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Question 1 (13 marks)

1a) A soccer ball weighing 0.43 kg was travelling at 15.4 m.s -1 until it was kicked in the opposite direction by the goalie. If the ball was in contact with the goalie’s foot for 13.2 ms, and the ball velocity immediately after contact was 33.7 m.s -1 , what was the average force applied to the ball? (5 marks)

 Initial momentum (G i ) = 0.43 × - 15.4 = - 6.62 kg.m.s -1 (1 mark) Final momentum (G f ) = 0.43 × 33.7 = 14.49 kg.m.s -1 (1 mark) ΔG = G f – G i = 14.49 + 6.62 = 21.1 kg.m.s -1 (1 mark) Ft = ΔG F × 0.0132 = 21.1 kg.m.s -1 (1 mark) F = 21.1 ÷ 0.0132 = 1599 N (1 mark)

Note to markers: Signs of ΔG & F are defined arbitrarily for this question and not important (although 1 must be negative). Give partial marks if student is on the right track but makes early error.

1b) Briefly describe what happened to acceleration for each of the traces below (4 marks) 1c) List 4 factors that affect the magnitude and shape of the ground reaction force during running. (4 marks)

Any 4 of the following:

Running speed

Footwear stiffness

Leg stiffness

Surface stiffness

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Slope of running surface

Change in running speed (i.e., accelerating or decelerating)

Change in direction (e.g., side-stepping)

Relative air speed/wind

Injury

Mass

Posture

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Question 2 (12 marks)

A motion capture system was used to examine the running pattern of a healthy 33 year old male. From force plate and 2D coordinate data collected, an inverse dynamics analysis was performed on the subjects left leg (Figure 1) and a free body diagram of the foot segment was created (Figure 2). Answer the following questions using the below figures and the additional information on mass, moment of inertia, and instantaneous position and acceleration of the foot in Table 1.

Figure 1. Three link segment model of leg Hip joint
Thigh COM
Shank COM
Ankle joint

Foot COM

Force Plate COM = centre of mass

 Table 1 Foot mass (kg) 1.1 Foot length (m) 0.28 θ foot (rad) 0.8 Foot COM (% from proximal end) 41 Foot I about COM (kg.m 2 ) 0.004 Horizontal foot acceleration (m.s -2 ) -0.8 Vertical foot acceleration (m.s -2 ) 0.4 Foot angular acceleration (rad.s -2 ) 6.2

Knee joint JRF y
JRF x
θ foot
F w
135 N

M

Figure 2. Foot segment

ankle

Toe

1245 N

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2a) Calculate the magnitude and direction of the ankle joint reaction force. (6 marks)

ΣF x = ma x

F ank_x + F grf_x = ma x

 F ank_x -135 = 1.1 × - 0.8 F ank_x = - 0.88 + 135 F ank_x = 134.1 N (1.5 marks) ΣF y = ma y F ank_y + F grf_y + F w = ma y F ank_y + 1245 - 10.79 = 1.1 × 0.4 F ank_y = 0.44 - 1245 + 10.79 F ank_y = - 1233.8 N (1.5 marks) |F ank | = sqrt(F ank_x 2 + F ank_y 2 ) |F ank | = sqrt(1540152) = 1241.0 N (1.5 marks)

θ

θ = tan -1 (F ank_y / F ank_x )

θ

= tan -1 ( - 1233.8/ 134.1)

= - 1.46 (4.82) rad (with respect to RHH) or - 84 (276) deg (with respect to RHH)

(1.5 mark)

Note to markers: Angles are assumed to be reported relative to RHH unless otherwise stated. Subtract half a mark if maths is correct but angle incorrectly reported

2b) Calculate the net ankle joint internal (muscle) moment. (3 marks)

d grf_x = sin(0.8) × 0.165 = 0.119 d grf_y = cos(0.8) × 0.165 = 0.115 d ank_x = sin(0.8) × 0.115 = 0.082 d ank_y = cos(0.8) × 0.115 = 0.080

(2 mark)

