0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

12 visualizzazioni13 pagineoj

Apr 09, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

oj

© All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

12 visualizzazioni13 pagineoj

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

CL204 : Heat Transfer Operation

Date 27-Feb-2017 Time: 2 hrs (09:00 to 11:00 hrs)

SECTION 1 (10 marks) Answer all the questions. Each question carry one mark

For choose the best possible answer - circle all the appropriate answers.

For other questions write your answer in the blank-space or match with appropriate arrows.

Dont use any additional sheet for SECTION - I.

1. Match the correct pair as in the table below. Put arrows to place the matching.

A

Convection resistance at the surface of the body

B

Convection resistance at the surface of the body

B

Conduction within the body

2. The Stainless Steel (SS) cylinder at 30 C is dipped in hot water (85 C) where Bi >1 & > 0.2. The unsteady

state temperature profile of SS cylinder can be estimated by

(a) Constant heat flux across the length (b) Constant surface temperature across the length

(c) Constant heat flux after achieving fully developed (d) All above

heat flow condition

4. For fully developed laminar flow in a circular tube subjected to constant surface heat flux or temperature, the

Nusselt number is a constant. There is no dependence on the Reynolds or the Prandtl numbers.

Page 1 of 13

5. Match the correct pair as in the table below. Put arrows to place the matching

A ChiltonColburn analogy (External forced convection) i Nu 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3 B

B Dittus Boelter equation (Internal forced convection and cooling) ii c f , x 2st x Pr 2/3 A

iii Nu 0.023 Re 0.8

Pr 0.4

iv c f ,x

st x Pr 2/3 J H , x

2 A

v c f ,x 2 J H ,x

A

6. Write three - dimensional heat conduction equation with heat source in cartesian

coordinates

.

+ + + =

. - heat generation per unit volume ; k- thermal conductivity ; - thermal diffusion

8. Write two practical applications for steady heat conduction with heat-source systems

=

effeciency - effectiveness A fin- fin surface area A base- Fin base area

10. Calculate the Nusselt Number for copper flat plate placed on air flow channel, Assume air temperature = 100 C

and heat transfer coefficient = 100 W/m2 C, Kcopper = 400 W/m C, Plate length = 8 m, Plate thickness = 0.5 mm

Kair = 0.003 W/m C.

Page 2 of 13

MID SEMESTER EXAM QUESTION PAPER

January-May 2017 Semester

CL204 : Heat Transfer Operation

Date 27-Feb-2017 Time: 2hrs (09:00 to 11:00 hrs)

Note@ if required, you are allowed to make necessary assumptions to solve the problems defined in this exam question

paper and provide proper justification for each of the assumption made.

1. One face of an aluminium plate 3 cm thickness is maintained at 225 C, and the other face is maintained at 25 C. The

thermal conductivity of the aluminium is varying with function of temperature as per the equation k(T) =0.0013 * T 2 - 0.0875

*T + 206.41, where K in W/m. C and Temperature in C . How much heat is transferred (W/m2) through the plate?

(Mark 2)

2. An electric current is passed through a wire 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm long. The wire is submerged in liquid water

at atmospheric pressure, and the current is increased until the water boils. For this situation h=5000 W/m2.C, and the water

temperature will be 100C. How much electric power (W) must be supplied to the wire to maintain the wire surface at 114C?

(Mark 2)

3. A horizontal steel pipe having a diameter of 5 cm is maintained at a temperature of 50 C in a large room where the

air and wall temperature are at 20 C. The surface emissivity of the steel may be taken as 0.8. Calculate the total heat lost by

the pipe per unit length (W/m). Given Data: heat-transfer coefficient for free convection with this geometry and air is

h=6.5W/m2.C. (Mark 2)

4. Find the heat transfer (W) through the composite wall shown

in Figure 1. Assume that any plane wall normal to the heat flow is

isothermal, Given Data, kA = 150 W/m.C, kB = 30 W/m.C, kC = 50

W/m.C, kD = 70 W/m.C, AB = AD.

(Mark 3)

cylinder. Calculate the critical radius of insulation for fiber glass [k=0.04

W/mC] surrounding a pipe and exposed to room air at 20 C with h=3.0

Figure 1: The composite wall

W/m2.C. Assume that 5.0-cm-diameter pipe surface is maintained at

200 C. Does addition of any fiberglass insulation would cause a decrease in the heat transfer? and justify your answer.

(Mark 3)

Page 3 of 13

6. Water flows on the inside of a steel pipe with an ID of 2.5cm. The wall thickness is 2 mm, and the convection

coefficient on the inside is 500 W/m2.C. The convection coefficient on the outside 12 W/m 2.C. Calculate the overall heat

transfer coefficient. [Ksteel= 50.2 W/m.K]. (Mark 3)

