Question 1 (13 marks)
1a) A soccer ball weighing 0.43 kg was travelling at 15.4 m.s ^{}^{1} until it was kicked in the opposite direction by the goalie. If the ball was in contact with the goalie’s foot for 13.2 ms, and the ball velocity immediately after contact was 33.7 m.s ^{}^{1} , what was the average force applied to the ball? (5 marks)
Initial momentum (G _{i} ) = 0.43 × ^{} 15.4 = ^{} 6.62 kg.m.s ^{}^{1} 
(1 mark) 
Final momentum (G _{f} ) = 0.43 × 33.7 = 14.49 kg.m.s ^{}^{1} 
(1 mark) 
ΔG = G _{f} – G _{i} = 14.49 + 6.62 = 21.1 kg.m.s ^{}^{1} 
(1 mark) 
Ft = ΔG F × 0.0132 = 21.1 kg.m.s ^{}^{1} 
(1 mark) 
F = 21.1 ÷ 0.0132 = 1599 N 
(1 mark) 
Note to markers: Signs of ΔG & F are defined arbitrarily for this question and not important (although 1 must be negative). Give partial marks if student is on the right track but makes early error.
1b) Briefly describe what happened to acceleration for each of the traces below (4 marks)
1c) List 4 factors that affect the magnitude and shape of the ground reaction force during running. (4 marks)
Any 4 of the following:
• Running speed
• Footwear stiffness
• Leg stiffness
• Surface stiffness
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• Slope of running surface
• Change in running speed (i.e., accelerating or decelerating)
• Change in direction (e.g., sidestepping)
• Relative air speed/wind
• Injury
• Mass
• Posture
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Question 2 (12 marks)
A motion capture system was used to examine the running pattern of a healthy 33 year old male. From force plate and 2D coordinate data collected, an inverse dynamics analysis was performed on the subjects left leg (Figure 1) and a free body diagram of the foot segment was created (Figure 2). Answer the following questions using the below figures and the additional information on mass, moment of inertia, and instantaneous position and acceleration of the foot in Table 1.
Figure 1. Three link segment model of leg
Foot COM
Force Plate
COM = centre of mass
Table 1 

Foot mass (kg) 
1.1 
Foot length (m) 
0.28 
θ _{f}_{o}_{o}_{t} (rad) 
0.8 
Foot COM (% from proximal end) 
41 
Foot I about COM (kg.m ^{2} ) 
0.004 
Horizontal foot acceleration (m.s ^{}^{2} ) 
0.8 
Vertical foot acceleration (m.s ^{}^{2} ) 
0.4 
Foot angular acceleration (rad.s ^{}^{2} ) 
6.2 
Knee joint
M
Figure 2. Foot segment
ankle
Toe
1245 N
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2a) Calculate the magnitude and direction of the ankle joint reaction force. (6 marks)
ΣF _{x} = ma _{x}
F ank_x + F grf_x = ma x
F _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{x} 135 = 1.1 × ^{} 0.8 F _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{x} = ^{} 0.88 + 135 F _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{x} = 134.1 N 
(1.5 marks) 

ΣF _{y} = ma _{y} 

F ank_y + F grf_y + F w = ma y 

F _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{y} + 1245  10.79 = 1.1 × 0.4 F _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{y} = 0.44  1245 + 10.79 F _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{y} = ^{} 1233.8 N 
(1.5 marks) 

F ank  = sqrt(F ank_x ^{2} + F ank_y ^{2} ) 

F _{a}_{n}_{k}  = sqrt(1540152) = 1241.0 N 
(1.5 
marks) 
θ
= tan ^{}^{1} (Opp/Adj)
θ = tan ^{}^{1} (F ank_y / F ank_x )
θ
= tan ^{}^{1} ( ^{} 1233.8/ 134.1)
= ^{} 1.46 (4.82) rad (with respect to RHH) or ^{} 84 (276) deg (with respect to RHH)
(1.5 mark)
Note to markers: Angles are assumed to be reported relative to RHH unless otherwise stated. Subtract half a mark if maths is correct but angle incorrectly reported
2b) Calculate the net ankle joint internal (muscle) moment. (3 marks)
d _{g}_{r}_{f}_{_}_{x} = sin(0.8) × 0.165 = 0.119 d _{g}_{r}_{f}_{_}_{y} = cos(0.8) × 0.165 = 0.115 d _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{x} = sin(0.8) × 0.115 = 0.082 d _{a}_{n}_{k}_{_}_{y} = cos(0.8) × 0.115 = 0.080
(2 mark)
ΣM = Iα
M a ± (F grf_x × d grf_x ) ± (F grf_y × d grf_y ) ± (F ank_x × d ank_x ) ± (F ank_y × d ank_y ) = Iα
M _{a}  (135×0.119)  (1245×0.115)  (134.1×0.082)  (1233.8×0.080) = 0.004 × 6.2 M _{a} – 16.0 – 143.3 – 11.0 – 98.7 = 0.025 M _{a} = = 0.025 + 16.0 + 143.3 + 11.0 + 98.7
M _{a} = 269.0 N.m 
(3 marks) 
2c) Is this a plantar flexion or a dorsiflexion moment? (1 mark) 

