the system parameters (mainly the MAC address).

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

BOOTROM State Switching


When BOOTROM is started, it needs to switch between starting the NCP
application and other functions. Its function states include Download and
Running which are determined by the DIP switch on NCP card. The
Download state is used to download the NCP application and configuration
parameters, while the Running state is used to start the NCP application
program. The setting of the DIP-switch digits is described as follows:

1. Set the DIP switch to full ON state, start or reset the NCP card, it will
enter the Download state. In this state, the default value of NCP card
IP address is 192.192.192.11. Communication between the EMS and
the NCP card can only be established by connecting the EMS with the
Ethernet interface of this NCP card.
2. Set the DIP switch is set to non-full ON and non-full OFF state, start or
reset the NCP card, it will enter the Running state. In this state,
connect the EMS with the Qx interface of QxI card to establish
communication between the EMS and the master NCP card.

Upgrade Instruction
The ZXMP S385 NCP card supports local upgrade and remote upgrade of
application/logic.

Local Upgrade
Local upgrade refers to the procedure of upgrading application/logic in the
Download state. The local upgrade flowchart is shown in Figure 10.

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FIGURE 10 LOCAL UPGRADE FLOWCHART

Begin

Prepare for upgrade

Use telnet Clear the database


method

Use ftp Upload the


method application/logic

Upgrade the
application/logic
Use telnet
method
Verify the
application/logic

Upgrade the
application/logic of the
standby NCP card

Download the database

Performed in
the EMS
Verify the
application/logic version
in the EMS

End

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

Upgrade Preparations
The flowchart of local upgrade preparations is shown in Figure 11.

FIGURE 11 FLOWCHART OF LOCAL UPGRADE PREPAR ATIONS

Begin

Confirm the BOOTROM


chip is correct and the CF
card is ready

Set the DIP switch of NCP


card to all ON (Download
state)

Confirm the network cable


between EMS and NE NCP
card is correctly connected

Set the EMS IP address

Disconnected Check the equipment


ping 192.192.192.11 status and the network
connection status

Connected

No
Is it the first time to use the CF
card?

Yes
No
Is it necessary to reconfigure the
Format the CF card NE information?

Yes

Clear the NCP database

Configure the NE
information

Reset the NCP card

End

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1. Make sure the correct BOOTROM chip is plugged on NCP card, as each
type of NCP card can only use its own BOOTROM chip.
2. Make sure the CF card is correctly plugged on NCP.
3. Set the DIP switch on NCP card to full ON state (Download state).
4. Connect the EMS with the Ethernet interface of the NCP card, and
confirm the Ethernet cable connection between the EMS computer and
NCP card is correct.
5. Set the IP address and subnet mask of the EMS computer according to
the following rules:
IP address: 192.192.192.X (0 < X < 255 and X 11)
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
6. Execute the p i n g 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 command on the EMS computer
to confirm that the EMS computer can connect to NCP.
7. If the CF card is not used for the first time, and it is unnecessary to
completely clear the NE data or reconfigure the NE, the upgrade
preparations finish.
8. If the CF card is not used for the first time, and it is necessary to
completely clear the NE data and reconfigure the NE, follow the steps
below:
Execute the command t e l n e t 192.192.192.11 on the EMS
computer.
The system prompts to enter user name and password which are
both empty, press ENTER directly.
Input the command f o r m a t under the prompt Z T E + > to format
the CF card, as shown in Figure 12.

FIGURE 12 FORM ATTING THE CF CARD

Input the command d - e r a s e d 1 under the prompt Z T E + > to


erase the database, as shown in Figure 13.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

FIGURE 13 ERASING THE DATAB ASE

Input the commands d - e r a s e p 1 and d - e r a s e p 2 under the


prompt Z T E + > to erase the chip area which saves the application
program, as shown in Figure 14.

FIGURE 14 ERASING THE CHIP ARE A WHICH S AVES THE APPLICATION PROGRAM

Input the commands d - e r a s e f 1 and d - e r a s e f 2 under the


prompt Z T E + > to erase the chip area which saves the logic
program, as shown in Figure 15.

FIGURE 15 ERASING THE CHIP ARE A WHICH S AVES THE LOGIC PROGRAM

Input the command d - c f g n e t under the prompt Z T E + > to


configure the NE related information, as shown in Figure 16. The
input principles of each item are listed in Table 99. Input the
command d - c f g n e t s to query the NE related information.

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FIGURE 16 CONFIGURING THE NE RELATED INFORM ATION

TABLE 99 INPUT PRINCIPLES OF NE RELATED P AR AMETERS

Parameter Name Input Principle


IP Address Input the IP address of the NE.
Subnet Mask Input the subnet mask of the NE.

MAC Address Input the physical address of the NE. It is mandatory


and should be unique for each NE.

Warning: Must input each parameter. Press ENTER directly if there is no


modification. Cannot quit in the middle of the procedure, otherwise the NCP card
will stay in the infinite waiting state.

Upgrade preparations finish.


9. If the CF card is used for the first time, perform the following
operations to format the CF card, clear the NCP database, and
reconfigure the NE information:
Execute the command t e l n e t 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 on the EMS
computer.
The system prompts to enter the user name and password which
are both empty. Press ENTER directly.
Input the command f o r m a t under the prompt z t e + > to format the
CF card.
Input the command d - c f g n e t under the prompt Z T E + > to
configure the NE related information, as shown in Figure 16. The
input principles of each item are listed in Table 99.
Reset the NCP card to make the NE configuration take effect. Input
the command d - c f g n e t s to query the NE related information.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

Clearing the Database


Tip: If the NE data has been cleared during the upgrade preparation, this step can
be skipped.

Perform the following operations to clear the NCP database:

1. Execute the command t e l n e t 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 on the EMS computer.


2. The system prompts to enter the user name and password which are
both empty. Press ENTER directly.
3. Input the command d - e r a s e d 1 to clear the database.

Uploading the Application/Logic


1. Execute the command f t p 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 under the directory
containing the NCP application or logic on the computer. When the
system prompts to input the username and password, press ENTER
until the prompt f t p > appears.
2. Execute the following commands under the f t p > prompt, to upload
card application/logic and check if the upgraded file is correct.
ftp> bin
//Set the file transfer mode to binary mode.
ftp> put file name of the application/logic
//Upload the card application/logic. When the f t p > prompt appears again, it
indicates that the file transfer has completed.
ftp> ls l
//Check if the uploaded file size is consistent with the local file. If not
consistent, re-upload the file.
ftp> bye
//Exit ftp connection.

Caution: The application/logic of NCP card must be transferred to the NCP card in
the binary mode

Suppose the NCP card application N C P - Z X M P S 3 8 5 - P R G - V 1 . 0 1 R 1 P 0 5 . B I N


is transferred from the computer to the NE, the operations are shown in Figure
17.

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FIGURE 17 LOCAL UPLOAD OF NCP APPLICATION TO NE

Upgrading Application/Logic
It is to upgrade the application/logic on CF card into the application/logic
area.

1. Execute the command t e l n e t 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 . When the system


prompts to input the username and password, press ENTER directly
until the prompt Z T E + > appears.

2. Execute the command d - u p g r a d e under the Z T E + > prompt, to


upgrade the card application/logic into the application/logic area
respectively.

<Command Format>

d-upgrade Subrack-NO. Slot-NO. Card-CPU-NO. {-p Program-


file-name\-f Logic-file-name}

<Parameter Description>

The parameters of the command are described in Table 100.

TABLE 100 PAR AMETERS OF THE COMM AND D-UPRADE

Parameter Name Parameter Value

Subrack-NO. 1 or 2, generally 1.
The slot number of the card. It is an integer ranging from 1 to
Slot-NO. 19; It is 18 or 19 for the NCP card.

Card-CPU-NO. Integer ranging from 1 to 3, generally 1.


The parameter for NCP application delivery, followed by the card
-p application file name.
The parameter for NCP logic delivery, followed by the card logic
-f file name.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

For example, to upgrade the program in Figure 17 of section Uploading the


Application/Logic into the application/logic area, perform the operation
shown in Figure 18.

FIGURE 18 LOCAL UPGRADE OF NCP APPLICATION TO NE

Verifying the Application/Logic


1. Execute the command t e l n e t 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 . When the system
prompts to input the username and password, press ENTER directly
until the prompt Z T E + > appears.

2. Execute the command d - g e t - s t a t u s under the Z T E + > prompt, to


verify if the application/logic version is normal. If the version is
abnormal, it is necessary to re-perform the operations described in the
section Uploading the Application/Logic and in the section Upgrading
the Application/Logic until the version queried is normal.

<Command Format>

d-get-status Subrack-NO. Slot-NO. Card-CPU-NO.

<Parameter Description>

The parameters of the command are described in Table 101.

TABLE 101 PARAMETERS OF THE COMMAND D-GET-STATUS

Parameter Name Parameter Value

Subrack-NO. 1 or 2, generally 1.
The slot number of the card. It is an integer ranging from 1 to
Slot-NO. 19; It is 18 or 19 for the NCP card.

Card-CPU-NO. Integer ranging from 1 to 3, generally 1.

For example, to verify the version of the application in Figure 17 of section


Uploading the Application/Logic, the results are shown in Figure 19. The
parameters need to be verified are described in Table 102.

