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# FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

## PROCESS ENGINEERING LAB 2 (CPE 554)

NAME :
STUDENT ID. :
GROUP : EH2425B
EXPERIMENT TITLE : SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
DATE PERFORMED : 11TH NOVEMBER 2016
DATE OF SUBMISSION : 25TH NOVEMBER 2016
LECTURER : ENCIK FITRI BIN OTHMAN
No Remarks
Title Marks
.
1 Abstract/Summary 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Aims/Objective 5
4 Theory 10
5 Apparatus 5
6 Methodology/Procedure 10
7 Results 10
8 Calculations 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusion 10
11 Recommendation 5
12 Reference/Appendix 5
Total marks 100

## Checked by: Date:

............
(ENCIK FITRI BIN OTHMAN)
1. ABSTRACT
In experiment we are going to study the theory related how heat is transferred in the heat
exchanger tube and shell. Basically heat exchanger is widely used in the industry in order for the
engineer to make heat transfer between two materials or more without using heater. So
economically budget for the company. There are two types of flow used in heat exchanger which
is counter current flow or co current flow. But in this experiment we choose to use the counter
flow current. The hot water temperature was set to be at 50C. The cold water was at room
temperature which is at 37C. When there is temperature gradient, heat transfer could be
occurring. These water temperatures are controlled at the control panel board. Hence the main
reason for this experiment is to reduce the temperature of the hot water by contacting with the
cold water on the surface of the tube. The hot water flow inside the tube whereas the cold water
flows in the shells that embed the tube. The flow rate of the hot water was set to be constant at 10
LPM. Then we manipulate the flow rate of the cold water from 2 LPM until 10 LPM within 10
minutes interval. After that, we set the cold water flow rate to be constant at 10 LPM. The same
thing like before where we change the flow rate of hot water from 2 LPM until 10 LPM. After 10
minutes for each flow rate, we will record the data which are TT1, hot outlet, TT2, cold inlet,
TT3, cold outlet, TT4, hot inlet, DPT1 and DPT2 directly from the control panel reading. Finally
we have to determine the effect of flow rate towards the heat transfer activity and the pressure
drop measurement.

2. INTRODUCTION
Heat exchangers are widely used in the chemical process industry. In order for engineer to
reduce or increase the heat of certain material, the heat exchanger could be used to solve the
problem. So company no need to buy heater or cooler. Moreover, there are two different
temperatures of the water hence there is temperature gradient and heat transfer could be occurred.
Talking about heat exchanger it means that the water does not mix together. But the hot water
flow in the tubes whereas the cold water flows in the shell. But the flow is in counter current.
Heat also move from hot region water to cold region water. In heat exchanger we take into
account the conduction and convection. But radiation is just neglected because we do the
experiment in the lab. Conduction occurs between water to the surface of the tube. Convection
occurs from the wall tube to the water body.

3. OBJECTIVES
a) To study the effect of different flow rate on heat exchanger.
b) To study the outlet temperature of the fluids at different flow
arrangement; counter flow current and co current.
c) To study the pressure drop at the tube shell section.
d) To calculate the heat load and heat balance, LMTD and overall heat transfer coefficient.
e) To study the working fluid principle in the heat exchanger.

4. THEORY
Before we proceed any further, we need to understand how heat is transferred?
What is heat? What is temperature?

Heat energy is resulted by the movement and vibration of particle of liquid, solid
and gas. The movement and vibration of the particles are translation, rotational and vibrational
mean. The motion of the particle creates heat or thermal energy. The movement of the particle
will give a coldness or hotness to a certain object. The more vigorous the movement of the
particle, the more heat energy stored. Temperature is temperature can be thought of as a measure
of the average energy of motion (kinetic energy) of the atom or molecule that makes up a
substance (Bentley, 24, 1998).

There are three ways of heat transfer where heat is transferred when temperature
gradient is exists. There are conduction, convection and radiation. Both conduction and
convection require matter to transfer heat.

Conduction is the transfer of heat through the contact of substance. The better the
conductivity of material the better the heat transfer through it. Particle in material will vibrate
rapidly when they gain heat energy and bump into nearby particle and transfer some of the heat
energy. This process take over from hot region to the cold region until equilibrium of temperature
occur. The equation of heat conduction expressed in the differential form by Fouriers law of heat
conduction which is:
cond=kA dT
Q
dx

## - k is the thermal conductivity of material (measure ability material to conduct

heat).
- dT/dx is the temperature gradient.
- A is surface area.

