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Apr 11, 2017

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Heat exchanger Plant Design

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Heat exchanger Plant Design

© All Rights Reserved

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NAME :

STUDENT ID. :

GROUP : EH2425B

EXPERIMENT TITLE : SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

DATE PERFORMED : 11TH NOVEMBER 2016

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 25TH NOVEMBER 2016

LECTURER : ENCIK FITRI BIN OTHMAN

No Remarks

Title Marks

.

1 Abstract/Summary 5

2 Introduction 5

3 Aims/Objective 5

4 Theory 10

5 Apparatus 5

6 Methodology/Procedure 10

7 Results 10

8 Calculations 10

9 Discussion 20

10 Conclusion 10

11 Recommendation 5

12 Reference/Appendix 5

Total marks 100

............

(ENCIK FITRI BIN OTHMAN)

1. ABSTRACT

In experiment we are going to study the theory related how heat is transferred in the heat

exchanger tube and shell. Basically heat exchanger is widely used in the industry in order for the

engineer to make heat transfer between two materials or more without using heater. So

economically budget for the company. There are two types of flow used in heat exchanger which

is counter current flow or co current flow. But in this experiment we choose to use the counter

flow current. The hot water temperature was set to be at 50C. The cold water was at room

temperature which is at 37C. When there is temperature gradient, heat transfer could be

occurring. These water temperatures are controlled at the control panel board. Hence the main

reason for this experiment is to reduce the temperature of the hot water by contacting with the

cold water on the surface of the tube. The hot water flow inside the tube whereas the cold water

flows in the shells that embed the tube. The flow rate of the hot water was set to be constant at 10

LPM. Then we manipulate the flow rate of the cold water from 2 LPM until 10 LPM within 10

minutes interval. After that, we set the cold water flow rate to be constant at 10 LPM. The same

thing like before where we change the flow rate of hot water from 2 LPM until 10 LPM. After 10

minutes for each flow rate, we will record the data which are TT1, hot outlet, TT2, cold inlet,

TT3, cold outlet, TT4, hot inlet, DPT1 and DPT2 directly from the control panel reading. Finally

we have to determine the effect of flow rate towards the heat transfer activity and the pressure

drop measurement.

2. INTRODUCTION

Heat exchangers are widely used in the chemical process industry. In order for engineer to

reduce or increase the heat of certain material, the heat exchanger could be used to solve the

problem. So company no need to buy heater or cooler. Moreover, there are two different

temperatures of the water hence there is temperature gradient and heat transfer could be occurred.

Talking about heat exchanger it means that the water does not mix together. But the hot water

flow in the tubes whereas the cold water flows in the shell. But the flow is in counter current.

Heat also move from hot region water to cold region water. In heat exchanger we take into

account the conduction and convection. But radiation is just neglected because we do the

experiment in the lab. Conduction occurs between water to the surface of the tube. Convection

occurs from the wall tube to the water body.

3. OBJECTIVES

a) To study the effect of different flow rate on heat exchanger.

b) To study the outlet temperature of the fluids at different flow

arrangement; counter flow current and co current.

c) To study the pressure drop at the tube shell section.

d) To calculate the heat load and heat balance, LMTD and overall heat transfer coefficient.

e) To study the working fluid principle in the heat exchanger.

4. THEORY

Before we proceed any further, we need to understand how heat is transferred?

What is heat? What is temperature?

Heat energy is resulted by the movement and vibration of particle of liquid, solid

and gas. The movement and vibration of the particles are translation, rotational and vibrational

mean. The motion of the particle creates heat or thermal energy. The movement of the particle

will give a coldness or hotness to a certain object. The more vigorous the movement of the

particle, the more heat energy stored. Temperature is temperature can be thought of as a measure

of the average energy of motion (kinetic energy) of the atom or molecule that makes up a

substance (Bentley, 24, 1998).

There are three ways of heat transfer where heat is transferred when temperature

gradient is exists. There are conduction, convection and radiation. Both conduction and

convection require matter to transfer heat.

Conduction is the transfer of heat through the contact of substance. The better the

conductivity of material the better the heat transfer through it. Particle in material will vibrate

rapidly when they gain heat energy and bump into nearby particle and transfer some of the heat

energy. This process take over from hot region to the cold region until equilibrium of temperature

occur. The equation of heat conduction expressed in the differential form by Fouriers law of heat

conduction which is:

cond=kA dT

Q

dx

heat).

- dT/dx is the temperature gradient.

- A is surface area.

