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CHAPTER 91 LINEAR REGRESSION

EXERCISE 338 Page 958

1. Determine the equation of the regression line of Y on X, correct to 3 significant figures:

X 14 18 23 30 50
Y 900 1200 1600 2100 3800

X Y X2 XY Y2
14 900 196 12 600 810 000
18 1200 324 21 600 1 440 000
23 1600 529 36 800 2 560 000
30 2100 900 63 000 4 410 000
50 3800 2500 190 000 14 440 000

X = 135 Y = 9600 X 2 = 4449 XY = 324 000 Y 2 = 23 660 000

Substituting into =
Y a0 N + a1 X

and XY a0 X + a1 X 2
=

gives: 9600 = 5 a0 + 135 a1 (1)

and 324 000 = 135 a0 + 4449 a1 (2)

27 (1) gives: 259 200 = 135 a0 + 3645 a1 (3)

64 800
(2) (3) gives: 64 800 = 804 a1 from which, a1 = = 80.6
804
9600 135(80.6)
Substituting in (1) gives: 9600 = 5 a0 + 135(80.6) from which, a0 = = 256
5

Hence, the equation of the regression line of Y on X is: Y= a0 + a1 X

i.e. Y = 256 + 80.6X

2. Determine the equation of the regression line of Y on X, correct to 3 significant figures:


X 6 3 9 15 2 14 21 13
Y 1.3 0.7 2.0 3.7 0.5 2.9 4.5 2.7

1399 2014, John Bird


X Y X2 XY Y2
6 1.3 36 7.8 1.69
3 0.7 9 2.1 0.49
9 2.0 81 18.0 4.0
15 3.7 225 55.5 13.69
2 0.5 4 1.0 0.25
14 2.9 196 40.6 8.41
21 4.5 441 94.5 20.25
13 2.7 169 35.1 7.29

X = 83 Y = 18.3 X 2 = 1161 XY = 254.6 Y 2 = 56.07

Substituting into =
Y a0 N + a1 X

and XY a0 X + a1 X 2
=

gives: 18.3 = 8 a0 + 83 a1 (1)

and 254.6 = 83 a0 + 1161 a1 (2)

83 (1) gives: 1518.9 = 664 a0 + 6889 a1 (3)

8 (2) gives: 2036.8 = 664 a0 + 9288 a1 (4)


517.9
(4) (3) gives: 517.9 = 2399 a1 from which, a1 = = 0.216
2399
18.3 83(0.216)
Substituting in (1) gives: 18.3 = 8 a0 + 83(0.216) from which, a0 = = 0.0477
8

Hence, the equation of the regression line of Y on X is: Y= a0 + a1 X

i.e. Y = 0.0477 + 0.216X

3. Determine the equation of the regression lines of X on Y, correct to 3 significant figures, for

the data given in Problem 1

Substituting into =
X b0 N + b1 Y

and
= XY b0 Y + b1 Y 2

gives: 135 = 5 b0 + 9600 b1 (1)

1400 2014, John Bird


and 324 000 = 9600 b0 + 23 660 000 b1 (2)

1920 (1) gives: 259 200 = 9600 b0 + 18 432 000 b1 (3)

64 800
(2) (3) gives: 64 800 = 5 228 000 b1 from which, b1 = =
5 228 000
0.012395
135 9600(0.012395)
Substituting in (1) gives: 135 = 5 b0 + 9600(0.0124) from which, b0 =
5

= 3.20

Hence, the equation of the regression line of X on Y is: X= b0 + b1Y

i.e. X = 3.20 + 0.0124Y

4. Determine the equation of the regression lines of X on Y, correct to 3 significant figures for

the data given in Problem 2

Substituting into =X b N + b Y
0 1

and
= XY b Y + b Y
0 1
2

gives: 83 = 8 b0 + 18.3 b1 (1)

and 254.6 = 18.3 b0 + 56.07 b1 (2)

18.3 (1) gives: 1518.9 = 146.4 b0 + 334.89 b1 (3)

8 (2) gives: 2036.8 = 146.4 b0 + 448.56 b1 (4)


517.9
(4) (3) gives: 517.9 = 113.67 b1 from which, b1 = = 4.56
113.67
83 18.3(4.56)
Substituting in (1) gives: 83 = 8 b0 + 18.3(4.56) from which, b0 = = 0.056
8

Hence, the equation of the regression line of X on Y is: X= b0 + b1Y

i.e. X = 0.056 + 4.56Y

1401 2014, John Bird


5. The relationship between the voltage applied to an electrical circuit and the current flowing is as
shown:
Current (mA) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Applied voltage (V) 5 11 15 19 24 28 33

Assuming a linear relationship, determine the equation of the regression line of applied voltage,

Y, on current, X, correct to 4 significant figures.

A table is produced as shown below, where current I = X and voltage V = Y

X Y X2 XY Y2
2 5 4 10 25
4 11 16 44 121
6 15 36 90 225
8 19 64 152 361
10 24 100 240 576
12 28 144 336 784
14 33 196 462 1089

X = 56 Y = 135 X 2 = 560 XY = 1334 Y 2 = 3181

Substituting into =
Y a0 N + a1 X

and XY a0 X + a1 X 2
=

gives: 135 = 7 a0 + 56 a1 (1)

and 1334 = 56 a0 + 560 a1 (2)

8 (1) gives: 1080 = 56 a0 + 448 a1 (3)

254
(2) (3) gives: 254 = 112 a1 from which, a1 = = 2.268
112

135 56(2.268)
Substituting in (1) gives: 135 = 7 a0 + 56(2.268) from which, a0 = = 1.142
7

Hence, the equation of the regression line of Y on X is: Y= a0 + a1 X

i.e. Y = 1.142 + 2.268X

1402 2014, John Bird


6. For the data given in Problem 5, determine the equation of the regression line of current on

applied voltage, correct to 3 significant figures.

