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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 4

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 1

Question:

Find the binomial expansion of the following up to and including the terms in x 3 . State the range values of x for which these expansions are valid.

(a) ( 1 + 2x )

3

(b)

1

1 − x

(c) \

( 1 + x )

(d)

1

( 1 + 2x )

3

(e) 3 \

( 1 − 3x )

(f)

( 1 − 10x )

3

2

(g)

1 +

x

4

− 4

(h)

1

( 1 + 2x 2 )

Solution:

(a) ( 1 + 2x )

= 1 + 3

3

2x

3 × 2 × 1 × 0 ×

( 2x )

4

4 !

Use expansion with n = 3 and x replaced with 2x

+

+

3 × 2 ×

( 2x )

2

2 !

+

3 × 2 × 1 ×

( 2x )

3

3

!

+

= 1 + 6x + 12x 2 + 8x 3 + 0x 4

= 1 + 6x + 12x 2 + 8x 3

All terms after 0x 4 will also be zero

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 4

(b)

1

1 − x

Write in index form

= ( 1 − x )

1

Use expansion with n = − 1 and x replaced with − x

 

 

= 1 +

− 1

x

 

(

− 1 )

(

− 2 )

(

− 3 )

(

x )

3

 

3

!

+

 

= 1 + 1x + 1x 2 + 1x 3 +

= 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 +

 

+

(

− 1 )

(

− 2 )

(

x )

2

2 !

+

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | − x |

< 1

|

x |

< 1.

(c) \ 1 + x

(c) \ 1 + x

 

Write in index form

 
 

1

1

 

=

(

1 + x )

2

Use expansion with n =

2

and x replaced with x

 

1

1 2

 
 

 

 

(

2

)

(

)
2

( x )

 

1

 

=

1 +

2

x

+

 

2 !

+

   

(

1

2

)

(

1

2

)

(

3

2

)

( x )

3

 

3

!

+

 

1

1

1

 

=

1 +

2

x

8

x 2 +

16

x 3 +

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | x |

< 1.

(d)

1

( 1 + 2x )

3

Write in index form

= ( 1 + 2x )

3

Use expansion with n = − 3 and x replaced with 2x

 

 

 

= 1 +

− 3

2x

 

 

(

− 3 )

(

− 4 )

 

(

− 5 )

( 2x )

3

 

3

!

+

= 1 − 6x + 24x 2 − 80x 3 +

+

(

− 3 )

(

− 4 )

( 2x )

2

2 !

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | 2x |

< 1

+

|

x |

<

1

2

.

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 3 of 4

(e) 3 \ ( 1 − 3x ) 1 = ( 1 − 3x )
(e) 3 \
( 1 − 3x )
1
=
( 1 − 3x )
3
1
=
1 +
− 3x
+
3
1
2 5
3
(
)
(
(
3
)
(
)
− 3x )
3
3
+
3
!
5
=
1 − x − x 2 −
x 3 +
3

Write in index form

1

3

and x replaced with − 3x

Use expansion with n =

(

1

3

)

(

2

3

)

(

− 3x )

2

 

2 !

 

 
 

< 1

3

2

 

(

3

2

)

(

1 2

(
2

)

− 10x )

 

2 !

 

 

− 1000x 3

+

 

×

 

+

1

3

.

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | − 3x |

3

2

| x

|

<

(f) ( 1 − 10x )

Use expansion with n =

and x replaced with − 10x

 

 

 

3

2

 

 

=

1 +

− 10x

 

+

   

 

 

3

1 1

 

(

2

)

(

)
2

(

2

)

(

− 10x )

3

 

3

!

+

 

3

 

1

 

=

1 − 15x +

 

8

× 100x 2

16

 

75

125

 

=

1 − 15x +

 

2

x 2 +

2

x 3 +

+

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | − 10x |

< 1

|

x |

<

1

10

.

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 4 of 4

(g)

4

x

4

1 +

= − 4

1 +

(

− 4 )

(

− 5 )

(

− 6 )

3

!

= 1 − x + 10 ×

x

2

16

Use expansion with n = − 4 and x replaced with

x

4

x

4

+

3 +

(

− 4 ) 2 !

