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MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX A Simplified Course-Book ABSTRACT This Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax (332
MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX A Simplified Course-Book ABSTRACT This Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax (332

MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX

A Simplified Course-Book

ABSTRACT

This Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax (332ج /E332) aims at developing the Yemeni students’ awareness of how Morphology and Syntax in Yemen (especially in Tihamah of Yemen, Zabid city, Zabid College of Education, Hodeidah University) is structured and studied. It focuses on teaching Morphology and Syntax that deals with the inflectional or / and derivational formation of words and their arrangement to make phrases, clauses and sentences. It also focuses on teaching concepts, terms, knowledge as well as morphological and Syntactical processes and rules of Morphology and Syntax in English in the first place and Arabic in the second place. To complete the idea of the study of the five levels of language, a summary of Semantics and Pragmatics is taken into consideration in this simplified course-book. It is compiled by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, an Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Ph.D. in Linguistics, from Aligarh Muslim University (A.M.U.), U.P., India, 2010. It is for the third-Year-English-B.Ed. students, of the year 2016-2017, 2nd semester 2016-2017, in the English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University, Yemen.

Dr. Abdullah M. M. Ali Shaghi

,

Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Table of Contents

Section 1: Welcome to the Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax……2 Section 2: Morphology and Syntax …………………………………………………. 6

Section 3: Morphology ………………………………………………

Section 4: Syntax ………………………………………………….…… Section 5: Syntax and Semantics……………………………………………

… Section 6: Summary of Arabic Morphology and Syntax……….……………….…. 55

……………12

32

53

Section 7: Summary of English Semantics…………………………………

……

58

Section 8: Summary of Arabic Semantics…………………………………………

59

…………………………….61

Section 9: Summary of English Pragmatics………… Section 10: Summary of Arabic Pragmatics…………

………………………… Sources, References, and Bibliographies ……………………………………

63

66

Appendices……………………………………………………………………

68

Appendix 1: Previous Exam Question Papers ……………………………………

68

Appendix 2: Meanings of some Selected affixes (selected from English words: history

and structure …………………………………………………………………….…

75

Appendix 3: A Self-Study of Exercises with Answer Key …………………….

80

Appendix 4: General Exercises ……………………………

… …………………

86

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Section 1: Welcome to the Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax

The Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax focuses on teaching concepts, terms, knowledge and morphological and Syntactical processes and rules, knowledge about Morphology and Syntax. It is for the third-Year-English-B.Ed. students, of the year 2016-2017, 2 nd semester 2016-2017, in the English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University, Yemen. It is compiled by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, an Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Ph.D. in Linguistics, from Aligarh Muslim University (A.M.U.), U.P., India, 2010; M.A. in Linguistics from JNU, New Delhi, India in 2006, and B.Ed. in English from Hodeida University (HU) in

1996.

The Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax (332ج /E332) aims at developing the Yemeni students’ awareness of how Morphology and Syntax in Yemen (especially in Tihamah of Yemen, Zabid city, Zabid College of Education, Hodeidah University) is structured and studied. It focuses on teaching Morphology and Syntax that deals with the inflectional or / and derivational formation of words and their arrangement to make phrases, clauses and sentences. It also focuses on teaching concepts, terms, knowledge as well as morphological and Syntactical processes and rules of Morphology and Syntax in in English in the first place and Arabic in the second place. To complete the idea of the study of the five levels of language, a summary of Semantics and Pragmatics is taken into consideration in this simplified course-book.

In your second academic year, 2 nd semester, you studied the course the Simplified Course-Book of Introduction to Language 2, where you learnt some introductory and elementary aspects of Morphology and Syntax dealing with the study of the structure of words / morphemes, phrases, and sentences (in English in the first place and Arabic in the second place). This year, in your 2 nd semester 2016-2017, you are going to study and learn the Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax in details.

The topics included will be morphemes, allomorphs, zero morpheme, phonological and morphological conditioning, free and bound morphemes, and derivation and inflection, the structure of a phrase in English noun, verb, adjective adverb and preposition phrase and their structure. The structure of a sentence and sentence elements, phrase structure rules and transformational rules will also be taken into consideration. The course will also examine the relationship between Syntax and Morphology by considering the effects that some Morphological Processes have on syntax. Arabic Morphology and Syntax is also examined.

Finally, and according to the five levels of language: Phonetics and Phonology (all sounds, system sounds), Morphology (forms and words), Syntax (phrases, clauses and

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

sentences), Semantics (meanings of various kinds), and Pragmatics (language use), we will also study in this simplified course-book of Morphology and Syntax a summary of Semantics and Pragmatics of both English and Arabic. This is in order to have a complete idea of the study of the five levels of language.

The organization of this firsthand / empirical Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax is as follows:

Section 1: Welcome to the Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax, Section 2: Morphology and Syntax, Section 3: Morphology, Section 4: Syntax, 5:

Syntax and Semantics, Section 6: Summary of Arabic Morphology and Syntax, Section 7: Summary of English Semantics, Section 8: Summary of Arabic Semantics, Section 9: Summary of English Pragmatics and Section 10: Summary of Arabic Pragmatics. There are also Sources, References, Bibliographies, and Appendices with four appendixes: Appendix 1: Previous Exam Question Papers, Appendix 2: Meanings of some selected affixes (selected from English words: history and structure, Appendix 3: A Self-Study of Exercises with Answer Key, and Appendix 4: General Exercises.

Assessment Regular attendance is strongly advised! Besides the class lectures, there will be:

1. One final mid-term exam including Regular homework exercises to be discussed in class (45 marks) 2. One final exam including Presence & active participation in class throughout (105 marks)

Regular Attendance is Strongly Advised! Despite bad experiences in the past, I will not take attendance this semester. This means, however, that I will not waste my time with students who choose to not show up for classes. I thus repeat: Regular attendance is strongly advised!

Suggestions for Further Reading I cannot stress enough how important it will be for this course that you read at home! So let me repeat: I can’t stress enough how important it will be for this course that you read at home! I’m serious and I hope the message is clear.

All classes will follow the same pattern: (i) I will assign you readings, (ii) which you will read for next class, (iii) when I will lecture on that material. This also means that I cannot stress enough how important it will be for this course that you attend all classes! Classes will be crucial and equally crucial will be that you understand everything we do. I will not always cover all the material; we will find our pace in a few classes.

The readings materials related to your Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax are included in the sources, references and bibliographies list and will be told to you by your lecturer:

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

In addition, there are some good relevant articles published in refereed journals of the field provided by your lecturer in the computers of your library as well as in your flashes/pen-drives. Do not get me wrong: I just said how important it is to read but this does not mean that you have to read outside the assigned Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax, chapters or sections. The above core readings in tandem “together” with the class lectures will definitely be enough. I’m here to assist you!

Who am I? To learn more about me, search my name “shaghi, / abdullah.shaghi / drabdullahshaghi / abdullahshaghi / abulbaraa shaghi”on my website (where you can download all the lectures and models of final examinations): http://abdullahshaghi2012.wordpress.com/ as well as on my gmail / google drive / google blogger, LinkedIn.com, academia.com, scribd.com, or archive.org (https://archive.org/details/@dr_abdullah_shaghi)

Key Linguistic Terms and Concepts The Key Linguistic Terms and Concepts for the Morphology and Syntax are as follows: All of you should know most of the following key linguistic terms and concepts for the Morphology and Syntax. You should be not only familiar with them, but be also able to define them, explain them and give examples. They are not alphabetically ordered.

Morphology: morpheme, free morpheme, bound morpheme, allomorph, zero morpheme, derivational morphemes, inflectional morphemes, zero derivation, augment, affix, prefix, prefix, infix, suffix, post-suffix, circumfix, suprafix, portmanteau morpheme, root, stem, fossilized form, closed-class words, open-class words, Morphophonology, Morphosyntax, class marker, subject marker, object marker, tense marker, aspect, mood, tense, clitics, proclitics, enclitics, paradigm, paradigmatic derivation, syntagmatic derivation, suppression, irregular verbs, defective verbs, backformation, acronyms

Syntax: grammatical relations, verb phrase, noun phrase, kernel sentence, main clause, subordinate clause, relative clause, antecedent, subjectivization, objectivization, cliticization, nominalization, pronominazation, adjectivization, head noun, modifier, determiner, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative, Independent pronouns, null pronouns, double-object construction, inherent direct objects, structural objects, oblique objects, adjunct objects, juxtaposition., subject agreement, object agreement, anaphora, cataphora, cleft sentences, pseudocleft sentences, yes-no questions, wh-questions, tag questions, questioning in-situ, echo questions, serial-verb construction, constituency analysis, existential clause, focus construction, transitivity, intransitivity, extraposition, dislocation (left/right), external relation, alienable possession , inalienable possession, valency, passivization, antipassive voice, ergativity, agent, causative, causee, causativization, accusative, nominative, genitive, recipient, patient, theme, rheme, reciprocal, comitative. Associative, benefactive, recipient, stative verb,

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

active verb.