7. Consider a pin fin as shown in Figure 2. Assume that the fin is exposed to an evacuated space

such that the convection is negligible and the radiation loss per unit surface area given by

qrad A T 4 Ts4

where is the surface emissivity constant, is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and the temperatures

Figure 2: Pin fin

are exposed in K. (i) Derive a differential equation for the temperature in the pin fin as a function

of x, the distance from the base. Let T0 be the base temperature, and (ii) write the appropriate boundary conditions for the

differential equation (Mark 3)

junction can be approximated as a 1-mm-diameter sphere, as shown in the Figure 3. The

properties of the junction are k= 35 W/m.K, =8500 kg/m 3,and cp = 320 J/kg.K, and the

convection heat transfer coefficient between the junction and the gas is h=210 W/m 2.K.

Determine how long it will take for the thermocouple to read 99 percent of the initial

Figure 3: Thermocouple wire

temperature difference. Define Biot number and its physical significance.

(Mark 4)

9. During the flow of air at T= 20C over a plate surface maintained at a constant temperature of Ts =160C, the

dimensionless temperature profile within the air layer over the plate is determined to be

T y T

e ay Figure 4: Temperature profile

Ts T

where a = 200 m-1 and y is the vertical distance measured from the plate surface show in Figure 4 . Determine the heat flux

on the plate surface and the convection heat transfer coefficient. Given data: k = 50.03024 W/m.C at 90 C

(Mark 4)

10. (a). Define Prandtl, Nusselt Number. (b) Draw thermal and viscous boundary layer profile for both internal and

external flow conditions with respect to Pr << 1, Pr=1, Pr>>1, and provide example fluids for respective cases. (c) Draw average

and local heat transfer coefficient profile for a flat plate with combined laminar and turbulent flow (Mark 4)

Page 4 of 13

January-May 2017 Semester

CL204 : Heat Transfer Operation

Date 27-Feb-2017 Time: 2hrs (09:00 to 11:00 hrs)

Note@ if required, you are allowed to make necessary assumptions to solve the problems defined in this exam question

paper and provide proper justification for each of the assumption made.

1. One face of an aluminium plate 3 cm thick is maintained at 225 C, and the other face is maintained at 25 C. How

much heat is transferred through the plate? The thermal conductivity of the aluminium is varying with function of

temperature as per the equation k(T) =0.0013 * T 2 - 0.0875 *T + 206.41, where K in W/m. C and Temperature in C .

How much heat is transferred (W/m2) through the plate? (Ans: 1467.46 KW/m2) (Mark 2)

Assumption: (1) heat transfer is one dimensional when thickness >> Length and width

25

0.0013 * T 2 0.0875 * T 206.41 dT

q dT

k 225

0.03

A dx

dx

0

1467.46kW / m 2

2. An electric current is passed through a wire 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm long. The wire is submerged in liquid

water at atmospheric pressure, and the current is increased until the water boils. For this situation h=5000 W/m2C,

and the water temperature will be 100C. How much electric power (W) must be supplied to the wire to maintain the

wire surface at 114C? (Ans : 21.98 W) (Mark 2)

Assumptions: (1) surface to fluid Heat Transfer due to radiation and conduction are negligible compare with convection.

(2) Average Heat transfer coefficient is constant since temperature and flow condition are steady.

= 21.98 W.

Page 5 of 13

3. A horizontal steel pipe having a diameter of 5 cm is maintained at a temperature of 50 C in a large room where the

air and wall temperature are at 20 C. The surface emissivity of the steel may be taken as 0.8. Calculate the total heat

lost by the pipe per unit length (W/m). Given Data: heat-transfer coefficient for free convection with this geometry and

air is h=6.5W/m2 C. (Ans: 55.67 W/m) (Mark 2)

Assumptions: (1) surface to fluid Heat Transfer due to conduction is negligible compare with convection and radiation.

(2) Average Heat transfer coefficient is constant since temperature and flow condition are steady.

Pipe is surrounded by large enclosure , So heat also transfer by radiation q rad = A (Ts4-Tsurr4)

4. Find the heat transfer (W) through the composite wall in the Figure 5: The composite wall given below. Assume

that any plane wall normal to the heat flow is isothermal, Given Data, kA = 150 W/mC, kB = 30 W/mC, kC = 50 W/mC,

kD = 70 W/mC, AB = AD. (Ans: 11400 W) (Mark 3)

plane wall normal to the heat flow is isothermal (ii) thermal

conductivity is constant (iii) Contact resistance between surface

is negligible.

Page 6 of 13

.