(

− 5 )

− 20 ×

x

3

64

+

x

4

2 +

= 1 − x +

5

8

x 2

5

16

x 3 +

Expansion is infinite. Valid when

x

4

< 1

| x

|

< 4 .

x

4

(h)

1

1 + 2x 2

Write in index form

= ( 1 + 2x 2 )

=

1 +

− 1

=

1 − 2x 2 +

1

Use expansion with n = − 1 and x replaced with 2x 2

2x 2

+

(

− 1 )

(

− 2 )

( 2x 2 )

2

 

2 !

+

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | 2x 2 |

< 1

| x

|

<

1

2

.

© Pearson Education Ltd 2009

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 2

Question:

( 1 + x )

By first writing

1 show that the cubic

( 1 − 2x ) ( 1 + x )

( 1 − 2x )

as

( 1 + x )

( 1 − 2x )

approximation to

for which this expansion is valid.

Solution:

is 1 + 3x + 6x 2 + 12x 3 . State the range of values of x

1 + x

1 − 2x

=

  1 + x

  ( 1 − 2x )

1

Expand

( 1 − 2x )

1 using binomial

expansion

 
 

 

 

( − 1 )

(

− 2 )

(

− 2x )

2

 

 

1 +

 

=

1 + x

− 1

− 2x

 

+

2 !

 

+

 

   

(

− 1 )

(

− 2 )

(

− 3 )

(

− 2x )

3

   

 
 

3

!

 

+

 

=

( 1 + x )

( 1 + 2x + 4x 2 + 8x 3 +

)

Multiply out

 

= 1 + 2x + 4x 2 + 8x 3 + terms = 1 + 3x + 6x 2 + 12x 3 +

 

… + x + 2x 2 + 4x 3 + 8x 4 +

 

Add like

( 1 − 2x )

1 is only valid when |

− 2x |

< 1

So expansion of

1 + x 1 − 2x

is only valid when | x |

<

© Pearson Education Ltd 2009

1

2

.

|

x |

<

1

2

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 3

Question:

Find the binomial expansion of \ ( 1 + 3x ) in ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x 3 . By substituting x = 0.01 in the expansion, find an approximation to \ 103. By comparing it with the exact value, comment on the accuracy of your approximation.

Solution:

comment on the accuracy of your approximation. Solution: 1 \ ( 1 + 3x ) =
comment on the accuracy of your approximation. Solution: 1 \ ( 1 + 3x ) =
1 \ ( 1 + 3x ) = ( 1 + 3x ) 2 
1
\
( 1 + 3x )
=
( 1 + 3x )
2
1
= 1 +
  3x
+
2
1
1 3
3
(
)
(
( 3x )
2
)
(
)
2
2
+
3
!
3
9
27
= 1 +
x −
x 2 +
x 3 +
2
8
16
This expansion is valid if | 3x |
< 1
1
Substitute x = 0.01 (OK, as | x |
<
3

(

1 1

2

)

(

2

)

( 3x )

2

|

2 !

x |

<

1

3

+

) into both sides to give

\

1 + 3 × 0.01

− ~ 1 +

3

2

× 0.01 −

9

8

× 0.01 2 +

27

16

× 0.01 3

\ 1.03 103 \ 100
\
1.03
103
\
100
\ 103 ~ 10 − ~ \ 103 −
\ 103
~
10 −
~
\
103

− ~ 1 + 0.015 − 0.0001125 + 0.0000016875

− ~ 1.014889188

1.014889188

10.14889188

  \ 103 100   × 10
 \
103
100
  × 10

=

\ 103 \ 103  = \ 100 10 
\
103
\ 103
=
\
100
10

Using a calculator

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 2

\ 103 = 10.14889157 Hence approximation correct to 6 d.p.

© Pearson Education Ltd 2009

Core Maths 4 C4 Page 2 of 2 \ 103 = 10.14889157 Hence approximation correct to

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 4

Question:

 

1

In the expansion of ( 1 + ax )

2

the coefficient of x 2 is 24. Find possible values

of the constant a and the corresponding term in x 3 .

Solution:

 

   

1

 

1

( 1 + ax )

 

2

= 1 +

2

(

1

2

)

(

3

2

)

(

5

2

)

( ax )

3

 

3

!

+

 

1

3

 

= 1 −

2

ax +

8

a 2 x 2

ax

+

5

16

a 3 x 3 +

This expansion is valid if | ax |

If coefficient of x 2 is 24 then

3

8

a 2 = 24

< 1

2 = 64 ± 8

a

a = Term in x 3 is

5

16

5

16

(

If a = 8, term in x 3 is

If a =

a 3 x 3 =

± 8 )

3 x 3 =

− 160x 3

− 8, term in x 3 is

+ 160x 3

± 160x 3

© Pearson Education Ltd 2009

|

(

1

2

)

(

3

2

)

( ax )

2

 

2 !