To find the definitions, explanations and exemplifications of these terms and concepts, please Google these words or use any search engine for the online references or consult linguistic dictionaries.

Acknowledgement The author of this simplified course-book would like to thank all of those (colleagues and students) who have invest time and effort into this project. This simplified course-book would not have been possible without them.

The production of this simplified course-book was with the following open source program: (archive.org). Students and interested readers can find the author’s own uploads in the link: (https://archive.org/details/@dr_abdullah_shaghi).

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Section 2: Morphology and Syntax

Linguistics is the study of language and its structure. A linguistic theory must be adequate on three levels: that of observation, of description and of explanation. Different levels of language have been subject to theories in the second half of the 20th century. In particular, Phonology and Syntax, because of their abstract and formal properties, have attracted linguists of a theoretical persuasion. There is no generally accepted theory of Semantics because the data is somewhat too diffuse and fuzzy-edged. Moreover, as regards Morphology one can note that linguists usually treat it as subordinate to Syntax (at least in generative theories).

Morphology and Syntax are two major subdisciplines in the field of Linguistics. Other subdisciplines of Linguistics include Phonetics, Phonology, Semantics, and Pragmatics. Morphology is the study of the formation of words and Syntax is the study of the formation of sentences. Phonetics and Phonology have to do with how the sounds of language are produced in the human vocal organs (lungs, larynx, mouth, nasal cavity), and how sounds are systematically organized in particular languages. Morphosyntax has to do with how these sounds combine to form words and sentences. Semantics has to do with the meanings of individual elements of linguistic structure and their combinations.

elements of linguistic structure and their combinations. Actually, the term “ Morphosyntax ” is a hybrid

Actually, the term “Morphosyntax” is a hybrid [=crossbreed] word that comes from two other words – morphology and syntax. Since “morphosyntax” sounds better than “syntophology,” the former is the word that linguists prefer to use.

One reason many linguists like to talk about Morphology and Syntax together is that sometimes a communicative job that we perform by word shapes (Morphology) in one language we perform by combinations of words (Syntax) in another language. Therefore, if linguists want to compare different languages, it helps to be able to refer to “Morphosyntax.”

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Morphology and Syntax deals with the inflectional or / and derivational formation of words and their arrangement to make phrases, clauses and sentences. The main difference between Morphology and Syntax is that Morphology studies the way of word formation, whereas Syntax studies the way of sentence formation. The final aim of both these fields is the study of the way of meaning producing in language.

Morphology is another important subdiscipline of linguistics. It studies the structure of words. It is concerned with the study of word forms. A word is best defined in terms of internal stability (is it further divisible?) and external mobility (can it be moved to a different position in a sentence?). A word structure is normally displayed by means of a Morphological Tree Diagram (the so-called ‘word structure’) and by a system of re-write rules one can move from an initial unit (the entire word) to the individual elements (a so-called ‘terminal string’). See the following morphological tree diagram of the word “unproductively

adv.

/\

Derivational Prefix |

adv.

/\

|

adj.

Derivational Suffix

|

/\

|

|

base/stem

Derivational Suffix

|

|

|

|

|

Un-

product

-ive

-ly

Morphology specifically examines the formation of words by putting together morphemes. A morpheme is the smallest grammatical and meaningful unit of a language. Different languages have different morphemes and different rules about the formation of their words. An allomorph is a non-distinctive realization of a morpheme as in the plural morpheme s having three allomorphs /s, z, ɪz/ in books, dogs, and boxes, respectively.

We can divide morphemes into two basic categories called free morphemes and bound morphemes. A free morpheme is a meaningful unit that can stand alone as a word. In other words, it is a word made up of only one morpheme. Book, trust, slow, cat, old, fast, bring, and man are examples of free morphemes.

A bound morpheme is a morpheme that cannot stand-alone; it is always bound to

another morpheme.

Slow-ly, talk-ed, unthank-full, black-ish are examples of words having bound morphemes. Bound morphemes attached to the front of a word are called prefixes (dis-taste, un-true, ir-regular, etc.) and bound morphemes attached to the back of a word are called suffixes (valuable, usual, endless, etc.).

Consequently, a bound morpheme has no meaning on its own.

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Bound Morphemes can be divided further into two categories called derivational and inflectional morphemes. Derivational morphemes are morphemes that are added to the base form of a word to create a new word. Example (1):

Able

Ability

(Adjective)

(Noun)

Send

Sender

(Verb)

(Noun)

Example (2):

Use

Misuse

(Meaning is totally changed.)

Stable

Unstable

As seen from these examples, adding a derivational morpheme will change either the meaning or the class of the word.

Inflectional Morphemes are a type of bound morphemes that do not cause a change in the meaning or word class: they serve as grammatical markers and indicate some grammatical information about a word. Laughed Past Tense Cats Plural Swimming Progressive

Accordingly, Morphology can further be divided into Inflectional Morphology (concerned with the endings put on words) and Derivational Morphology (involves the formation of new words). Affixation is the process of attaching an inflection or, more generally, a bound morpheme to a word. This can occur at the beginning or end and occasionally in the middle of a word form.

Word Formation processes can be either productive or lexicalized (non-productive). There are different types of word-formation such as compounding, zero derivation (conversion), back formation, blending, clipping, etc.

Syntax is a discipline of linguistics that studies the structure of sentence. Syntax is the study of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in any language. It pays attention to components such as word order, agreement, and the hierarchical structure of language. The meaning of any sentence in any language depends on the syntax.

For example, the sentences in the English language often formed by following a subject with a verb and the direct object. It is the positions of these words that convey the subject-object relationship. Look at the following sentences.

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

The cat ate the mouse. The mouse ate the cat.

These two sentences convey two different meanings although they contain the exact same words. It is the word order of the sentences, which affect the meaning of these two sentences.

A Syntactic Structure certainly affects morphology, and morphology is one very

important way that syntactic structure is discovered. The main ideas to keep in mind to this point are:

(1.)

similarities among unrelated languages to common communicational functions.

(2.)

changing the shapes of words (morphologically) or by changing how words are

arranged (syntactically).

Language is a tool for communication; therefore, we attribute structural

Languages can accomplish the same or similar communicative tasks by

Therefore, the sentence structure is usually presented by means of a Syntactic Tree Diagram (STD) (the so-called ‘phrase structure’) and by a system of re-write rules one can move from an initial unit (the entire sentence) to the individual elements (a so-called ‘terminal string’).

S

/\

NP

VP

/\

/\

Det.

N

V

NP

| |

|

/\

| |

|

Det.

N.

| |

|

|

|

The

dog

ate

the

bone

(S= Sentence, NP= Noun Phrase, VP= Verb Phrase, D= Determiner, N= Noun, V= Verb)

The term generation is used in linguistics to describe exhaustively the structure of sentences. Generative Grammar (GG) can be divided into three main periods. An early one dating from Chomsky (1957), a central one which was initiated by Chomsky (1965) and a more recent one which reached its maturity in the 1980’s with the development of the government and binding model.

Universal Grammar represents an attempt to specify what structural elements are present in all languages. That is to say what the common core is, and to derive means for describing these structural elements adequately.

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

The purpose of analyzing the internal structure of sentences is (1) To reveal the hierarchy in the ordering of elements; (2) To explain how surface ambiguities come about; and (3) To demonstrate the relatedness of certain sentences. So, linguists distinguish between Deep Structure (DS) the level on which the unambiguous semantic structure of a sentence is represented and Surface Structure (SS) the actual form of a sentence. Given below are illustrations of the Deep Structure and Surface Structure:

Deep Structure (DS): (represents the meaning) The boy kissed the girl the girl hugged the man. (However, it is not a grammatical sentence.) Add Transformational rules (e.g., NP deletion) the girl the girl the girl who.

Surface Structure (SS): (what we speak and hear) The boy kissed the girl who hugged the man.

A transformation is a change in form between the deep and the surface structures and maintains the relatedness of semantically similar sentences such as active and passive ones. It changes the basic sentence structure into a derived one in the deep structure as shown below:

Active

Passive

NP1 V NP2

NP2 be V -en by NP1

Mary ate the cake.

The cake was eaten by Mary.

Let us observe the syntactic tree diagram using the phrase structure rules in the following active sentence: Mary ate the cake.