Convection occurs when warmer region of fluid (liquid or gas) move to cooler
region of fluid (liquid or gas). Cooler region then takes place the warmer region where the initial
warmer region rises to the upper part of fluid. This cycle keep continue until the entire fluid get
hot. The best example is the water boiling in the water kettle where the hot water region keep
rising to the cooler region bit by bit and forming a cycle. Despite the complexity of convection,
the rate of convection heat transfer is observed to be proportional to the temperature difference
and is conveniently expressed by Newtons law of cooling (Cengel and Ghajar, 378, 2015).
W
q conv =h ( T sT ) 2
m ( )
conv =h A s ( T sT ) ( W )
Q

W
- h is convection heat transfer coefficient, 2
m .K
- As heat transfer surface area, m2
- Ts is temperature of the surface, C
- T is temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface, C

Radiation is the heat transfer through the empty space by thermal radiation often
called infrared radiation. A type of electromagnetic radiation. The heat transfer does not depend
on the contact of any surface. No mass exchanged and no medium is required. The most common
example is the radiation of sun ray. It has proven useful to view electromagnetic radiation as the
propagation of collection of discrete packets of energy called photons or quanta as proposed by
Max Planck in 1900 in conjunction with his quantum theory (Cengel and Ghajar, 378, 2015).

hc
e=hv=

- e is energy
34
- h is Plansks constant 6.626069 10 J . s
- is electromagnetic wavelength

Fouling factor in heat exchanger will give vast effect on the heat transfer
effectiveness with time. This is because there is accumulation of deposits on heat transfer
surface. The layer of deposit will give additional resistance for the heat to transfer. The net effect
of the accumulations on heat transfer is represented by the fouling factor Rf, which is the measure
of the thermal resistance introduce by fouling (Cengel and Ghajar, 378, 2015). The most common
deposit that always happens is the precipitation of solid deposits in a fluid that stick on the heat
transfer surface.

## Heat exchanger commonly used the conduction and convection in order to

transfer heat from hotter region to the colder region. Any radiation effects are usually included in
the convection heat transfer coefficient. So thats why we are going to calculate the value of U,
overall heat transfer coefficient in order to include the radiation effect in our calculation.
Figure 4.1: Thermal resistance network associated with heat transfer in a double
pipe heat exchanger.

Do
ln
1 Di 1
R=R total=Ri + Rwall + Ro = + +
h i Ai 2 kL h o A o

## - k is the thermal conductivity of the wall material.

- L is the length of the tube.
- Ai area of the inner surface of the wall that separates two fluids.
- Ao area of the outer surface of the wall.

A i= Di L

A o = Do L

It is very convenient to put all the resistance into single resistance, R into the
equation. So rate of heat transfer between two fluids is :
T =U A s T =U i A i T =U o A o T
Q=
R

Log mean temperature difference is conveniently being used for the average
temperature difference for use in the analysis of heat exchangers.
T 1 T 2
T lm=
T1
ln
T2

Heat exchanger has two type of flow which is co current and counter current.
Figure 4.2: Type of flow with graph of temperature across the tube.

5. APPARATUS

6. PROCEDURES

## General start up procedure

1. A quick inspection was performed to make sure the equipment is in a proper working
condition.
2. All the valves were closed, except V1 and V12.
3. Hot water tank was filled up via a water supply hose that has been connected to valve
V27. When the tank was full, the valve was closed.
4. The cold water tank was filled up by opening the V28 and the opened valve was left for
continuous water supply.
5. The drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point.
6. The main power was switched on. The heater for the hot water was switched on and the
point of the temperature controller was set to 50.
7. The water temperature in the hot water tank was allowed to reach the set point.
8. The equipment was ready to be run.

## Counter current shell and tube heat exchanger

1. The valves that control the counter current flow of water inside the shell and tube heat
exchanger were set.
2. P1 and P2 pumps were switched on.
3. V3 and V5 valves were opened and adjusted in order to obtain the counter current flow
rate for cold and hot water.
4. First the flow rate of hot water was set to be constant at all time at 10 LPM while the flow
rate of cold water was set differently at 2, 4, 6 and 8 LPM.
5. The system was let about 10 minutes to be stabled.
6. The reading of control temperature and pressure drop FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3, and TT4
and DPT and DPT2 were recorded.
7. The 3-5 steps were repeated and changed with constant cold water at all time at 10 LPM.
The flow rate of hot water being changed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 LPM.

## General shut down procedure

1. The heater was switched off. Then, the hot water temperature was waited until
temperature drop below 40 C.
2. The pump P1 and P2 were closed.
3. Main power was switched off.
4. All water in the prices sines was switched off. Retain water in the hot and cold water tank.
5. All valves were closed.