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FIGURE 19 VERSION INFORMATION FOR LOCAL UPGRADE OF CARD APPLICATION

TABLE 102 DESCRIPTIONS OF P AR AMETERS THAT NEED TO BE VERIFIED FOR LOCAL


UPGRADED CARD PROGRAM VERSION

Parameter Name Parameter Description Remarks


p r o g r a m indicates the application
file type -
area
Should be consistent with
download date File uploaded time the actual time when the
file is uploaded
Should be consistent with
download
version File version uploaded the actual uploaded file
version
reserved indicates that this
try-run type -
parameter is reserved
master indicates the master
status -
status
upgrade N O indicates the database is not
-
database upgraded
0 x 0 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 indicates the initial
start address -
address of the program
Should be consistent with
file length The size of the uploaded file the actual uploaded file
size
try-run r e s e r v e d indicates that this
-
elapsed time parameter is reserved
try-run r e s e r v e d indicates that this
-
remained time parameter is reserved

Upgrading Application/Logic for Standby NCP


1. If only one NCP card is configured, ignore this step.
2. Re-perform the steps described in section Upgrade Preparations and in
section Verifying the Application/Logic, to upgrade the standby NCP
card.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

3. The IP address, subnet mask and MAC address of the standby NCP
card must be the same as those of the master NCP card. Refer to step
8, point 7 of section Upgrade Preparations for how to configure the IP
address, subnet mask and MAC address.

Downloading the Database


1. Set the DIP switches of both NCP cards to non-full ON and also non-full
OFF state (Running state).
2. Reset the NCP card and it enters the Running state.
3. Set the IP address of EMS computer to be within the same network
section as the NE IP address. Execute the command p i n g N E - I P to
confirm if the NE can be pinged through.
4. In the EMS client operation window, select the NE to be upgraded, and
click System NCP data Management DB Download to download
all the databases via the EMS software, as shown in Figure 20.

FIGURE 20 DOWNLOAD DB INTERFACE OF THE EMS

Note:
It is unnecessary to download the database when upgrading the logic.
It is unnecessary to download the database for the standby NCP card. The data
will be automatically synchronized to the standby NCP card.

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Verifying the Application/Logic Version in the EMS


1. Double-click the NE that has been upgraded in the ZXONM E300 EMS,
to open the Card Management dialog box, as shown in Figure 21.

FIGURE 21 CARD M AN AGEMENT DIALOG BOX

2. Right click the NCP card to be queried with the version, and the
shortcut menu pops up. Select the Card Special Version, as shown
in Figure 21.

3. The Card Special Version dialog box pops up and displays the
application/logic version of the queried NCP card, as shown in Figure
22. If the information displayed is consistent with the downloaded
application/logic version, it indicates that the newly downloaded
application/logic is running normally.

FIGURE 22 CARD SPECIAL VERSION DIALOG BOX

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

Remote Upgrade
The remote upgrade is the procedure that upgrades the application/logic
of NCP card in its Running state. The flowchart is shown in Figure 23.

FIGURE 23 REMOTE UPGRADE FLOWCHART

Begin

Prepare for upgrade

Confirm the address of


the master NCP card

Use ftp method Upload the


application/logic

Upgrade the
application/logic

Verify the upgraded


application/logic

Try run of the


Use telnet method application/logic

Verify the application/logic


that has passed the try run

Activate the
application/logic

Verify the application/logic


that has been activated

Upgrade the application/logic


of the standby NCP card

Download the
database
Performed in the
EMS

Verify the application/logic


version in the EMS

End

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Upgrade Preparations
Execute the p i n g N E - I P command at the EMS terminal. Confirm that
the EMS terminal communicates normally with the NE, and that the
ECC of the NE that is to be upgraded is smooth.
Confirm that the NCP program version comply with the current EMS
version. Ensure the validity and consistency of the versions.

Confirming the Address of the Master NCP Card


There are to methods to confirm the NCP card address: via EMS software
and via command lines.

Query via EMS software


1. In the ZXONM E300 EMS client operation window, select the ZXMP
S385 NE to be upgraded, and click Maintenance Diagnosis
MasterSlaveBrd Switch menu.

2. The MasterSlaveBrd Switch dialog box pops up, as shown in Figure


24.

FIGURE 24 M ASTERSLAVEBRD SWITCH DIALOG BOX

3. Click the Update button, the text box of Current Working Card will
display the address information of the master NCP card (1 1 8 1 or 1
1 9 1 ).

Query via command lines


1. Execute the command t e l n e t N E - I P , input the user name of z t e
and password of e c c according to the system prompt, and press
ENTER, until the prompt Z T E + > appears.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

2. Under the prompt Z T E + > , input the command n c p s p i n g , to check if


the communication state of the standby NCP card is normal; and then
confirm the address of the master NCP card according to the result of
this command.

For example, to check the communication state of the standby NCP


card of NE 213.17.1.166, and confirm the address of the master NCP
card, the operations are shown in Figure 25. The result shown in the
figure is N C P S p i n g i n g 1 . 1 9 . 1 w i t h 3 2 b y t e s o f d a t a , which
indicates that the address of the standby NCP card is 1 19 1. Thus it
can be concluded that the address of the master NCP card is 1 18 1,
with the Slot No. of 18.

FIGURE 25 CONFIRMING THE ADDRESS OF THE M ASTER NCP CARD

Uploading the Application/Logic


The application/logic upload procedures of the remote upgrade are quite
similar to those of the local upgrade. The difference lies in that when
executing the f t p command, the IP address parameter should be the NE
IP address and not 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 . Refer to the section Uploading the
Application/Logic in Local Upgrade part for detailed procedures of
uploading the application/logic.

Upgrading the Application/Logic


The application/logic upgrade procedures of the remote upgrade are quite
similar to those of the local upgrade. The difference lies in that when
executing the t e l n e t command, the IP address parameter should be the
NE IP address and not 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 . Refer to the section Upgrading
the Application/Logic in Local Upgrade part for detailed procedures of
upgrading the application/logic.

Caution: When executing the d - u p g r a d e command, the S l o t - N o . parameter


should be the slot number of the master NCP card queried in the section
Confirming the Address of the Master NCP Card.

For example, to upgrade the program file N C P - Z X M P S 3 8 5 - P R G -


V 1 . 0 1 R 1 P 0 5 . B I N that has been uploaded to the NE 213.17.1.166, the
operations are shown in Figure 26.

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FIGURE 26 REMOTE UPGRADE OF PROGRAM

Verifying the Upgraded Application/Logic


Execute the command d - g e t - s t a t u s under the prompt of Z T E + > to verify
if the version of the upgraded application/logic in the standby area is
normal. If the version is abnormal, it is necessary to perform the
operations in section Uploading the Application/logic and section
Upgrading the Application/Logic again, until the version queried is normal.

The parameters of the command d - g e t - s t a t u s are described in Table


101.

For example, to verify the program file in section Upgrading the


Application/Logic, the result is shown in Figure 27. The parameters in the
standby area (the standby area is labeled as p r o g r a m n u m b e r : 0 x 0 2 )
that need to be verified are described in Table 103.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

FIGURE 27 VERIFYING THE UPGRADED PROGRAM

TABLE 103 DESCRIPTIONS OF P AR AMETERS IN THE STANDBY ARE A THAT NEED TO BE


VERIFIED

Parameter Name Parameter Description Remarks


p r o g r a m indicates the application
file type -
area
Should be consistent with
download date File uploaded time the actual time when the
file is uploaded
Should be consistent with
download
version File version uploaded the actual uploaded file
version
reserved indicates that this
try-run type -
parameter is reserved
status m a s t e r indicates the master state -
upgrade N O indicates that the database is
-
database not upgraded
0 x 0 A 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 is the initial
start address -
address of the program
Should be consistent with
file length The size of the uploaded file the actual uploaded file
size
try-run r e s e r v e d indicates that this
-
elapsed time parameter is reserved
try-run r e s e r v e d indicates that this
-
remained time parameter is reserved

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Try Run of the Application/Logic


1. Execute the d - t r y command under the prompt Z T E + > to perform the
try run of the application/logic in the standby area.

<Command Format>
d-try Subrack-NO. Slot-NO. Card-CPU-NO. {-p\-f}

<Parameter Description>

The parameters of the command are described in Table 104.

TABLE 104 PARAMETERS OF THE COMMAND D-TRY

Parameter Name Parameter Value

Subrack-NO. 1 or 2, generally 1.
The slot number of the card. It is an integer ranging from 1 to
Slot-NO. 19; It is 18 or 19 for the NCP card.

Card-CPU-NO. Integer ranging from 1 to 3, generally 1.

-p Try running the card application.

-f Try running the card logic.

2. During the process of executing the command d - t r y , if the system


prompts: D o y o u w a n t t o u p g r a d e t h e D B a r e a ? Y e s [ y ] / N o [ n ] ,
make sure to select y .

For example, to try running the program file in section Upgrading the
Application/Logic, the result is shown in Figure 28.

FIGURE 28 TRY RUN OF THE PROGRAM

3. When the d - t r y command completes, the NCP card is reset, and the
communication with the computer is interrupted. The ECC will be
interrupted for about one to two minutes, and during this time the
EMS cannot manage this NE. If there are two NCP cards, after the
reset, the system will switch to another NCP card first. And after the
NCP card to be upgraded starts running again, it will automatically
switch back to the upgraded NCP card, and continue the upgrade
process.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

Verifying the Application/Logic that Passed the Try Run


1. Execute the t e l n e t N E - I P command on the EMS computer, and input
the user name of z t e and password of e c c according to the system
prompts. Press ENTER until the prompt Z T E + > appears.