S

/\

NP1

VP

/

/\

N

VP

NP2

| |

 

/\

| V

D

N

| |

|

|

Mary

ate

the

cake

Also, let us observe the syntactic tree diagram using the phrase structure rules in the following passive sentence: The cake was eaten by Mary.

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

NP2

S

/\

VP

 

/\

/\

 

D N

 

VP

PP

/

\

/\

/\

 

/

\

Aux V

 

P NP1

 

/

\

/

\

/

\

/

\

/

\

/

N

/

\

/

\

/

\

The

 

cake was

 

eaten

by

Mary

(Sources with some modifications:: All above about “Morphology and Syntax” are from: Thomas, E. Payne (2006) Exploring Language Structure): A Student’s Guide. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, New York.,

(Source of the image and tree diagram above: and (Source: Raymond Hickey the Neat Summary of Linguistics P. 13) http://pediaa.com/difference-between-morphology-and-syntax/2/2/2017 )

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Section 3: Morphology

Morphology comes from a Greek word meaning 'shape' or 'form' and is used in linguistics to denote the study of words, both with regard to their internal structure and their combination or formation to form new or larger units. It is the words of language; it is the study of the structure of words, including the rules of word formation.

The study of the internal structure of words and the rules governing the formation of words in a language is the preoccupation of the branch of language study referred to as Morphology. Although interest in the study of words, their meaning, structure and function has been a part of grammar from the classical to the medieval times, the study of word structure did not become a distinct level of grammatical analysis until the nineteenth century.

Early studies of word structure were more diachronic in nature, having more to do with the origins and evolution of languages from a study of word formation patterns of different languages. For instance, in the nineteenth century Franz Bopp produced evidence based on the comparison of sound systems and word formation patterns of Sanskrit, Latin, Persian and Germanic languages. This is to prove that these languages evolved from the same ancestor.

Morphology in this century is synchronic in approach. This means that it focuses on studying the word structure of a language at some stage of its life rather than how the words of the language have changed in form and meaning over a period. Consequently, Morphology can further be divided into Inflectional Morphology (IM) (concerned with the endings put on words), Derivational Morphology (DM) (involves the formation of new words), and Lexical Morphology (concerned with the Word Formation Processes that can be productive or lexicalized / non-productive.

Inflectional Morphology refers to the study of inflectional morphemes. Function words like to and of are free morphemes. Many languages including English have bound morphemes that have a strictly grammatical function. These bound morphemes, involving tense, number, case, gender and others, are called inflectional morphemes.

The syntactic category of the words or morphemes to which they are attached never change. Look at these examples:

(1)

I play basketball in the park.

(2)

He plays basketball in the park.

(3)

Rey played basketball in the park.

(4)

Rey has played basketball in the park.

(5)

Rey is playing basketball in the park.

To analyze, in sentence (2) the -s at the end of the verb is an agreement marker (subject `He’ of the verb is 3 rd person singular, present tense). It does not add lexical meaning.

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

The suffix -ed in sentence (4) indicates past tense, and is also required by the syntactic rules of the language when verbs are used with have, just as ing in sentence (5) is required when verbs are used with forms of be.

English is no longer a highly inflected language. However, we have other inflectional endings such as the plural suffix -s, which is attached to certain singular nouns, as in boy/boys and cat/cats. At the present stage of English history, there are eight bound inflectional affixes (Fromkin, p. 2003):

In the following table designed by the author of this Simplified Course-Book of Morphology and Syntax, the English Inflectional Morphemes are illustrated:

 

English Inflectional Morphemes

No.

Word Class

Inflectional Morpheme

English Examples

1.

Nouns

 

-s plural

Tom ate the bananas last night.

2.

 

- ‘s possessive

Carmen’s car is new.

3.

Verbs

-s 3 rd person singular present

She learns fast.

4.

-ed

past tense

She learned fast.

5.

-en

past participle

She has eaten the bananas.

6.

-ing

progressive

She is eating the banana.

7.

Adjectives

-er

comparative

Hassan has newer car than Malik.

8.

-est

superlative

Abdullah has the newest car.

Derivational Morphology refers to the study of derivational morphemes. Bound morphemes, like -ing and able, are called derivational morphemes. When they are

added to a root morpheme, a new word with a new meaning is derived. The addition of -ing to read reading means `the act or process of reading’ and the addition of -able

readable – means `something that could be read.’

addition of a derivational morpheme is called a derived word. Here are some examples

of English Derivational Morphemes:

The form that results from the

1)

-ic

: Noun Adj

; alcohol alcoholic

2)

-ly

: Adj Adv

; exact exactly

3)

-ate

: Noun Verb

; vaccin vaccinate

4)

-ity

: Adj Noun

; active activity

5)

-ship

: Noun Noun

; friend friendship

6)

re-

: Verb Verb

; cover recover

Examples of derivational morphemes in Spanish are as in niño/niña `child’, niñear ‘to act childishly’, niñear ‘nanny’, niñería ‘childishness’ niñero ‘fond of children’, and niñez ‘childhood’.

In relation to derivational morphology, we could assert that certain morphemes such as -ness or -ment have meaning only when combined with other morphemes in a word:

kindness and agreement. Likewise, there are Grammatical Morphemes that have

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

‘meaning’ only when used with other words in a sentence. In the sentence `The car of John is new’, what is the meaning of `of’? The function word of has a strictly grammatical meaning or function in the sentence. It does not have any clear lexical meaning or concept associated with them. It is in the sentence because it is required by the rules of sentence formation the syntax (see separate topic). Of, in relation to the noun (John) has the grammatical function showing possession or ownership. Similarly, ‘to’ in the sentence `She likes to eat ice-cream’ functions as an infinitive marker of the verb eat.

Different morphemes serve different purposes. Some create new words by either changing the meaning: just ~ unjust, both adjectives; dark ~ darken, an adjective to a verb. Other morphemes add information: dance ~ danced.

Lexical Morphology deals with the Word Formation Processes that can be productive

or lexicalized / non-productive. There are different types of word-formation

processes such as compounding, conversion (zero derivation), clipping, blending, backformation, acronyms, abbreviations, coinage, neologism, creativity/productivity and eponyms, etc.

Word Forms / Word Types.

The English Morphology is concerned with the study of Word Forms / Word Types.

It is the analysis of the Word Structure, the Main Divisions of Word Classes: Content

Words and Function Words (Parts of Speech) illustrated in the following table:

Content Words

Nouns (N)

Verbs

(V)

Adjectives (A)

Function Words

Conjunctions (Conj.)

Prepositions (P)

Articles (art.)/Determiners (D)

Words and Morphemes

A Word is the smallest free form. It is a term in common everyday use but one that

linguists cannot easily define. A word is best defined in terms of internal stability (is it further divisible?) and external mobility (can it be moved to a different position in a sentence?). Is “isn't,” for example, “one word or two words?” and, “how about mother-in-law?” It denotes one concept but it is formed out of three recognizable 'words': mother, in, and law. The word is simple and complex as in hunt and hunter respectively. Linguists, therefore, prefer other terms, referring to morphemes, allomorphs, morphs, and lexemes when talking about 'words'. A Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of grammatical analysis. A word such as ‘pen’ is a single morpheme while ‘pens’ is made up of two morphemes: the normal meaning of ‘pen’

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and the signal which indicates number. This information is obtained from the /z/ ending in /penz/.

Morphemes and Allomorphs

An allomorph is a non-distinctive realization of a morpheme. In other words, an allomorph is any of two or more alternative forms of a morpheme (/-s/ and /-es/ forms of the plural morpheme as well as present-simple-tense-morphemes. The words keys and buses are broken into the root [key and bus] and the plural morphemes -s and -es, respectively. The verbs asks and watches are broken into the root [ask and watch] and the present-simple-tense-morpheme -s and -es, respectively. Morphemes are pairings of sounds with meanings, not spellings. The plural morpheme s, in cat-s, and dog-s are spelled with the same letter. However, it does not sound the same in the two words. Different pronunciations (i.e. phonetic forms) of the same morpheme are called allomorphs. For example, [s] in cat-s, [z] in dog-s, and [ɪz] in church-es are allomorphs of the same plural morpheme -s. Discovering allomorphs shows an interaction of Morphology and Phonology.

Morphemes

The morpheme has been explained as the smallest unit of speech that is meaningful (Udofot, 1999. P. 4). In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of grammatical analysis. A word such as ‘pen’ is a single morpheme while ‘pens’ is made up of two morphemes: the normal meaning of ‘pen’ and the signal which indicates number. This information is obtained from the /z/ ending in /penz/. The plural morpheme has other variants namely: {s, ɪz} and the zero plural morphemes / as in ‘sheep’. The term morpheme is sometimes identical with the term ‘word’ as for example in the words ‘boy’, ‘cat’, and ‘ church’ being morphemes and also words.