Substituting into =
X b0 N + b1 Y

and
= XY b0 Y + b1 Y 2

gives: 56 = 7 b0 + 135 b1 (1)

and 1334 = 135 b0 + 3181 b1 (2)

135 (1) gives: 7560 = 945 b0 + 18 225 b1 (3)

7 (2) gives: 9338 = 945 b0 + 22 267 b1 (4)


1778
(4) (3) gives: 1778 = 4042 b1 from which, b1 = = 0.43988
4042
56 135(0.43988)
Substituting in (1) gives: 56 = 7 b0 + 135(0.43988) from which, b0 = = 0.483
7

Hence, the equation of the regression line of X on Y is: X= b0 + b1Y

i.e. X = 0.483 + 0.440Y, correct to 3 significant figures

7. Draw the scatter diagram for the data given in Problem 5 and show the regression lines of

applied voltage on current and current on applied voltage. Hence determine the values of (a) the

applied voltage needed to give a current of 3 mA and (b) the current flowing when the applied

voltage is 40 volts, assuming the regression lines are still true outside of the range of values

given.

A scatter diagram is shown below. Current I = X and voltage V = Y

The regression line of voltage on current, Y = 1.142 + 2.268X, and current on voltage,

X = 0.483 + 0.440Y are shown and to the scale drawn are seen to coincide

1403 2014, John Bird


(a) When current, X = 3 mA, then applied voltage, Y = 1.142 + 2.268(3) = 7.95 V

(b) When the applied voltage, Y = 40 V, current, X = 0.483 + 0.440(40) = 17.1 mA

8. In an experiment to determine the relationship between force and momentum, a force, X, is

applied to a mass by placing the mass on an inclined plane, and the time, Y, for the velocity to

change from u m/s to v m/s is measured. The results obtained are as follows:

Force (N) 11.4 18.7 11.7 12.3 14.7 18.8 19.6


Time (s) 0.56 0.35 0.55 0.52 0.43 0.34 0.31

Determine the equation of the regression line of time on force, assuming a linear relationship

between the quantities, correct to 3 significant figures.

Let force F = X and time = Y. A table is produced as shown below

1404 2014, John Bird


X Y X2 XY Y2
11.4 0.56 129.96 6.384 0.3136
18.7 0.35 349.69 6.545 0.1225
11.7 0.55 136.89 6.435 0.3025
12.3 0.52 151.29 6.396 0.2704
14.7 0.43 216.09 6.321 0.1849
18.8 0.34 353.44 6.392 0.1156
19.6 0.31 384.16 6.076 0.0961

X Y X 2
XY Y 2

= 107.2 = 3.06 = 1721.52 = 44.549 = 1.4056

Substituting into =
Y a0 N + a1 X

and XY a0 X + a1 X 2
=

gives: 3.06 = 7 a0 + 107.2 a1 (1)

and 44.549 = 107.2 a0 + 1721.52 a1 (2)

107.2 (1) gives: 328.032 = 750.4 a0 + 11491.84 a1 (3)

7 (2) gives: 311.843 = 750.4 a0 + 12050.64 a1 (4)

16.189
(3) (4) gives: 16.189 = 558.8 a1 from which, a1 = = 0.0290
558.8

Substituting in (1) gives: 3.06 = 7 a0 + 107.2(0.0290)

3.06 107.2(0.0290)
from which, a0 = = 0.881
7

Hence, the equation of the regression line of Y on X is: Y= a0 + a1 X

i.e. Y = 0.881 0.0290X

9. Find the equation for the regression line of force on time for the data given in Problem 8, correct

to 3 decimal places.

Substituting into =
X b0 N + b1 Y

and
= XY b0 Y + b1 Y 2

1405 2014, John Bird


gives: 107.2 = 7 b0 + 3.06 b1 (1)

and 44.549 = 3.06 b0 + 1.4056 b1 (2)

3.06 (1) gives: 328.032 = 21.42 b0 + 9.3636 b1 (3)

7 (2) gives: 311.843 = 21.42 b0 + 9.8392 b1 (4)


16.189
(3) (4) gives: 16.189 = 0.4756 b1 from which, b1 = = 34.039
0.4756

Substituting in (1) gives: 107.2 = 7 b0 + 3.06(34.039)

107.2 + 3.06(34.039)
from which, b0 = = 30.194
7

Hence, the equation of the regression line of X on Y is: X= b0 + b1Y

i.e. X = 30.194 34.039Y

10. Draw a scatter diagram for the data given in Problem 8 and show the regression lines of time on

force and force on time. Hence, find (a) the time corresponding to a force of 16 N, and (b) the

force at a time of 0.25 s, assuming the relationship is linear outside of the range of values given.

A scatter diagram is shown below. The regression line of force on time, Y = 0.881 0.0290X, and

force on time, X = 30.194 34.039Y are shown and to the scale drawn are seen to coincide

(a) When force X = 16 N then time, Y = 0.881 0.0290(16) = 0.417 s


1406 2014, John Bird
(b) When time Y = 0.25 s, force, X = 30.194 34.039(0.25) = 21.7 N

1407 2014, John Bird