7. RESULTS

## FT 1 FT 2 TT 1, ho TT 2, ci TT3, co TT 4, hi DPT 1 DPT 2

(LPM) (C) (C) (C) (C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)
(LPM)
10 2 44.5 29.7 48.1 49.6 25 5
10 4 39.7 29.5 46.9 48.8 25 5
10 6 36.1 29.3 46.0 49.3 30 5
10 8 35.1 29.5 46.2 50.0 31 5
10 10 34.0 29.5 45.7 50.0 30 204
Table 7.1
ii. Fluid flow rate of cold water is set as constant at 10 LPM

## FT 1 FT 2 TT 1, ho TT 2, ci TT3, co TT 4, hi DPT 1 DPT 2

(LPM) (C) (C) (C) (C) (mmH2O) (mmH2O)
(LPM)
2 10 31.2 29.6 41.5 48.5 2 144
4 10 32.4 29.6 43.1 48.4 2 134
6 10 32.9 29.6 43.2 48.5 2 172
8 10 33.6 29.5 44.4 48.6 3 172
10 10 34.4 29.6 45.0 48.3 13 170
Table 7.2

iii. Heat load and head balance when flow rate of hot water constant at 10 LPM

## FT1 (LPM) FT2 (LPM) QH (W) QC (W)

10 2 3506.8 2554.5
10 4 6257.2 4831.3
10 6 9076.4 6955.4
10 8 10245.4 9273.8
10 10 11001.7 11245.2
Table 7.3

iv. Heat load and balance when flow rate of cold water constant at 10 LPM

## FT1 (LPM) FT2 (LPM) QH (W) QC (W)

2 10 2379.1 8260.4
4 10 4400.7 9371.0
6 10 6436.0 9440.4
8 10 8251.3 10342.8
10 10 9557.8 10689.9
Table 7.4

10 2 5.81
10 4 4.94
10 6 4.84
10 8 4.64
10 10 4.40
Table 7.5

## FT1 (LPM) FT2 (LPM) LMTD (K)

2 10 3.66
4 10 3.92
6 10 4.22
8 10 4.15
10 10 4.00
Table 7.6
8. CALCULATIONS
TYPICAL CHEMICAL DATA AND HEAT EXCHANGER LAYOUT

HOT WATER
Density 988.18 kg/m3
Heat capacity 4175 J/kg.K
Thermal conductivity 0.6436 W/m.K
Viscosity 0.0005494 Pa.s
COLD WATER
Density 995.67 kg/m3
Heat capacity 4183.00 J/kg.K
Thermal conductivity 0.6155 W/m.K
Viscosity 0.0008007 Pa.s

## SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER LAYOUT

Tube 1
Shell 1
Length of tube 0.50 m
Tube internal diameter 7.75 mm
Tube outer diameter 9.53 mm
Tube pitch 18 mm
Tube surface area 0.015 m2
Number of tubes 10
Shell diameter 85 mm
Baffle length 50 mm
Baffle cut 20%

Hot water flow rate set to be constant at 10 LPM

## Flow rate hot

10 10 10 10 10
water, LPM
Flow rate
2 4 6 8 10
cold water,
LPM
Temperature
49.6 44.5 48.8 49.3 50.0 35.1 50.0 34.0
difference,
=5.1 =14.9 =16.0
39.7 36.1
C
=9.1 =13.2
QH, J/s 3506.8 6257.2 9076.4 10245.4 11001.7
Table 8.1
QC =F C C PC ( T 1T 2 )
1.

3
L 1m 1 min kg J J
QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.644.5 ) C=3506.8
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

2.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.839.7 ) C=6257.2
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

3.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 49.336.1 ) =9076.4
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

4.

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 50.035.1 ) =10245.4
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

5.

3
L 1m 1 min kg J J
QH =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 50.034.0 ) =11001.7
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

## Flow rate hot

10 10 10 10 10
water, LPM
Flow rate
2 4 6 8 10
cold water,
LPM
Temperature
48.1 29.7 46.9 46.0 46.2 29.5 45.7 29.5
difference,
=18.4 =16.7 =16.2
29.5 29.3
C
=17.4 =16.7
QC, J/s 2554.5 4831.3 6955.4 9273.8 11245.2
Table 8.2
QC =F C C PC ( t 2t 1 )

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
1.QC =2 995.67 3 4183 ( 48.129.7 ) =2554.5
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s
3
L 1m 1 min kg J J
2.QC =4 995.67 3 4183 ( 46.929.5 ) =4831.3
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s
L 1 m3 1min kg J J
3.QC =6 995.67 3 4183 ( 46.029.3 ) =6955.4
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
4. QC =8 995.67 3 4183 ( 46.229.5 ) =9273.8
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
5.QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 45.729.5 )=11245.2
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

## Flow rate hot

2 4 6 8 10
water, LPM
Flow rate
10 10 10 10 10
cold water,
LPM
Temperature
48.5 31.2 48.4 48.5 48.6 33.6 48.3 34.4
difference,
=17.3 =15.0 =13.9
32.4 32.9
C
=16.0 =15.6
QH, J/s 2379.1 4400.7 6436.0 8251.3 9557.8
Table 8.3
QC =F C C PC ( T 1T 2 )

L 1m3 1min kg J J
1.Q H =2 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.531.2 ) C=2379.1
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

L 1m 3 1 min kg J J
2.Q H =4 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.432.4 ) C=4400.7
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . C s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
3.Q H =6 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.532.9 ) =6436.0
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

L 1 m3 1 min kg J J
4. Q H =8 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.633.6 ) =8251.3
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s
3
L 1m 1 min kg J J
5.Q H =10 988.18 3 4175 ( 48.334.4 ) =9557.8
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

## Flow rate hot

2 4 6 8 10
water, LPM
Flow rate
10 10 10 10 10
cold water,
LPM
Temperature
41.5 29.6 43.1 43.2 44.4 29.5 45.0 29.6
difference,
=11.9 =14.9 =15.4
29.6 29.6
C
=13.5 =13.6
QC, J/s 8260.4 9371.0 9440.4 10342.8 10689.9
Table 8.4
QC =F C C PC ( t 2t 1 )

1.

