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Bohr Model of the Atom

Bohr was familiar with the emission spectrum of hydrogen.

When light produced by a hydrogen source is passed through a glass prism, it splits into discrete colors.

Each color in the spectrum corresponds to a particular energy of radiation. Since these radiations come form atoms of hydrogen, Bohr argued that an atom can only emit radiations of certain frequency.

He connected this to the model of the atom because an electron in an orbit is in a particular state of energy.

Bohr came up with 4 postulates.

1. Electrons assume only certain orbits around the nucleus. These orbits are stable and are called “allowed" orbits.

2. Each orbit has an energy associated with it. For example the orbit closest to the nucleus has an energy E1, the next closest E2 and so on.

3. Light is emitted when an electron jumps from a higher orbit to a lower orbit and absorbed when it jumps from a lower to higher orbit.

4. The energy and frequency of light emitted or absorbed is given by the difference between the two orbit energies.

n = 2
n = 3
n = 1

The allowed orbits are characterized by the energy of the electron in that orbit and are labeled n = 1, n = 2, n = 3 and so on.

n = 1 corresponds to the lowest energy level E 1 and is called the ground state of the electron.

If an electron receives a specific amount of extra energy from an external source such as heating or bombardment, it can jump to a higher energy level corresponding to n = 2, 3 and so on corresponding to energies E 2 , E 3 and so on.

The electron is then said to be excited.

An electron cannot stay in the excited state for long.

It returns to one of the lower levels by throwing awaythe extra energy in the form of light photon.

E 4 – E 2 = h f g

E 5 – E 2 = hf b

E 3 E 2 = h f r

An electron in the excited state n = 3 has an energy E 3 .

If this electron now jumps to n = 2 corresponding to an energy E 2 , it radiates the extra energy such that

E 3 – E 2 = hf r

An electron jumping from n = 4 to n = 2 radiates the extra energy E 4 – E 2 = hf g

An electron jumping from n = 5 to n = 2 radiates the extra energy E 5 – E 2 = hf b

E 4 – E 2 = h f g
Balmer series
E 5 – E 2 = hf b
Balmer series

E 3 E 2 = h f r

Radiations emitted by electron transitions from the higher excited states to the first excited state (n = 2) belong to the Balmer series of radiation.

Balmer series corresponds to the visible light.

When electron transitions end on the ground state orbital, they produce spectral lines in the Lyman Series (Ultraviolet radiations)

When electron transitions end on the second excited state's orbital, they produce spectral lines in the Paschen Series( Infrared radiations)

Balmer series for hydrogen looks like this.

The energy difference between two level is called a quantum of energy.

The energy levels specified by n 1 , n 2 , n 3 etc are called the principal quantum numbers.

Energy Level Diagram The lowest energy level is the ground state.

The higher states are excited states.

The electron in a hydrogen atom will normally be in the ground state.

Higher temperature or electrical discharge can give the electron sufficient energy to jump to higher excited states.

The energy of an electron in the ground state is -2.18 × 10 -18 J

The energy of an electron in the first excited state state is -5.14 × 10 -19 J

Which of these two ener

 -6.05 × 10 -20 J n - 8 7 10 -20 J n . ×

-1.36 × 10

-19

= 6

= 5

J n = 4

-2.42 × 10 -19 J

n = 3

-5.44 × 10 -19 J

n = 2

-2.18 × 10 -18 J

n = 1

values is

reater?

gy

g

Energy Level Diagram

An electron will not stay in a higher excited state for long.

Th

lower level emitting a photon of energy equal to the difference

between the two levels .

The energy of a photon for a transition form n = 3 to n = 2 is:

-2.42 × 10 -19 – (-5.44 × 10 -19 ) = 3.02 × 10 -19 J

This is the energy of a red photon

l

e e ectron jumps

b

k

ac

to

Now find the energies of green, blue and violet photon

n
= 6
-6.05 × 10 -20 J
n
= 5
×
-
8 7
.
10 -20 J
n
= 4
-1.36 × 10 -19 J
-2.42 × 10 -19 J
n = 3
-5.44 × 10 -19 J
n = 2

-2.18 × 10 -18 J

n = 1

Quantum Theory of Atom

Bohr's model ultimately needed revision because it failed to explain the nature of atoms more complicated than hydrogen.

In 1921 Louis de Brogllie introduced the wave/particle duality of matter which led to the quantum theory of atom.

de Broglie suggested that particles could sometimes behave as waves and waves could sometimes behave as particles.

Particles have momentum (p), waves have wavelength (λ) and the two are related by the equation:

λ=

h

p

Classical physics had always assumed that precise location and velocity of objects was always possible.

According to Werner Heisenberg, it is impossible to have precise information about the location and velocity simultaneously about a particle such as an electron.

He suggested that the location of an electron around the nucleus is a probability function.

Schrodinger introduced an equation that determines the probability that an electron can be located at a certain distance from the nucleus.

The location of an electron is specified by an orbital.

Each energy level specified by the principal quantum numbers n 1 , n 2 , n 3 and so on has sub shells named s, p, d, f and so on.

Each sub shell has one or more orbitals.

Each orbital can hold two electrons.

An electron distribution sketch, representing a three dimensional space around the nucleus where there is greatest probability of finding an electron, is called an orbital.

Electron Configuration

We use o to represent an orbital.

Each orbital o can hold 2 electrons.

 n = 1 o 1 s Th ere i s 1 or bi ta l f or s su b s h e ll . The s sub shell can hold 2 electrons n = 2 o 2 s oo o 2p There are 3 orbitals for a p sub shell The p sub shell can hold 6 electrons n = 3 o 3 s o o o 3p o o o o o 3d There are 5 orbitals in the d sub shell The d sub shell can hold 10 electrons
3s, 3p, 3d
2s, 2p
1s

We can summarize the electron distribution as follows:

 Main Main Main Main Main energy level energy level energy level energy level energy level Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy sublevels sublevels sublevels sublevels sublevels Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum number of number of number of number of number of electrons electrons electrons electrons electrons Maximum number Maximum number Maximum number Maximum number Maximum number of electrons per of electrons per of electrons per of electrons per of electrons per main energy level. main energy level. main energy level. main energy level. main energy level. n n n n = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1 s s s s 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1s 2 n n n = 2 = 2 = 2 s s s p p p 2 2 6 6 6 2 8 8 2s 2 2p 6 n n = = 3 3 s s p p d d 2 2 6 6 10 10 2 6 3s 3p 3d 18 18 10

Hydrogen with 1 electron in the s subshell has the electronic configuration

Helium with 2 electrons in the s subshell has the electronic configuration

1s 1

1s 2

Carbon with 6 electrons has 2 in n = 1 shell and 4 in n = 2 shell. Of these 4, 2 of them will be in the s subshell and the other 2 in the p subshell

. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2

Aluminum with 13 electrons has the configuration:

Now write down the configurations of the following elements on your own.

Sulfur of atomic number 16

Argon of atomic number 18

Calcium of atomic number 20

1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1

Quantum Energy Levels The energy level diagram using the quantum model is lot more complex than the one we saw in the Bohr model.

There are many more intermediate levels of energy and there are thousands of possibilities for electronic transitions between levels.

Whereas Bohr model could only explain hydrogen atom with just one electron, the quantum model explains all observed phenomena for all elements.