Convection occurs when warmer region of fluid (liquid or gas) move to cooler

region of fluid (liquid or gas). Cooler region then takes place the warmer region where the initial

warmer region rises to the upper part of fluid. This cycle keep continue until the entire fluid get

hot. The best example is the water boiling in the water kettle where the hot water region keep

rising to the cooler region bit by bit and forming a cycle. Despite the complexity of convection,

the rate of convection heat transfer is observed to be proportional to the temperature difference

and is conveniently expressed by Newtons law of cooling (Cengel and Ghajar, 378, 2015).

W

q conv =h ( T sT ) 2

m ( )

conv =h A s ( T sT ) ( W )

Q

W

- h is convection heat transfer coefficient, 2

m .K

- As heat transfer surface area, m2

- Ts is temperature of the surface, C

- T is temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface, C

Radiation is the heat transfer through the empty space by thermal radiation often

called infrared radiation. A type of electromagnetic radiation. The heat transfer does not depend

on the contact of any surface. No mass exchanged and no medium is required. The most common

example is the radiation of sun ray. It has proven useful to view electromagnetic radiation as the

propagation of collection of discrete packets of energy called photons or quanta as proposed by

Max Planck in 1900 in conjunction with his quantum theory (Cengel and Ghajar, 378, 2015).

hc

e=hv=

- e is energy

34

- h is Plansks constant 6.626069 10 J . s

- is electromagnetic wavelength

Fouling factor in heat exchanger will give vast effect on the heat transfer

effectiveness with time. This is because there is accumulation of deposits on heat transfer

surface. The layer of deposit will give additional resistance for the heat to transfer. The net effect

of the accumulations on heat transfer is represented by the fouling factor Rf, which is the measure

of the thermal resistance introduce by fouling (Cengel and Ghajar, 378, 2015). The most common

deposit that always happens is the precipitation of solid deposits in a fluid that stick on the heat

transfer surface.

transfer heat from hotter region to the colder region. Any radiation effects are usually included in

the convection heat transfer coefficient. So thats why we are going to calculate the value of U,

overall heat transfer coefficient in order to include the radiation effect in our calculation.

Figure 4.1: Thermal resistance network associated with heat transfer in a double

pipe heat exchanger.

(Extracted from: www.google.com)

Do

ln

1 Di 1

R=R total=Ri + Rwall + Ro = + +

h i Ai 2 kL h o A o

- L is the length of the tube.

- Ai area of the inner surface of the wall that separates two fluids.

- Ao area of the outer surface of the wall.

A i= Di L

A o = Do L

It is very convenient to put all the resistance into single resistance, R into the

equation. So rate of heat transfer between two fluids is :

T =U A s T =U i A i T =U o A o T

Q=

R

Log mean temperature difference is conveniently being used for the average

temperature difference for use in the analysis of heat exchangers.

T 1 T 2

T lm=

T1

ln

T2

Heat exchanger has two type of flow which is co current and counter current.

Figure 4.2: Type of flow with graph of temperature across the tube.

(Extracted from: www.google.com)

5. APPARATUS

6. PROCEDURES

1. A quick inspection was performed to make sure the equipment is in a proper working

condition.

2. All the valves were closed, except V1 and V12.

3. Hot water tank was filled up via a water supply hose that has been connected to valve

V27. When the tank was full, the valve was closed.

4. The cold water tank was filled up by opening the V28 and the opened valve was left for

continuous water supply.

5. The drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point.

6. The main power was switched on. The heater for the hot water was switched on and the

point of the temperature controller was set to 50.

7. The water temperature in the hot water tank was allowed to reach the set point.

8. The equipment was ready to be run.

1. The valves that control the counter current flow of water inside the shell and tube heat

exchanger were set.

2. P1 and P2 pumps were switched on.

3. V3 and V5 valves were opened and adjusted in order to obtain the counter current flow

rate for cold and hot water.

4. First the flow rate of hot water was set to be constant at all time at 10 LPM while the flow

rate of cold water was set differently at 2, 4, 6 and 8 LPM.

5. The system was let about 10 minutes to be stabled.

6. The reading of control temperature and pressure drop FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3, and TT4

and DPT and DPT2 were recorded.

7. The 3-5 steps were repeated and changed with constant cold water at all time at 10 LPM.

The flow rate of hot water being changed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 LPM.

1. The heater was switched off. Then, the hot water temperature was waited until

temperature drop below 40 C.