ΣM = Iα

M a ± (F grf_x × d grf_x ) ± (F grf_y × d grf_y ) ± (F ank_x × d ank_x ) ± (F ank_y × d ank_y ) = Iα

M a - (135×0.119) - (1245×0.115) - (134.1×0.082) - (1233.8×0.080) = 0.004 × 6.2 M a – 16.0 – 143.3 – 11.0 – 98.7 = 0.025 M a = = 0.025 + 16.0 + 143.3 + 11.0 + 98.7

 M a = 269.0 N.m (3 marks) 2c) Is this a plantar flexion or a dorsiflexion moment? (1 mark) Plantar flexion moment (1 mark)

Note to markers: Students should not be recurrently penalised for initial errors. E.g., If a student uses mass instead of weight in calculation of F y this will carry forward to |F ank | and θ Fank and M ank . If all remaining procedures are correct, the student should lose ½ mark for F y calculations but get full marks for remaining sections.

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Question 3 (9) marks

3a) The architecture of a muscle defines its functional characteristics. Sketch the force-length and force-velocity relationships for the contractile element of pennate and fusiform muscles of equivalent size and shape. Draw the curves for the fusiform muscle as solid lines () and the curves for the pennate muscle as dotted lines ( ). Ensure that all axes are clearly labelled. (6 marks)

Force (N)

Force-length Length (m)

Lose marks for:

Incorrect overall shape(s)

Force (N)

Force-velocity Velocity (m/s)

Incorrect depiction of event(s)/region(s) between curves

Incorrect/missing axis label(s)

Different muscle types not identifiable

3b) The musculotendinous unit can be modelled as a 3-component model, which is comprised of a series elastic component (SEC), parallel elastic component (PEC) and a contractile element (CE). What anatomical structure(s) do each of these three components represent? (3 marks)

SEC: Tendon

PEC: Endomysium, perimysium; i.e. CT sheath surrounding muscle fascicles and

fibres, respectively).

CE: Actin and myosin OR Cross bridges OR sarcomeres OR muscle fibres

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Question 4 (8) marks

4a) Describe two advantages and two limitations of surface electrodes compared with fine-wire electrodes. (4 marks)

Non-invasive

Not painful

Easy to apply

Measured activity is more representative of whole muscle activity

More reliable signal from day-to-day

Limitations:

Susceptible to cross-talk from neighbouring muscles

Cannot measure activity from deep muscles

Unable/very difficult to measure an individual MU’s APs

Signal amplitude and frequency content attenuated by tissue between

muscle and electrode

Poorer/lower signal-noise ratio; more noise relative to measured signal

4b) List two sources of noise that may contaminate a surface EMG signal and describe how you would go about reducing these sources of noise prior to, during and/or after EMG data collection. (4 marks)

Any 2 of following:

Motion artefact: Tape leads to subject to minimise movement

Motion artefact: High pass filter to remove low frequency movement

artefact noise from acquired signal

Cross talk: Place electrodes over are of greatest muscle bulk – away from

edge of muscle

Electrical noise*: Use differential amplifier

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Electrical noise*: Minimise skin impedance through proper skin

preparation

Electrical noise*: Use band-stop filter to remove narrow bandwidth noise

Note to markers – accept anything reasonable here (e.g., fluorescent lighting, PCs, electrical equipment in lab).

Question 5 (14) marks

5a) An AFL ball was kicked straight up and reached a peak height of 31 m in an indoor stadium. If we assume that the effects of air resistance were negligible, how fast was the ball going when it hit the ground? (4 marks)

 Vy f 2 = Vy f 2 + 2as (0.5 mark) Vy f 2 = 0 + - 19.62 * - 31 (1 mark) Vy f 2 = 608.22 (1 mark) Vy f = sqrt (608.22) (0.5 mark) Vy f = 24.66 m/s (1 mark)

5b) Describe two execution differences between throw-like and push-like movement patterns. (4 marks)

Any two of the following:

Throw-like movements have sequential (proximal-to-distal) sequence of joint/segment velocities while, in push-like movement patterns, peak segment/joint velocities occur simultaneously

The endpoint follows a curvilinear path for throw-like movements compared to a rectilinear path for push-like movement patterns

Throw-like movements take place in multiple planes while push-like movements are typically constrained to a single plane

In a push-like movement, the involved segments are positioned behind or in front of object to be projected, while in a throw-like movement the segments start above, to the side or below the object

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5c) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of lever rotations compared to wheel- axle rotations. Hint: Refer to both kinematic and kinetic levels of analysis. (6 marks)

From a kinematic point of view, the longer the lever, the greater the endpoint linear velocity will be for any given angular velocity (linear velocity = angular velocity × length).

