CSI Analysis Reference Manual
CSI Analysis Reference Manual
For SAP2000 ^{®} , ETABS ^{®} , SAFE ^{®} and CSiBridge ^{®}
ISO# GEN062708M1 Rev.10 Berkeley, California, USA
September 2013
COPYRIGHT
Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 19782013 All rights reserved.
The CSI Logo ® , SAP2000 ® , ETABS ® , SAFE ® , CSiBridge ® , and SAPFire ® are registered trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. ModelAlive ^{T}^{M} and Watch & Learn ^{T}^{M} are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Windows ® is a regis tered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. Adobe ® and Acrobat ® are regis tered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
The computer programs SAP2000 ® , ETABS ® , SAFE ® , and CSiBridge ® and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written au thorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permis sion of the publisher.
Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:
Computers & Structures, Inc. www.csiamerica.com
info@csiamerica.com (for general information) support@csiamerica.com (for technical support)
DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVEL OPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAMS THESE PRODUCTS.
THESE PRODUCTS ARE PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOLS FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EX PLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGO RITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RE SULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Thanks are due to all of the numerous structural engineers, who over the years have given valuable feedback that has contributed toward the en hancement of this product to its current state.
Special recognition is due Dr. Edward L. Wilson, Professor Emeritus, University of California at Berkeley, who was responsible for the con ception and development of the original SAP series of programs and whose continued originality has produced many unique concepts that have been implemented in this version.
Table of Contents
Chapter I 
Introduction 
1 
Analysis Features 
2 

Structural Analysis and Design 
3 

About This Manual 
3 

Topics 
3 

Typographical Conventions 
4 

Bold for Definitions 
4 

Bold for Variable Data 
4 

Italics for Mathematical Variables 
4 

Italics for Emphasis 
5 

Capitalized Names 
5 

Bibliographic References 
5 

Chapter II 
Objects and Elements 
7 
Objects 
7 

Objects and Elements 
8 

Groups 
9 

Chapter III 
Coordinate Systems 
11 
Overview 
12 

Global Coordinate System 
12 

Upward and Horizontal Directions 
13 

Defining Coordinate Systems 
13 

Vector Cross Product 
13 

Defining the Three Axes Using Two Vectors 
14 
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Chapter IV
Local Coordinate Systems 
14 
Alternate Coordinate Systems 
16 
Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 
17 
Joints and Degrees of Freedom 
21 
Overview 
22 
Modeling Considerations 
23 
Local Coordinate System 
24 
Advanced Local Coordinate System 
24 
Reference Vectors 
25 
Defining the Axis Reference Vector 
26 
Defining the Plane Reference Vector 
26 
Determining the Local Axes from the Reference Vectors 
27 
Joint Coordinate Angles 
28 
Degrees of Freedom 
30 
Available and Unavailable Degrees of Freedom 
31 
Restrained Degrees of Freedom 
32 
Constrained Degrees of Freedom 
32 
Mixing Restraints and Constraints Not Recommended 
32 
Active Degrees of Freedom 
33 
Null Degrees of Freedom 
34 
Restraint Supports 
34 
Spring Supports 
36 
Nonlinear Supports 
37 
Distributed Supports 
38 
Joint Reactions 
39 
Base Reactions 
39 
Masses 
40 
Force Load 
42 
Ground Displacement Load 
42 
Restraint Displacements 
43 
Spring Displacements 
44 
Link/Support Displacements 
45 
Generalized Displacements 
45 
Degree of Freedom Output 
46 
Assembled Joint Mass Output 
47 
Displacement Output 
47 
Force Output 
48 
Element Joint Force Output 
48 
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Chapter V
Constraints and Welds 
49 
Overview 
50 
Body Constraint 
51 
Joint Connectivity 
51 
Local Coordinate System 
51 
Constraint Equations 
51 
Plane Definition 
52 
Diaphragm Constraint 
53 
Joint Connectivity 
53 
Local Coordinate System 
53 
Constraint Equations 
54 
Plate Constraint 
55 
Joint Connectivity 
55 
Local Coordinate System 
55 
Constraint Equations 
55 
Axis Definition 
56 
Rod Constraint 
56 
Joint Connectivity 
57 
Local Coordinate System 
57 
Constraint Equations 
57 
Beam Constraint 
58 
Joint Connectivity 
58 
Local Coordinate System 
59 
Constraint Equations 
59 
Equal Constraint 
59 
Joint Connectivity 
60 
Local Coordinate System 
60 
Selected Degrees of Freedom 
60 
Constraint Equations 
60 
Local Constraint 
61 
Joint Connectivity 
61 
No Local Coordinate System 
62 
Selected Degrees of Freedom 
62 
Constraint Equations 
62 
Welds 
65 
Automatic Master Joints 
66 
Stiffness, Mass, and Loads 
66 
Local Coordinate Systems 
67 
Constraint Output 
67 
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Chapter VI 
Material Properties 
69 
Overview 
70 