5. Derive a relation for the critical radius of insulation for a cylinder. Calculate the critical radius of insulation for fiber

glass [k=0.04 W/mC] surrounding a pipe and exposed to room air at 20 C with h=3.0 W/m2 C. Assume that 5.0-cm-

diameter pipe surface is maintained at 200 C. Does addition of any fiberglass insulation would cause a decrease in the

heat transfer? and justify your answer. Ans (No) (Mark 3)

Assumption: (i) One dimensional heat transfer when L>>> r (ii) the contact resistance between surface is negligible. (iii)

surface to fluid Heat Transfer due to radiation and conduction are negligible compare with convection

1 1

2

=0=

1

+

Since critical radius smaller than pipe radius, the addition of fiberglass insulation does not lead to reduced heat transfer.

Page 7 of 13

6. Water flows on the inside of a steel pipe with an ID of 2.5cm. The wall thickness is 2 mm, and the convection

coefficient on the inside is 500 W/m2C. The convection coefficient on the outside 12 W/m 2C. Calculate the overall heat

transfer coefficient. [Ksteel= 50.2 W/m.K]. (Mark 3)

(Ans: Ui= 13.5390 W/m2C

Uo= 11.66909 W/m2C )

Assumption: (i) Conductivity is constant (ii) internal and external heat transfer coefficient is constant.

Uo= 11.66909 W/m2C

7. Consider a pin fin as shown in Figure 6. Assume that the fin is exposed to an evacuated space

such that the convection is negligible and the radiation loss per unit surface area given by

qrad /A= (T4-Ts4)

where is the surface emissivity constant, is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and the

temperatures are exposed in K. (i) Derive a differential equation for the temperature in the pin Figure 6: Pin fin

fin as a function of x, the distance from the base. Let T0 be the base temperature, and (ii) write the appropriate boundary

conditions for the differential equation. (Mark 3)

Assumptions: (i) Heat transfer is one dimensional along the cylinder length, when cylinder radius << cylinder length. (ii)

L is fin length

dT

qx kAc

dx

dT dT d 2T

qx dx kAc kAc 2 dx

dx x dx dx dx

Page 8 of 13

qrad P.dx T 4 Ts 4

Energy balance

qx qx dx qrad

d 2T P

dx 2

kAc

T 4

Ts 4 0

BC1 : x=0 =

xL Ts 4 x = L

can be approximated as a 1-mm-diameter sphere, as shown in the Figure 7. The properties

of the junction are k= 35 W/mK, =8500 kg/m3,and cp = 320 J/kgK, and the convection heat

transfer coefficient between the junction and the gas is h=210 W/m2K. Determine how

long it will take for the thermocouple to read 99 percent of the initial temperature

difference. Define Biot Number and its Physical Significance. Figure 7: Thermocouple wire

Page 9 of 13

9. During the flow of air at T= 20C over a plate surface maintained at a constant temperature of Ts =160C, the

dimensionless temperature profile within the air layer over the plate is determined to be

T y T

e ay Figure 8: Temperature profile

Ts T

where a = 200 m-1 and y is the vertical distance measured from the plate surface show in Figure 8. Determine the heat

flux on the plate surface and the convection heat transfer coefficient. Given data: k = 5 0.03024 W/mC at 90 C

Page 10 of 13

(Ans: h = 10006.48 W/m2 C , q = 1400.8 kW/m

) 2 )

(Mark 4)

1400.8 kW/m2

10006.48 W/m2 C

Page 11 of 13

10. (a). Define Prandtl, Nusselt Number. (b) Draw thermal and viscous boundary layer profile for both internal and external

flow conditions with respect to Pr << 1, Pr=1, Pr>>1, and provide example fluids for respective cases. (c) Draw average and

local heat transfer coefficient profile for a flat plate with combined laminar and turbulent flow (Mark4)

hLc

Nu

k

The Nusselt number represents the enhancement of heat transfer through a fluid layer as a result of convection relative to

conduction across the same fluid layer.

Prandtl Number: The relative thickness of the velocity and the thermal boundary layers is best described by the dimensionless

parameter Prandtl number

Pr

Molecular diffusivity of heat

cp

k

Pr

T

The Prandtl numbers of gases are about 1, which indicates that both momentum and heat dissipate through the fluid at about

the same rate.

Heat diffuses very slowly in liquid metals (Pr << 1) and very quickly in oils (Pr >> 1) relative to momentum.

The thermal boundary layer is much thicker for liquid metals and much thinner for oils relative to the velocity boundary layer.

Liquid metals used where large amounts of heat must be removed from a relatively small space, as In a nuclear reactor.

Page 12 of 13

Internal flow:

Pr>>1

Pr=1

Pr<<1

(c) Graphical representation of the average heat transfer coefficient for a flat plate with combined laminar and turbulent

flow

Page 13 of 13

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.