When however these words take the additional {s, z, ɪz}, they cease to be single morphemes because they can be further broken down into parts (in this case the semantic element of the word and the signal for more than one). At other times, the term morpheme is seen as the next in rank to the word in the ranking of grammatical units: sentence, clause, phrase, word, morpheme (cf. Tomori 1977, pp. 16-17). In other words, a word is said to be a morpheme when it cannot be further broken down into parts without destroying the meaning. Meaning is therefore very important in the study of morphology since morphemes are meaningful units. In the following examples:

‘paints, painting, painted’ the words can be broken down into {pe:nt} + {s}; {pe:nt} + { ing}; {pe:nt} + { ed}. The word ‘paint’ has meaning in English while the /s/ indicates the present tense marker, /ing/ the progressive marker and /d/ is the past participle marker. (See Udofot, 1999).

Allomorphs

The analysis of words into morphemes starts with the identification of morphs. ‘A morph is a physical form representing some morpheme in a language’ (Katamba 1993,

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p. 24). If different morphs represent the same morpheme, they are referred to as allomorphs of that morpheme. For example, the plural morpheme {s} in English as in ‘books’/bʊks/ can be represented as {z} as in boys/bɔɪz/. The past tense of regular

verbs in English which is spelled ‘-ed’ is pronounced /t/, /d/, or / ɪd/ depending on the last sound of the verb to which it is attached - its phonological environment. Thus, /t/, /d/ and / ɪd/ are allomorphs of the past tense morpheme in English. The past tense morpheme is realized as:

(a) /ɪd/ if the verb ends in /d/ or /t/ as for instance in: mend /mend/; mended /mendɪd/

want /wɑnt/; wanted /wɑntɪd/.

(b) /d/ if the verb ends in a voiced sound except /d/ as in: clean /kli:n/ cleaned / kli:nd/

beg /beg/ begged / begd/.

(c) /t/ after verbs ending in any voiceless consonant other than /t/ as in:

park /pa:k/ parked / pa:kt / miss /mɪs/ missed / mɪst /.

We can represent this relationship between morphemes, allomorphs, and morphs diagrammatically as shown below using the past tense morpheme in English:

allomorph

Morpheme

(Past Tense)

/|\

allomorph

| |

morph

morph

| |

/ɪd/

/d/

allomorph

|

morph

|

/t/

(Source: Adapted from Katamba (1993, p. 26))

We can say that /ɪd/, /d/ and /t/ can be grouped together as allomorphs of the past tense morpheme. The notion of distribution is central to the identification of morphemes in any language. By distribution, we mean the context in which a particular linguistic element occurs. A set of morphs are classified as allomorphs of the same morpheme if

(i) They represent the same meaning or serve the same grammatical function;

(ii) They occur in the same contexts.

When the above criteria are satisfied, we say that the morphs are in complementary distribution. Thus, the three morphs /ɪd, d, t/ which are realizations of the regular past tense morpheme are in complementary distribution because each morph only occurs in the context described above and are therefore allomorphs of the same morpheme.

Similarly, the negative morpheme which means not can be realized as / ɪn /, / ɪm / and /ɪŋ/ as in the following examples: inactive /ɪnæktɪv/, indecent /ɪndi:snt /, impenitent /ɪmpenɪtɪnt/, impossible /ɪmp sɪbl/, and incomplete /ɪŋkǝmpli:t/, incorrigible /ɪŋkǝridbl/.

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We can note that the nasal consonant in the various allomorphs of the morpheme {in} is pronounced the way it is depending on the nature of the sound that follows it:

/ɪm/ is used before labial consonants like /p, b, m / as in ‘impossible’; /ɪŋ / is used before velar consonants like /k/ and /g/ as in ‘incorrigible’; /ɪn/ is used elsewhere as for example before alveolar consonants like /t, d, s, z, n/ as in ‘indecent’. The three allomorphs /ɪm, ɪŋ, ɪn/ of the morpheme {in} are therefore in complementary distribution in that the use of one in one slot excludes the other.

Allomorphic Variations

An allomorph as already explained is a member of a family of a morpheme a variant of a morpheme depending on the environment where it occurs. The plural morpheme {s} for example changes its nature depending on the phonological environment where it occurs. The addition of the {s} morpheme to a word obtains not only in the formation of plurals in English but also in the formation of possessives as, for instance, in goat, goat’s, John, John’s as well as in changes in verb patterns as a result of changes in person as in I dance, she dances. Generally, we refer to the three sets of {s} morphemes with the umbrella term the Z Morpheme. When the Z Morpheme relates to plural formation, it is called Z1 Morpheme; when it is concerned with the formation of possessives, it is referred to as Z2 Morpheme; when it has to do with changes in verb forms, it is referred to as Z3 Morpheme or Concord Morpheme. The different kinds of Z Morpheme therefore are:

Z1 Plural Z2 Possessive Z3 Changes in verb forms

Z1 or Plural Morpheme

In English, the Z1 or Plural Morpheme has four allomorphs: /s/, /z/, and /ɪz /. The /s/ allomorph occurs with words ending in voiceless sounds except /s/ as in cats /kæts/, books /bʊks/, cups /cʌps/. The /z/ allomorph occurs with words ending in voiced sounds including ll vowels and voiced consonants as in mangoes / mængəʊz/, boys /bɔɪz/, and bags /bægz/. The /ɪz/ allomorph is selected by words which end in alveolar or alveopalatal sibilants (that is consonants with sharp hissing sounds as in fishes /fi:ʃɪz/, dishes /dɪʃɪz/, and churches /tʃɜ:tʃɪz/. The /ø/ zero allomorph occurs with words which normally do not have plurals reflected in their morphological shapes as for instance in ‘sheep’ and ‘deer’.

The Z2 or Possessive Morpheme

The Z2 or Possessive Morpheme is similar in distribution to the Z1 Morpheme. The only difference is in the orthographic convention. The possessives have the apostrophe in specific places in words whereas plurals are not written with apostrophes. The distribution of the Z2 or Possessive Morpheme is as follows: /s/ occurs with words

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

ending in voiceless sounds except the sibilant consonants as in Jack’s / dʒæks/. /z/ occurs after voiced sounds other than sibilants as in Jane’s /dʒeɪnz/. /ɪz/ occurs after the sibilants as in nurse’s /nɜ:sɪz/, and /ø/ occurs with words which end with the sibilants which may be plurals or words that naturally end with the letter ‘s’ as in Jones’ /dʒɔ:ns/ and students /stju:dnts/. The possessive morpheme, unlike the plural morpheme, does not occur frequently because in real life people own things so the possessive morpheme tends to go more regularly with proper names. In addition, the possessive is often replaced with of + noun phrase constructions as in the custom of the country instead of the country’s customs. This type of construction is often preferable to possessives in some clumsy sounding cases as in the following: The eve of St. Agnes instead of St. Agnes’ Eve. ø

The Z3 or Concord Morpheme

The Z3 or Concord Morpheme is the morpheme that shows changes in verb patterns occasioned by changes in person or number, as in I go, and she goes. Like the other Z Morphemes, it is phonologically conditioned as follows: /s/ after voiceless consonants except sibilants as in walks /wɔ:ks/. /z/ after voiced sounds other than sibilants as in goes /gəʊz/, /ɪz/after sibilant sounds as in washes /wɔ:ʃɪz/. The Z3 or Concord Morpheme is also often referred to as the third person singular present tense morpheme.

The D or Past Time Morpheme

The allomorphs /t, d, ɪd/ are phonologically conditioned. In addition to the allomorphs /t/, /d/ and /ɪd/ there is a /ø/ allomorph which occurs where there is no change in the morphological shape of the verb, as for instance, in the verbs ‘hit’ and ‘put’ which have the same morphological shapes for both present and the past. The phonological conditioning noted in the behavior of the ZI, Z2, and Z3 morphemes is not peculiar to these morphemes. We have noted this behavior with the D morpheme too and earlier in the various allomorphs of the morpheme {-in}.

Summary of Allomorphic Variations

To sum up the allomorphic variations, we can say that a morph is the physical representation of a morpheme in a language. An allomorph is a variant of a morpheme that occurs in a specific environment. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of grammatical analysis. Allomorphs of a morpheme occur in complementary distribution. The Z Morphemes and the D Morphemes have at least three allomorphs. The Z1 or Plural Morpheme has four allomorphs - /s/, /z/, / ɪz/ and /ø/ The Z2 or Possessive Morpheme has the following allomorphs: /s/, /z/, / ɪz/ and /ø/. The Z3 or Concord Morpheme has the following allomorphs: /s/, /z/, /ɪ z/. The D or past time morpheme has the following allomorphs: /t/, /d/ and / ɪd/ there is a /ø/ allomorph which occurs where the past and present tense forms are the same. All allomorphs are

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phonologically conditioned. In addition, we can summarize the allomorphic variations so far discussed as follows:

For the Z Morpheme /s/ [s] in voiceless environments except sibilants. /s/ [z] in voiced environments except sibilants. /s/ → [ɪz] after sibilants /s, z, ʃ , tʃ, ʒ, dʒ /.

