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Chapter I

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

Being an effective leader is not predicted by Intelligence Quotient itself-Goleman

(1995).

Several school personnel, facing a large population of students are not enough to

accommodate and attend all the needs of the students. That is where the student leaders take

over. Student leaders are responsible for making a respectful and transparent atmosphere in

where students can discuss, partake, and engage into any proposed plans for school. Student

body is the face of the students, they have all the responsibilities to deal with any problems

concerning the welfare of the students and informing the superiors about their concerns.

Student leaders are also responsible for making co-curricular activities that can inspire and

amalgamate every courses and departments. They also have the role of laying down goals and

projects for the schools development.

In the performance of their avowed duties, for the fulfillment of their goals, the

leaders cannot avoid problems arising within an organization that may lead to failure in

achieving the objectives or goals. Effective leader must have good communication skills and

the ability to adapt themselves into different types of people in a certain group, but some

leaders cease to work well with their members because of some common problems like

regulation of emotions, poor emotional profile, insensitivity, overbearing and dominating

leaders.

Research studies suggest that Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles are the

two forces that guide a leader to good leadership, but are also responsible for adversities to
follow. The influence of these two forces will be explored as the bases of an enhancement

program.

Background of the study

Edward Thorndike (1930), defined Emotional Intelligence in relation to a form of

social intelligence which includes self-consciousness of others' feelings and emotions, to

differentiate them and used them as guide of managing one selfs thoughts and actions. It was

a newly-proposed form of intelligence that talked about one's capability of understanding

one's feelings and emotions. David Wechsler (1944) suggested that affective domain maybe

important to succeed in life. He also added, Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity

of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his

environment. Abraham Maslow (1950) described how people can establish emotional

strength using his model Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow used terms such as; psychological,

safety, belonging, love, esteem, self-actualization and self-transcendence. His theory further

discussed that if the levels in the hierarchy were not fully meet, the emotional strength of a

person may be affected. Howard Gardner (1975) introduced the concept of Multiple

Intelligence specifically, Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligences which serve as the key

components for Emotional Intelligence. These specific intelligences discussed the different

dimensions of emotion of a person. A person who notice and respond to others feelings and as

the same time can work with them easily was classified under the interpersonal intelligence.

However, a person who sets goals, assesses his personal abilities and liabilities and monitors

his own thinking and is expected to meditate, reflect, exhibit self-discipline and maintain

composure was classified under intrapersonal intelligence. Then, Wayne Payne (1985) finally

introduced the term Emotional Intelligence in his dissertation entitled "A study of emotion:

developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory,

structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting


go)." Keith Beasly and Reuven Bar-On (1987) used the term Emotional Quotient (EQ) in a

magazine article and graduate thesis. Peter Salovey & John Mayer (1990) published their

famous article in Emotional Intelligence in a journal Imagination, Cognition and Personality.

After that, Daniel Goleman (1995) popularized and elaborated the concept of Emotional

Intelligence featured in his book Emotional Intelligence; Why it Matters More than IQ?

Lastly, Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organization conducted a

research to identify emotional and social factors needed to be successful in job and

workplace. Since its popularization, Emotional Intelligence has been associated with

leadership. Why is it so?

As William Arthur Ward once said, "The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher

explains. A superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires".

One of the problems students encounter in a classroom is the teacher itself. It is a case

wherein a teacher lacks the qualities of becoming a competent teacher. A teacher supposedly

guides or lead the class to direct them in accomplishing their tasks successfully however,

there are teachers who are dominating, overpowering, lacking initiative, failing to motivate

their students, recognizing only failure not success, avoiding conflicts neither exerting effort

to solve it, running over students etc., resulting to the unfinished works and projects and

breakdown of a student. Anchored to the theory of Daniel Goleman, being an effective leader

was not predicted by Intelligence Quotient (IQ) itself, well in fact, its Emotional Intelligence

that do so. Based on the findings of Golemans Emotional Intelligence, leaders with high IQ

alone fail to manage an enterprise yet people who have high Emotional Intelligence got

promoted into higher position. He also quoted that "outstanding intelligence quotient level

makes you an English teacher yet high Emotional Intelligence makes you the head of the

English Department" which summarizes his insight about Emotional Intelligence as an

important intelligence that qualifies an individual to be an efficient leader.


Theoretical Framework

Emotional Intelligence is the core level of Intelligent Quotient. Davis, Stanker and

Roberts said that emotional intelligence is an elusive concept. It appears to be more

allegorical than logical. Emotional Intelligence is the capacity to enhance oneself, to

accurately perceive emotions of others and to take cognizance of what is happening. Mayer

and Mitchell (1998) said Emotional Intelligence is an aspect of class of intelligences

including the social, practical and personal intelligence or HOTS intelligence.

According to Daniel Goleman, there are five areas of Emotional Intelligence;

1. Self-awareness - knowing ones emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and goals

and recognize their impact on others while using common sense to guide decisions.

2. Interpersonal - it is the ability to maintain harmonious relationship with other people.

3. Stress-management - managing or redirecting ones descriptive emotions and impulses and

adapting to changing circumstances.

4. Flexibility - it is the ability to adapt to new environment and know how to make a better

decision in a situation.

5. Disposition - it is the awareness of the condition in a place or situation.

Goleman (1995) said that emotional competencies are not innate talents but rather

learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve an outstanding

performance. He believes that individuals are born with general emotional intelligence that

determines their potential for learning emotional competencies.