L 1m3 1 min kg J J
QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 41.529.6 ) =8260.4
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

2.

3
L 1m 1 min kg J J
QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 43.129.6 ) =9371.0
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

3.

3
L 1m 1 min kg J J
QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 43.229.6 ) =9440.4
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

4.

L 1m3 1 min kg J J
QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 44.429.5 ) =10342.8
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

5.

L 1m3 1 min kg J J
QC =10 995.67 3 4183 ( 45.029.6 ) =10689.9
min 1000 L 60 s m kg . s

## ii. CALCULATION OF LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE, Tlm

T 1 T 2
T lm =
T1
ln
T2 ( )
h ,T c ,out
T 1=T

c ,
T 2=T h ,out T
Hot water flow rate set to be constant at 10 LPM

## Cold water flow

Tlm, C
rate, LPM
2 T 1=49.648.1=1.5

T 2=44.529.7=14.8

1.514.8
T lm= =5.81
1.5
ln( )
14.8

4 T 1=48.846.9=1.9

T 2=39.729.5=10.2

1.910.2
T lm = =4.94
1.9
ln( )
10.2

6 T 1=49.346.0=3.3

T 2=36.129.3=6.8

3.36.8
T lm= =4.84
3.3
ln( )
6.8

8 T 1=5046.2=3.8

T 2=35.129.5=5.6

3.85.6
T lm= =4.64
3.8
ln( )
5.6

10 T 1=5045.7=4.3

T 2=3429.5=4.5

4.34.5
T lm= =4.40
4.3
ln( )
4.5

Table 8.5

## Hot water flow

Tlm, C
rate, LPM
2 T 1=48.541.5=7
T 2=31.229.6=1.6

71.6
T lm= =3.66
7
( )
ln
1.6

4 T 1=48.443.1=5.3

T 2=32.429.6=2.8

5.32.8
T lm= =3.92
5.3
ln( )
2.8

6 T 1=48.543.2=5.3

T 2=32.929.6=3.3

5.33.3
T lm= =4.22
5.3
ln( )
3.3

8 T 1=48.644.4=4.2

T 2=33.629.5=4.1

4.24.1
T lm= =4.15
4.2
ln( )
4.1

10 T 1=48.345=3.3

T 2=34.429.6=4.8

3.34.8
T lm= =4.00
3.3
ln( )
4.8

Table 8.6

## iii. CALCULATION OF THE TUBE AND SHELL HEAT TRANSFER

COEFFICIENTS BY KERNS METHOD

## Heat transfer coefficient at tube side

a) Cross section flow area, A
2
di

4

3.142 0.007752

4

0.0000472 m2
b) Total cross section flow area, At
0.0000472 m2 10

0.000472 m2

c) Mass velocity, Gt
m
t
At

0.1647

0.000472
kg
349.13 (for constant hot water flow rate)
m2 . s

## Mass flow rate, mt, kg/s Mass velocity, Gt, kg/m2.s

m
0.0329 Gt = t
At

0.0329

0.000472
kg
69.70
m2 . s
mt
0.0659 Gt =
At

0.0659

0.000472
kg
139.62
m2 . s
mt
0.0988 Gt =
At

0.0988

0.000472
kg
209.32
m2 . s
mt
0.1318 Gt =
At

0.1318

0.000472
kg
279.24
m2 . s
mt
0.1647 Gt =
At

0.1647

0.000472
kg
384.94
m2 . s
Table 8.7

d) Linear velocity, Ut
G
t

349.13

988.18
m
0.3533 (constant hot water flow rate)
s

## Mass velocity, Gt, kg/m2,s Linear velocity, Ut, m/s

G
69.70 Ut= t

69.70

988.18
m
0.07053
s
Gt
139.62 Ut=

139.62

988.18
m
0.1413
s
Gt
209.32 Ut=

209.32

988.18
m
0.2118
s
Gt
279.24 Ut=

279.24

988.18
m
0.2826
s
Gt
384.94 Ut=

384.94

988.18
m
0.3895
s

Table 8.8

e) Reynolds Number, Re
G d
t i

349.13 0.00775

0.0005494

## Mass velocity, Gt, kg/m2.s Reynolds number

69.70 Gt d i
=

69.70 0.00775

0.0005494
983.21

139.62 Gt d i
=

139.62 0.00775

0.0005494
1969.52

209.32 Gt d i
=

209.32 0.00775

0.0005494
2952.73

279.24 Gt d i
=

279.24 0.00775

0.0005494
3939.0

384.94 Gt d i
=

384.94 0.00775

0.0005494
5430.08

Table 8.9

f) Prandtl number, Pr
Cp

k
0.0005494 4175

0.6436
3.56

g) Tube side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.0039 (From Fig. C.2, Appendix C)