 
 

1

 

<

.

 

a

x |

+

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 5

Question:

 + x 1   − x 1 
 + x
1 
 − x
1 

Show that if x is small, the expression \

is approximated by 1 + x +

1 x 2 . 2 Solution: \ 1 1 + x 1 ( + x
1
x 2 .
2
Solution:
\
1
1 + x
1 (
+ x
=
)
2
1 − x
1 − x
1
1
=
( 1 + x )
( 1 − x )
Expand using the binomial expansion
2
2
1
1
2
1
(
)
(
)
( x )
=
[ 1 +
(
)
( x )
+
2
2
+
]
[ 1 +
(
2
2 !
1 3
2
(
)
2
(
)
(
− x )
2
+
]
2 !
1
1
1
3
=
( 1 +
x −
x 2 +
)
( 1 +
x +
x 2 +
)
2
8
2
8
3
1 3
=
1 (
1 +
2 x +
1 x 2 +
)
+
2 1 x ( 1 +
2 x +
x 2 +
8
8
1
3
x +
x 2 +
)
2
8
1
3
1
1
1
= 1 +
2 x +
x 2 +
2 x +
x 2 −
x 2 +
Add like terms
8
4
8
= 1 + x +
2 1 x 2 +
1
+ x
Hence \
− ~ 1 + x +
1
− x
1
2 x 2

)

1 )

2

1

8

(

x )

x 2 ( 1 +

+

If terms larger than or equal to x 3 are ignored.

© Pearson Education Ltd 2009

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 6

Question:

 

3

Find the first four terms in the expansion of ( 1 − 3x )

2

. By substituting in a suitable

value of x, find an approximation to 97

Solution:

3

2 .

(

3

2

)

(

1

2

)

(

− 3x )

2

2

+

(

3

2

)

(

1

2

)

(

1

2

)

(

− 3x )

3

 

3

!

1

3

.

27 ×

( 0.01 )

3

 

16

+

 

3

3

3

2

97

2

97

2

 

=

3

=

1000

<

+

97

100

3

2

(

100 )

+

3 3

2

( 1 − 3x )

= 1 +

= 1 −

(

9x

2

)

+

(

27x 2

8

− 3x )

+

27x

16

+

2

2

3

+

< 1

+

27 ×

2 !

| x

|

( 0.01 )

8

Expansion is valid if | − 3x |

Substitute x = 0.01 into both sides of expansion to give

3

2

9 × 0.01

( 1 − 3 × 0.01 )

(

(

0.97 )

0.97 )

97

100

3

2

3

2

3

= 1 −

− ~ 1 − 0.045 + 0.0003375 + 0.000001687

− ~ 0.955339187

2

97

3

=

100

2

  − ~ 0.955339187 ,

97

3

2

1000

~

0.955339187

 

× 1000

97

3

2

~

955.339187

© Pearson Education Ltd 2009

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 8

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise B, Question 1

Question:

Find the binomial expansions of the following in ascending powers of x as far as the term in x 3 . State the range of values of x for which the expansions are valid.

(a) \ ( 4 + 2x ) 1 (b) 2 + x 1 (c) 2
(a)
\
( 4 + 2x )
1
(b)
2 + x
1
(c)
2
( 4 − x )
(d)
\
( 9 + x )
1
(e)
\ ( 2 + x )

(f)

(g)

5

3 + 2x

1 + x

2 + x

 + x 2  (h) \  − x 1  Solution: (a) \
 + x
2 
(h)
\
 − x
1 
Solution:
(a) \
( 4 + 2x )
1
=
( 4 + 2x )
2
4
  1 +
= 
1
x
= 4
2
1 +
2

= 2

1 +

x

2

Write in index form.

2x

4

1

2

Take out a factor of 4

1

  Remember to put the 4 to the power

2

1 1

2

4

2

= 2

1

2

Use the binomial expansion with n =

1

2

and x =

x

2

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 8

 

1

 

 

 

 

=

2

1 +

x

 

2

2

(

1

2

)

(

1

2

)

(

3

2

)

(

x

2

)

3

 
 

3

!