Salovey and Mayer (1990) claimed that Emotional Intelligence is the ability to

monitor ones own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use the
information to guide thinking and actions.

Freedman (2007) stated that Emotional Intelligence is the way of recognizing,

understanding and choosing how we think, feel and act. It shapes our interactions with others

and our understanding of ourselves. It defines how and what we learn. It allows us to set

priorities; it determines the majority of our daily actions. Research suggests it is responsible

for as much as 80% of the success in our lives.

Goleman (1995) declared that great leadership works through emotions. Leaders are

the one who drives organization to their success and empower their social, intellectual,

emotional and other skill to be a good leader. These are the six leadership styles:

1. Democratic Leadership - encouraging the member to be active and participate in achieving

the goals of the organization. Leaders allow his /her members to decide for their vision in

performing for the success. Communication is the key to this model. It produces a working

environment that members feel that they are more committed to achieve the goals and

objectives of the organization through their suggestions and opinions.

2. Affiliative Leadership - it is used with new organization which leader and members are

creating communication with each other. Members are given great deals of praises and

feedback in their performance to boost their confidence. It builds emotional bonds and

harmonious relationship among members.

3. Empowering Leadership - the leader focuses on stirring positive emotions by purely

helping its member in their personal development to accomplish their desired goals. The

leader recognizes every individual work and their significance in the organization.

4. Moral Leadership - the leader guides his/her members by giving them values, ethics,

principles and standards. The leader respects each of the members.


5. Charismatic Leadership - leader set as a role model to his/her member. It leads through

magnetic personality where leaders influence his/her members to perform well.

6. Transformational Leadership - a leader who inspires his/her members. It promotes positive

change among its members where they set high performing standards for one, others, group

and organization.

Conceptual Framework

Input Process Output

Emotional Intelligence
Self awareness

Interpersonal

Stress- management

Flexibility
Survey Through
Disposition
Questionnaire
Leadership Style
Previous Proposed intervention
Democratic Theories and programs to enhance the
Leadership Studies Emotional Intelligence
and Leadership skills of
Affiliative Interview student leaders.
Leadership Respondents
Empowering Statistics of Data
Leadership
Moral Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
Transformational
Leadership
Commanding
Leadership
Pacesetting
Leadership
Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the level of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style of the

student leaders.

Specifically, it will answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following?

1.1 Age
1.2 Gender
1.3 Major

2. What is the level of Emotional Intelligence of the respondents in terms of the following?

2.1 Self-awareness

2.2 Interpersonal

2.3 Self - management

2.4 Flexibility

2.5 Disposition

3. What is the Leadership Styles of the respondents in terms of the following:

3.1 Democratic

3.2 Affiliative

3.3. Empowering
3.4 Moral

3.5 Charismatic

3.6 Transformational

3.7 Commanding

3.8 Pacesetting

4. Is there a significant difference between the Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles

of the resopndents?

5. Based on the findings of the study, what leadership enhancement program may be

proposed?

Hypothesis

Ho - There is no significant difference on the respondents Emotional Intelligence

level and Leadership styles when they are grouped by profile.

Scope and Limitations of the study

This study was conducted to determine the Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

Styles of Polytechnic University of the Philippines San Pedro Campus student leaders. This

includes all the officers of Academic and Non-Academic school organization.

The survey questionnaire was adapted from the study Emotional Intelligence and

Leadership Styles of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig Student Leaders: Bases for an

Enhancement Program , a study by Josefa Advincula Dimalanta (2008).

Significance of the Study


This study benefited the following:

Coordinating Teachers

The findings of the study helps the coordinating teachers to determine the strengths

and weaknesses of their student teachers when it comes to emotional intelligence and

leadership styles so they can provide proper guidance.

Student Teachers

The student teachers improve their emotional intelligence and leadership styles

through the proposed output so they can become effective teachers in the future.

Future Researchers

The data contained in this research serve as a reference for future researchers who will

continue this study.

Teachers

The findings of the study help teachers determine the ideal leadership style depending

on their level of emotional intelligence and the situation they are in.

Definition of terms

Affiliative Leadership- it is used with new organization which leaders and members

are creating communication with each other. Constituents are given great deals of

praises and feedback in their performance to boost their confidence. It builds

emotional bonds and harmonious relationship among members.


Charismatic Leadership - leaders set as a role model to their members. It leads

through magnetic personality where leaders influence their members to perform well.
Democratic Leadership - encouraging the member to be active and participative in

achieving the goals of the organization. Leaders allow their members to decide for
their vision in performing for the success in accomplishing the organization

objectives. Communication is the key to this model. It produces a working

environment that members feel that they are more committed to achieve the goals and

objectives of the organization through their suggestions and opinions.


Disposition - it is the awareness of the condition in a place or situation.
Emotion- instinctive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge.
Emotional Intelligence -is the capacity to enhance oneself, to accurately perceive

emotions of others and to take cognizance of what is happening.


Empowering Leadership -the leaders focuses on stirring positive emotions by purely

helping their subordinates in their personal development to accomplish their desired

goals. The leader recognizes every individual work and their significance in the

organization.
Flexibility - it is the ability to adapt to new environment and know how to make a

better decision in a given situation.