2. The pump P1 and P2 were closed.

3. Main power was switched off.

4. All water in the prices sines was switched off. Retain water in the hot and cold water tank.

5. All valves were closed.

7. RESULTS

(LPM) (C) (C) (C) (C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)

(LPM)

10 2 44.5 29.7 48.1 49.6 25 5

10 4 39.7 29.5 46.9 48.8 25 5

10 6 36.1 29.3 46.0 49.3 30 5

10 8 35.1 29.5 46.2 50.0 31 5

10 10 34.0 29.5 45.7 50.0 30 204

Table 7.1

ii. Fluid flow rate of cold water is set as constant at 10 LPM

(LPM) (C) (C) (C) (C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)

(LPM)

2 10 31.2 29.6 41.5 48.5 2 144

4 10 32.4 29.6 43.1 48.4 2 134

6 10 32.9 29.6 43.2 48.5 2 172

8 10 33.6 29.5 44.4 48.6 3 172

10 10 34.4 29.6 45.0 48.3 13 170

Table 7.2

iii. Heat load and head balance when flow rate of hot water constant at 10 LPM

10 2 3506.8 2554.5

10 4 6257.2 4831.3

10 6 9076.4 6955.4

10 8 10245.4 9273.8

10 10 11001.7 11245.2

Table 7.3

iv. Heat load and balance when flow rate of cold water constant at 10 LPM

2 10 2379.1 8260.4

4 10 4400.7 9371.0

6 10 6436.0 9440.4

8 10 8251.3 10342.8

10 10 9557.8 10689.9

Table 7.4

10 2 5.81

10 4 4.94

10 6 4.84

10 8 4.64

10 10 4.40

Table 7.5

2 10 3.66

4 10 3.92

6 10 4.22

8 10 4.15

10 10 4.00

Table 7.6

8. CALCULATIONS

TYPICAL CHEMICAL DATA AND HEAT EXCHANGER LAYOUT

HOT WATER

Density 988.18 kg/m3

Heat capacity 4175 J/kg.K

Thermal conductivity 0.6436 W/m.K

Viscosity 0.0005494 Pa.s

COLD WATER

Density 995.67 kg/m3

Heat capacity 4183.00 J/kg.K

Thermal conductivity 0.6155 W/m.K

Viscosity 0.0008007 Pa.s

Tube 1

Shell 1

Length of tube 0.50 m

Tube internal diameter 7.75 mm

Tube outer diameter 9.53 mm

Tube pitch 18 mm

Tube surface area 0.015 m2

Number of tubes 10

Shell diameter 85 mm

Baffle length 50 mm

Baffle cut 20%

Hot water flow rate set to be constant at 10 LPM

10 10 10 10 10

water, LPM

Flow rate

2 4 6 8 10

cold water,

LPM

Temperature

49.6 44.5 48.8 49.3 50.0 35.1 50.0 34.0

difference,

=5.1 =14.9 =16.0

39.7 36.1

C

=9.1 =13.2

QH, J/s 3506.8 6257.2 9076.4 10245.4 11001.7

Table 8.1

QC =F C C PC ( T 1T 2 )

1.

3

L 1m 1 min kg J J

QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.644.5 ) C=3506.8

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

2.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.839.7 ) C=6257.2

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

3.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.336.1 ) =9076.4

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

4.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 50.035.1 ) =10245.4

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

5.

3

L 1m 1 min kg J J

QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 50.034.0 ) =11001.7

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

10 10 10 10 10

water, LPM

Flow rate

2 4 6 8 10

cold water,

LPM

Temperature

48.1 29.7 46.9 46.0 46.2 29.5 45.7 29.5

difference,

=18.4 =16.7 =16.2

29.5 29.3

C

=17.4 =16.7

QC, J/s 2554.5 4831.3 6955.4 9273.8 11245.2

Table 8.2

QC =F C C PC ( t 2t 1 )

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

1.QC =2 995.67 3 4183 ( 48.129.7 ) =2554.5

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

3

L 1m 1 min kg J J

2.QC =4 995.67 3 4183 ( 46.929.5 ) =4831.3

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

L 1 m3 1min kg J J

3.QC =6 995.67 3 4183 ( 46.029.3 ) =6955.4

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

4. QC =8 995.67 3 4183 ( 46.229.5 ) =9273.8

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

5.QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 45.729.5 )=11245.2

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

2 4 6 8 10

water, LPM

Flow rate

10 10 10 10 10

cold water,

LPM

Temperature

48.5 31.2 48.4 48.5 48.6 33.6 48.3 34.4

difference,

=17.3 =15.0 =13.9

32.4 32.9

C

=16.0 =15.6

QH, J/s 2379.1 4400.7 6436.0 8251.3 9557.8

Table 8.3

QC =F C C PC ( T 1T 2 )