2. Under the prompt Z T E + > , execute the n c p s p i n g command, to test if


the communication state of the standby NCP card is normal, and
confirm the master NCP address according to the command result. The
operation example is shown in Figure 25.

3. Execute the command d - g e t - s t a t u s under the prompt of Z T E + > to


verify if the version of the upgraded application/logic in the original
standby area is normal. If the version is abnormal, it is necessary to
perform all the operations from section Uploading the Application/logic
to section Try Run of the Application/Logic again, until the version
queried is normal.

For example, to verify the program file in section Try Run of the
Application/Logic, the result is shown in Figure 29. The parameters in the
original standby area (the standby area is labeled as p r o g r a m n u m b e r :
0 x 0 2 ) that need to be verified are described in Table 105.

FIGURE 29 VERIFYING THE PROGRAM THAT P ASSED THE TRY RUN

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TABLE 105 DESCRIPTIONS OF P AR AMETERS IN THE STANDBY ARE A THAT NEED TO BE


VERIFIED AFTER THE TRY RUN

Parameter Name Parameter Description Remarks


p r o g r a m indicates the application
file type -
area
Should be consistent with
download date File uploaded time
the result in Figure 27
download Should be consistent with
File version uploaded
version the result in Figure 27
try-run indicates that it is
try-run type performing the try-run of the -
program
try-run indicates the try-run
status -
status
upgrade Y E S ! indicates that the database
-
database is upgraded
0 x 0 A 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 is the initial
start address -
address of the program
Should be consistent with
file length The size of the file
the result in Figure 27
try-run 4<minutes> indicates the
-
elapsed time elapsed time of the try-run
try-run 11<minutes> indicates the
-
remained time remaining time of the try-run

Activating the Application/Logic


Execute the d - a c t i v e command under the prompt Z T E + > , to activate the
card application/logic in the standby area after the try run succeeds.

<Command Format>

d-active Subrack-NO. Slot-NO. Card-CPU-NO {-p/-f}

<Parameter Description>

The parameters of the command are described in Table 106.

TABLE 106 PAR AMETERS OF THE COMM AND D-ACTIVE

Parameter Name Parameter Value

Subrack-NO. 1 or 2, generally 1.
The slot number of the card. It is an integer ranging from 1 to
Slot-NO. 19; It is 18 or 19 for the NCP card.

Card-CPU-NO. Integer ranging from 1 to 3, generally 1.

-p Activate the card application.

-f Activate the card logic.

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

Caution: If the application/logic is not activated within 15 minutes after the try-
run, or it is not activated before resetting the NCP board, it will go back to the
original application/logic.

For example, the program activation operation is shown in Figure 30.

FIGURE 30 ACTIVATING THE PROGRAM

Verifying the Activated Application/Logic


Execute the command d - g e t - s t a t u s under the prompt Z T E + > , to verify if
the version of the activated application/logic in the original standby area is
normal.

For example, to verify the activated program file, the operation and result
are shown in Figure 31. The parameters in the original standby area (the
standby area is labeled as p r o g r a m n u m b e r : 0 x 0 2 in Figure 31) that
need to be verified are described in Table 107.

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FIGURE 31 VERIFYING THE ACTIVATED PROGRAM

TABLE 107 DESCRIPTIONS OF P AR AMETERS THAT NEED TO BE VERIFIED AFTER


ACTIVATION

Parameter Name Parameter Description Remarks


p r o g r a m indicates the application
file type -
area
Should be consistent with
download date File uploaded time
the result in Figure 27
download Should be consistent with
File version uploaded
version the result in Figure 27
try-run type Changes to r e s e r v e d -

The s t a t u s of the area


labeled as p r o g r a m
status m a s t e r indicates the master state
number: 0x01
should change to s l a v e
upgrade N O indicates that the database
-
database upgrade is finished
0 x 0 A 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 is the initial
start address -
address of the program
Should be consistent with
file length The size of the uploaded file
the result in Figure 27
try-run
elapsed time Changes to r e s e r v e d -

try-run
remained time Changes to r e s e r v e d -

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Appendix B - NCP Application/Logic Upgrade

Upgrading the Application/Logic for Standby NCP


1. If only one NCP card is configured, ignore this step.

2. Execute the command t e l n e t N E - I P on the EMS computer. Enter the


user name as z t e and password as e c c according to the system
prompts. Press ENTER until the prompt Z T E + > appears.

3. Execute the command d - s e t - n c p b a c k s t a t under the prompt Z T E + >


to switch to the standby NCP card, as shown in Figure 32.

FIGURE 32 SWITCHING TO THE STANDBY NCP CARD

4. Re-perform all the operations from section Upgrade Preparations to


section Verifying the Activated Application/Logic, to complete the
upgrade of the standby NCP card.

Downloading the Database


In the EMS client operation window, select the NE to be upgraded, and
click System NCP data Management DB Download to download all
the databases via the EMS software, as shown in Figure 20.

Verifying the Application/Logic Version in EMS


1. Double-click the NE that has been upgraded in the ZXONM E300 EMS,
to open the Card Management dialog box, as shown in Figure 21.

2. Right click the NCP card to be queried with the version, and the
shortcut menu pops up. Select the Card Special Version, as shown
in Figure 21.

3. The Card Special Version dialog box pops up and displays the
application/logic version of the queried NCP card, as shown in Figure
22. If the information displayed is consistent with the downloaded
application/logic, it indicates that the newly downloaded
application/logic is running normally.

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Appendix C

Common Maintenance Forms

This appendix presents some forms used for routine maintenance as


reference for the users.

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Half-day Maintenance Record


TABLE 108 HALF-DAY M AINTENANCE FORM

Maintenance
Result for Reference Check Result
Item

(Record Normal when


When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes. there is no alarm, and
record the detailed alarm
indicator status if any alarm
NCP card The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card occurs. For service cards,
alarms. the slot number of the
alarm card must be
The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card
recorded)
alarms
When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes.
The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card
OW card alarms.
The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card
alarms
When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes.
The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card
alarms.
CSA card
Card indicators observation

The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card


alarms
The red indicator ALM is on when a card alarm occurs
When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes.
The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card
OL16 card alarms.
The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card
alarms
When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes.
The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card
OL4 card alarms.
The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card
alarms
When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes.
The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card
OL1 card alarms.
The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card
alarms
When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes slowly and
LP1 card regularly
The red indicator ALM is on when a card alarm occurs
EPE1 card When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes.

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Appendix C - Common Maintenance Forms

Maintenance
Result for Reference Check Result
Item
The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card
alarms.
The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card
alarms
When normal, the green indicator NOM flashes.
The yellow indicator ALM1 is on, indicating minor NE/card
TGE2B card alarms.
The red indicator ALM2 is on, indicating severe NE/card
alarms
Summary of the indicator status: (Sum up the indicator status in this period and record the troubleshooting
details.)

Tested by: Check time:

Note: As the cards configured in different sites are different so the form can be
made according to actual conditions.

Daily Maintenance Record


TABLE 109 DAILY MAINTENANCE RECORD

Maintenance Check
Maintenance Content Result for Reference
Item Result

The buzzer does not sound when there is no alarm


Equipment maintenance

Audio alarm Whether the buzzer sounds

The buzzer sounds when there is an alarm

The green indicator is always on in normal status

The yellow indicator is always on when there is an minor


Cabinet
Status of the indicator on the cabinet alarm
indicator
The red indicator is always on when there is a critical
alarm

Whether the server communication is


normal
Normally, the NE icon bears no
Whether the NE communication is
normal
EMS maintenance

Navigation Normally, the NE icon bears no


tree
monitoring Warning alarm, the icon is purple

NE working status Minor alarm, the icon is yellow

Major alarm, the icon is orange

Critical alarm, the icon is red

Topology map NE communication is normal or not Normally, the NE icon is green

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Maintenance Check
Maintenance Content Result for Reference
Item Result
monitoring Warning alarm, the icon is purple (Record the
Minor alarm, the icon is yellow total
number of
NE working state Major alarm, the icon is orange alarms and
confirm the
number of
Critical alarm, the icon is red alarms)

Normally, the connection line is a green real line


Optical connection state When there is a fault with the fiber, the connection line is
a red dashed line

Alarm audio is not shielded


Check the alarm setting
Alarm is not shielded or reversed

Alarm New warning alarm occurs, the purple button flashes


monitoring New minor alarm occurs, the yellow button flashes
Query the alarm state
New major alarm occurs, the orange button flashes

New critical alarm occurs, the red button flashes

Query the performance during the


Performance current 15 minutes and 24 hours
Normally the performance value is 0
monitoring Query the performance during historic
15 minutes and 24 hours

Summary of maintenance:
(Summing up the equipment and EMS status in this period and recording whether the faults have been cleared. If the faults have been
solved, the troubleshooting methods should also be recorded to provide basis for future maintenance work.)

Tested by: Check time:

Note: As there may be no EMS configured on some sites, the form can be made
according to actual conditions.