Interpersonal - it is the ability to maintain harmonious relationship with other people.
Leadership- the action of leading a group of people or an organization.
Leadership Style- the leaders style of providing direction, implementing plans and

motivating people.
Moral Leadership- the leaders guide their members through inculcation of values,

ethical principles and norms. It also implies that leaders show respect towards their

subordinates.
Self-awareness - knowing ones emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values, goals

and recognizing their impact on others while using their common sense to make

decisions.
Stress- management - managing or redirecting ones descriptive emotions and

impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.


Transformational Leadership refers to leaders who inspire their members by

promoting positive change among themselves where they set high performing

standards for oneself, others, group and organization.


Commanding Leadership- is the leadership style wherein a leader
Pacesetting Leadership
Chapter II

The Review of Related Literature and Studies

Foreign Literature

Emotion was derived from a Latin verb 'movare' meaning to stir up, agitate, upset or

move which was accompanied by behavioral and physiological events. Psychologists have

lots of definitions of emotion yet they still give a single meaning depending on a person's

reaction towards a certain situation. Historically, there was no single theory that directly

discusses what emotion truly was but some psychologists attempted to produce its theory like

James Lange and his theory of emotion which states that a person needs an appropriate

emotion that enables him or her to adjust based on his perception on a given situation. Also,

Walter Cannons Theory of Emotion studied the portion of the brain that manipulates the

human emotion.

Thorndike (1930) proposed a newly-formed intelligence called Emotional

Intelligence. He stated that emotion leads to the management of thoughts and emotions of one
person through the awareness of the person's environment. Emotion was also identified as the

individual response in a condition whether it was internal and external response.

Gardner (1975) proposed a Theory of Multiple Intelligence which acknowledges the

principle of Interpersonal Intelligence ' which is the existing relationship of a two person and

'Intrapersonal Intelligence' or the ability to handle ones self. It requires the person to notify

the feelings and emotions of others, to have an insight on the reason of their actions and to

behave based on the appropriate objective, standards or beliefs. Then, Salovey and Mayer

(1997) published an article Imagination, Cognition and Personality ". This article discussed

strictly the framework of Emotional Intelligence that emotion is a mean to solve problems.

This article also discusses abilities of Emotional Intelligence such as; accurate appraisal and

expression of emotions, assimilation of emotional experience into cognition, recognition and

comprehension. They view emotion as a systematize response that cross limit a lot of

psychological subsystems like physiological, motivational, experiential and cognitive aspects.

They distinguished four discrete cognitive domain that comprise emotional

intelligence namely; perspective of emotion, use of emotion to accommodate mental ability,

knowledge about emotions, handling emotion. These four abilities are arrange orderly to

build bases to the psychological process of an individual.

Firstly, the perspective of emotion, it is the fundamental aspect of ability because it is

the skill of a person to compare similarities and differences of emotion of the person in a

society. This ability discloses the emotion of a person that enables him or her to know

between the truth and falsehood.

Secondly, the use of emotion to accommodate the mental ability. It is the ability of a

person to use mental capabilities to facilitate a certain mood. The person state of mind is

advance in this level because they generate their emotion through the use of 'schema' or
perception in life.

Thirdly, the knowledge about emotion. It includes understanding and synthesizing

emotion which a person can construct their own meaning of emotion. It also enables the

person to interpret complicated situations.

Fourthly, handling of emotion. This branch provides wide range of experiences to

stimulate emotional responses to a given situation or person.

Emotional Intelligence is the basis for thoughts and action of one person. It is the

human consciousness of reality and his sensitivity of choices of alternatives that leads to

success. Emotional Intelligence does not differ on cognitive skills well in fact they are

dynamically interact with each other. A person should have cognitive, social and emotional

skills that enable him or her to be sufficient and comprehensive individual. As a matter of

fact, Emotional Intelligence was operated by cognitive aspect which utilize through the

affective domain of an individual. This affective domain was improved by the experiences.

Goleman (1995) argues that there are points when Emotional Intelligence achieves

success without the measured Intelligent Quotient. He identified abilities of Emotional

Intelligence which pertains to the ability to motivate oneself, to cope with frustrations, to

manage distress, to manipulate impulses and to regulate ones mood. Emotional Intelligence

is somewhat related to personal and social factors of an individual. It involves administration

of the emotion and feelings of ones self for the individual actions as an outcome.

The study of Goleman opens an opportunity to the people who do not excel in the

field of cognitive competencies. He stated that emotional Intelligence is as powerful and

times more powerful than the Intelligence Quotient. From this moment on, many

psychologists, philosophers, scientist and educators consider Emotional Intelligence as their

preference in acquiring personal awareness, self-confidence and conscientiousness rather than


to focus on intellectual aspect.

During the first publication of his book Emotional Intelligence there is an

increasing attempt of psychologist to discover emotional intelligence and its application to

human condition. They decided to introduce this in different level of schools and studies like

in pre-school, state university and such. And through this, psychologists and experts

determine the meaning of emotion. Goleman (1995) identified emotion as the ability to

recognize and regulate emotion of others. While Salovey (1990) write emotional intelligence

as a form of intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and other's feelings

and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide ones thinking

and actions. But then, he revised the definition into the ability to perceive emotion, integrate

emotion to facilitate thoughts, understand emotions, and to regulate emotions to promote

personal growth. Another noticeable research of the emotional intelligence is from Reuven

Bar-On (1987), the person who produces the term ' Emotional Quotient'. He identified

emotional intelligence as far deeper than understanding oneself and others. It also includes

sensitivity to the situation to be able to act according to appropriate emotion. He focuses to

the five-major dimension of emotional quotient like interpersonal, intrapersonal, adaptability,

stress management and general mood. It includes self-regulation, motivation, empathy and

social skills.