L 1m3 1min kg J J

1.Q H =2 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.531.2 ) C=2379.1

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

L 1m 3 1 min kg J J

2.Q H =4 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.432.4 ) C=4400.7

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

3.Q H =6 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.532.9 ) =6436.0

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J

4. Q H =8 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.633.6 ) =8251.3

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

3

L 1m 1 min kg J J

5.Q H =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.334.4 ) =9557.8

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

2 4 6 8 10

water, LPM

Flow rate

10 10 10 10 10

cold water,

LPM

Temperature

41.5 29.6 43.1 43.2 44.4 29.5 45.0 29.6

difference,

=11.9 =14.9 =15.4

29.6 29.6

C

=13.5 =13.6

QC, J/s 8260.4 9371.0 9440.4 10342.8 10689.9

Table 8.4

QC =F C C PC ( t 2t 1 )

1.

L 1m3 1 min kg J J

QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 41.529.6 ) =8260.4

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

2.

3

L 1m 1 min kg J J

QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 43.129.6 ) =9371.0

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

3.

3

L 1m 1 min kg J J

QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 43.229.6 ) =9440.4

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

4.

L 1m3 1 min kg J J

QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 44.429.5 ) =10342.8

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

5.

L 1m3 1 min kg J J

QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 45.029.6 ) =10689.9

min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

T 1 T 2

T lm =

T1

ln

T2 ( )

h ,T c ,out

T 1=T

c ,

T 2=T h ,out T

Hot water flow rate set to be constant at 10 LPM

Tlm, C

rate, LPM

2 T 1=49.648.1=1.5

T 2=44.529.7=14.8

1.514.8

T lm= =5.81

1.5

ln( )

14.8

4 T 1=48.846.9=1.9

T 2=39.729.5=10.2

1.910.2

T lm = =4.94

1.9

ln( )

10.2

6 T 1=49.346.0=3.3

T 2=36.129.3=6.8

3.36.8

T lm= =4.84

3.3

ln( )

6.8

8 T 1=5046.2=3.8

T 2=35.129.5=5.6

3.85.6

T lm= =4.64

3.8

ln( )

5.6

10 T 1=5045.7=4.3

T 2=3429.5=4.5

4.34.5

T lm= =4.40

4.3

ln( )

4.5

Table 8.5

Tlm, C

rate, LPM

2 T 1=48.541.5=7

T 2=31.229.6=1.6

71.6

T lm= =3.66

7

( )

ln

1.6

4 T 1=48.443.1=5.3

T 2=32.429.6=2.8

5.32.8

T lm= =3.92

5.3

ln( )

2.8

6 T 1=48.543.2=5.3

T 2=32.929.6=3.3

5.33.3

T lm= =4.22

5.3

ln( )

3.3

8 T 1=48.644.4=4.2

T 2=33.629.5=4.1

4.24.1

T lm= =4.15

4.2

ln( )

4.1

10 T 1=48.345=3.3

T 2=34.429.6=4.8

3.34.8

T lm= =4.00

3.3

ln( )

4.8

Table 8.6

COEFFICIENTS BY KERNS METHOD

a) Cross section flow area, A

2

di

4

3.142 0.007752

4

0.0000472 m2

b) Total cross section flow area, At

0.0000472 m2 10

0.000472 m2

c) Mass velocity, Gt

m

t

At

0.1647

0.000472

kg

349.13 (for constant hot water flow rate)

m2 . s

m

0.0329 Gt = t

At

0.0329

0.000472

kg

69.70

m2 . s

mt

0.0659 Gt =

At

0.0659

0.000472

kg

139.62

m2 . s

mt

0.0988 Gt =

At

0.0988

0.000472

kg

209.32

m2 . s

mt

0.1318 Gt =

At

0.1318

0.000472

kg

279.24

m2 . s

mt

0.1647 Gt =

At

0.1647

0.000472

kg

384.94

m2 . s

Table 8.7

d) Linear velocity, Ut

G

t

349.13

988.18

m

0.3533 (constant hot water flow rate)

s

G

69.70 Ut= t

69.70

988.18

m

0.07053

s

Gt

139.62 Ut=

139.62

988.18

m

0.1413

s

Gt

209.32 Ut=

209.32

988.18

m

0.2118

s

Gt

279.24 Ut=

279.24

988.18

m

0.2826

s

Gt

384.94 Ut=

384.94

988.18

m

0.3895

s

Table 8.8

e) Reynolds Number, Re

G d

t i

349.13 0.00775

0.0005494

69.70 Gt d i

=

69.70 0.00775

0.0005494

983.21

139.62 Gt d i

=

139.62 0.00775

0.0005494

1969.52

209.32 Gt d i

=

209.32 0.00775

0.0005494

2952.73

279.24 Gt d i

=

279.24 0.00775

0.0005494

3939.0

384.94 Gt d i

=

384.94 0.00775

0.0005494

5430.08

Table 8.9

f) Prandtl number, Pr

Cp

k

0.0005494 4175

0.6436

3.56

g) Tube side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.0039 (From Fig. C.2, Appendix C)