## h) Tube side coefficient, hi

j h Pr 0.33 k

di
0.33
0.0039 4924.8 3.56 0.6436

0.0075
W
2506.0 (constant hot water flow rate)
m2 . K

## Reynolds number, Tube side coefficient, hi, W/m2.K

Re
jh Pr 0.33 k
983.21 hi=
di
0.0039 983.21 3.560.33 0.6436

0.0075
W
500.32 2
m .K

jh Pr 0.33 k
1969.52 hi =
di
0.33
0.0039 1969.52 3.56 0.6436

0.0075
W
1002.21
m2 . K
0.33
j Pr k
2952.73 hi= h
di
0.33
0.0039 2952.73 3.56 0.6436

0.0075
W
1502.52
m2 . K

jh Pr 0.33 k
3939.0 hi =
di

0.0075
W
2004.40 2
m .K

jh Pr 0.33 k
5430.08 hi=
di

0.0075
W
2763.15
m2 . K
Table 8.10

## a) Cross Flow Area, As

[ ( Tube pitchTube OD ) x ( Shell Diameter ) x ( Baffle distance ) ]
Tube pitch

(189.53)(85)(50)

18
2
0.002 m

b) Mass velocity, Gs

## Mass flow rate, Ws, kg/s Mass velocity, Gs, kg/m2.s

W
0.0332 G s= s
As

0.0332

0.002
kg
16.60
m2 . s

Ws
0.0631 G s=
As

0.0631

0.002
kg
31.55
m2 . s

Ws
0.0929 G s=
As

0.0929

0.002
kg
46.45 2
m .s

Ws
0.1211 G s=
As

0.1211

0.002
kg
60.55 2
m .s

Ws
0.1510 G s=
As

0.1510

0.002
kg
75.50
m2 . s

c) Linear velocity, Us

## Mass velocity, Gs, kg/m2.s Linear velocity, Us, m/s

Gs
16.60 Us=

16.6

995.67
m
0.01667
s

Gs
31.55 Us=

31.55

995.67
m
0.03169
s

Gs
46.45 Us=

46.45

995.67
m
0.04665
s

Gs
60.55 Us=

60.55

995.67
m
0.06081
s

Gs
75.50 Us=

75.50

995.67
m
0.07583
s
Table 8.12

d) Equivalent diameter, de
1.1 2 2

do
( Pt 0.917 d o )

1.1
( 1820.917(9.53)2 )
9.53
27.78 mm

e) Reynolds number, Re

Gd
16.60 = s e

16.6 0.02778

0.0008007

## 575.9( Laminar flow)

Gsde
31.55 =

31.55 0.02778

0.0008007

1094.62(Laminar flow)

Gsde
46.45 =

46.45 0.02778

0.0008007

1611.57(Laminar flow )

Gsde
60.55 =

60.55 0.02778

0.0008007

2100.76(Laminar flow )

Gsde
75.50 =

75.50 0.02778

0.0008007

2619.45(Laminar flow )

f) Prandtl number, Pr
C p

k
0.0008007 4183

0.6155
5.44

g) Shell side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.023 (From Fig. C.4, Appendix C)

## Reynolds Heat Shell side coefficient, hi, W/m2.K

number, Re transfer
factor, jh
0.33
575.9 0.02 jh Pr k
hi=
5 de

0.02778
557.87

## 1094.6 0.01 jh Pr 0.33 k

hi=
2 9 de
0.33
0.019 1094.625.44 0.6155

0.02778
805.86

hi=
7 5 de

## 0.015 1611.57 5.44 0.33 0.6155

0.02778
936.66
2100.7 0.01 jh Pr 0.33 k
hi =
6 3 de

0.02778
1058.19

## 2619.4 0.01 jh Pr 0.33 k

hi =
5 1 de
0.33
0.011 2619.45 5.44 0.6155

0.02778
1116.47

Table 8.14

## Calcuation of overall heat transfer coefficient

a) Total exchange area, A
number of tube tube outer diameter length of tubes
10 0.00953 0.5

0.15 m2

## b) Overall heat transfer coefficient, U

QH

A T lm

QH

0.15 T lm
Proceed equation using the value of QH
W and Tlm available in Table 8.7 and
2
m .K 8.8

## Cold Heat Tlm, Overall heat

water transfer C transfer
flow rate, QH, W coefficient, U,
rate, W / m2 . K
LPM
2 3506.8 5.81 4023.9
4 6257.2 4.94 8444.3
6 9076.4 4.84 12501.9
8 10245.4 4.64 14720.4
10 11001.7 4.40 16669.2
Table 8.15