Weekly Maintenance Record


TABLE 110 WEEKLY M AINTENANCE RECORD

Maintenance
Maintenance Content Check Result Remarks
Item

The fan runs normally or not


Fan check
The dust-proof net at the fan (Record the
bottom is clean or not cleansing date)
Dial the central site order-wire (Check whether the call is connected and
Checking order phone whether the voice quality is normal)
wire telephones
(Non-central site) The central site dials back the (Check whether the call is connected and
local order-wire phone whether the voice quality is normal)

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Appendix C - Common Maintenance Forms

Maintenance
Maintenance Content Check Result Remarks
Item
(Check whether the call is connected and
Dial site A order-wire phone
whether the voice quality is normal)
(Check whether the call is connected and
Dial-back
whether the voice quality is normal)
(Check whether the call is connected and
Checking order Dial site B order-wire phone whether the voice quality is normal)
wire telephones
(Central site) (Check whether the call is connected and
Dial-back
whether the voice quality is normal)
(Check whether the call is connected and
Dial site C order-wire phone
whether the voice quality is normal)
(Check whether the call is connected and
Dial-back
whether the voice quality is normal)
When no service is configured
to the channel, a BER tester is
Channel Check used for the test. Otherwise the (Recording the tested BER)
EMS performs the test when the
bit error is 0, it is normal
Summary of maintenance:
(Summing up the check results in this period and recording the troubleshooting details)

Tested by: Check date:

Note: The central site needs to dial the order wire telephones of all the subnet
sites to test the voice quality of order wire, while an ordinary site just needs to dial
the central site, for test.

Login Password Change Record


TABLE 111 LOGIN P ASSWORD CHANGE RECORD

Recorded into
The Last The Present the Changed Checked Check
Change Date Change Date Memorandum or by by Date
not

Note: The login password should be changed once a month. The table can be
made according to actual conditions

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Note: For the irregular checks of system configuration, user operation log, report
printing, and data backup, the maintenance forms can be made according to the
above forms.

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Appendix D

Card Replacement

In this appendix, you will learn about:


Cards plugging/unplugging and precautions.
Cards replacement procedure and operation steps.

Card Plugging/Unplugging
Unplugging the Card
1. Hold the upper and lower ejector levers, and press down the lever
spring plates, move the levers up/down wards with appropriate force
to free the card from the slot. Figure 33 shows how to free the OL4x2
card.

FIGURE 33 FREE THE OL4X2 CARD

1. Move lever 1 upward 2. Move lever 2 downward

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2. Pinch the card ejector lever with thumb and forefinger of one hand, at
the same time hold the card panel with the other hand, and smoothly
pull the card out of the slot. Figure 34 shows how to pull out the OL4x2
card.

FIGURE 34 PULL OUT THE OL4X2 CARD

Plugging the Card


1. Place the ejector lever at leveled position by pressing the spring plate
of ejector lever. Grasp the upper and lower ejector levers, and push in
the card exactly along the guide rail. The card must be kept vertical
throughout the process, and apply appropriate force. Figure 35 shows
how to push in the OL4x2 card.

FIGURE 35 PUSH IN THE OL4X2 CARD

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Appendix D - Card Replacement

2. When the card is about to get into position, clamp the bayonet of
ejector lever with front beam of the sub-rack, push the ejector lever
up/down wards with both hands exerting proper force unless the
ejector lever stands upright and produces the locking sound of "clatter".
The card connector should be fully inserted into the backplane socket.
In this case, the card panel should be in parallel position with outer
frame of the card area in the cabinet. Now, the card insertion is
complete. Figure 36 shows how to plug the OL4x2 card.

FIGURE 36 PLUG THE OL4X2 CARD

1. Move lever 1 downward 2. Move lever 2 upward

Card Operations Precautions


1. Since there are many CMOS components in the card, make sure to
wear the anti-static wrist strap for connecting human body with the
equipment protection ground. If the equipment has not been
connected with the protection ground, the anti-static wrist strap wont
take effect, and some other effective anti-static approach is necessary.
2. There is normally a bag of desiccant in the static-shielding bag, which
is used to absorb the moisture of bag keeping it dry from inside. When
the card is carried from a dry place with low temperature to moist
place with higher temperature, wait for at least half an hour before
unpacking and installation. Otherwise, moisture will condense the card
surface, resulting in card damage.
3. While plugging/unplugging the card, keep it upright and use
appropriate force to avoid bending the contact pins. While
plugging/unplugging the optical line card, carefully handle it and avoid
damaging the fiber interface or coiled cable in the card.

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General Flow of Card


Replacement
Make sure to consider the following issues before replacing a card:

All the cards of ZXMP S385 are hot pluggable.


The function of the card in network and in an NE, and the effect on the
service function after it is unplugged.
The version of the spare card should be compatible with the versions of
the current equipment and EMS.
Figure 37 shows the general flow of the card replacement operation.

FIGURE 37 GENERAL FLOW OF CARD REPLACEMENT

Start

Prepare a spare
card

Prepare a label

Card under N Service


protection? interruption

Service switching

Unplug card

Attach label on the


faulty card

Plug the spare


card

Restore services

Check Abnormal
working Troubleshooting
status

Normal

End

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Appendix D - Card Replacement

Preparing the Spare Card


To ensure normal working of the system after replacement with the spare
card, pay attention to the following precautions while preparing the spare
card:
Determine the spare cards type according to the card to be replaced,
and make sure its model is consistent with the card to be replaced.
Check if the spare card has any apparent damage, and ensure that it
works normally.
Make sure that the PCB version and software version of the spare card
are compatible with the current NE and EMS.
When the card to be replaced is configured as warm backup mode
(such as the CSA card), ensure that the software and hardware
versions of both active/standby cards are completely consistent after
replacement.

Preparing the Label


The label is used to identify the card that has been unplugged during the
replacement. The label size is decided by the maintenance personnel. The
label contents include the site name, equipment name, fault cause, card
name, handling process, the handling person, and time.

Service Switching
For the card configured with service protection or backup, the service
function processed by it should be switched to the standby card, so that
the service is not interrupted by card unplugging.
While unplugging the card without service protection or backup, the
service function of this card would be interrupted. Explain this to the user
before unplugging, and take any possible measure to minimize drawbacks
of service interruption.

Unplugging the Card


Caution: Card unplugging operation may interrupt the service, or even can stop
the working of the whole NE. Ensure to make enough preparations before the
operation and take any possible measure to minimize the drawbacks of service
interruption.

Before unplugging the card, unplug the fiber pigtail and cable connected to
the card panel. Refer to Unplugging the Card for description of unplugging
operation.

Labeling the Faulty Card


Stick the prepared label onto the PCB of the unplugged faulty card.

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Plugging the Card


Plug and install the spare card, and restore connections of the fiber pigtails
and cables to the card. Refer to Plugging the Card for plugging operation.

Restoring the Service Function


Once the spare card is installed, its service function should be recovered
immediately. Check the card/equipment working status. Verify the normal
working of both the equipment and the service functions to ensure
successful card replacement. Otherwise, do troubleshooting till the
equipment work and service functions become normal.

Card Replacement Procedure


This section describes the card replacement procedure of the NCP, CSA,
OW, OL1/OL4/OL16, LP1, EPE1, TGE2B, and SEC cards.

NE Control Processor (NCP)


The NCP card is hot pluggable. Its direct replacement does not affect the
service but interrupts EMS monitoring temporarily. The NE needs resetting
while reconfiguring the NCP parameters and data, which in turn causes
service interruption.

1. Prepare the spare card and label as described in General Flow of Card
Replacement. Ensure the compatibility of BOOTROM and main program
of the NCP card, and EMS software.
2. Unplug the card that needs to be replaced and label it.
3. Set DIP-switch of the spare NCP card to full ON state, which makes the
NCP card to be in DOWNLOAD state; and plug the card into the sub-
rack. Then execute the command p i n g 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 1 on the EMS
computer to check if it is possible to ping the NE.
4. Download the application and initial parameters via FTP, that are
consistent with the original NCP card; and the NCP card can reset
automatically if the setting is successful. Refer to Appendix B for the
details of NCP program download.
5. Set the fourth digit of the DIP-switch on the NCP card to OFF, and
write the NE configuration data onto the NCP card with EMS software.
6. Replacement confirmation
In the Download state, can ping 192.192.192.11 on the computer.
After replacement, select the NE that has replaced the NCP card in
the operation window at the EMS client. If the NCP time could be
extracted, it indicates the NCP card is successfully replaced.

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Appendix D - Card Replacement

Cross-connect and Clock Card (CSA)


The CSA card supports warm backup and is hot pluggable. The CSA card
replacement does not affect services when the CSA is in the warm backup
state. However, the CSA card replacement will affect the
transmission/receiving of the NE service when it is not in the warm backup
state.

1. Prepare the spare card and label it as described in General Flow of


Card Replacement. The two CSA cards of warm-backup configuration
must have consistent PCB versions.
2. If the CSA cards are configured in the warm backup mode, switch the
system clock to the other CSA card through EMS, unplug the CSA card
to be replaced, attach the label, plug the spare card, and switch the
system clock to the plugged CSA card. If the CSA card is not
configured in the warm backup mode, directly unplug the CSA card,
attach the label, and plug the spare card.
3. Replacement confirmation
After replacement, the green NOM indicator light on the CSA card
flashes regularly. It indicates that the service is recovered and the card
replacement is successful.

Order Wire Card (OW)


The OW card is hot pluggable and supports warm backup. The OW card is
responsible for order wire phones, low-speed data service. Replacing the
OW card will result in the interruption of order wire phones and low-speed
data service, and will not affect tributary services.