Leadership is synonymous to guidance, management, supervision, direct instructing

on how to attain an objective. It is a task or responsibility.

Leadership is identified in many numbers of theories and studies but an effective

leadership styles should be based on the readiness of the individual in a certain situation.

Leaders are characterized to be the center of change and influence members to accomplish set

of objectives and goals of the organization or group. They must be able to improve their
leadership styles based on the condition of the group. According to Turner and Muller, (2005)

there are five functions of leadership that leaders should consider, namely; making visions of

the group and focusing on it, establishing a high performing-team, motivating the team,

maintaining harmonious relationship between leader and members and give them satisfying

feedback to their performance.

Sethuraman and Suresh (2014) categorize theories that further explain what a true effective

leadership styles are, namely:

Great Man Theory identifies that leaders are from the nature of an individual and not

through nurture of the environment. It runs through the blood of a person. This theory argues

that males were born to be leaders and not females.

Trait Theory is an approach used in early studies of leadership. This theory focuses

on the characteristics of leaders should acquire like emotional, intellectual, social, physical

and psychological aspects. Study supports the 'Great Man Theory' that the leadership starts at

birth and remains through the end of life.

Contingency theory disagrees with the first two theories. This study believes that

effective leaders are the one who experienced a lot of things and who were trained by the

environment. It focuses on the external factors of an individual like behavior and situation.

Participative theory explains that collaboration plays a vital role in achieving the

organizational goal. Making good decisions and sharing ideas inside the group are effective

leadership approach. This study recommends that competent leaders should set motivating

input to result into a high performance among the subordinates.

Boulding (1985) described leadership as the process by which a person in a certain

group demonstrates influence to others in achieving a common goal and directs the group into

coordination and coherence. It includes the application of leadership attributes such as values,
beliefs, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. However, leadership is different from bossing

around people. Being overpowering is exercising authority in performing certain tasks and

accomplishing objectives because leaders are described as trustworthy and they must

communicate a vision and organizational future to give an overview where the group needs to

go.

According to Baldwin (2011), effective leadership begins from our character. He cited

in his book that positive results flourish from the good character of a leader. In order to do so,

leaders must set a reason to their subordinates to believe and to follow. He also stated that a

good leader must set the right example. It refers to the capacity of the leader to do the job

with excellence. Employees must seek that the leader has the capacity to accomplish a goal.

Though executive position does not require physical work much still, it needs critical

thinking. He added and declared that a leader must learn how to communicate by example.

They must act their part, must show authority and demonstrate that they had what it takes.

Leaders must know how to communicate and connect, handle tough situations, and put their

team first before anything else.

Ward (2011) claimed that leadership is the art motivation needed to drive the whole

group in carrying out a certain goal. She defined leader as the director of an action; leaders

inspire others to follow because they possess mixed attributes of personality and

communication skills that leads them to do so. In addition, leaders must be coaches as well;

supervising their constituents to perform based on the need of the project.

Kahn (1978) stated that leadership is a social, collaborative, relational activity that

focuses on the competencies of the group rather that the capabilities of the leaders

themselves. It involves few numbers of people to be in a group, work together with leader as

a guide and example and perform according to what is being agreed upon.
Munro (2012) stated that works or tasks create bonds between leaders and their

members; works that prolong their relationship and unite them as one. Therefore, to make

work an important key element in having harmonious relationship, the need for another

essential skill must be acquired and it is interaction skill which includes consultation,

negotiation, concession and conflict management. She also emphasized the significance of

shared work and power as an investment in collaborative learning, team-building and forming

organizational cultures. In addition to that, she characterized the qualities of a leader to be

acquired such as courage or the confidence to face challenges and accept responsibility;

diagnosis; adaptability to work and its environment and good relationship to be maintained.

Leaders, instead of fixing themselves into fulfilling takes and accomplishing goals, they must

focus on delivering values and change into their organization. The priority must be on

guiding the whole organization in the long run.

Furthermore, Gill (2011) presented three leadership models or styles namely laissez-faire,

transactional and transformational leadership.

Laissez-faire leadership is the leadership style where leaders leave work to their members.

They leave the work to their constituents which make them neutral, insensible and

unproductive. This leadership is only effective when the subordinates are highly competent

and skill-oriented.

Transactional Leader exhibits strongly directive leadership. It does not use consultative,

participative and delegative style but rather focuses on giving rewards in exchange for

someone's effort and outstanding performance in achieving goals. It is task-oriented and its

efficiency when meeting deadlines or even during emergency. It is commonly observed in a

classroom set-up.

Transformational leadership empowers, motivates and develops subordinates'


capabilities and self-interest in order to perform beyond expected outcomes. Leaders usually

act as coaches, enthusiastically inspiring their members to transform a simple job into a job

well-done. However, this leadership style cannot be often used especially for short-term

goals. The leaders are open for a better change, holistically builds their members abilities and

act as their mentors.

Also, Gill (2011) listed other leadership styles such as:

Visionary Leadership or leadership style is where the organizational cultures are

inclined with the leader's desired plan for the future of the organization. Sashkin and

Rosenbach (2007) declared that there are three personal characteristics which can be used as

leader's behavioral strategies namely: self-efficacy or the self-confidence of own efficiency,

power orientation or the ability to vary the use of power based on what is needed and

cognitive capability or the intellectual ability to understand the cause-and-effectisssss

relationship needed to predict the future of desired outcomes.