(1 mark) However, from a kinetic perspective, an axle-like object, such as a limb segment, it is requires a much greater moment to cause an equivalent angular acceleration its “lever axes” (i.e., flex/ext, abd/add), than it long axis (i.e., int/ext rot) because of the relationship (angular acceleration = Moment / Moment of inertia). (1 mark)

As such, there is a trade-off between the optimal configuration to generate linear velocity from a kinematic perspective and the optimal configuration to bring about a change in angular velocity from a kinetic perspective.

(1 mark) Note to markers: Does not have to be in this structure – give marks if they – allow as long as there is reasonable theoretical/experimental evidence / argument

Question 6 (6 marks)

6a) Describe how a swimsuit designed to reduce drag may influence: i) profile drag, ii) surface drag, and iii) wave drag? (3 marks)

Profile drag (one of the following):

Prolong boundary layer separation

Reduce frontal plane cross-sectional area by compression of tissue

Reduce frontal plane cross-sectional area by increase in buoyancy

Surface drag:

Increased smoothness, low surface-boundary layer friction

Reduce friction through increased proportion of body in air via increased

Wave drag:

Note to markers: Could be a number of other mechanisms – allow as long as there is reasonable theoretical/experimental evidence / argument

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6b) A new swimsuit is promoted as reducing total resistive drag by 8%. Predict the decrease this would have on a freestyle swimmer’s personal best 100 m time given their current personal best time (without a suit) of 48.2 s. (3 marks)

F D v 2 v F D

0.5

Reduce F D by 8%, increase v by sqrt(8%) = 2.8%

Cover distance in 97.2% of original time, delta time = - 1.35 s or time = 46.85s

Note to markers: As long as final answer correct, give full marks. If not, give partial marks as above

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Equation sheet

 Linear velocity Δ d v = Δ t Angular velocity = Δ θ ω Δt Linear acceleration a = Δ Δ v t Angular acceleration = Δ ω α Δt Equations of motion v f = v i + at Weight W = mg v f 2 = v i 2 + 2 as Newton’s 2 nd law ∑ F = ma s = v t + 1 at 2 Newton’s 2 nd law ∑ τ= Iα i 2 Length of arc l = rθ Moment of inertia I = ∑ mr 2 Tangential velocity v = rω Torque τ = Fd Radial acceleration 2 Friction force F =μR v a R = r Tangential a = rα Elastic force F = kx acceleration Segment angle θ = tan − 1 ⎛ ⎜ y ⎜ x ⎝ 2 2 y − − x 1 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Angular momentum H = Iω First derivative & x i +1 − x i −1 Mechanical advantage MA = FA (velocity) ( ) = x t 2 dt RA Second derivative && x ( t ) = x i+ 1 − 2 x i + x i− 1 Fluid force F f = kAv 2 (acceleration) ( dt ) 2 Impulse I = Ft Reynolds number R e = 640 vd (smooth sphere) Momentum G = mv Work U = Fd Gravitational potential energy E GPE = mgh Power P = U t Strain energy E = 1 kx 2 Stress/pressure F σ= ε 2 A Kinetic energy E KE = 1 2 mv Strain ε= Δl 2 l 0 Froude number Fr = v 2 Elastic modulus E = σ gl ε Butterworth filter NX ()i = a X ()i + a X (i −+) 01 a 2 12 X (i − ) + b NX (i − 1 1 ) + b 2 NX (i − 2 )

*** END OF EXAM ***

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