1. Prepare the spare card and label as described in General Flow of Card
Replacement.
2. Unplug the card to be replaced, attach the label, and plug the spare
card.
3. Replacement confirmation
After replacement, the green NOM indicator light on the card flashes
slowly and regularly, and the order wire phone and data service are
normal. These indicate that the card replacement is successful.

Optical Line Card (OL16/OL4/OL1)


The optical line card is hot pluggable. Its replacement will interrupt the
service in case of unprotected networking. In protected networking if
switched to protection mode, the service will not be interrupted.

Note: The card replacement when the multiplexing section switchover ring is
configured is too complex to describe. Conduct this kind of card replacement under
the guidance of ZTE maintenance engineers.

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Card replacement without service protection configured


Prepare the spare card and label as described in General Flow of
Card Replacement.
Unplug the fiber pigtail connected to the optical interface, unplug
the card to be replaced, attach the label, plug the spare card, and
connect the fiber pigtail.
Replacement confirmation
After replacement, the green NOM indicator light on the card
flashes slowly and regularly; and the green TX and RX indicator
lights, corresponding to the optical interface for the original service,
are constantly on. These indicate that the service is normal and the
card replacement is successful.
Card replacement with configured path protection
Prepare the spare card and label as described in General Flow of
Card Replacement.
Unplug the fiber pigtail connected to the optical interface, wait until
the service switches to the protection path, unplug the card to be
replaced, attach the label, plug the spare card, and connect the
fiber pigtail.
Replacement confirmation.
After replacement, the green NOM indicator light on the card
flashes slowly and regularly; and the green TX and RX indicator
lights, corresponding to the optical interface for the original service,
are constantly on. These indicate that the service is normal and the
card replacement is successful.

Line Processor (LP1)


The line processor is hot pluggable. Its replacement will interrupt the
service.

1. Prepare the spare card and label as described in General Flow of Card
Replacement.
2. Unplug the card to be replaced, attach the label, and plug the spare
card.
3. Replacement confirmation
After replacement, the green NOM indicator light on the card flashes
slowly and regularly, and the service performance is normal. It
indicates that the card replacement is successful.

Electrical Processor (EPE1)


The electrical processor is hot pluggable, and its replacement would
interrupt the service.

1. Prepare the spare card and label as described in General Flow of Card
Replacement.

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Appendix D - Card Replacement

2. Unplug the card to be replaced, attach the label, and plug the spare
card.
3. Replacement confirmation
After replacement, the green NOM indicator light on the card flashes
slowly and regularly, and the service performance is normal. It
indicates that the card replacement is successful.

Ethernet Card (TGE2B/SEC)


The ZXMP S385 supports two kinds of Ethernet cards: TGE2B and SEC,
which are both hot pluggable. The Ethernet optical interfaces locate on the
card panel. Replacing the Ethernet card would interrupt the Ethernet
service.

1. Prepare the spare card and label as described in General Flow of Card
Replacement.
2. Unplug the card to be replaced, attach the label, and plug the spare
card.
3. Replacement confirmation
After replacement, the green NOM indicator light on the card flashes
slowly and regularly. It indicates that the service performance is
normal, and the card replacement is successful.

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Appendix E

Equipment Upgrade

In this chapter, you will learn about:


All the software and hardware versions involved in ZXMP S385.
Upgrade operation steps, covering hardware upgrade, EMS software
upgrade, and card software upgrade.

Version Overview
To differentiate between new and old hardware/software, all of them are
to be labeled with version numbers, including equipment version, EMS
software version, card PCB version, and software versions of the NCP card
and other cards.

Equipment version: It refers to the development version of ZXMP


S385, which is V1.10 currently.
EMS software version: It refers to the development version of the
EMS software. To query this version, go to the operation window of the
EMS software client, select About option in the Help menu to pop up
the information dialogue box for EMS software version, as shown in
Figure 38.

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FIGURE 38 EMS SOFTWARE VERSION

Consider Figure 38 as an example, the present EMS is ZXONM E300,


and the version of all the components is V3.16 R2.
Card PCB version: It locates at the component side of the card PCB.
The card PCB number starts with letter B followed by six Arabic digits,
out of which every two, from left to right, indicates its version setup
year, month, and change mark.
NCP card software version: The chips on the NCP card are classified
into BOOTROM chip and FLASH chip depending on different functions.
The BOOTROM chip stores the card start program, while the FLASH
chip stores the NCP main program and database program. The
program version information of the chip is usually written on an
adhesive slip, which is pasted on the corresponding chip.
Software version of other cards: To monitor and manage card
running, an EEPROM chip is set on the card for storing the card-
running program. The version information of this program is usually
written on an adhesive slip, which is pasted on the corresponding chip.

Hardware Upgrade
Hardware upgrade is to replace the presently in-use equipment hardware
with the equipment hardware of higher version. For successful upgrade,
make sure to modify the corresponding hardware version information in
the EMS software to free the software and hardware from cooperation
errors.

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Appendix E - Equipment Upgrade

EMS Software Upgrade


Follow the following steps to upgrade the EMS software.

Upgrade preparations
Before upgrading the EMS software, first back up the software to be
upgraded; and carefully check the compatibility of the card hardware, card
program and the EMS software. In case of incompatibility, consider to
upgrade the card program of replace the card.

Network configuration data backup/configuration


If the network configuration data format of new version EMS software is
compatible with the old version software, the user can back up the
network configuration information in the EMS computer by using the
backup function of EMS software. If the data format of the old version of
EMS software is incompatible with the new version software, first install
the new version of EMS software in another computer, configure the
network data and back it up, and then copy the backed up data to the EMS
computer. By doing so, the user can easily recover the data after installing
new version EMS software.

Uninstall the old version EMS software


Uninstall the EMS software through Add/delete program provided by the
operating system of the EMS computer.

Install the new version of EMS software


Install the new version EMS software according to the EMS installation
manual.

Restore/Reconfigure the network configuration data


Use the DB Backup or Restore function of the EMS software to recover
the previously configured or backed up data into the EMS.

Re-downloading and connecting the NE equipment


Once the new version of EMS software issues the configuration data to the
NE, check whether the monitor and management operation of the EMS
software on the NE is normal. If there is any abnormality, find the cause
and solve the problem. When all the functions are normal, the EMS
software upgrade is complete and successful.

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Card Software Upgrade


NCP card software upgrade
Carefully check the NCP card software of new version for compatibility with
the EMS software before upgrade. In case of incompatibility, consider
upgrading the EMS software simultaneously.
The NCP card software upgrade covers BOOTROM upgrade and FLASH
upgrade, which could be conducted separately as long as BOOTROM and
the main program are compatible.
To upgrade the BOOTROM program, typically burn the new version of
the BOOTROM program onto the chip by using the chip burner, and
replace the chip on site.
To upgrade the main program/logic of the NCP card, it is necessary to
write the application file onto the NCP card through FTP via the
network interface. Refer to Download Instruction for detailed
operations of upgrading the main program chip of NCP.

Software Upgrade of Other Cards


Before upgrading the card software, check the card software of the new
version for compatibility with the NCP software and EMS software. In case
of incompatibility, consider the necessity of simultaneous upgrading.
The upgrade of the card software covers: card BOOTROM upgrade, card
logic/program upgrade. In general, the card BOOTROM needs no upgrade.
Both of these upgrades could be conducted separately as long as the card
BOOTROM and the main program are compatible.
To upgrade the card BOOTROM program, burn the new version of the
BOOTROM program onto the chip by using the chip burner, and replace
the chip on site.
To upgrade the card application/logic program, use the remote
upgrade method. Upload the upgraded program through FTP to the
NCP of its NE and then load it onto the card. The detailed upgrade
steps are similar to the remote upgrade of the NCP main program and
logic. Refer to Download Instruction.

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Appendix F

Common Instruments and


Meters

This appendix introduces the meters (including the optical power meter,
BER tester, and chip burner) that are frequently used in routine
maintenance. It covers their functions, operations, parameter setting,
and operation precautions.

Note: Since the meters with similar functions have various models, the
introduction in this appendix serves only as reference. For details on how to use
the meters, refer to their instruction manuals.

PMS-1A Optical Power Meter


Function
Figure 39 shows the external view of PMS-1A optical power meter.

FIGURE 39 EXTERNAL VIEW OF THE PMS-1 A OPTICAL POWER METER

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The PMS-1A optical power meter mainly serves to measure the continuous
optical signal power, employing 4-digit liquid crystal display. It is capable
of automatic measurement range switching, automatic power-off,
automatic reset zero, multi-wavelength measurement and relative power
measurement, etc. The working wavelengths of the PMS-1A optical power
meter are 1300 nm, 1310 nm, 1480 nm, and 1550 nm, which are optional.
The measurement range is -40 dBm ~ +20 dBm (0.1 nW ~ 100 mW), with
the measurement accuracy of 5%, and the detector interface is the FC
type.

Panel Description
Figure 40 describes the Front Panel of PMS-1A optical power meter.

FIGURE 40 FRONT P ANEL OF THE PMS-1A OPTICAL POWER METER

1 7

2
3

1. Clear button. 2. WATT unit selection button. 3. dBm unit selection button
4. Wavelength selection button 5. External power supply plug.
6. Relative measurement state switching button 7. Power switch. 8. LCD.
9. Detector interface

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Appendix F - Common Instruments and Meters

Operation Flow
Figure 41 shows the operation flow of measurement via the PMS-1A
optical power meter, along with the specific operation in each step.