Charismatic, which was viewed by German Sociologist, Max Weber as the

relationship by the leader and its member upheld by the leaders ability to persuade and win

their followers heart and loyalty to serve and commit themselves into working effectively. It

is leader-centered for the future of the organization is in their hands. They tend to build

organizational values and harmonious participation however it tends to collapse especially

when leaders have gone since the subordinates depend themselves to them.

Organic Leadership as characterized by Gayle Avery as subordinate-centered and

the vision of the organization came from the integrated ideals of each member. It respects

diversity and celebrates individual abilities as the key to success. There is no organizational

hierarchy and members are expected to be self-managing and self-leading.

Centered Leadership by McKinsey and Company states the five capabilities are
suggested: meaning or infusing work with regards to life purpose, how it sought happiness

and contentment into commitment of working effectively; positive framing or viewing life in

optimism and seeing change as opportunity rather than a risk, connecting or giving

importance to the significance of good communication; engaging or being used to risks, fear

and opportunities and encouraging people to adapt into it and being resilient; managing

energy or energizing the dimension of human body such as physical, emotional, social,

mental and spiritual dimension.

Strategic Leadership refers to the group strategies to accomplish a certain task. It

also includes the organizational vision and mission. It focuses on the rate of progress in a

certain area to monitor positive change and to test as well the efficiency of the strategies.

Leaders of this style should ponder on their ability on decision-making because the success or

failure of the organization is depending on them.

Commanding leadership is a style wherein the leaders give orders and demands for

immediate compliance. They are particular in accomplishing a certain task in short period of

time.

Democratic leadership pertains to building a council to help the leader in making

decisions. The ideas came from different heads, voted upon based on what is needed or

usually synthesized to form much better concept. Though may seem collaborative, still, the

final decision will come from the leader.

Pacesetting is a leadership style known for leaders who dominate, demand and

criticize performance of subordinates rather than giving praises to empower them. It is

standards-centered and the leaders are expected to remove members who do not meet their

qualifications.
Beck & Yeager (1996) they stated that leadership originates from understanding the

essential behaviors and simultaneously testing a group of peoples capabilities to reach a

specific goal while encouraging each member to take the necessary actions to achieve the

goal.

They also stated that high level of leadership occurs when the leader and the followers

are performing at their peak whether they are alone or in a team.

There are four leadership styles according to them:

1. Directive Leadership- means telling people what to do, when to do it, how to do it,

and why it should be done. This kind of leadership includes details such as;

explaining assignments, giving information, and explaining situations.


2. Support Leadership- type of leadership that encourages and engages with peoples

idea. This leadership inspires respect for peoples knowledge and encourages the

involvement of people in decision-making to build up peoples confidence, assisting

them to accomplish assignments and perform responsibilities.


3. High directive and high support leadership- it is the combination of being directive

and supportive and the same time.


4. Low directive and high support leadership- it is a hybrid type of leadership but lesser

directive and supportive.

Bowkett and Percival (2011) suggested that the basis for developing emotional intelligence to

any certain degree include these two necessary elements: awareness of self and awareness of

others. In their book, they mentioned that it was Plato who said, know thyself, an obsolete

philosophy which lead to a lifetime lesson wherein, if we accept ideas wholeheartedly, it will

come up to greater awareness and having deeper understanding with that, it will yield

successful self-control of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. They also suggested that to
boost the two key elements of emotional intelligence, leaders should encourage the creativity

of an individual.

John Adair (1988) stated that men innately possessed the quality of being superior which

makes them a leader, undoubtedly. It was also discussed in Evolutionary Leadership Theory

postulated by Vugt and Ahuja (2010) which stated that the human leadership behavior and

prowess emerged from human evolution through natural selection- a theory popularized by

Charles Darwin. They also claimed that leadership and followership have become natural

since those behaviors were already engraved in human brains. In short, they agree that some

people naturally leads and others congenitally follow.

Local Studies

Margareta Sjolund (2013) stated that mental ability is important but after this the

person need to collaborate with his or her members. As a matter of fact, Emotional

Intelligence has factor which is far more important than Intelligence Quotient. These are

motivation, creativity, drive, communication, relationship and energy or enthusiasm for a

manager or a leader. It is important to build harmonious relationship with the members to be

able to open avenues for improvement. The person should develop flexibility, adaptability to

change and coping stress. In Asia, we use specific measurement technique which is called

EQ-i 2.0, a model consist of 15 factors which forms blocks that builds productivity of

leadership competencies. Basically, it measures influence such as perceiving and expressing

ourselves, developing and maintaining social relationships, coping with challenges and using

emotional information in an effective and meaningful way. In her article, she suggested to use

emotional intelligence where in it is not an easy task to do but it can be done.

Corpuz (2013) cited that there are three domains of learning; the cognitive, psychomotor and
affective domain. In three level approaches, teaching with affective is more important which

means using values. The affective domain enable to produce students formation of

intellectual giants which develop students awareness of attitude to others, have values,

control to behavior and manipulate emotions.

