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(1) is a treatise of about 4000 aphorisms -s composed by

(about 500 BC) and
covers the entire gamut of grammar of Sanskrit.(2) As its name connotes, it has eight chapters
-s. Each chapter has four quarters -s, so total 32 -s. -s in every are numbered serially
every time starting from 1. Any in can thus be referred by Chapter No., No. and Serial
No. of the in the . So No. 2-4-8 means 8th in 4th of 2nd .
(3) also has an important annex, the . Among the -s, there are many -s, which hint
to a class or sets of words, e.g. () refers to pronouns starting with .
All the pronouns hinted by this are detailed in the .

(4) Another important annex of is

. One can say that
is only, but
detailing the
-s in their 10 -s. (5) -s in are said to be covering 6 aspects of learning
any subject, here, grammar of Sanskrit.
1. Terminologies
2. Meta-Rules
3. by which Topics are declared.
4. Processes
Extended logic
Special or exceptional instances.

(6) There is possibly a great algorithmic logic in the sequencing of the -s. By that token, is a
Computer programme of 4000-odd steps, which can help in deriving grammatically every other word in
Sanskrit language or for checking grammatical correctness of any Sanskrit word. Rather, if one has
coined a word, which sounds like a Sanskrit word, but cannot stand the test of grammatical accuracy as
per , one can adjudge the word to be flawed.(7) There are a few basic concepts, which need to
be understood, before proceeding to study . (8) One such basic concept is -s. The very
first 1-1-1
This contains the .
is similar to a . To
understand what a is, one needs to know also called as or .
Since the very first contains a , one can say that presumes that one knows
and the -s derived therefrom. If one does not know these, one must first study these and only
thereafter start with .(9) are 14. Actually these 14 enlist the basic sounds
-s, which make the letters and the words . In simple terms is the alphabet. But
there is great intelligence in the arrangement of -s in . Here are the . (1)
(3) (4)
(5) (6)

It should be noted that there is a
consonant at the end of each .
That is not a part of the -s in the .
It is the marker denoting
the end of the .
Also the -s in the -s (5) to (14) are consonants. In all these -s the
consonants are written complete with ending vowel sound of . That is only for ease of recitation. (10)
Now let us understand the -s. As mentioned earlier the very first 1-1-1
contains the .
This is from
(4). A has two -s the first one is the
beginning , the second is the end-marker. A is to be understood as denoting all the -s,
starting from beginning up to the end-marker. So
denotes and . As another example

denotes all the -s starting from up to the end-marker .
= , , , ,
, ,
, and . A is like an acronym. This is very much like the acronym VIBGYOR denoting all the
colors of a rainbow, Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. But the is much
crispier, because it has only two -s. As would have been noted the
summarizes all vowels.
summarizes all consonants contained in -s (5) to (14).
(7) summarizes all nasals
from -s (8), (9) and (10) summarizes all soft

from -s (11) and (12) summarizes all harsh consonants
.In , one may come across as many as 43 -s.While a is an
acronym, in mathematical terms, a is a set, its elements being -s.
is a set containing only
one element. All -s containing a single element have
as the end-marker. It may be noticed that
none of the 14 -s have this end-marker .
(11) The word in the 1-1-1 is followed by a word

in the second 1-1-2


). One finds both these words and
in the third
One can surmise that these words and
are antonymical to each other. But these are not
defined or explained anywhere in .
Since 1-1-1
speaks of the -s , and , one can decipher that is
the characteristics, which is common to , and .
Likewise 1-1-2

) speaks of the -s , and . And one can decipher that

is the characteristics, which is common to , and .
) speaks of the -s contained in the
(, , and
from -s (1) and (2).
It may be noted that the starting of a can be a even somewhere in the middle of a
. This
starts from in (1).
The end-marker of a is always one or the other end-marker of the -s.
From 1-1-3 one can decipher that its -s , , and
have both the characteristics and

When discussing ll this, has it been noted that one does not find in the -s the vowels , ,
But -1-1-1 takes note of and mentions its characteristics being .
Likewise 1-1-3 seems to take note of , and one can decipher that these are of -
characteristics, whereas , , and
So, the
needs to be understood as containing not only , , and
, but also ,
. Only such interpretation validates 1-1-3, that -s in
have both the
characteristics and

(12) The above discussion is illustrative of the approach to studying that every has to be
interpreted. (13) Was it noted that in 1-1-3, is sixth case, singular of
? In one finds
names of -s being treated as -s and in turn used in their -s in different --s.
(14) Another important concept in is that of
. By this concept, the logic in one may
apply in one or more succeeding /-s. Let me illustrate by an example.
There is

followed by (--) ( -)

When interpreting (--) ( -)
one needs to understand that, what concept of is
defined in (1-1-9), does not apply () to -.
Or one should read (--) as -

. Here one carries forward, makes
of the concept of as defined in (1-1-9) into (--)
Note, in two -s
have been put together as a compound word. Because they
are two, is
of .
The concept of is of course important in
6-1-97 There, it is not
of the
word . But the concept of what a is, is very much relevant.

did know that more than one processes or rules may apply. Which process should take
precedence, in such instances is sort of resolved by a ,
which becomes a rule by itself to understand
and interpret . The
() is

which means, in the instance of dilemma,
the latter will prevail. Let me explain by example.

If is followed by , the resultant sound would be . This is as per the

But there is also the rule that, when is followed by another vowel, will first become
and the
following vowel will get added to it. So, + = . This is as per the
So we have a dilemma, whether + should be as per or it should be as per
The dilemma is resolved by

because in sequential order (6-1-97)
comes after (6-1-74) Hence the later numbered prevails.

(16) This underscores the important point that in a study of , one should be conscious of the
sequential order of the -s.(17) takes in its ambit Vedic Sanskrit also. Linguistics and
grammar which is specifically employed in Vedic Sanskrit are detailed in by mention as
i.e. Vedic Sanskrit) (18) There are many terms in , which seem to have been well-
known even in times before . Not only the terms, but grammar as a subject has been a subject
of study, rather a subject of specialized study long before . This is evidenced by reference in
to many grammarians of yore. (19) Although has 32 quarters in 8 chapters, the last 3
quarters i.e. quarters 8-2, 8-3 and 8-4 become a section by themselves. Thus one can say that
has two broad sections first one of 29 quarters from 1-1 to 8-1. The dividing line is declared by the

- ),meaning, what is not detailed earlier.
(20) From its time of composition by
(about 500 BC) study of Sanskrit grammar cannot be
complete without the study of . Since -s in need to be interpreted, there have been
any number of commentaries on . Notable among them are


by a of

Though all the above are a great help in studying , yet an independent study of has
its own charm. All the above commentaries are basically independent studies only, though they are of

course by very acknowledged stalwarts. !-o-O-o-