Plantar flexion moment 
(1 mark) 
Note to markers: Students should not be recurrently penalised for initial errors. E.g., If a student uses mass instead of weight in calculation of F _{y} this will carry forward to F _{a}_{n}_{k}  and θ _{F}_{a}_{n}_{k} and M _{a}_{n}_{k} . If all remaining procedures are correct, the student should lose ½ mark for F _{y} calculations but get full marks for remaining sections.
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Question 3 (9) marks
3a) The architecture of a muscle defines its functional characteristics. Sketch the forcelength and forcevelocity relationships for the contractile element of pennate and fusiform muscles of equivalent size and shape. Draw the curves for the fusiform muscle as solid lines () and the curves for the pennate muscle as dotted lines ( ). Ensure that all axes are clearly labelled. (6 marks)
Force (N)
Forcelength
Length (m)
Lose marks for:
• Incorrect overall shape(s)
Force (N)
Forcevelocity
Velocity (m/s)
• Incorrect depiction of event(s)/region(s) between curves
• Incorrect/missing axis label(s)
• Different muscle types not identifiable
3b) The musculotendinous unit can be modelled as a 3component model, which is comprised of a series elastic component (SEC), parallel elastic component (PEC) and a contractile element (CE). What anatomical structure(s) do each of these three components represent? (3 marks)
SEC: Tendon
PEC: Endomysium, perimysium; i.e. CT sheath surrounding muscle fascicles and
fibres, respectively).
CE: Actin and myosin OR Cross bridges OR sarcomeres OR muscle fibres
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Question 4 (8) marks
4a) Describe two advantages and two limitations of surface electrodes compared with finewire electrodes. (4 marks)
Advantages:
• Noninvasive
• Not painful
• Easy to apply
• Measured activity is more representative of whole muscle activity
• More reliable signal from daytoday
• …
Limitations:
• Susceptible to crosstalk from neighbouring muscles
• Cannot measure activity from deep muscles
• Unable/very difficult to measure an individual MU’s APs
• Signal amplitude and frequency content attenuated by tissue between
muscle and electrode
• Poorer/lower signalnoise ratio; more noise relative to measured signal
• …
4b) List two sources of noise that may contaminate a surface EMG signal and describe how you would go about reducing these sources of noise prior to, during and/or after EMG data collection. (4 marks)
Any 2 of following:
• Motion artefact: Tape leads to subject to minimise movement
• Motion artefact: High pass filter to remove low frequency movement
artefact noise from acquired signal
• Cross talk: Place electrodes over are of greatest muscle bulk – away from
edge of muscle
• Electrical noise*: Use differential amplifier
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• Electrical noise*: Use Faraday cage
• Electrical noise*: Minimise skin impedance through proper skin
preparation
• Electrical noise*: Use bandstop filter to remove narrow bandwidth noise
Note to markers – accept anything reasonable here (e.g., fluorescent lighting, PCs, electrical equipment in lab).
Question 5 (14) marks
5a) An AFL ball was kicked straight up and reached a peak height of 31 m in an indoor stadium. If we assume that the effects of air resistance were negligible, how fast was the ball going when it hit the ground? (4 marks)
Vy _{f} ^{2} = Vy _{f} ^{2} + 2as 
(0.5 mark) 
Vy _{f} ^{2} = 0 + ^{} 19.62 * ^{} 31 
(1 mark) 
Vy _{f} ^{2} = 608.22 
(1 mark) 
Vy _{f} = sqrt (608.22) 
(0.5 mark) 
Vy _{f} = 24.66 m/s 
(1 mark) 
5b) Describe two execution differences between throwlike and pushlike movement patterns. (4 marks)
Any two of the following:
• Throwlike movements have sequential (proximaltodistal) sequence of joint/segment velocities while, in pushlike movement patterns, peak segment/joint velocities occur simultaneously
• The endpoint follows a curvilinear path for throwlike movements compared to a rectilinear path for pushlike movement patterns
• Throwlike movements take place in multiple planes while pushlike movements are typically constrained to a single plane
• In a pushlike movement, the involved segments are positioned behind or in front of object to be projected, while in a throwlike movement the segments start above, to the side or below the object
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5c) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of lever rotations compared to wheel axle rotations. Hint: Refer to both kinematic and kinetic levels of analysis. (6 marks)
From a kinematic point of view, the longer the lever, the greater the endpoint linear velocity will be for any given angular velocity (linear velocity = angular velocity × length).
(1 mark) However, from a kinetic perspective, an axlelike object, such as a limb segment, it is requires a much greater moment to cause an equivalent angular acceleration its “lever axes” (i.e., flex/ext, abd/add), than it long axis (i.e., int/ext rot) because of the relationship (angular acceleration = Moment / Moment of inertia). (1 mark)
As such, there is a tradeoff between the optimal configuration to generate linear velocity from a kinematic perspective and the optimal configuration to bring about a change in angular velocity from a kinetic perspective.
(1 mark) Note to markers: Does not have to be in this structure – give marks if they – allow as long as there is reasonable theoretical/experimental evidence / argument
Question 6 (6 marks)
6a) Describe how a swimsuit designed to reduce drag may influence: i) profile drag, ii) surface drag, and iii) wave drag? (3 marks)
Profile drag (one of the following):
• Prolong boundary layer separation
• Reduce frontal plane crosssectional area by compression of tissue
• Reduce frontal plane crosssectional area by increase in buoyancy
Surface drag:
• Increased smoothness, low surfaceboundary layer friction
• Reduce friction through increased proportion of body in air via increased
Wave drag:
• Reduce muscle/adipose tissue oscillations
Note to markers: Could be a number of other mechanisms – allow as long as there is reasonable theoretical/experimental evidence / argument
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6b) A new swimsuit is promoted as reducing total resistive drag by 8%. Predict the decrease this would have on a freestyle swimmer’s personal best 100 m time given their current personal best time (without a suit) of 48.2 s. (3 marks)
F _{D} ≈ v ^{2} v ≈ F _{D}
0.5
Reduce F _{D} by 8%, increase v by sqrt(8%) = 2.8%
Cover distance in 97.2% of original time, delta time = ^{} 1.35 s or time = 46.85s
Note to markers: As long as final answer correct, give full marks. If not, give partial marks as above
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Equation sheet
Linear velocity 
Δ d
v =
Δ 
t 
Angular velocity 
= ^{Δ} θ
ω
Δt 