Dr. Chelo (2010) made a research about Emotional Intelligence having adolescents as its

respondents. She identified the factors that lead to the child higher level of Emotional

Intelligence. It is namely; influence of the parents, age level and peers. The study identified

that being emotionally intelligent tend to acquire some of this ability such as effectiveness to

handle circumstances, cope with hassles in life and monitor health.

Leadership is a fundamental component of instructing function of management. The

people gather to attain similar goal and the head of the group will conduct a style to achieve

organizational success. They should be equipped with active and spontaneous attitude to

inspire their members to perform well and to ensure that every member is doing their job

inside the group. The leader and the members should have a harmonious relationship this

need for the leader to understand the feelings and emotion of every member in the group.

There are wide varieties of studies that prove that emotional intelligence has to do with

handling a group of people.

The rise of the leaders should be based on their qualities like charismatic, deliberate,

gifted and attractive qualities. Leaders should have the power to shape the future of the

organization by the way they act at the present, like what unknown philosopher said "the

shadow of the future cast on the present ". The leader will not predict the future by

fortunetelling or crystal gazing but rather visioning the foundations of the organizations

future based on the aspirations and hope.

The key words for new leaders in the millennial generation are vision, charisma and
transformation. In early 1970, the term 'transformational leadership ' arouse. It was first

known as a transactional leadership in which leaders and followers in history interact and

communicate to achieve the higher purpose of the organization thus rewarding the good

performance of the members. According to Burns (1978), transformational leaders should

address its peoples higher order thinking skills, self- esteem and self -actualization.

Ciulla (2003), stated that Transformational Leadership concerns about the values

which has the morality means and morality ends. Morality means of an act talks about

responsibility, fairness, honesty and keeping promises while the morality ends talks about

liberty, justice and equality.

Transformational Leadership expects performance beyond expectations which

concerns with the Is; the individualized deliberation, intellectual stimulation, inspirational

momentum and idealized effect.

Rafferty and Griffin (2004) enumerate the five dimensions of Transformational

Leadership; the vision, inspirational communication, intellectual stimulation, supportive

leadership and personal recognition.

Visionary Leadership concerns with the future of the organization. The leader

prepares and lays activities that will lead to the organizations development. Sashkin and

Robert (2003) suggest three personal characteristics that guide leaders behavioral strategies;

self - efficacy, power orientation and cognitive capability.

Charismatic Leadership attracts and inspires followers. According to Weber (1913)

charisma is a process of influence and commitment to the followers which contrive a spell

that attract even the people outside the organization. They perform values like favoring

participation, security, and extrinsic rewards but if the charismatic leaders have gone, the

values will be gone also.


Soriano (2008) studied the different level of the student leaders and non-student

leaders in terms of the way they think of Emotional Intelligence and Transformational

Leadership. Using the different and more advanced survey questionnaire like Sixteen Factor

questionnaire, Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and Multifactor Leadership

Questionnaire they come up with the conclusion that student leaders are more introduce to

reasoning, emotional stability, social boldness and openness to change.

Baumann (2006) identified effectiveness of Leadership and Emotional Competence in

a group. He concluded that the leader will be the emotional laden that is the source of

eagerness in accomplishing the goal.

The study from the Center for Creative Leadership (2003) entitled Leadership Skills

and Emotional Intelligence reveals that advance level of leadership style is associated with

emotional intelligence. These will be further revealed in these following areas like

collaborative management, self-awareness, balancing personal life from work,

straightforwardness and composure, harmonious relationship to the members. These factors

are the things that a person may acquire to find in what they are doing and when they

compassionate about their work performance, it is easy for them to achieve the group task

and objectives.

Foreign Studies

Ahmad bin Esa et al (2013) stated in his study The relationship of Emotional Intelligence

and Leadership Styles of the final year level from Faculty of Technical and Vocational

Education at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). that most of the professional

individuals rate Intellectual intelligence as 20 percent while Emotional Intelligence as 80

percent. It shows that teachers must take full attention in developing their self-awareness,

self-management, social awareness and relationship management elements. The respondents


of the study are the final year level from Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education at

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). So, into this study, the researcher want to

know if the final year students in the education field have already prepared themselves with

emotional intelligent, leadership style and knowledge to become teachers.

The findings of the study show that the main foundation of the students to decide if they need

to continue their journey on becoming a license teacher is their emotional intelligence. This is

because EQ can help teachers to maintain their emotion towards facing challenges as a

teacher especially about the new changes made by Ministry Education. From Fletcher (2007),

says that the EQ has a relationship with teachers stress. It also emphasizes the contribution

of leadership styles to aspiring teachers because it improves the School a good leader can

leading the students with different background and level to become successful students

where they will improve the school quality and standard.

There is relationship between Emotional Intelligence with Democratic Style where there is a

significant relationship between social awareness and self-management elements. This is

because from the level of emotional intelligence the students are in the moderate level. So, it

shows that the students did not have a high confident level to make decisions but can be

develop if they have enough experiences through team building and seminars.