QH 3506.8 W
U= = =4023.9 2
A T lm 0.15 5.81 m .K

QH 6257.2 W
U= = =8444.3 2
A T lm 0.15 4.94 m .K

QH 9076.4 W
U= = =12501.9 2
A T lm 0.15 4.84 m .K

QH 10245.4 W
U= = =14720.4 2
A T lm 0.15 4.64 m .K

QH 11001.7 W
U= = =16669.2 2
A T lm 0.15 4.40 m .K

## Hot water Heat Tlm, Overall heat

flow rate, transfer C transfer
LPM rate, coefficient,
QH, W U,
W /m2 . K

## 2 2379.1 3.66 4333.5

4 4400.7 3.92 7484.2
6 6436.0 4.22 10167.5
8 8251.3 4.15 13255.1
10 9557.8 4.00 15929.7
Table 8.16

QH 2379.1 W
U= = =4333.5 2
A T lm 0.15 3.66 m .K

QH 4400.7 W
U= = =7484.2 2
A T lm 0.15 3.92 m .K

QH 6436.0 W
U= = =10167.5 2
A T lm 0.15 4.22 m .K
QH 8251.3 W
U= = =13255.1 2
A T lm 0.15 4.15 m .K

QH 9557.8 W
U= = =15929.7 2
A T lm 0.15 4.00 m .K

## iv) CALCULATION OF PRESSURE DROP ACROSS TUBE AND SHELL

u2t
[ ( )( ) ]
m
L
Pt =N p 8 jf + 2.5
2 di w

988.18 0.35332
2 [
8 ( 0.0058 )
0.5
(
0.00775 )
+2.5
]
338.8 Pa

2
Ds L U s 0.14
Ps =8 j f
( )( ) ( )
de I B 2 w

3.3 Pa

(The calculations are not shown for each flow rate as the equation too long. But the

## Hot fluid (Tube): Water

Volumetric flowrate L/min 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Mass flow kg/s 0.1647 0.1647 0.1647 0.1647 0.1647
Inlet temperature C 49.6 48.8 49.3 50.0 50.0
Outlet temperature C 44.5 39.7 36.1 35.1 34.0
Heat transfer rate, QH J/s 3506.8 6257.2 9076.4 10245.4 11001.7
Pressure drop, DPT1 mmH2O 25.0 25.0 30.0 31.0 30.0

## Cold fluid (Shell): Water

Volumetric flowrate L/min 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
Mass flow kg/s 0.0332 0.0631 0.0929 0.1211 0.1510
Inlet temperature C 29.7 29.5 29.3 29.5 29.5
Outlet temperature C 48.1 46.9 46.0 46.2 45.7
Heat transfer rate, QC J/s 2554.5 4831.3 6955.4 9273.8 11245.2
Pressure drop, DPT2 mmH2O 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 204.0

Temperature difference
Hot side inlet T, T1 C 49.6 48.8 49.3 50.0 50.0
Hot side outlet T, T2 C 44.5 39.7 36.1 35.1 34.0
Cold side inlet T, t1 C 29.7 29.5 29.3 29.5 29.5
Cold side outlet T, t2 C 48.1 46.9 46.0 46.2 45.7
T log mean, Tlm C 5.81 4.94 4.84 4.64 4.40
Heat loss, Qnet W 952.3 1425.9 2121.0 971.6 -243.5
Efficiency % 72.84 77.21 76.63 90.52 102.21

## Overall heat transfer

coefficient
Total exchange area m2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Overall heat transfer W/m2.K 4023.9 8444.3 12501.9 14720.4 16669.0
coefficient

Exchanger layout
Tube 1 1 1 1 1
Shell 1 1 1 1 1
Length of tubes m 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Tube ID mm 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75
Tube OD mm 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53
Tube pitch mm 18 18 18 18 18
Tube surface area m2 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150
Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10
Shell diameter mm 85 85 85 85 85
Baffle distance mm 50 50 50 50 50

Tube side
Cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5
Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10
Total cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4
Mass velocity kg/m2.K 348.94 348.94 348.94 348.94 348.94
Linear velocity m/s 0.3531 0.3531 0.3531 0.3531 0.3531
Reynolds 4922.25 4922.25 4922.25 4922.25 4922.25
Prandtl 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56
Type of flow Tubular Tubular Tubular Tubular Tubular
L/ID 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52
Heat transfer factor, jh 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3 3.9 x 10-3
Tube side coefficient, ji W/m2.K 2423.94 2423.94 2423.94 2423.94 2423.94

Shell side
Cross section area m2 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3
Mass velocity kg/m2.K 16.6 31.55 46.45 60.55 75.50
Linear velocity m/s 0.01667 0.03169 0.04665 0.06081 0.07583
Equivalent diameter mm 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78
Reynolds 575.9 1094.62 1611.57 2100.76 2619.45
Prandtl 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44
Type of flow Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar
Baffle cut % 20 20 20 20 20
Heat transfer factor, jh 0.025 0.019 0.015 0.013 0.011
Shell side coefficient, hs W/m2.K 557.87 805.86 936.66 1058.19 1116.47