j h Pr 0.33 k

di

0.33

0.0039 4924.8 3.56 0.6436

0.0075

W

2506.0 (constant hot water flow rate)

m2 . K

Re

jh Pr 0.33 k

983.21 hi=

di

0.0039 983.21 3.560.33 0.6436

0.0075

W

500.32 2

m .K

jh Pr 0.33 k

1969.52 hi =

di

0.33

0.0039 1969.52 3.56 0.6436

0.0075

W

1002.21

m2 . K

0.33

j Pr k

2952.73 hi= h

di

0.33

0.0039 2952.73 3.56 0.6436

0.0075

W

1502.52

m2 . K

jh Pr 0.33 k

3939.0 hi =

di

0.0075

W

2004.40 2

m .K

jh Pr 0.33 k

5430.08 hi=

di

0.0075

W

2763.15

m2 . K

Table 8.10

[ ( Tube pitchTube OD ) x ( Shell Diameter ) x ( Baffle distance ) ]

Tube pitch

(189.53)(85)(50)

18

2

0.002 m

b) Mass velocity, Gs

W

0.0332 G s= s

As

0.0332

0.002

kg

16.60

m2 . s

Ws

0.0631 G s=

As

0.0631

0.002

kg

31.55

m2 . s

Ws

0.0929 G s=

As

0.0929

0.002

kg

46.45 2

m .s

Ws

0.1211 G s=

As

0.1211

0.002

kg

60.55 2

m .s

Ws

0.1510 G s=

As

0.1510

0.002

kg

75.50

m2 . s

c) Linear velocity, Us

Gs

16.60 Us=

16.6

995.67

m

0.01667

s

Gs

31.55 Us=

31.55

995.67

m

0.03169

s

Gs

46.45 Us=

46.45

995.67

m

0.04665

s

Gs

60.55 Us=

60.55

995.67

m

0.06081

s

Gs

75.50 Us=

75.50

995.67

m

0.07583

s

Table 8.12

d) Equivalent diameter, de

1.1 2 2

do

( Pt 0.917 d o )

1.1

( 1820.917(9.53)2 )

9.53

27.78 mm

e) Reynolds number, Re

Gd

16.60 = s e

16.6 0.02778

0.0008007

Gsde

31.55 =

31.55 0.02778

0.0008007

1094.62(Laminar flow)

Gsde

46.45 =

46.45 0.02778

0.0008007

1611.57(Laminar flow )

Gsde

60.55 =

60.55 0.02778

0.0008007

2100.76(Laminar flow )

Gsde

75.50 =

75.50 0.02778

0.0008007

2619.45(Laminar flow )

f) Prandtl number, Pr

C p

k

0.0008007 4183

0.6155

5.44

g) Shell side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.023 (From Fig. C.4, Appendix C)