Malikova (2014) stated in her study Teachers Trait Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

Style: do they depend on educational attainment and teaching experience? that there is

positive relationship between teachers Emotional Intelligence to the Leadership Style of the

Teacher more specifically the Democratic Leadership Styles.As Singh and her colleagues

(2012) posit, Emotional 2 Intelligence is important for a leader because their Leadership

Style has a big influence on the climate of the organization and performance of subordinates
The study focuses on the relationship between teachers Trait Emotional Intelligence (Trait

EI), Leadership Style, educational Attainment and Teaching Experience within six state

secondary schools of Astana (Kazakhstan). The findings of the study shows that there is a

small correlation between length of service to the Emotional Intelligence of the teacher yet

the experience in teaching of the teacher is a factor why teachers have high Emotional

Intelligence. On the other hand the Leadership Style of the teacher affects the personal values

and beliefs, national cultures, or emotional intelligence. George(2000) stated that One of such

factors is a level of Emotional Intelligence (EI), which is regarded as the key to effective

Teacher Leadership

Local Studies

Naraja (1997) stated in his study The leadership Styles of Public Secondary School

Teachers in the district of Placer and Gigaquit, division of Surigao Del Norte. that the school

administration and the supervisors are the source provider of the leadership of the school

teachers to be more effective in teaching as well as learning. Leadership is the most potent

good virus at the mean time the most dramatic activity inside the school. It calls a larger

responsibility for both students and teachers to achieve the desired aim of education. Naraja

study emphasizes the Leadership Styles of School teachers when grouped by communication

skills, classroom management, skills in questioning, evaluation, remedial procedure and

planning. This shows that the eighty secondary school teachers which is fifty percent of the

total universe of the study have significant difference with their Leadership Style to their

communication skills, classroom management, skills in questioning, evaluation, remedial

procedure and planning.


Najara also accentuate Teaching job is a toxic job which requires an individual to

accommodate demanding Education System, Administrators, Supervisors, Co-Teachers,

Parents and Students and sometimes would be the cause of a downfall. That is the main

reason why a teacher should have a high Emotional Intelligence to handle difficult situations

and overload of works.

According to Singh quoted by Chechi(2012) different professions require different

Emotional Quotient and Teaching is one of the profession that requires high level of

Emotional Intelligence. Unrealistic expectations between teacher training and reality of

teaching and a lack of clear performance standards results into negative outcome. The teacher

must learn how to balance aspects in their life which may fall under Emotional Intelligence.

Losaria(2013) stated in her study Emotional Intelligence (EI) skills its relationship

to the teaching performance of teachers in Mlang East District that the topic emotional

intelligence is still relatively new; Therefore, It is critical to implement effective EQ training

into university curricula in order to prepare prospective teachers for thriving teaching careers

and successful personal relationships. To develop emotionally intelligent teachers, It is

important that the preparation and transfer-and maintenance phases of their training process

must be considered well. Yet too often these phases are neglected in practice.

The study emphasizes the relationship of self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation,

empathy and social skills with the levels of Teaching Performance of Teachers in Mlang East

District. In the findings, the data reveals that the respondents have the ability to identify,

assess, and control their emotions; Also the teachers experience teaching performance which

is high with knowledge, skills and attitudes, but needed further enhancement through

attending seminars and training development.

Synthesis
Chapter III

THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design; the methodology used which includes the

respondents of the study, samples and sampling techniques, data gathering procedure,

instruments of the study and statistical treatment of the study.

A. Research Design

This study utilized descriptive method of the research which could support the data that

have collected relevant to the problem. The fundamental aimed in using the method is to

describe the nature of the situation as it existed in the time of the study. It assessed the data to

test hypothesis and answer questions to the problem concerning to the leadership styles and
emotional intelligence of the student leaders in Polytechnic University of the Philippines San

Pedro Campus

B. Respondents of the study

The respondents of the study were student teachers from Polytechnic University of the

Philippines San Pedro Campus with the total of 71 student teachers including Bachelor in

Secondary Education major in Math and English. The Polytechnic University of the

Philippines San Pedro Campus is an institution that produces students enrich with excellence

and skills. It is an epistemic community and passion-oriented individuals supported by the

city government of San Pedro City, Laguna and produces Filipino citizens who are God-

fearing, exhibit love for humanity and democracy, exercise collegiality, practice integrity and

credibility, shows transparency and accountability, demonstrate passion for learning and

Humanist internationalism. The research was started during the School Year 2016 2017 in

the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

C. Samples and Sampling Techniques

The research used purposive method. It is the data gathering procedure that chose

selected respondents based on the purpose of the study. The selected respondents were

student teachers from Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Math and English.

TABLE I

Major Student Teachers Population


English 32
Math 30
TOTAL 62
D. Data Gathering Procedure

In order to collect data, the researchers wrote a letter to the head of student affairs,

Joanne Faller-Antonio to seek approval to conduct the study among Polytechnic University of

the Philippines student leaders. The researchers personally distributed the survey

questionnaires, and the student teachers answered it. After retrieving it to the presidents of

different organizations, interpreting of gathered data followed.

E. Instrument of the Study

The researchers adapted the instrument from the offshoot which was utilized to

discover the level of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of the selected

respondents. The findings enacted as a basis for the preparation of the PUP Student

Leadership Program.