## Pressure drops across

heat exchanger
Tube-side friction factor, jf 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058
Shell-side friction factor,jf 0.098 0.086 0.075 0.072 0.070
Tube-side pressure drop, 338.8 338.8 338.8 338.8 338.8
DPtube (Pa)
Tube-side pressure drop, 25.0 25.0 30.0 31.0 30.0
Dptube (mmH2O)
Shell-side pressure drop, 3.33 11.62 22.85 39.03 59.19
Dpshell (Pa)
Shell-side pressure drop, 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 204.0
Dpshell (mmH2O)

Table 8.17

## Hot fluid (Tube): Water

Volumetric flowrate L/min 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10
Mass flow kg/s 0.0329 0.0659 0.0988 0.1318 0.1647
Inlet temperature C 48.5 48.4 48.5 48.6 48.3
Outlet temperature C 31.2 32.4 32.9 33.6 34.4
Heat transfer rate, QH J/s 2379.1 4400.7 6436.0 8251.3 9557.8
Pressure drop, DPT1 mmH2O 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 13.0

## Cold fluid (Shell): Water

Volumetric flow rate L/min 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Mass flow kg/s 0.1659 0.1659 0.1659 0.1659 0.1659
Inlet temperature C 29.6 29.6 29.6 29.5 29.6
Outlet temperature C 41.5 43.1 43.2 44.4 45.0
Heat transfer rate, QC J/s 8260.4 9371.0 9440.4 10342.8 10689.9
Pressure drop, DPT2 mmH2O 144.0 134.0 172.0 172.0 170.0

Temperature difference
Hot side inlet T, T1 C 48.5 48.4 48.5 48.6 48.3
Hot side outlet T, T2 C 31.2 32.4 32.9 33.6 34.4
Cold side inlet T, t1 C 29.6 29.6 29.6 29.5 29.6
Cold side outlet T, t2 C 41.5 43.1 43.2 44.4 45.0
T log mean, Tlm C 3.66 3.92 4.22 4.15 4.00
Heat loss, Qnet W -5881.3 -4970.3 -3004.4 -2091.5 -1132.1
Efficiency % 347.2 212.9 146.7 125.3 111.8

## Overall heat transfer

coeff
Total exchange area m2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Overall heat transfer W/m2.K 4333.5 7484.2 10167.5 13255.1 15929.7
coefficient, U

Exchanger layout
Tube 1 1 1 1 1
Shell 1 1 1 1 1
Length of tubes m 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Tube ID mm 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75
Tube OD mm 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53 9.53
Tube pitch mm 18 18 18 18 18
Tube surface area m2 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150 0.0150
Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10
Shell diameter mm 85 85 85 85 85
Baffle distance mm 50 50 50 50 50

Tube side
Cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5 4.72 x 10-5
Number of tubes 10 10 10 10 10
Total cross section area m2 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4 4.72 x 10-4
Mass velocity kg/m2.s 69.70 139.62 209.32 279.24 348.94
Linear velocity m/s 0.07053 0.1413 0.2118 0.2826 0.3895
Reynolds 983.21 1969.52 2952.73 3939.0 5430.08
Prandtl 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56 3.56
Type of flow Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar Tubular
L/ID 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52 64.52
Heat transfer factor, jh 0.0039 0.0039 0.0039 0.0039 0.0039
Tube coefficient, hi W/m2.K 500.32 1002.21 1502.52 2004.40 2763.15

Shell side
Cross section area m2 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-3
Mass velocity kg/m2.s 75.50 75.50 75.50 75.50 75.50
Linear velocity m/s 0.07583 0.07583 0.07583 0.07583 0.07583
Equivalent diameter mm 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78 27.78
Reynolds 2619.45 2619.45 2619.45 2619.45 2619.45
Prandtl 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44
Type of flow Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar Laminar
Baffle cut % 20 20 20 20 20
Heat transfer factor, jh 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012
Shell coefficient, hs W/m2.K 1116.47 1116.47 1116.47 1116.47 1116.47

## Pressure drops across

heat exchanger
Tube-side friction factor, jf 0.022 0.017 0.015 0.013 0.011
Shell-side friction factor,jf 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
Tube-side pressure drop, 34.02 111.22 227.01 363.41 503.75
DPtube (Pa)
Tube-side pressure drop, 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 13.0
DPtube (mmH2O)
Shell-side pressure drop, 59.19 59.19 59.19 59.19 59.19
DPshell (Pa)
Shell-side pressure drop, 144 134 172 172 170
DPshell (mmH2O)

Table 8.18
9. DISCUSSION
Heat exchangers are devices that used to transfer heat from hot liquid to cold
liquid. Tube wall used to separate the liquid in order to prevent mixing. There are a few factors
that can affect the working of heat exchanger such as the fluid properties, the mass flow rates,
inlet temperature of the fluid, the physical properties of the heat exchanger materials and the
ambient condition. Based on this experiment, we used shell and tube heat exchanger where the
flow of water can be set to be in counter current or co-current flow. So we used counter current
flow where hot water will flow inside the tube whereas the cold water flow inside the shell
counter currently. So when there is temperature gradient heat from hot water will be transferred
to cold water via convection and conduction. The objective that we have been purposed for this
experiment is to calculate the heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance study and also to
determine the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients.