Linear acceleration 
a = ^{Δ} Δ 
v t 
Angular acceleration 
= ^{Δ} ω
α
Δt 

Equations of motion 
v f = v 
i + at 
Weight 
W = mg 

v f 2 = 
v i 2 + 2 as 
Newton’s 2 ^{n}^{d} law 
∑ F = ma 

s = v t 
+ ^{1} at 2 
Newton’s 2 ^{n}^{d} law 
∑ τ= Iα 

i 
2 

Length of arc 
l = rθ 
Moment of inertia 
I = ∑ mr 
2 

Tangential velocity 
v = rω 
Torque 
τ = Fd 

Radial acceleration 
2 
Friction force 
F =μR 

v 

a R = 

r 

Tangential 
a = rα 
Elastic force 
F = kx 

acceleration 

Segment angle 
θ = tan 
− 1 ⎛ ⎜ y ⎜ x ⎝ 2 2 y − − x 1 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 
Angular momentum 
H = Iω 

First derivative 
& 
x i +1 − x i −1 
Mechanical advantage 
MA = FA 

(velocity) 
( ) = x t 

2 dt 
RA 

Second derivative 
&& x ( t ) = 
x i+ 1 − 2 x i + x i− 
1 
Fluid force 
F f = kAv 
2 

(acceleration) 
( dt ) ^{2} 

Impulse 
I = Ft 
Reynolds number 
R _{e} = 640 
vd 

(smooth sphere) 

Momentum 
G = mv 
Work 
U = Fd 

Gravitational potential energy 
E GPE ^{=} 
mgh 
Power 
P = U t 

Strain energy 
E = 1 
kx 2 
Stress/pressure 
F σ= 

ε 2 
A 

Kinetic energy 
E KE ^{=} ^{1} 2 mv 
Strain 
ε= Δl 

2 
l 0 

Froude number 
Fr = v 
2 
Elastic modulus 
E = ^{σ} 

gl 
ε 

Butterworth filter 

NX ()i = a X ()i + a X (i −+) 01 a 2 12 X (i − 
) + b NX (i − 1 
1 
) + b 
2 
NX (i − 
2 
) 
*** END OF EXAM ***
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