The researcher involved the Emotional Intelligence competencies in the study,

namely; self- awareness, interpersonal, stress-management, flexibility and disposition. Out of

the various Leadership Styles, the researchers only selected among Democratic, Affiliative,

Empowering, Moral, Charismatic, Transformational, Commanding and Pace-setting

Leadership that the researchers believed Polytechnic University of the Philippines San Pedro

Campus student teachers should acquire. The questionnaire will be adapted from an expert in

the field of education and psychology. To ensure the efficiency of the questionnaire, this was

piloted by the study of Josefa Advincula-Dimalanta, The Emotional Intelligence and

Leadership Styles of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig Student Leaders: Bases for an

Enhancement Program. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: demographic profile

of the students, the questionnaire on Emotional Intelligence which composes the following

competencies namely: self-awareness, interpersonal, stress-management, flexibility and


disposition and a questionnaire on Leadership Styles which composes of the following

elements: democratic leadership, affiliative leadership, empowering leadership, moral

leadership, charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, commanding leadership and

pacesetting leadership. In addition, items in part two and three of the questionnaire are in the

four-point Likert scale where four is the highest and one is the lowest. This was explained

using the adjective ratings as follows;

TABLE II

1.00-1.49 Never
1.50-2.49 Rarely
2.50-3.49 Often
3.50-4.00 Always

F. Statistical Treatment of Data

The researchers accumulated the data in answering the problems of the study. All the data

were based on the response of the respondents through the use of survey questionnaire. The

data assessed and tabulated using the following formula;

Frequency distribution and percentage to describe Demographic Profile of the

respondents.

f
=
n x 100

Where: % - Percentage
f- Frequency

n- no. of cases or total sample

Questions number 1-2 computed Weighted Means and interpreted using the scale

below.
TABLE III.

1 1.49 Never
1.5 2.49 Seldom
2.5 3.49 Often
3.5 4 Always
1 1.49 Never
1.5 2.49 Seldom

Mean

Sum is use to identify the whether the

TABLE IV

Range of Sum Verbal Interpretation


5 9 Not Dominant
10 15 Fair
16 20 Dominant

Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for normality


Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the data. Having
difference in this table implies that the data is not normal. Otherwise, it is normal.
Based on the table above, the p-values of interpersonal, democratic, affiliative,
empowering, and moral were less than 0.05, hence those data were not normally
distributed. In this case, non-parametric tests will be applied. Parametric tests will be
utilized for the rest of the variables.

t-test of independent means


Mann-Whitneys Test
Analysis of Variance I (ANOVA I)
Kruskal-Wallis Test

TABLE V.

One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test


Self- Stress Dis Trans
Awa Interp Mana Flexi pos Dem Affil Chari form Com
rene erson geme bilit itio ocrat iativ Empo Mor smati ation mandi Paces
ss al nt y n ic e wering al c al ng etting
N 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62
Norm Mean 3.06 3.325 3.190 3.21 3.0 15.9 16.1 16.677 16.4 16.67 16.80 17.27 15.22
al 45 8 3 94 387 839 452 4 677 74 65 42 58
Para Std. . . . . . 2.60 2.90 2.7685 2.62 2.714 2.622 2.764 3.215
meter Deviati 6154 5325 4850 4814 631 826 758 2 846 71 97 94 84
sa,b on 0 3 9 0 25
Most Absolut .168 .197 .153 .147 . .180 .206 .192 .177 .160 .137 .169 .127
Extre e 137
me Positive .084 .106 .088 .145 . .108 .115 .115 .103 .110 .112 .162 .069
Differ 069
ences Negativ -.16 -.197 -.153 -.14 -.13 -.18 -.20 -.192 -.17 -.160 -.137 -.169 -.127
e 8 7 7 0 6 7
Kolmogorov- 1.32 1.551 1.206 1.15 1.0 1.41 1.62 1.508 1.39 1.256 1.081 1.332 1.003
Smirnov Z 1 7 77 6 1 4
Asymp. Sig. .061 .016 .109 .138 . .036 .010 .021 .041 .085 .193 .057 .267
(2-tailed) 196
a. Test distribution is Normal.
b. Calculated from data.
ANOVA or the F-test.
This statistical tool was used for the researchers to determine the difference between
the respondents age to their TPACK domains {[Technological Knowledge (TK),
Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK), Pedagogical Content
Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological
Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) and Technological Pedagogical and Content
Knowledge (TPACK).

s
s
( 1)3 ( 2)2
+
n1 n2

x1 x2
t=

Where:
t = one sample t-test value
x 1 = mean of the first group
x 2 = mean of the second group
s 1 = standard deviation of the first group
s 2 = standard deviation of the second group
n1 = number of the cases in the first group
n2 = number of the cases in the second group
Quality Assurance Guide Given the Mean

TABLE VI.

Mean range Descriptive evaluation action to be done


3.35-4.00 Greatest strengths Maintain for organizing
Reached total quality system excellence
assurance status

2.68-3.34 Strengths Continue self-system


Not reached but evaluation
moving to total Maintain but must be
quality assurance given attention on
indicators to meet the
total quality assurance
status
Continue search and
action for improvement
2.01-2.67 Strengths Further enhancement /
Not reached total Improvement/Enrichme
quality assurance nt of indicators to meet
the total quality
assurance

Below 2.00 Weaknesses Components and


Very far from total indicators must be
quality assurance given further attention.
Cooperative measures
in keeping with the
theory of total quality
assurance ( to attain
total quality standard
and stirring up to total
quality assurance )
Based on the table 6, if the mean score is less than 2.00 than the description is
considered as weakness or threat, otherwise, it is considered as strengths or
opportunity. If the mean score is between 3.35 to 4.00 then it is considered as greatest
strengths or opportunity which needs to maintain. From 2.68 to 3.34 are strength but
not fully attained the total assurance status which requires continue search and
improvement. From 2.01 to 2.67 are also strengths but not reached the total quality
assurance status which requires further enhancement. This table was adopted from the
work of De Castro (2014).