We were calculating the heat loads of the manipulated data in order to calculate
the heat loss to the surrounding during experiment. Based from the Table 8.17 (constant hot water
flow rate) the heat loss is 952.3, 1425.9, 2121.0, 971.6 and -243.5 W which is increasing then
decreasing. The actual result should be as the flow rate of cold water is increasing the heat loss is
increasing. This shows that as the flow rate increase the heat transfer from hot water to the cold
water decrease whereas heat absorbed by the cold water increase. But based from our result
maybe the flow of water in the tube is not fully occupied and affected our results. Moreover
based from the Table 8.17 we could see that the cold water outlet temperature is 48.1, 46.9, 46.0,
46.2, 45.7 which is decreasing and approaching the hot water temperature at 50C. This is due to
the increasing flow rate of cold water. As the cold water flow rate increase, the LMTD values are
decreasing. LMTD is a logarithmic average of the temperature difference
between the hot and cold feeds at each end of the shell and tube heat
exchanger.

Based from the Table 8.18, the heat release by the hot water is increasing as the
flow rate of hot water increase whereas the heat absorbed by the cold water is increase too as the
hot water increase in flow rate. So logically this is logic as more heat transfer to the cold water
more heat absorb by the cold water. But the heat release to the surrounding also decreasing as the
hot water flow rate increase. The LMTD value also increases as the hot water flow rate increase.

Basically heat transfer release by hot water must be equal to heat transfer
absorbed by the cold water. But there is no 100% efficiency of machinery and there still heat loss
occurs to the surrounding. Heat loss to the surrounding can be prevented or be lessened by good
heat insulators around the shell.
Next, the overall heat transfer coefficients, U, are also calculated
in this experiment to determine the total thermal resistance of heat transfer
between the two fluids. Based from the Table 8.17 and Table 8.18, as the
LMTD values are decreasing, the values for overall heat transfer, U are
increasing. This is because U and LMTD are inversely proportional to each
other. The total resistance experience in transferring heat or U vale could be
decreased by increasing the heat area transfer.

Finally, based from the Table 8.17 and Table 8.18 the pressure drops of cold
water increases significantly as the cold water flow rate increases and the
pressure drops of hot water also increases as the hot water flow rate
increases. Pressure drop is directly proportional to the flow rate of water. Due
to the friction of the constant wall diameter, fluid flow that touches the wall
surface will produce the shear stress.

10. CONCLUSION
As conclusion, the higher the flow rate of water the higher the shear stress occurs across
the surface of the wall surface. Moreover, the outlet temperature of cold water must be higher
than outlet hot water as heat has been transferred via counter current flow. Based from the result
of the experiment, we could say that as the cold water flow rate increases, the heat transfer rate
also increases. Due to the data taken, the most reasonable and suitable data used in order to
design good heat exchanger is by manipulate the flow rate of the cold water flow rate. Based
from the calculation of heat loads and heat loss, the data not very accurate but still we can
observe the pattern of the relation between water flow rate and the heat loads value. Furthermore,
the pressure drop across the tube and shell of the heat exchanger has been calculated and
determined. Finally the heat transfer convection coefficient for the tube and shell side has been
calculated and determined. Besides, heat loss still happen in any other heat exchanger because
there is no perfect heat insulator.

11. RECOMMENDATIONS
1. In order to get very accurate data of heat transfer, the heat exchanger must be well insulated
in order to prevent heat loss.
2. Water must be completely filled in the tube and shell so that heat transfer is perfectly occurs
to the water and not to the air in the bubble that trapped.
3. Before proceeding the experiment, let the flow rate of hot and cold water to be flowed freely
at the highest flow rate to prevent any bubble trapped.
4. The interval of 10 minutes between flow rates must be strictly followed as we want to
calculate heat transferred within 10 minutes.
5. The flow rate of the water need to be set carefully and precisely as the flow rate and heat

12. REFERENCES
1. "How Is Heat Transferred? Conduction -- Convection -- Radiation". Edinformatics.com.
N.p., 2016. Web. 10 Nov. 2016. Extracted from:
http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/how_is_heat_transferred.htm
2. Bentley, Robin E. Temperature And Humidity Measurement. Singapore: Springer, 1998.
Print.
3. Cengel, Yunus A and Afshin J Ghajar. Heat And Mass Transfer. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.:
McGraw-Hill, 2015. Print.

13. APPENDIX
Figure 13.1: the heat exchanger complete experiment set.

Figure 13.2: Shell and tube part where the experiment is running.