number, Re transfer

factor, jh

0.33

575.9 0.02 jh Pr k

hi=

5 de

0.02778

557.87

hi=

2 9 de

0.33

0.019 1094.625.44 0.6155

0.02778

805.86

hi=

7 5 de

0.02778

936.66

2100.7 0.01 jh Pr 0.33 k

hi =

6 3 de

0.02778

1058.19

hi =

5 1 de

0.33

0.011 2619.45 5.44 0.6155

0.02778

1116.47

Table 8.14

a) Total exchange area, A

number of tube tube outer diameter length of tubes

10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m2

QH

A T lm

QH

0.15 T lm

Proceed equation using the value of QH

W and Tlm available in Table 8.7 and

2

m .K 8.8

water transfer C transfer

flow rate, QH, W coefficient, U,

rate, W / m2 . K

LPM

2 3506.8 5.81 4023.9

4 6257.2 4.94 8444.3

6 9076.4 4.84 12501.9

8 10245.4 4.64 14720.4

10 11001.7 4.40 16669.2

Table 8.15

QH 3506.8 W

U= = =4023.9 2

A T lm 0.15 5.81 m .K

QH 6257.2 W

U= = =8444.3 2

A T lm 0.15 4.94 m .K

QH 9076.4 W

U= = =12501.9 2

A T lm 0.15 4.84 m .K

QH 10245.4 W

U= = =14720.4 2

A T lm 0.15 4.64 m .K

QH 11001.7 W

U= = =16669.2 2

A T lm 0.15 4.40 m .K

flow rate, transfer C transfer

LPM rate, coefficient,

QH, W U,

W /m2 . K

4 4400.7 3.92 7484.2

6 6436.0 4.22 10167.5

8 8251.3 4.15 13255.1

10 9557.8 4.00 15929.7

Table 8.16

QH 2379.1 W

U= = =4333.5 2

A T lm 0.15 3.66 m .K

QH 4400.7 W

U= = =7484.2 2

A T lm 0.15 3.92 m .K

QH 6436.0 W

U= = =10167.5 2

A T lm 0.15 4.22 m .K

QH 8251.3 W

U= = =13255.1 2

A T lm 0.15 4.15 m .K

QH 9557.8 W

U= = =15929.7 2

A T lm 0.15 4.00 m .K

u2t

[ ( )( ) ]

m

L

Pt =N p 8 jf + 2.5

2 di w

988.18 0.35332

2 [

8 ( 0.0058 )

0.5

(

0.00775 )

+2.5

]

338.8 Pa

2

Ds L U s 0.14

Ps =8 j f

( )( ) ( )

de I B 2 w

3.3 Pa

(The calculations are not shown for each flow rate as the equation too long. But the

values are already tabulated.)

Volumetric flowrate L/min 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

Mass flow kg/s 0.1647 0.1647 0.1647 0.1647 0.1647

Inlet temperature C 49.6 48.8 49.3 50.0 50.0

Outlet temperature C 44.5 39.7 36.1 35.1 34.0

Heat transfer rate, QH J/s 3506.8 6257.2 9076.4 10245.4 11001.7

Pressure drop, DPT1 mmH2O 25.0 25.0 30.0 31.0 30.0

Volumetric flowrate L/min 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Mass flow kg/s 0.0332 0.0631 0.0929 0.1211 0.1510

Inlet temperature C 29.7 29.5 29.3 29.5 29.5

Outlet temperature C 48.1 46.9 46.0 46.2 45.7

Heat transfer rate, QC J/s 2554.5 4831.3 6955.4 9273.8 11245.2

Pressure drop, DPT2 mmH2O 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 204.0

Temperature difference

Hot side inlet T, T1 C 49.6 48.8 49.3 50.0 50.0

Hot side outlet T, T2 C 44.5 39.7 36.1 35.1 34.0

Cold side inlet T, t1 C 29.7 29.5 29.3 29.5 29.5

Cold side outlet T, t2 C 48.1 46.9 46.0 46.2 45.7

T log mean, Tlm C 5.81 4.94 4.84 4.64 4.40

Heat loss, Qnet W 952.3 1425.9 2121.0 971.6 -243.5

Efficiency % 72.84 77.21 76.63 90.52 102.21

coefficient

Total exchange area m2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

Overall heat transfer W/m2.K 4023.9 8444.3 12501.9 14720.4 16669.0

coefficient

Exchanger layout

Tube 1 1 1 1 1

Shell 1 1 1 1 1

Length of tubes m 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Tube ID mm 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75

Tube OD mm 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53

Tube pitch mm 18 18 18 18 18

Tube surface area m2 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150

Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10

Shell diameter mm 85 85 85 85 85

Baffle distance mm 50 50 50 50 50

Tube side

Cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5

Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10

Total cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4

Mass velocity kg/m2.K 348.94 348.94 348.94 348.94 348.94

Linear velocity m/s 0.3531 0.3531 0.3531 0.3531 0.3531

Reynolds 4922.25 4922.25 4922.25 4922.25 4922.25

Prandtl 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56

Type of flow Tubular Tubular Tubular Tubular Tubular

L/ID 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52

Heat transfer factor, jh 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3

Tube side coefficient, ji W/m2.K 2423.94 2423.94 2423.94 2423.94 2423.94

Shell side

Cross section area m2 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3

Mass velocity kg/m2.K 16.6 31.55 46.45 60.55 75.50

Linear velocity m/s 0.01667 0.03169 0.04665 0.06081 0.07583

Equivalent diameter mm 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78

Reynolds 575.9 1094.62 1611.57 2100.76 2619.45

Prandtl 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44

Type of flow Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar

Baffle cut % 20 20 20 20 20

Heat transfer factor, jh 0.025 0.019 0.015 0.013 0.011

Shell side coefficient, hs W/m2.K 557.87 805.86 936.66 1058.19 1116.47

heat exchanger

Tube-side friction factor, jf 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058

Shell-side friction factor,jf 0.098 0.086 0.075 0.072 0.070

Tube-side pressure drop, 338.8 338.8 338.8 338.8 338.8

DPtube (Pa)