For the D Morpheme /d/ → [t] in voiceless environments except after /t/ /d/ → [d] in voiced environments except after /d/ /d/ → [ɪd] after /t/ and /d/

For any sibilant suffix in English The different phonetic representations are as follows:

/s/ after voiceless consonants other than the sibilants. /z/ after vowels and voiced consonants like /b, n, d/. /ɪz/ after the alveolar and alveo-palatal sibilants /s, z, ʃ , tʃ, ʒ, dʒ /.

Nature of Morphemes

The morpheme is sometimes confused with the syllable but it is different. Syllables are made up of sounds that are grouped together for pronunciation purposes. For instance, the word ‘star’ is made up of the sounds /s/, /t/ and /a: / which add up to /sta: /. The division of words into the component sound (phonemes) makes it possible for languages to be written using letters. Words can also be broken down into syllables. Some words are composed of one syllable as the word ‘pens’ /penz/. Others are made up of two or more syllables as the words ‘today’/t de /, ‘saliva’ /sæ-la -v /, embarrass’ / m-bæ-r s/ and ‘companion’ /k m-pænn/.

While the syllable is the unit of pronunciation, being the smallest stretch of sound that can be uttered with one breath (Abercrombie, 1975, p. 350), the morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning and of grammatical analysis. For instance, the words ‘today’ and ‘embarrass’ are made up of two and three syllables respectively but they are composed of only one morpheme each. On the other hand the word ‘pens’ is a monosyllabic word (made up of one syllable) but has two morphemes namely: the morpheme {pen} and the plural morpheme {s}.Therefore, when we divide words into morphemes, we isolate groups of sounds that have semantic and grammatical meanings, the fact that they do not constitute syllables notwithstanding.

Types of Morphemes: Free and Bound Morphemes

Morphemes are free when they can stand on their own and constitute independent words as in “black, board, tea, pot, sweet, heart”. Single words as the ones listed above are the smallest free morphemes that are capable of self-governing existence.

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When joined together to form compound words like “blackboard, teapot, sweetheart”, each of the two morpheme words still retain meanings of their own which add up to the meaning of the words of which they are part.

In contrast, bound morphemes are those morphemes that are not capable of

self-governing existence. They occur usually with some other word-building element attached to them. Examples of bound morphemes are given below:

(a)

-ceive as in receive, perceive

(b)

-mit as in permit, commit

(c)

-intro as introspect, introduce

Some words are made up of two bound morphemes as is the case in ‘introduce’ while many other words are made up of free and bound morphemes as in the words ‘pillows’ and ‘cleaner’. The bound morphemes also often occur as prefixes and suffixes but never in isolation as words.

Roots, Stems, and Bases

The morpheme that carries the core meaning is referred to as the root of the word. In the word ‘faithfulness’ for instance, the core of the word or root morpheme is faith. Similarly, in the word ‘naturalization’ the root morpheme is nature. The root of the word is the permanent present part of the word.

The stem of the word is that part to which we add the last morpheme. It is thus the part in existence before any inflectional affixes (those additions required by the grammar of a language such as indicators of number in nouns, tense in verbs etc.). In the words cats’ and ‘learners’, we add the {s} morpheme to the root √ cat while we add the agentive morpheme -er to the root √ learn to make the word ‘learner’ to mean one who learns. In ‘learners’ the root is learn while learner is the stem to which we add the inflectional plural morpheme -s to make the plural word learners and to give the additional meaning of ‘more - than - one’.

The base on the other hand is a unit to which we can add any affix. The affix may be inflectional (selected for grammatical reasons) or derivational in which case it alters the meaning or grammatical category of the base.

A root like ‘girl’ to which we have added no affix can be a base. This is because it can take an inflectional affix like {-s} to form the plural ‘girls’ or a derivational affix like {–ish} to turn the noun into an adjective ‘girlish’. In effect, all roots are bases but roots are stems when they take inflectional suffixes. Thus although all roots are bases, not all roots are stems. In the word ‘faithfulness’, faith is the root of the whole word; it is also the stem of ‘faiths’ and the base of ‘faithful’ while faithful becomes the base for faithfulness’. We can use knowledge of the root of words to explain the origin and core meaning of words from Latin or Greek.

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To sum up, the syllable is the unit of pronunciation while the morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning and of grammatical analysis. Free morphemes can stand by themselves as words but bound morphemes are incapable of independent existence. The root is the morpheme that carries the core meaning of a word. The stem of the word is that part to which we add the last morpheme. The base on the other hand is a unit to which we can add any affix. Although all roots are bases, not all roots are stems.

Affixation

The formation of New Words in many languages can be by the addition of morphemes to bases. The addition of such morphemes can be before or after the base. Affixation is the morphological process in which the addition of such morphemes to existing words to form new words. The morphemes added are affixes. An affix is not capable of self-governing existence except as an attachment to another morpheme such as a root, stem or base. Affixes are therefore bound morphemes. For example, no English word is made up of an affix alone like ‘–al, -er, -ed’ or ‘im’. Similarly, affixes cannot be joined together in a recognizable structural word to form words as the following examples show: *im al, *al ed, *im ed.

Affixation involves (free morpheme + affix) as in blacken (black + -en) in English, sumulat ‘to write’ in Tagalog (from sulat ‘write’), mudarris-ah “a female teacher” in (from mudarris “a male teacher”) in Arabic.

There are two types of affixes, which usually operate in English: prefixes, which are added before the bases to form new words and suffixes added after the base. A word like ‘unhappiness, for instance, is made up of the root morpheme happy before and after which the prefix ‘–un’ and the suffix -ness’ have been added respectively. Prefixation and suffixation are the major forms of affixation. Therefore, they are major morphological processes in English.

To sum up, one of the basic principles of word formation in English is through the morphological process of Affixation. This includes the techniques of attaching prefixes and suffixes as well as multiple affixations of several affixes to words. This principle underlines the dynamism of English as an international language.

Prefixation

Prefixation is a morphological process by which a prefix as a bound morpheme is attached at the beginning of a root. Many English words derived from Latin and Greek consist of a familiar root and a prefix. The prefix is usually a syllable or two. The Latin prefix –sub means ‘below’ or ‘under’. When added to ‘soil’ for instance, it modifies the meaning of the root. ‘Subsoil’ is therefore a layer of soil that is below the surface soil. If the prefix mal- is added to ‘treat’ it becomes maltreat’ that means ‘treat badly’. Sometimes the prefix alters the word class of the base as in the following example: “en + danger (noun) becomes endanger (verb).”

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A prefix is an affix that is attached to the front of a base. In English, examples of

prefixes are: re-write, un-happy, and pre-history, etc., which occur before other morphemes. Let us observe some examples of prefixes from other languages: In Arabic, for the morpheme (root-word) katab ‘wrote, we can have the prefix ma- (ma-ktab “desk/office”, ma-ktuub “written”).In Filipino, for the morpheme (root word) laro “play”, we can have the prefix ka- (kalaro “playmate”).

Note: (See Appendix 2 for many selected examples of prefixes with meaning)

Suffixation

Suffixation is also a morphological process in English. It involves the addition of a

bound morpheme to a root or base. Many English words derived from Greek or Latin are made up of familiar roots and common suffixes. A suffix is an affix that is attached

to the end of a base. Like prefixes, suffixes, can be made up of one or more syllables

attached at the end of a word to modify its meaning. Suffixes are of two types namely

inflectional and derivational suffixes, which reflect two major word formation processes: inflection and derivation. Knowledge of Greek and Latin suffixes helps to explain words we encounter and use every day though many of them are common in technical or scientific fields. To sum up, Suffixation is a morphological process involving the addition of a morpheme at the end of a root or base.

In English, some morphemes of suffixes are: happy-ness, teach-ing, teach-er,

journal-ist, happi-ly, etc. Let us observe some examples of suffixes from other languages: In Arabic Language, for the morpheme (root-word) √ktb katab “to write”

we can have the suffix -ah (ma-ktabah “library/bookshop”) or from kaatib “male writer” we can have kaatib-ah “female writer”.In Filipino, for the morpheme (rootword) laro “play”, we can have the suffix -an (laruan “toy”).

