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4.

a)

b)

() + ∫ ( + ) or

/

() + ∫

/

( + )

The second answer uses symmetry, finding the area of the left side and doubling it (which

cancels the 1 factor). Note that there are more equivalent forms of these expressions.

2

=

Start with the equation = sin and plug 2 in for r and -3 for y to get

−3 = (5 + 2 sin ) sin or 2 sin 2 + 5 sin + 3 = 0.

Factoring the left side of the equation gives (2 sin + 3)(sin + 1) = 0 and sin =

c)

3

2 , −1., Only sin = −1 is possible, so you would only get = answer.

3

2 as your final

There is an alternative way to solve this problem. Rearrange the equation 2 =5+ 2 sin so that it is solved for sin . You would get sin =

Plug 5 in for sin and -3 for y in the equation = sin to get −3 =

−5

2

.

2 −5

2

2

. After

some algebra and factoring, = 2, 3. Plugging in these values, 2 and 3, for 2 in the equation 2 = 5 + 2 sin , you end up with sin = − 2 , −1., Only sin = −1 is

possible, so you would only get =

3

3

2

as your final answer.

=

To test for candidates for an absolute maximum, find where = 0 or und. You must also test the endpoints because it is a closed interval.

Solve = 2 cos = 0 to get =

(0)=5

()=5

( )=7

2

2 .

Alternatively, you could recognize that the greatest value of 2 would occur where sin = 1.

d) = + (− )( + )

and

Start with the equations = cos and = sin , replace r with 2 = 5 + 2 sin , then find the above derivatives. There are simplified forms, but it is not necessary to simplify the above expressions. However, note that = 5 cos + 2 sin cos can be rewritten as = 5 cos + sin 2, and the derivative of this can be more easily found to be −5 sin + 2cos 2.

= + ( + )

e)

√+

=

+ (√)

[−( + )]

Plug in for in the equations = cos and = sin to get your x and y- coordinates. Use your answer in Part d to find the slope of the tangent line. The above expression can easily be simplified in a few areas, but again, it is not necessary to do so. Simplifying the derivative equations beforehand, however, does make the evaluation process easier.

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