Tube-side pressure drop, 25.0 25.0 30.0 31.0 30.0

Dptube (mmH2O)

Shell-side pressure drop, 3.33 11.62 22.85 39.03 59.19

Dpshell (Pa)

Shell-side pressure drop, 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 204.0

Dpshell (mmH2O)

Table 8.17

Volumetric flowrate L/min 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10

Mass flow kg/s 0.0329 0.0659 0.0988 0.1318 0.1647

Inlet temperature C 48.5 48.4 48.5 48.6 48.3

Outlet temperature C 31.2 32.4 32.9 33.6 34.4

Heat transfer rate, QH J/s 2379.1 4400.7 6436.0 8251.3 9557.8

Pressure drop, DPT1 mmH2O 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 13.0

Volumetric flow rate L/min 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

Mass flow kg/s 0.1659 0.1659 0.1659 0.1659 0.1659

Inlet temperature C 29.6 29.6 29.6 29.5 29.6

Outlet temperature C 41.5 43.1 43.2 44.4 45.0

Heat transfer rate, QC J/s 8260.4 9371.0 9440.4 10342.8 10689.9

Pressure drop, DPT2 mmH2O 144.0 134.0 172.0 172.0 170.0

Temperature difference

Hot side inlet T, T1 C 48.5 48.4 48.5 48.6 48.3

Hot side outlet T, T2 C 31.2 32.4 32.9 33.6 34.4

Cold side inlet T, t1 C 29.6 29.6 29.6 29.5 29.6

Cold side outlet T, t2 C 41.5 43.1 43.2 44.4 45.0

T log mean, Tlm C 3.66 3.92 4.22 4.15 4.00

Heat loss, Qnet W -5881.3 -4970.3 -3004.4 -2091.5 -1132.1

Efficiency % 347.2 212.9 146.7 125.3 111.8

coeff

Total exchange area m2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

Overall heat transfer W/m2.K 4333.5 7484.2 10167.5 13255.1 15929.7

coefficient, U

Exchanger layout

Tube 1 1 1 1 1

Shell 1 1 1 1 1

Length of tubes m 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Tube ID mm 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75

Tube OD mm 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53

Tube pitch mm 18 18 18 18 18

Tube surface area m2 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150

Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10

Shell diameter mm 85 85 85 85 85

Baffle distance mm 50 50 50 50 50

Tube side

Cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5

Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10

Total cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4

Mass velocity kg/m2.s 69.70 139.62 209.32 279.24 348.94

Linear velocity m/s 0.07053 0.1413 0.2118 0.2826 0.3895

Reynolds 983.21 1969.52 2952.73 3939.0 5430.08

Prandtl 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56

Type of flow Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar Tubular

L/ID 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52

Heat transfer factor, jh 0.0039 0.0039 0.0039 0.0039 0.0039

Tube coefficient, hi W/m2.K 500.32 1002.21 1502.52 2004.40 2763.15

Shell side

Cross section area m2 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3

Mass velocity kg/m2.s 75.50 75.50 75.50 75.50 75.50

Linear velocity m/s 0.07583 0.07583 0.07583 0.07583 0.07583

Equivalent diameter mm 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78

Reynolds 2619.45 2619.45 2619.45 2619.45 2619.45

Prandtl 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44

Type of flow Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar

Baffle cut % 20 20 20 20 20

Heat transfer factor, jh 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012

Shell coefficient, hs W/m2.K 1116.47 1116.47 1116.47 1116.47 1116.47

heat exchanger

Tube-side friction factor, jf 0.022 0.017 0.015 0.013 0.011

Shell-side friction factor,jf 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07

Tube-side pressure drop, 34.02 111.22 227.01 363.41 503.75

DPtube (Pa)

Tube-side pressure drop, 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 13.0

DPtube (mmH2O)

Shell-side pressure drop, 59.19 59.19 59.19 59.19 59.19

DPshell (Pa)

Shell-side pressure drop, 144 134 172 172 170

DPshell (mmH2O)

Table 8.18

9. DISCUSSION

Heat exchangers are devices that used to transfer heat from hot liquid to cold

liquid. Tube wall used to separate the liquid in order to prevent mixing. There are a few factors

that can affect the working of heat exchanger such as the fluid properties, the mass flow rates,

inlet temperature of the fluid, the physical properties of the heat exchanger materials and the

ambient condition. Based on this experiment, we used shell and tube heat exchanger where the

flow of water can be set to be in counter current or co-current flow. So we used counter current

flow where hot water will flow inside the tube whereas the cold water flow inside the shell

counter currently. So when there is temperature gradient heat from hot water will be transferred

to cold water via convection and conduction. The objective that we have been purposed for this

experiment is to calculate the heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance study and also to

determine the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients.