Note: (See Appendix 2 for many selected examples of suffixes with meaning)

Infixation

Infixation is also a morphological process in English. It involves the addition of a bound morpheme within a root or base. An infix is an affix that occurs within a base, e.g. (in Indonesian) s-in-ambung. Some languages also have infixes, morphemes that are inserted into other morphemes. Filipino is such a language, as illustrated by the following:

Morpheme (Noun)

Verb

ganda

“beauty”

gumanda

“to become beautiful”

lakas

“strength”

lumakas

“to become strong”

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

In this language, the infix -um- is inserted after the first consonant of the noun. Thus, a

speaker of Filipino who learns that yaman is `wealth,’ would understand the meaning

of yumaman, `to become rich,’ on hearing the word for the first time, just as an English

speaker who learns the verb sing would know that singer is `one who sings.’ A Filipino speaker who knows that bumigat means `to become heavy’ would know that the noun `weight’ must be bigat.

Circumfixation

Circumfixation is also a morphological process in English. It involves the addition of a bound morpheme to the front and to the end of a root or a base simultaneously. A circumfix is an affix that is attached to the front and to the end of a base simultaneously, e.g. (in Indonesian) ke-lapar-an. Circumfixes are morphemes that are attached to another morpheme both initially and finally, and are also called discontinuous morphemes. Examples in English are:

teach

un-teach-able

definite

in-definite-ly

form

trans-form-ation

courage

dis-courage-ment

conscious

pre-concious-ness

Examples of this circumfixing in Filipino are:

bigay “give” luto “cook” balik “return”

magbigayan (mag--an) pinaglutuan (pinag--an) pabalikin (pa--in)

“to give each other” “ware used for cooking” “to order someone back”

Multiple Affixations

A Multiple Affixation as a morphological process is also possible in English to form

complex words by the addition of several affixes (derivational morphemes) to roots and bases. For instance, if we take the root √friend, we can create a word by adding the inflectional suffix -ly to form ‘friendly’. To the base ‘friendly’ can be added the derivational prefix un and the derivational suffix ness to form the complex word

unfriendliness. This process of forming complex words such as unfriendliness by the addition of several affixes is the process of multiple affixations. The process takes place in a number of steps so that the word formed by one-step by affixation becomes the base for the next step as can be seen in the following examples: “nature natural unnatural naturalization.” To sum up, the multiple affixation is the morphological process of forming complex words by the addition of several affixes.

Inflection and Derivation

Linguists can divide affixes into two categories depending on their functions in word formation. These are inflectional morphemes and derivational morphemes. This division recognizes two major processes of word building: Inflection and Derivation.

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Inflection and derivation are two major word-building processes in English. Inflectional and derivational morphemes behave differently in word formation. The Inflectional Morphemes always come at the end of words in English. They are therefore inflectional suffixes. No other morpheme we can add to a word after an inflectional morpheme/suffix. An inflectional morpheme does not change the word class of the root but only modifies it to enable it fit into a particular grammatical category. A derivational morpheme can change the word class and the meaning of the base to which we add it.

We often use the techniques of inflection and derivation systematically to build English words. Inflection and Derivation perform grammatical functions that further explain the interesting uniqueness of the principles of word formation in English. Although the process of inflection may create a new word, it may not change the word class of the word. This is not the case with derivations where the class of the new word is completely different from the previous word.

Word Formation Processes

In recent years, linguists have extended the domains of morphology to include not only an analysis of the structure of existing words but also rules that guide the creation of new words. So far, we have noted an open ended tendency of English words in the sense that there appears to be no upper limit to the number of affixes or the length of forms that may function as bases for the formation of new words. We shall observe here a tendency of existing words to combine to form compounds. Here is the productive nature of morphology that we will examine.

There are different types of word formation processes such as compounding, conversion (zero derivation), clipping, blending, backformation, acronyms, abbreviations, coinage, neologism, creativity, and eponyms, etc. These processes of word formations are illustrated as follows:

Compounding (word + word):

Compounding (word + word) is a process of word formation that refers to the two or more words joined together to form a new word. For examples: girlfriend, looking glass, man-made, and hanger on the primary stress of a compound always falls on the first word. The meaning of a compound is not always predicable from its components. Compare boathouse, Redcoat, and hotdog. How to determine the part of speech of a compound? Here are some general rules:

a) when two words of the same part of speech form a compound, the compound will also have this part of speech, e.g. bittersweet, sleepwalk, rainbow.

b) When two words of different parts of speech form a compound, the compound will have the same part of speech of the second or the last word, e.g. headstrong,

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

poorhouse, spoonfeed, carryall.

c) Compounds formed with a preposition have the part of speech of the non-prepositional part of the compound, e.g. hanger-on, sundown, downfall, overtake.

Blending (part of a word + part of a word):

Blending is a process of word formation that refers to the similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted.

For Examples:

Motor + hotel Motel Breakfast + lunch Brunch Wireless + Fidelity Wi-Fi

More examples of Blends or blending are as follows: motel (motor + hotel), cybrary (cyber + library) and brunch (breakfast + lunch)

Acronym:

Acronym is a process of word formation that refers to forming a new word by combining the initials of different words, e.g. scuba (self- contained underwater breathing apparatus), RAM (random access memory), TLC (tender loving care), ER (emergency room).

Other examples on acronyms are demonstrated in the following table:

Other examples of Acronyms

Radar

Radio detecting and ranging

FYI

For Your Information

TGIF

Thanks God It’s Friday

a.k.a

also known as

Html

Hypertext mark-up language

www

World wide web

SWOT

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

Radar

Radio detecting and ranging

Clipping:

Clipping is a process of word formation that refers to the shortening a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables.

Examples:

Facsimile fax

Hamburger burger

Gasoline

Advertisement ad

gas

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

In other words, clipping is a process of forming a new word by shortening the spoken form of a word and a compound, e.g. lab (from laboratory), fridge (from refrigerator), flu (from influenza), floppy (from floppy disk), hifi (from high fidelity).

Abbreviation:

Abbreviation is a process of word formation that refers to Forming a new word by shortening the written form of a word or a compound, e.g. prof. (for professor), Tex. (for Texas), and Dr. (for doctor), bsmt (for basement)

Reduplication:

Reduplication is a process of word formation that refers to forming new words by repeating an entire word or part of it.

1) Total Reduplication: In Indonesian, ruman means ‘house’ and rumanruman means ‘houses’; in Arabic bal to wetand balbal to wet again and again. 2) Partial Reduplication: In Amis, pawli means ‘banana’, and pawliwli means ‘every bunch of banana’

Morpheme-Internal Change (MIC):

Morpheme-internal Change (MIC) is a process of word formation that refers to Creating new words through morpheme-internal modifications, e.g. goose-geese, ring-rang-rung and strife-strive in English. It sometimes combines with affixation, e.g. break-broke-broken, bite-bit-bitten,

Suppletion:

Suppletion is a process of word formation that refers to marking a grammatical contrast by replacing a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme, e.g. am-was, go-went in English.

Conversion

Conversion is a process of word formation that refers to the assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category. Examples:

butter (N) to butter the bread permit (V) an entry permit empty (A) to empty the litter-bin

Zero Derivation:

Zero Derivation is a process of word formation that derives a new word without any change of the form. (E.g. email (noun and verb; record (noun and verb)

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Back-formation:

Back formation is a process of word formation that refers to the creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis.

Examples:

editor (1649)

edit (1791)

television (1907)

televise (1927)

In other words, backformation is a process of forming a new word through incorrect morphological analysis, e.g. edit from editor, peddle from peddler, cheeseburger from Hamburger.

Coinage

Coinage is a process of word formation that refers to the construction and addition of

new words into the language.

They become the generic names though originally

product names (e.g., Kleenex, Xerox, Vaseline).

Neologism

Neologism is a process of word formation that refers to a new or newly coined word or phrase. As we invent new techniques and professions, we must also invent neologisms such as "microcomputer" (=a small digital computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time) and "astronaut" (a person trained to travel in a spacecraft) to describe them. Neologisms are words coined to express some new phenomena or the attitude of the speaker or writer. A typical example is snail-mail referring to the postal service as opposed to the modern electronic mail. Extension of meaning could be said to be a characteristic feature of neologisms. In the case of snail-mail above, the characteristic slow speed of the snail is extended to the speed of postal services. Many neologisms are compounds which are semantically opaque. In present-day English the words walk-man and tallboy are ready examples. A tallboy is not a kind of boy but a piece of furniture, while a walk-man is not a kind of man but a type of stereo equipment.