 

  1 +

x

x

2

x

3

 

=

2

4

32

 

+

128

 

x

x

2

x

3

 

=

2 +

2

16

+

 

64

 
 

Valid if

 

x

< 1

 

 

2

+

+

+

| x

1 1 x 2 ( ) ( − ) ( ) 2 2 2 +
1
1
x
2
(
)
(
)
(
)
2
2
2
+
2 !
Multiply by the 2
|
< 2

(b)

1

2 + x

Write in index form

= ( 2 + x )

=

1

x

2

2

1 +

= 2 1

  1 +

x

2

Take out a factor of 2

Remember to put 2 to the power − 1

1

1

,

2 1 =

1

2

. Use the binomial expansion with

n =

− 1 and x =

x

2

− 1

x

2

1

2

(

=

1 +

(

− 1 )

− 2 )

(

− 3 )

3

!

x

2

3 +

+

(

(

− 2 )

− 1 ) 2 !

x

2

2 +

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 3 of 8

=

=

1

2

1

2

Valid if

1 −

x

4

+

x

2

x

2

+

x

2

4

x

2

8

< 1

x

3

16

x

3

8

+

| x

|

< 2

Multiply by the

1

2

(c)

1

( 4 − x )

2

Write in index form

= ( 4 − x )

=

2

x

4

4

1 −

Take 4 out as a factor

− 2

= 4 2

2 ,

1 −

x

4

4 2 =

1

16

. Use the binomial expansion with

n =

− 2 and x =

x

4

=

1

16

1 +

− 2

x

4

(

− 2 )

(

− 3 )

(

− 4 )

  3 +

3x 2

16

x

4

+

x 3

16 +

+

x 3

256

| x

=

=

1

3

16

1

16

!

+

Valid for (d) \ 9 + x
Valid for
(d) \ 9 +
x

1 +

x

2

x

32

+

x

4

+

3x 2

256

< 1

Write in index form

|

+

(

− 2 )

(

− 3 )

  2 +

1

16

x

4

2 !

Multiply by

< 4

x =

 

1

=

(

9 + x )

2

 

  1 +

=

9

 

9

1

1 +

x

=

2

9

x

9

x

9

Take 9 out as a factor

1

2

,

1

2

 

1

9

2

= 3. Use binomial expansion with n =

1

2

and

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 4 of 8

 

 

1

 

 
 

=

3

1 +

x

 

2

9

 

1

1

3

(

2

)

(

2

)

(

2

)

 

x

 

3

!

9

  1 +

x

x

2

 

=

3

18

648

+

 

x

x

2

x

3

 

=

3 +

6

216

+

3888

Valid for

x

9

< 1

 

1

1

(

2

)

(

2

)

 

2 !

 

 

 

+

|

< 9

+

3 +

x 3

11664

| x

x

9

2 +

Multiply by 3

1

(e)

Write in index form \ 2 + x 1 − = ( 2 + x
Write in index form
\ 2 + x
1
=
( 2 + x )
2
Take out a factor of 2
1
x
=
2
1 +
2
2
1
1
1
x
1
= 2 −
2
1 +
2
,
2 −
2
=
2
1

1 x

2

and x =

1

2

2

x

2

+

(

2 2

1

2

=

)

(

1

2

3

2

)

. Use binomial

expansion with n = −

=

1

2

1 +

x

2

2 +

2 !

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 5 of 8

 

1

3

5

(

2

)

(

2

)

(

2

)

x

 
 

3

!

2

 

1

1 −

x

3x 2

 

=

2

4

+

32

 

1

x

3x 2

 

=

+

2

4 2

32 2

 

2

2x

3 2x 2

 

=

2

8 +

64

 

Valid if

x

2

 

< 1

3 +

5x 3

128

+

5x 3

128 2

52x 3

256

| x

|

+

< 2

Multiply by

1

2

Rationalise surds

(f)

5

3 + 2x

Write in index form

= 5 ( 3 + 2x )

= 5

1

Take out a factor of 3

− 1

1

,

3 1 =

2x

3

2x

3

2x

3

3

1 +

1 +

2x

3

= 5 × 3 1

− 1 and x =

1

3

. Use binomial expansion with

n =

 

5

 

=

1 +

 
 

3

(

− 1 )

(

− 2 )

(

− 3 )

 

3

!

 

5

1 −

2x

 

=

3

3

 

5

10x

 

=

3

9

+

Valid if

2x

3

− 1

+