FIGURE 41 OPERATION FLOW CHART OF MEASUREMENT VIA THE PMS-1A OPTICAL


POWER METER

Press ON/OFF to
power on optic power
meter

Press to select
wavelength

Press CLEAR to
clear all digits

Connect optical
source to be tested
with optical power
meter

Relative power
Select measurement
measurement
mode
Absolute power Press dBrel to
measurement enter relative
measurement state
dBm
Select unit

dBm
WATT Select unit

Press
Press dBm WATT
WATT

Press
Press dBm
WATT

Read measurement results

Precautions
Remember to recharge the batteries in time.
Cover the detector before the clearing operation lest the light enter
inside and affect the measurements.

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Select an appropriate wavelength for the corresponding optical


interface for measurement. To be specific, select the 1310 nm
wavelength for the I.X, S-X.1 and L-X.1 optical interfaces, and select
the 1510 nm wavelength for the S-X.2 and L-X.2 optical interfaces,
where X represents the level of SDH signal, and X = 1, 4, 16, 64.
While using the meter, protect it from moisture, shake, dust, and heat
source. Keep the detector and connector clean.
If the meter has been stored/used in low-temperature condition for a
long time, and is to be used in high-temperature condition, put it in the
high-temperature condition for some time before using lest the
condensation damage it.

ALL-11 Chip Burner


Function
Figure 42 shows the external view of ALL-11 chip burner.

FIGURE 42 EXTERNAL VIEW OF THE ALL-11 CHIP BURNER

The ALL-11 chip burner serves to burn E/EPROM, MCU/MPU, and PLD. It is
connected with the PC through RS232C serial port or parallel port of the
PC, and it is controlled by the special program installed in the Windows
system. With the IC multi-tap or conversion socket, the ALL-11 chip
burner is compatible with most of the present IC models and packages.

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Appendix F - Common Instruments and Meters

Panel Description
Figure 43 shows the panel of the ALL-11 chip burner.

FIGURE 43 PANEL OF THE ALL-11 CHIP BURNER

9 8 7

GOOD BUSY YES

1 2 3

1. Success indicator light. 2. Working indicator light. 3. Extended memory slot.


4. YES shortcut key. 5. 40-jack socket. 6. Power indicator light.
7. Communication port. 8. Power supply plug. 9. Power switch

Figure 44 defines the 40-pin socket.

FIGURE 44 CROSS SECTION VIEW OF 40-PIN SOCKET

1
3

Chip insertion guide

1. Extractor lever. 2. Socket. 3. Jack.

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Operation Flow
Figure 45 shows the operation flow for burning a chip with ALL-11 chip
burner. Before burning, make sure that the chip burner is connected with
PC, the given burning software has been properly/successfully installed on
PC, and the connection between the PC and chip burner has been
established.

FIGURE 45 OPERATION FLOW OF THE ALL-11 CHIP BURNER

Power on chip burner


and start the burning
software WACCESS

Select a chip
manufacturer

Select a chip type and


model

Start chip burning


program

Read from
Select source another chip
of chip contents
Read Insert the source chip
from a file into the chip burner
Select the file and load
it

Read source chip

Specify file format

Set chip reading


parameters
Insert the target chip
into the chip burner

Run chip burning


program

Set chip burning


parameters

No
Verification passed?

Yes

Burning succeeds

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Appendix F - Common Instruments and Meters

Precautions
During the operation, observe the device indicator lights status and
check whether it complies with the current operation. If any
incompliance, pause the operation to find out the cause.
In the program, the chip manufacturer information, its type and model
should be set as per actual chip. The file format should be set
according to the format of actual file. The two common file formats are
BIN and HEX. A file with the extension of BIN is binary file, and its file
format should be selected as Binary. A file with the extension of HEX is
hexadecimal file, and its file format should be selected as Intel HEX.
To insert the chip into the chip burner socket, ensure that pins are in
the correct sequence by follow the Chip insertion guide shown in Figure
44. Usually, lower part of the chip should be aligned with the bottom of
the socket.
Pull over the socket extractor lever before inserting the chip, and press
it down after insertion. Make sure the chips pins are in reliable contact.
Figure 44 shows the extractor levers positions.

YGBERT-2M 2 M BER Tester


Function
The portable pocket YGBERT-2M BER tester serves to detect the bit errors
and to monitor alarms for the PCM digital transmission system, fiber
communication system, and digital microwave communication system. Its
measuring capacity is 2 Mbit/s, and output of the code generator complies
with CCITT G.703 recommendation. It permits the line attenuation of 0
dB~6 dB, and permits insertion of a single bit error or periodic bit errors.
It has the LEDs to indicate AIS, out of synchronization and bit errors; and
provides the function of buzzer alarm. Its external view is shown in Figure
46.

FIGURE 46 EXTERNAL VIEW OF THE YGBERT-2M BER TESTER

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Panel Description
Figure 47 shows the panel of YGBERT-2M BER tester.

FIGURE 47 PANEL OF THE YGBERT-2M BER TESTER

18 16
17

Power
1

2
15

4 No signal
AIS
5 No sync
Bit Error
6

Setup
7

Select
8

9 Start/Stop

10
BE/BER

11
G.821

12
Tx Bit Error

13

14

1. Power off. 2. Power on and system reset. 3. No signal. 4. AIS.


5. Out of synchronization. 6. Bit Error. 7. Enter/Exit BER tester
parameter setup. 8. Setup of BER tester parameters/status. 9. Cursor
movement. 10. Start/Stop BER tester. 11. BE/BER display switching.
12 Display G.821 analysis results. 13. Single bit error insertion.
14. External power supply plug. 15 LCD
16. Transmitting port. 17. Printing port. 18. Receiving port

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Appendix F - Common Instruments and Meters

Operation Flow
Figure 48 shows the operation flow for testing bit errors with YGBERT-2M
BER tester.

FIGURE 48 BER TEST OPERATION FLOW OF THE YGBERT-2M BER TESTER

Power on BER tester and


connect equipment to be
tested with BER tester

Set code pattern


2 15-1 PRBS15

Start test

Keep test for a predefined


period of time

Stop test

Read test results

Precautions
Remember to recharge the battery in time. The fully charged battery
can last for about four consecutive hours. Use the external power
supply for 24-hour bit error test.
Select the code pattern of PRBS15 for testing the SDH equipment.

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SDH Analyzer
Figure 49 shows the external view of HP37718A SDH analyzer.

FIGURE 49 EXTERNAL VIEW OF THE HP37718A SDH ANALYZER

Due to complex operation process of HP37718A SDH analyzer, its details


are not covered in this document. Refer to the relevant document for
detailed instructions.

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Appendix G

Alarm Quick Reference Table

Alarm
Page
Detection Alarm Name Alarm Level
No.
Point
Loss of received 2.5 G optical signal Critical 78
Loss of received 622 M optical signal Critical 79
Loss of received 155 M optical signal Critical 80
Physical layer Loss of 155 M electrical signal Critical 80
Loss of received 2 M electrical signal Critical 81
CV performance over-threshold Warning 82
Receiving optical power over-threshold Major 82
Loss of frame Critical 83
Unavailable time starts Major 84
B1 UAS performance over-threshold Major 84
Out of frame Critical 85
Regenerator
OFS performance over-threshold Major 86
section layer
Regenerator section signal degraded Minor 87
B1 SES performance over-threshold Major 88
B1 ES performance over-threshold Major 89
B1 BBE performance over-threshold Major 90
Multiplex section Multiplex section alarm indication signal Major 91
layer
Unavailable time starts Major 92
Multiplex section remote defection indication Minor 93
B2 UAS performance over-threshold Major 94
B2 FEUAS performance over-threshold Major 94
Multiplex section signal degraded Minor 95
B2 bit error cross-threshold Major 96
B2 SES performance over-threshold Major 97
B2 FESES performance over-threshold Major 98

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Alarm
Page
Detection Alarm Name Alarm Level
No.
Point
B2 ES performance over-threshold Major 99
B2 FEES performance over-threshold Major 100
B2 BBE performance over-threshold Major 101
B2 FEBBE performance over-threshold Major 102
Multiplex section protection switching event Minor 103
AU4 path alarm indication signal, Unavailable
Major 104
time starts
Loss of AU4 pointer Critical 105
Remote defect indication (higher-order VC4
Minor 105
path virtual container)
B3 UAS performance over-threshold (higher-
Major 106
order VC4 path virtual container)
B3 FEUAS performance over-threshold
Major 107
(higher-order VC4 path virtual container)
VC4 higher-order path signal degraded Minor 108
B3 SES performance over-threshold (higher-
Major 109
order VC4 path virtual container)
Management
unit (AU4), B3 FESES performance over-threshold
Major 109
tributary unit (higher-order VC4 path virtual container)
(TU3), Higher-
B3 ES performance over-threshold (higher-
order path Major 110
order VC4 path virtual container)
(VC4/VC3)
B3 FEES performance over-threshold (higher-
Major 111
order VC4 path virtual container)
B3 BBE performance over-threshold (higher-
Major 112
order VC4 path virtual container)
B3 FEBBE performance over-threshold
Major 112
(higher-order VC4 path virtual container)
VC4 higher-order path unequipped Major 113
VC4 higher-order path trace ID mismatch Major 114
VC4 signal label mismatch Major 115
AU4 PJE+/PJE- performance over-threshold Critical 115
AU4 protection switching event Minor 116
TU12 path alarm indication signal, Unavailable
Major 117
time starts
Loss of TU12 pointer Critical 117
Tributary unit Remote defect indication Minor 118
(TU12) and
lower-order path V5 UAS performance over-threshold Major 118
(VC12)
V5 FEUAS performance over-threshold Major 119
V5 SES performance over-threshold Major 120
V5 FESES performance over-threshold Major 120