Creativity/Productivity

Creativity/Productivity is a process of word formation that refers to the capability of human language users to produce an infinite number of words and utterances using the word formation rules of languages that are themselves finite. Creativity has the same sense as Productivity. In morphology, creativity can be rule-governed when the formation of new words follow the rules and principles learnt and internalized by the user of the language as, for instance, when abstract nouns are formed from verbs in English by the addition of the suffix -ion / -ition as in ‘addition’ and ‘information’. Creativity can also be rule bending when users bend the rules and at times do violence to the everyday meaning of words in an attempt to create new words.

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Eponyms

Eponyms is a process of word formation that refers to the words derived from proper names or things. Examples:

Kodak

Sandwich

Celcius

Morphological Rules

Morphological Rules are rules of word formation. Looking over the discussion so far, we can see some basic patterns of morphological rules. Let us review some of them. If we consider compounding/compounds first, we notice a remarkable pattern using “brackets” to show how these words are formed:

[V

[N bar] [V tend]] bartend

[N

[N apple] [N pie]] apple-pie

[A

[N jet] [A black]] jet-black

[N

pl. [N sg. part] [N pl. suppliers] part suppliers

[N

sg. [N pl. parts] [N sg. supplier] parts supplier

[N

[N [N rocket] [N motor]] [N chamber]] rocket motor chamber

Instead of using brackets to show how the abovementioned-bracketed words are formed, it is often easier to use a Morphological Tree-Diagrams (MTD), like the following:

Bartend

jet-black

V

A

/\

/\

N

V

N A

/

\

/

\

Bar tend

jet

black

Rocket motor chamber

University parking lot

N

N

/\

/\

N

N

N

N

/\

\

/

/\

N

N

\

/

N

N

/

\ Rocket motor chamber

\

/

University

/

parking

\

lot

These trees are upside down: the point at the top is the root; along the bottom, we have the pronounced leaves. The root, the leaves, and the other labeled constituents in the tree are called nodes of the tree. There is always just one root, and the branches never

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

cross. Notice that the different structures of the last two examples, what modifies what,

is figured out by considering what makes the most sense.

Another basic thing we see is that the roots combine in pairs. The pairs we see here can be described with rules like the following (this rule format is not presented in the text):

V

N V

N

N N

A

N A

There is regularity here. All of these rules have the morphological rule:

X Y X

This regularity in English compounds is described as follows: (1) In English, the rightmost element of a compound is the head; and (2) A compound word has the

category and features of its head. This is called the English Right Hand Head Rule

or the Head-Final Principle

There is an analogous/similar way to write affixation rules. The important thing to notice is that the head-final rule in compounds predicts some of the patterns we see in affixation: (1) an English suffix often changes category, but prefixes rarely do; and (2) the conditions on affixation typically refer to the just the last suffix. The conditions for attaching a suffix never refer to the root, which may seem surprising to a non-linguist, since, intuitively, it is usually the root that provides most of the meaning of the word.

How can we exploit this insight that affixes and compounds both seem to have their properties determined by their right-hand members? Well, we can just suppose that

affixation structures are head-final too. Then, considering the most productive affixes first, we can use rules like the following to describe their requirements and their

effects:

N

-er / [V ]

(manager)

A

-able / [V ]

(manageable)

N

-ness / [A ]

(happiness)

The first rule says that the N -er is allowed when it can form a complex with a verb. Moreover, by the head-final rule, we know that the resulting complex will be a noun N. We read the other rules similarly. We can draw the resulting structures with trees.

For affixation structures, let us presents morphological tree diagrams like the

following:

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

manager

manageable

happiness

N

A

N

/\

/\

/\

V

-er

V able

A

-ness

/

/

/

manage

manage

happy

However, if we use the rules given above, then INSTEAD, we can provide categories for the affixes, conforming to the English head-final rule:

manager

manageable

happiness

 

N

A

N

/\

/\

/\

V

N

V

A

A

N

/

\

/

\

/

\

manage -er

manage -able

happy

-ness

Prefixes in English tend not to be category changing, but rather just modifiers. So if we

had to assign categories to them, we could observe the following:

1. A modifies N, as in happy day

2. Adv modifies V, as in he completely finished

3. Adv modifies A, as in completely happy

Therefore, we could assign morphological tree diagrams like these to prefix structures:

 

Unhappy

 

untie

 

remake

 

unhappinesses

antiracist

 
 

A

V

V

N

N

 

/\

/\

/\

/\

/\

 

Adv N

 

Adv V

 

Adv

V

N

N

 

A

N

 

/

\

/

\

/

\

/\

\

/

/\

 

/

\

/

\

/

\

A

N

\

/

N

N

/

\

/

\

/

\

/\

\

\

/

/

\

/

/

un-

 

\

\

/

/

happy un-

 

\

\

/

/

tie re-

\

\

Adv A

/

\ \ happy -ness -es anti- race -ist

\

\

\

\

\

/

/

/

/

make un-

These trees conform to the same generalization that we had for compounds: the right sister determines category. In fact, applying the head-final rule to each of the affixes in our first example sentence, we obtain a category for all of the suffixes:

D

N

N

V

V

P

V

N

A

Adv

P

D

N

N

The

friend -s promis -ed to ask care -ful

-ly

about

a

school-master

P

D

A

N

For

the fair Fatimah

 

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

A Morphological Tree-Diagram (MTD)

A word structure is normally displayed by means of a Morphological Tree Diagram (MTD) (the so-called ‘word structure’) and by a system of re-write rules one can move from an initial unit (the entire word) to the individual elements (a so-called ‘terminal string’). See the following morphological tree diagram of the word “unproductively.

adv.

/\

Prefix

adv.

|

/\

|

adj.

Suffix

|

/\

|

|

base/stem

Suffix

|

|

|

|

|

Un-

product

-ive

-ly

Now, let us see the following morphological tree diagram of the complex word “Antidisestablishmentarianism.”

N

/\

 

N

Aff

/\

|

Aff

N

|

|

/\

|

|

N

Aff

|

|

/\

|

|

|

Aff

N

|

|

|

|

/\

|

|

|

|

V

Aff

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

Anti

dis

establish ment

arian

ism

We can represent it as follows:

| | | | | | | | Anti dis establish ment arian ism We can

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Section 3: Syntax

The grammar of a language has several components. These can be described as follows: a) The phonetics that governs the structure of sounds; b) The morphology that governs the structure of words; c) The syntax, which governs the structure of sentences d) The semantics that governs the meanings of words and sentences. We are concerned here primarily with the Syntax of the structure of sentences.

Syntax originates from the Greek words syn, meaning `together’ and taxis, meaning `sequence or order’. Syntax concerns the possible arrangements of words in a language. The basic unit is the sentence that minimally consists of a main clause (containing at least a subject and verb). Syntax studies how words combine to form sentences. Moreover, Syntax deals with the arrangement of inflected or / and derived morphologically words to make phrases, clauses and sentences.

In linguistics, Syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations", that govern the way the words in a sentence are arranged. It concerns how different words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, etc.) are combined into phrases and clauses, which, in turn, are combined into sentences.

Any speaker of a human language can produce and understand an infinite number of sentences. We can show this quite easily through examples such as the following (Fromkin: 2003):

1). The cat chased the mouse. 2). The cat chased the mouse that ate the cheese. 3). The cat chased the mouse that ate the cheese that came from the cow. 4). The cat chased the mouse that ate the cheese that came from the cow that grazed in the field.

The speaker could continue creating sentences by adding an adjective, or a noun connected by and, or a relative clause. Thus, this could go on forever since all languages have mechanisms such as these modification, coordination, and clause insertion that make the number of sentences limitless.

Part of what is meant by structure is word order. The meaning of a sentence depends largely on the order in which words occur in a sentence. Thus,

Mary bought what John needs. vs.

Mary needs what John bought.

Thus, syntax refers to the structure of sentences and the rules that govern the correctness of a sentence. There are five basic sentence elements in the traditional classification; these are Subject (S), Verb (V), Object (O), Adverbial (A) and Complement (C) often represented as SVOAC. Of the five elements, the verb is the compulsory element while the other elements are optional. Sentences can be formed

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

using the five elements as follows: V, SV, SVO, SVA, SVOO, SVAC, and SVOAC.

Of the five sentence elements: S V O A C, the subject and verb are constant; they are always present while the object, adverbials or complements are variable. Their presence depends on the pattern of sentence and the type of verb. In addition, the elements O can be direct OD, or Indirect OI, C can be Cs or Co that is subject or object complement, A can be adverbial of time, place, manner, condition, reason etc.