We were calculating the heat loads of the manipulated data in order to calculate

the heat loss to the surrounding during experiment. Based from the Table 8.17 (constant hot water

flow rate) the heat loss is 952.3, 1425.9, 2121.0, 971.6 and -243.5 W which is increasing then

decreasing. The actual result should be as the flow rate of cold water is increasing the heat loss is

increasing. This shows that as the flow rate increase the heat transfer from hot water to the cold

water decrease whereas heat absorbed by the cold water increase. But based from our result

maybe the flow of water in the tube is not fully occupied and affected our results. Moreover

based from the Table 8.17 we could see that the cold water outlet temperature is 48.1, 46.9, 46.0,

46.2, 45.7 which is decreasing and approaching the hot water temperature at 50C. This is due to

the increasing flow rate of cold water. As the cold water flow rate increase, the LMTD values are

decreasing. LMTD is a logarithmic average of the temperature difference

between the hot and cold feeds at each end of the shell and tube heat

exchanger.

Based from the Table 8.18, the heat release by the hot water is increasing as the

flow rate of hot water increase whereas the heat absorbed by the cold water is increase too as the

hot water increase in flow rate. So logically this is logic as more heat transfer to the cold water

more heat absorb by the cold water. But the heat release to the surrounding also decreasing as the

hot water flow rate increase. The LMTD value also increases as the hot water flow rate increase.

Basically heat transfer release by hot water must be equal to heat transfer

absorbed by the cold water. But there is no 100% efficiency of machinery and there still heat loss

occurs to the surrounding. Heat loss to the surrounding can be prevented or be lessened by good

heat insulators around the shell.

Next, the overall heat transfer coefficients, U, are also calculated

in this experiment to determine the total thermal resistance of heat transfer

between the two fluids. Based from the Table 8.17 and Table 8.18, as the

LMTD values are decreasing, the values for overall heat transfer, U are

increasing. This is because U and LMTD are inversely proportional to each

other. The total resistance experience in transferring heat or U vale could be

decreased by increasing the heat area transfer.

Finally, based from the Table 8.17 and Table 8.18 the pressure drops of cold

water increases significantly as the cold water flow rate increases and the

pressure drops of hot water also increases as the hot water flow rate

increases. Pressure drop is directly proportional to the flow rate of water. Due

to the friction of the constant wall diameter, fluid flow that touches the wall

surface will produce the shear stress.

10. CONCLUSION

As conclusion, the higher the flow rate of water the higher the shear stress occurs across

the surface of the wall surface. Moreover, the outlet temperature of cold water must be higher

than outlet hot water as heat has been transferred via counter current flow. Based from the result

of the experiment, we could say that as the cold water flow rate increases, the heat transfer rate

also increases. Due to the data taken, the most reasonable and suitable data used in order to

design good heat exchanger is by manipulate the flow rate of the cold water flow rate. Based

from the calculation of heat loads and heat loss, the data not very accurate but still we can

observe the pattern of the relation between water flow rate and the heat loads value. Furthermore,

the pressure drop across the tube and shell of the heat exchanger has been calculated and

determined. Finally the heat transfer convection coefficient for the tube and shell side has been

calculated and determined. Besides, heat loss still happen in any other heat exchanger because

there is no perfect heat insulator.

11. RECOMMENDATIONS

1. In order to get very accurate data of heat transfer, the heat exchanger must be well insulated

in order to prevent heat loss.

2. Water must be completely filled in the tube and shell so that heat transfer is perfectly occurs

to the water and not to the air in the bubble that trapped.

3. Before proceeding the experiment, let the flow rate of hot and cold water to be flowed freely

at the highest flow rate to prevent any bubble trapped.

4. The interval of 10 minutes between flow rates must be strictly followed as we want to

calculate heat transferred within 10 minutes.

5. The flow rate of the water need to be set carefully and precisely as the flow rate and heat

loads relation is very important.

12. REFERENCES

1. "How Is Heat Transferred? Conduction -- Convection -- Radiation". Edinformatics.com.

N.p., 2016. Web. 10 Nov. 2016. Extracted from:

http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/how_is_heat_transferred.htm

2. Bentley, Robin E. Temperature And Humidity Measurement. Singapore: Springer, 1998.

Print.

3. Cengel, Yunus A and Afshin J Ghajar. Heat And Mass Transfer. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.:

McGraw-Hill, 2015. Print.

13. APPENDIX

Figure 13.1: the heat exchanger complete experiment set.

Figure 13.2: Shell and tube part where the experiment is running.

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