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Appendix G - Alarm Quick Reference Table

Alarm
Page
Detection Alarm Name Alarm Level
No.
Point
V5 ES performance over-threshold Major 121
Tributary unit
(TU12) and V5 FEES performance over-threshold Major 121
lower-order path V5 BBE performance over-threshold Major 122
(VC12)
V5 FEBBE performance over-threshold Major 122
TU12 PJE+/PJE- performance over-threshold Major 123
TU12 protection switching event Minor 123

Synchronous Loss of timing input Critical 124


timing source Loss of timing output Critical 125
Power supply fault Critical 126
Card Card out of position Critical 126
Card type mismatch Critical 126
Ethernet physical
electrical Ethernet port unconnected Critical 127
interface
Ethernet physical
Loss of received signal Critical 128
optical interface

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Appendix H

Abbreviations

Abbreviation Full Name

A
ADM Add/Drop Multiplexer
AGENT Agent
AI Adapted Information
AIS Alarm Indication Signal
ALS Automatic Laser Shutdown
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APS Automatic Protection Switching
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AU-n Administrative Unit, level n
AUG Administrative Unit Group
B
BA Booster Amplifier
BBER Background Block Error Ratio
BER Bit Error Ratio
BIP-X Bit Interleaved Parity of depth X
BITS Building Integrated Timing Supply
C
CE CONFORMITE EUROPENDE
CF Compact Flash
CM Connection Matrix
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
C-n Container-n
CP Connection Point
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CS Cross Switch
CTP Connection Termination Point
CV Coding Violation
D
DC Direct Current

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Abbreviation Full Name

DCC Data Communications Channel


DCE Data Circuit-terminating Equipment
DCM Dispersion Compensation Module
DCN Data Communications Network
DCS Digital Cross-connect System
DNI Dual Node Interconnection
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
DXC Digital Cross Connect
E
EOW Engineering Order-Wire
ECC Embedded Control Channel
EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
EMF Equipment Management Function
EMC ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMI ElectroMagnetic Interference
EML Element Management Layer
EMS Equipment Management System
ES Errored Second
ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute
EUT Equipment Under Test
F
FAS Frame Alignment Signal
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
FE Fast Ethernet
FEBBE Far End Background Block Error
FEC Forward Error Correction
FEES Far End Errored Second
FESES Far End Severely Errored Second
G
GE Gigabit Ethernet
GUI Graphical User Interface
H
HW High Way
HDLC High Digital Link Control
HPA Higher-order Path Adaptation
HPC Higher-order Path Connection
HPP Higher-order Path Protection
HPT Higher-order Path Termination
HTCA Higher-order path Tandem Connection Adaptation
HTCT Higher-order path Tandem Connection Termination
HTCM Higher-order path Tandem Connection Monitor

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Appendix H - Abbreviations

Abbreviation Full Name

I
IC Integrated Circuit.
IP Internet Protocol
ITE Integrated Terminal Equipment
International Telecommunication
ITU-T
Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector
L
L2 Layer 2
LAN Local Area Network
LAPD Link Access Procedure for D-channel
LA Line Amplifier
LMT Local Management Terminal
LO Lower Order
LOF Loss Of Frame
LOM Loss Of Multiframe
LOP Loss Of Pointer
LOS Loss Of Signal
LP Lower-order Path
LPA Lower-order Path Adaptation
LPC Lower-order Path Connection
LPP Lower-order Path Protection
LIT Loss of all Incoming Timing references
M
MAF Management Application Function
MC Matrix Connection
MCU Management Control Unit
MD Mediation Device
MF Mediation Function
MM Multi Mode (optical fiber)
MS Multiplex Section
MS-AIS Multiplex Section - Alarm Indication Signal
MSOH Multiplex Section OverHead
MSP Multiplex Section Protection
MS-PSC Multiplex Section - Protection Switching Count
MS-PSD Multiplex Section - Protection Switching Duration
MS-SPRing Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring
MST Multiplex Section Termination
MTIE Maximum Time Interval Error
N
NC Network Connection
NE Network Element
NEF Network Element Function

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Abbreviation Full Name

NEL Network Element Layer


NML Network Management Layer
NMS Network element Management System
NNI Network Node Interface
NU National Use
NRZ Non-Return to Zero
O
OA Optical Amplifier
OAM Operation, Administration and Maintenance
ODP Open Distributed Processing
OFA Optical Fiber Amplifier
OHA OverHead Access
OOF Out Of Frame
OSF Operation System Function
OSI Open System Interconnection
OW Order Wire
P
PA Pre-Amplifier
PCB Printed Circuit Board
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PGND Protection GND
PJE+ Positive Pointer Justification Event
PJE- Negative Pointer Justification Event
PMD Polarization Mode Dispersion
POH Path OverHead
PPI PDH Physical Interface
PRC Primary Reference Clock
PRS Primary Reference Source
PS Protection Switching
PSE Protection Switching Event
PT Path Termination
PTR Pointer
Q
QA Q Adaptor
QAF Q Adaptor Function
R
RAM Random Access Memory
RDI Remote Defect Indication
REI Remote Error Indication
RFI Remote Failure Indication
RI Remote Information

224 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Appendix H - Abbreviations

Abbreviation Full Name

RPR Resilient Packet Ring


RS Regenerator Section
RSOH Regenerator Section OverHead
RST Regenerator Section Termination
S
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SEC SDH Equipment Clock
SEMF Synchronous Equipment Management Function
SES Severely Errored Second
SESR Severely Errored Second Ratio
SETPI Synchronous Equipment Timing Physical Interface
SETS Synchronous Equipment Timing Source
SFP Small Form Factor Pluggable
SM Single Mode (optical fiber)
SMCC Sub-network Management Control Center
SML Service Management Layer
SMN SDH Management Network
SMS SDH Management Sub-network
Sn Higher-order VC - n layer (n=3, 4)
SNC Sub-Network Connection
SNCP Sub-Network Connection Protection
SPRING Shared Protection Ring
SPI SDH Physical Interface
SSD Server Signal Degrade
SSF Server Signal Failure
SSM Synchronization Status Message

STM-N Synchronous Transport Module, level NN=1, 4, 16, 64

T
TCM Tandem Connection Monitor
TCP Termination Connection Point
TCS Time division Cross-connect
TD Transmit Degrade
TDEV Time Deviation
TF Transmit Fail
TM Terminal Multiplexer
TMN Telecommunications Management Network
TS Time Slot
TSA Time Slot Assignment
TU-m Tributary Unit, level m
TUG-m Tributary Unit Group, level m

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Abbreviation Full Name

U
UAS Unavailable Second
UNEQ UN-Equipped
UNI User Network Interface
V
VC-n Virtual Container, level n
W
WAN Wide Area Network
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing
WS Work Station
WSF Work Station Function
WTR Wait to Restore Time

226 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Figures

Figure 1 The ZXMP S385 Software Loopback in Different Directions ...................28


Figure 2 Transmitting Optical Power Test .......................................................29
Figure 3 Network Cable...............................................................................35
Figure 4 Troubleshooting Procedures........................................................... 130
Figure 5 Communication Fault Troubleshooting Flow Chart ............................. 137
Figure 6 Fault Category Determination Flow Chart ........................................ 137
Figure 7 Loop-back Segment by Segment .................................................... 138
Figure 8 Network Topology ........................................................................ 157
Figure 9 NCP PCB Board............................................................................ 162
Figure 10 Local Upgrade Flowchart ............................................................. 164
Figure 11 Flowchart of Local Upgrade Preparations........................................ 165
Figure 12 Formatting the CF Card............................................................... 166
Figure 13 Erasing the Database.................................................................. 167
Figure 14 Erasing the Chip Area Which Saves the Application Program ............. 167
Figure 15 Erasing the Chip Area Which Saves the Logic Program ..................... 167
Figure 16 Configuring the NE Related Information......................................... 168
Figure 17 Local Upload of NCP Application to NE ........................................... 170
Figure 18 Local Upgrade of NCP Application to NE ......................................... 171
Figure 19 Version Information for Local Upgrade of Card Application................ 172
Figure 20 Download DB Interface of the EMS ............................................... 173
Figure 21 Card Management Dialog Box ...................................................... 174
Figure 22 Card Special Version Dialog Box ................................................... 174
Figure 23 Remote Upgrade Flowchart.......................................................... 175
Figure 24 MasterSlaveBrd Switch Dialog Box ................................................ 176
Figure 25 Confirming the Address of the Master NCP Card.............................. 177
Figure 26 Remote Upgrade of Program ........................................................ 178
Figure 27 Verifying the Upgraded Program................................................... 179
Figure 28 Try Run of the Program............................................................... 180
Figure 29 Verifying the Program that Passed the Try Run ............................... 181
Figure 30 Activating the Program ............................................................... 183
Figure 31 Verifying the Activated Program ................................................... 184
Figure 32 Switching to the Standby NCP Card .............................................. 185
Figure 33 Free the OL4x2 Card................................................................... 193
Figure 34 Pull out the OL4x2 Card .............................................................. 194
Figure 35 Push in the OL4x2 Card............................................................... 194
Figure 36 Plug the OL4x2 Card................................................................... 195
Figure 37 General Flow of Card Replacement................................................ 196
Figure 38 EMS Software Version................................................................. 204
Figure 39 External View of the PMS-1A Optical Power Meter ........................... 207
Figure 40 Front Panel of the PMS-1A Optical Power Meter .............................. 208
Figure 41 Operation Flow chart of Measurement via the PMS-1A Optical Power
Meter .............................................................................................. 209
Figure 42 External View of the ALL-11 Chip Burner ....................................... 210
Figure 43 Panel of the ALL-11 Chip Burner................................................... 211
Figure 44 Cross Section View of 40-pin Socket ............................................. 211
Figure 45 Operation Flow of the ALL-11 Chip Burner...................................... 212
Figure 46 External View of the YGBERT-2M BER Tester .................................. 213
Figure 47 Panel of the YGBERT-2M BER Tester ............................................. 214
Figure 48 BER Test Operation Flow of the YGBERT-2M BER Tester ................... 215
Figure 49 External View of the HP37718A SDH Analyzer ................................ 216