English, like all languages, has generally accepted patterns for sentences. Using the abovementioned five elements SVOAC, the following sentence patterns are possible:

V - Sing SV - She is singing, Birds fly, the aeroplane has landed. SVA - She is singing beautifully. Jane dances gracefully. Tom came immediately. SVC - My brother is a doctor. He is very successful. He has become a commissioner for Health. SVO - I ate the meat. The students played basketball. My father paid my fees. SVOO - They gave their friends presents. She lent me her book. My father bought my mother a new pair of shoes. SVOC - His father named him his heir. I made her my successor. The company nominated my brother the managing director. SVAC - She was formerly a beauty queen. I will remain forever grateful SVOCA They elected him chairperson each year. SVOA - My father put the money in the bank. She hid her handbag somewhere. The students spent their public holiday at the beach.

Thus, there can be the following sentence patterns. One Element - V Two Elements - SV Three Elements SVO - SVA Four Elements SVOO SVAC SVOC - SVOA Five Elements SVOCA

We should note that a sentence might be a word as shown above. In this case, either the subject or predicate is implied.

With transitive verbs, the following types of sentence patterns are possible:

SVO - I drank the beer SVOO - She gave me the beer SVOA - He poured the beer into my glass; On the other hand, the following patterns are possible with intransitive

Verbs:

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

SV - You are joking SVC - You are humorous SVA - Your friend is in the car

With linking verbs, only the following patterns are possible:

SVC - She is beautiful. SVAC - She was formerly a beauty queen.

It is important to note that any of the sentence elements can be a word, a phrase or a clause as the following sentences show:

SVO - Susan ate apples (words) SVA - The pen was seen in the bag (SVA= phrases). SVA - The biro pen was seen where it was kept (A= Clause).

Sentences are composed of morphemes, but sentence meaning is more than the sum of

the meaning of the morphemes.

has the same morphemes as `A friend gave the flower to the girl.’ However, not the same meaning; and the string of morphemes `*gave the to girl a friend the flower’ has no linguistic meaning. There are rules in one’s grammar that determine how

morphemes and words must be combined to express a specific meaning. These are the syntactic rules of the languages.

The sentence, ‘The girl gave the flower to a friend’

Syntactic Rules

Syntax is the study of the principles that govern the organization of words into phrases and sentences. Words are not put randomly into sentences. They are arranged according to principles or syntactic rules. The Syntactic Rules reveal the grammatical relations among the words of a sentence and tell us when structural differences result in meaning differences and when they do not. Moreover, the syntactic rules permit speakers to produce and understand a limitless number of sentences never produced or heard before the creative aspect of language use. Thus, the syntactic rules in a grammar account for at least (Fromkin: 2003):

1). The grammaticality of sentences 2). Word order 3). Hierarchical organization of sentences 4). Grammatical relations such as subject and object 5). Whether different structures have differing meanings or the same meaning 6). The creative aspect of language

Analysis of Sentence Structure

How do we know we have the knowledge of syntax? We can make a judgment on the

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

grammaticality of the sentences that we have not previously encountered:

a. Some students annoyed the teacher. (Grammatical, well formed)

b. Annoyed teacher some the students. (Ungrammatical, ill formed)

c. Some green beans annoyed the book. (?)

d. Some students annoyed the teacher with a stick.

While every sentence is a sequence of words, not every sequence of words is a sentence. Sequences of words that conform to the rules of syntax are well-formed or grammatical, and those that violate the syntactic rules are ill-formed or ungrammatical.

1). The boy found the ball 2). The boy found quickly 3). The boy found in the house 4). The boy found the ball in the house

To be a sentence, words must conform to specific patterns determined by the syntactic rules of the language as shown above.

Representations of Syntax

In Linguistics, the syntax of sentences can be described by different methods, for instance, for the following sentence: "The boy kicked the ball." The syntax can be described, by the following methods:

1. A statement of the correct sequence of the parts of speech (or Syntactic Categories):

Subject is followed by verb is followed by object. In the above example, subject = "The boy" (article followed by noun) verb = "kicked" object = "The ball" (article followed by noun)

2. by a series of transformational rules

For example:

ball" (article followed by noun) 2. by a series of transformational rules For example: Where in

Where in the above example,

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University 3. by parsing diagrams Here, the parts of a sentence

3. by parsing diagrams

Here, the parts of a sentence are shown in a graphical way that emphasizes the hierarchical relationships between the components of a sentence. For example:

between the components of a sentence. For example: Where: Subject = “the boy” (article + noun)

Where:

Subject = “the boy” (article + noun) Verb = “kicked” Object = “the ball” (article + noun)

The above structure is the basic syntactic structure for a sentence in the English language. As sentences that are more complex are considered, it is easy, by this method, to see how these different structures relate to each other, by further breaking down the branches of the structure. The syntax of the language contains the rules that govern the structure of phrases and how these can be joined together. The structures and associated rules vary from one language to another.

Parsing diagrams are capable of representing not just one particular language’s grammar but are capable of representing any kind of grammar. For instance, they can be used to represent the rules of invented languages such as computer programming languages.

This method of representation is the one that I will use to represent musical structures because of the graphic nature of the representation and the flexibility of the approach. By this method, we can show the types of syntactic structures in music and show how they relate to each other by expending or contracting branches of the structure.

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Examples of More Complex Syntactic Structures in Language

1. Embedding

It is possible to construct sentences that are more complex than the example above. This is done by embedding further phrases within the basic structure. For example, in the sentence: "The boy with red shorts kicked the ball." "With red shorts" is a prepositional phrase that further describes “the boy” . This can be represented, within the basic sentence structure, as follows:

within the basic sentence structure, as follows: Here we can see how the Prepositional Phrase (PP)

Here we can see how the Prepositional Phrase (PP) “with red shorts” is embedded within the subject Noun Phrase (NP) so that the subject is subdivided into a Noun Phrase and Prepositional Phrase (PP). The Prepositional Phrase itself contains a further Noun Phrase. The parsing diagram clearly shows the hierarchical relationship between the sentence and its components. There are many other ways of extending this structure by embedding subordinate phrases at different parts of the basic structure.

2. Conjoining.

It is also possible to extend sentences by joining complete structures or complete and incomplete structures, for example: "The boy with red shorts kicked the ball and scored a goal." The conjunction “andjoins the complete sentence: "The boy with red shorts kicked the ball" and the verb phrase: scored a goal"

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University (Source from:

(Source from: http://www.harmony.org.uk/book/linguistics_syntax.htm/15/2/2017)

A Syntactic Tree Diagram (STD)

We use “tree” diagrams to represent Phrase Structure. A syntactic tree diagram provides the following information: the word class of each word, the phrase structure of the whole sentence (what the word-groupings and their hierarchical structure are how they are nested or not nested inside each other), and the phrasal category of each phrase (what kind of phrase each phrase is). A tree diagram does not show, directly, information about the function of phrasal categories. In ordinary sentences, the sentence (S) is always subdivided into NP VP. That is to say (S = NP + VP). This is illustrated in the following syntactic tree diagram for the sentence “The dog ate the bone”:

S

/\

NP

VP

/\

/\

Det.

N

V

NP

| |

|

/\

| |

|

Det.

N.

| |

|

|

|

The

dog

ate

the

bone

Noun Phrases

A Noun Phrase is syntactically represented as follows: NP = Det. + N’ and N’ = N + Modifier. Modifiers may be a word, a phrase, or a clause. In addition, modifiers are

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

subdivided into Pre Modifiers and Post Modifiers. These are demonstrated below:

Pre Modifiers

Pre Modifiers may be Adjectives as illustrated in the following syntactic tree diagram:

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

/

\

|

A

N

|

|

|

A

lazy

boy

Alternatively, they may be Nouns as illustrated in the following syntactic tree diagram:

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

/

\

|

N

N

|

|

|

A

school

boy

Alternatively, they may be Participles as illustrated in the following syntactic tree diagrams:

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

/

\

|

Pre. Part

 

N

|

|

|

A

crying

girl

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

/

\

|

Past. P

N

|

|

|

The

broken

window

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

/

\

|

G

N

|

|

|

A

swimming

pool

Alternatively, they may be Adverbials as illustrated in the following syntactic tree diagram:

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

/

\

|

Adv

N

|

|

|

A

nearby

school

 

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

Adj. P

 

N

|

/|\

|

|

/

|

\

|

|

A

Conj. A

 

|

|

|

|

|

|

A

handsome and intelligent

boy

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Morphology and Syntax, A Simplified Course-Book, by Dr. Abdullah Shaghi, for 3 rd Y.E B.Ed. Students, 2 nd Semester 2016-2017, English Department, Zabid-College of Education, Hodeidah University

Post Modifiers

Post modifiers may be Prepositional Phrase as illustrated in the following syntactic tree diagrams:

NP

/\

Det.

N’

|

/\

|

N

PP

 

|

|

/\

|

|

Prep

NP

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

N

|

|

|

|

The