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

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228 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Tables

Table 1 Typographical Conventions ...............................................................xv


Table 2 Mouse Operation Conventions ...........................................................xv
Table 3 Safety Signs.................................................................................. xvi
Table 4 Maintenance Tools ..........................................................................22
Table 5 Common Fiber Pigtail Connectors (Plugs)............................................25
Table 6 Loopback Points and Corresponding Cards ..........................................28
Table 7 The Correspondences between the Bit Error Insertion Points, Bit Error
Types and Cards.................................................................................31
Table 8 Alarm Insertion Points and Corresponding Cards..................................31
Table 9 Color Spectrums and Connection Relations of the Crossover Cable .........35
Table 10 Color Spectrums and Connection Relations of the Straight-through
network cable ....................................................................................35
Table 11 List of Routine Maintenance Items of the ZXMP S385..........................39
Table 12 Meanings of the ZXMP S385 Cabinet Indicators..................................44
Table 13 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the NCP Card ........................................................................45
Table 14 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the OW Card.........................................................................45
Table 15 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the CSA Card ........................................................................46
Table 16 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the LP1 Card.........................................................................46
Table 17 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the EPE1 Card.......................................................................47
Table 18 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the Optical Line Cards ............................................................47
Table 19 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the TGE2B Card ....................................................................48
Table 20 Correspondences between the Working Status and the Indicator Light
Status of the SEC Card ........................................................................48
Table 21 The Default Relationships between Icon Colors and Alarms..................53
Table 22 List of SDH Interface Performance Messages .....................................59
Table 23 List of Analogue Performance Messages ............................................61
Table 24 List of SDH Performance Messages Detectable by the Ethernet Card .....61
Table 25 List of Analogue Performance Messages Detectable by the Ethernet Card
........................................................................................................61
Table 26 Data Performance Messages of the ZXMP S385 Ethernet Card..............62
Table 27 Alarm Messages of the ZXMP S385 ..................................................74
Table 28 Alarm Messages of the ZXMP S385 Ethernet Card ..............................77
Table 29 Loss of Received 2.5 G Optical Signal ...............................................78
Table 30 Loss of Received 622 M Optical Signal ..............................................79
Table 31 Loss of Received 155 M Optical Signal ..............................................80
Table 32 Loss of 155 M Electrical Signal ........................................................80
Table 33 Loss of 2 M Electrical Signal ............................................................81
Table 34 CV Performance Over threshold.......................................................82
Table 35 Receiving Optical Power Over-Threshold ...........................................82
Table 36 Loss of Frame ...............................................................................83
Table 37 Unavailable Time Starts (Regenerator Section) ..................................84
Table 38 B1 UAS Performance Over-Threshold ...............................................84

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ZXMP S385 (V1.10) Maintenance Manual

Table 39 Out of Frame ................................................................................85


Table 40 OFS Performance Over-Threshold ....................................................86
Table 41 Regenerator Section Signal Degraded...............................................87
Table 42 B1 SES Performance Over-Threshold................................................88
Table 43 B1 ES Performance Over-Threshold..................................................89
Table 44 B1 BBE Performance Over-Threshold................................................90
Table 45 Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal (MS-AIS) ............................91
Table 46 Unavailable Time (Multiplex Section) ................................................92
Table 47 Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication (MS-RDI) .........................93
Table 48 B2 UAS Performance Over-Threshold ...............................................94
Table 49 B2 FEUAS Performance Over-Threshold ............................................94
Table 50 Multiplex Section Signal Degraded (MS-DEG) ....................................95
Table 51 B2 Bit Errors Cross-Threshold (MS-EXC) ...........................................96
Table 52 B2 SES Performance Over-Threshold................................................97
Table 53 B2 FESES Performance Over-Threshold ............................................98
Table 54 B2 ES Performance Over-Threshold..................................................99
Table 55 B2 FEES Performance Over-Threshold ............................................ 100
Table 56 B2 BBE Performance Over-Threshold.............................................. 101
Table 57 B2 FEBBE Performance Over-Threshold .......................................... 102
Table 58 Multiplex Section Protection Switching Event ................................... 103
Table 59 AU4 Path Alarm Indication Signal, Unavailable Time ......................... 104
Table 60 Loss of AU4 Pointer ..................................................................... 105
Table 61 Remote Defect Indication (Higher-Order VC4 Path Virtual Container) .. 105
Table 62 B3 UAS Performance Over-Threshold (Higher-Order VC4 Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 106
Table 63 B3 FEUAS Performance Over-Threshold (Higher-Order VC4 Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 107
Table 64 VC4 Higher-Order Path Signal Degraded ......................................... 108
Table 65 B3 SES Performance Over-Threshold (VC4 Higher-Order Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 109
Table 66 B3 FESES Performance Over-Threshold (VC4 Higher-Order Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 109
Table 67 B3 ES Performance Over-Threshold (VC4 Higher-Order Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 110
Table 68 B3 FEES Performance Over-Threshold (VC4 Higher-Order Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 111
Table 69 B3 BBE Performance Over-Threshold (VC4 Higher-Order Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 112
Table 70 B3 FEBBE Performance Over-Threshold (VC4 Higher-Order Path Virtual
Container) ....................................................................................... 112
Table 71 VC4 Higher-Order Path Unequipped ............................................... 113
Table 72 VC4 Higher-Order Path Trace ID Mismatch ...................................... 114
Table 73 VC4 Signal Label Mismatch ........................................................... 115
Table 74 AU4 PJE+/PJE- Performance Over-Threshold ................................... 115
Table 75 AU4 Protection Switching Event ..................................................... 116
Table 76 TU12 Path Alarm Indication Signal, Unavailable Time........................ 117
Table 77 Loss of TU12 Pointer .................................................................... 117
Table 78 Remote Defect Indication (Lower-Order VC12 Path Virtual Container) . 118
Table 79 V5 UAS Performance Over-Threshold ............................................. 118
Table 80 V5 FEUAS Performance Over-Threshold .......................................... 119
Table 81 V5 SES Performance Over-Threshold.............................................. 120
Table 82 V5 FESES Performance Over-Threshold .......................................... 120
Table 83 V5 ES Performance Over-Threshold................................................ 121
Table 84 V5 FEES Performance Over-Threshold ............................................ 121
Table 85 V5 BBE Performance Over-Threshold.............................................. 122
Table 86 V5 FEBBE Performance Over-Threshold .......................................... 122
Table 87 TU12 PJE+/PJE- Performance Over-Threshold.................................. 123
Table 88 TU12 Protection Switching Event ................................................... 123
Table 89 Loss of Timing Input .................................................................... 124
Table 90 Loss of Timing Output .................................................................. 125
Table 91 Power Supply Fault...................................................................... 126

230 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION


Tables

Table 92 Card Out of Position..................................................................... 126


Table 93 Card Type Mismatch .................................................................... 126
Table 94 Ethernet Physical Electrical Interface Ethernet Port Unconnected ..... 127
Table 95 Loss of Received Signal at the Ethernet Physical Optical Interface ...... 128
Table 96 Order Wire Protection Bytes of the ZTE SDH Equipment .................... 153
Table 97 Area Definitions and NE IP Configurations ....................................... 157
Table 98 NE IP Configurations of the NEs Defined in Area 193 ........................ 158
Table 99 Input Principles of NE Related Parameters....................................... 168
Table 100 Parameters of the Command d-uprade ......................................... 170
Table 101 Parameters of the Command d-get-status ..................................... 171
Table 102 Descriptions of Parameters that Need to be Verified for Local Upgraded
Card Program Version ....................................................................... 172
Table 103 Descriptions of Parameters in the Standby Area that Need to be Verified
...................................................................................................... 179
Table 104 Parameters of the Command d-try ............................................... 180
Table 105 Descriptions of Parameters in the Standby Area that Need to be Verified
after the Try Run .............................................................................. 182
Table 106 Parameters of the Command d-active ........................................... 182
Table 107 Descriptions of Parameters that Need to be Verified after Activation.. 184
Table 108 Half-day Maintenance Form......................................................... 188
Table 109 Daily Maintenance Record ........................................................... 189
Table 110 Weekly Maintenance Record ........................................................ 190
Table 111 Login Password Change Record ................................................... 191

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