Local Coordinate System 
70 

Stresses and Strains 
71 

Isotropic Materials 
73 

Uniaxial Materials 
74 

Orthotropic Materials 
75 

Anisotropic Materials 
75 

TemperatureDependent Properties 
76 

Element Material Temperature 
77 

Mass Density 
77 

Weight Density 
78 

Material Damping 
78 

Modal Damping 
79 

Viscous Proportional Damping 
80 

Hysteretic Proportional Damping 
80 

Nonlinear Material Behavior 
80 

Tension and Compression 
81 

Shear 
81 

Hysteresis 
82 

Application 
83 

Friction and Dilitational Angles 
84 

Timedependent Properties 
85 

Properties 
85 

TimeIntegration Control 
86 

DesignType 
86 

Chapter VII 
The Frame Element 
89 
Overview 
90 

Joint Connectivity 
91 

Insertion Points 
91 

Degrees of Freedom 
92 

Local Coordinate System 
92 

Longitudinal Axis 1 
93 

Default Orientation 
93 

Coordinate Angle 
94 

Advanced Local Coordinate System 
94 

Reference Vector 
96 

Determining Transverse Axes 2 and 3 
97 
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Section Properties 
98 
Local Coordinate System 
99 
Material Properties 
99 
Geometric Properties and Section Stiffnesses 
100 
Shape Type 
100 
Automatic Section Property Calculation 
102 
Section Property Database Files 
102 
SectionDesigner Sections 
102 
Additional Mass and Weight 
104 
Nonprismatic Sections 
104 
Property Modifiers 
107 
Named Property Sets 
108 
Insertion Points 
109 
Local Axes 
110 
End Offsets 
111 
Clear Length 
113 
Rigidend Factor 
113 
Effect upon Nonprismatic Elements 
114 
Effect upon Internal Force Output 
114 
Effect upon End Releases 
114 
End Releases 
115 
Unstable End Releases 
116 
Effect of End Offsets 
116 
Named Property Sets 
116 
Nonlinear Properties 
117 
Tension/Compression Limits 
117 
Plastic Hinge 
118 
Mass 
118 
SelfWeight Load 
118 
Gravity Load 
119 
Concentrated Span Load 
119 
Distributed Span Load 
121 
Loaded Length 
121 
Load Intensity 
121 
Projected Loads 
121 
Temperature Load 
124 
Strain Load 
125 
Deformation Load 
125 
TargetForce Load 
126 
Internal Force Output 
126 
Effect of End Offsets 
128 
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Stress Output 
128 

Chapter VIII 
Frame Hinge Properties 
131 
Overview 
131 

Hinge Properties 
132 

Hinge Length 
133 

Plastic Deformation Curve 
134 

Scaling the Curve 
135 

Strength Loss 
135 

Coupled PM2M3 Hinge 
136 

Fiber PM2M3 Hinge 
139 

Automatic, UserDefined, and Generated Properties 
139 

Automatic Hinge Properties 
141 

Analysis Results 
143 

Chapter IX 
The Cable Element 
145 
Overview 
146 

Joint Connectivity 
147 

Undeformed Length 
147 

Shape Calculator 
148 

Cable vs. Frame Elements 
149 

Number of Segments 
150 

Degrees of Freedom 
150 

Local Coordinate System 
150 

Section Properties 
151 

Material Properties 
151 

Geometric Properties and Section Stiffnesses 
152 

Mass 
152 

SelfWeight Load 
152 

Gravity Load 
153 

Distributed Span Load 
153 

Temperature Load 
154 

Strain and Deformation Load 
154 

TargetForce Load 
154 

Nonlinear Analysis 
155 

Element Output 
155 

Chapter X 
The Shell Element 
157 
Overview 
158 
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Chapter XI
Homogeneous 
159 
Layered 
159 
Joint Connectivity 
160 
Shape Guidelines 
160 
Edge Constraints 
163 
Degrees of Freedom 
164 
Local Coordinate System 
164 
Normal Axis 3 
165 
Default Orientation 
165 
Element Coordinate Angle 
167 
Advanced Local Coordinate System 
167 
Reference Vector 
167 
Determining Tangential Axes 1 and 2 
169 
Section Properties 
170 
Area Section Type 
170 
Shell Section Type 
170 
Homogeneous Section Properties 
171 
Layered Section Property 
174 
Property Modifiers 
181 
Named Property Sets 
182 
Joint Offsets and Thickness Overwrites 
183 
Joint Offsets 
183 
Effect of Joint Offsets on the Local Axes 
184 
Thickness Overwrites 
185 
Mass 
186 
SelfWeight Load 
186 
Gravity Load 
187 
Uniform Load 
187 
Surface Pressure Load 
188 
Temperature Load 
189 
Strain Load 
190 
Internal Force and Stress Output 
190 
The Plane Element 
195 
Overview 
196 
Joint Connectivity 
197 
Degrees of Freedom 
197 
Local Coordinate System 
197 
Stresses and Strains 
197 
Section Properties 
198 
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Section Type 
198 

Material Properties 
199 

Material Angle 
199 

Thickness 
199 

Incompatible Bending Modes 
200 

Mass 
200 

SelfWeight Load 
201 

Gravity Load 
201 

Surface Pressure Load 
202 

Pore Pressure Load 
202 

Temperature Load 
203 

Stress Output 
203 

Chapter XII 
The Asolid Element 
205 
Overview 
206 

Joint Connectivity 
206 

Degrees of Freedom 
207 

Local Coordinate System 
207 

Stresses and Strains 
208 

Section Properties 
208 

Section Type 
208 

Material Properties 
209 

Material Angle 
209 

Axis of Symmetry 
210 

Arc and Thickness 
211 

Incompatible Bending Modes 
212 

Mass 
212 

SelfWeight Load 
212 

Gravity Load 
213 

Surface Pressure Load 
213 

Pore Pressure Load 
214 

Temperature Load 
214 

Rotate Load 
214 

Stress Output 
215 

Chapter XIII 
The Solid Element 
217 
Overview 
218 

Joint Connectivity 
218 

Degenerate Solids 
219 

Degrees of Freedom 
220 
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Chapter XIV
Local Coordinate System 
220 
Advanced Local Coordinate System 
220 
Reference Vectors 
221 
Defining the Axis Reference Vector 
221 
Defining the Plane Reference Vector 
222 
Determining the Local Axes from the Reference Vectors 
223 
Element Coordinate Angles 
223 
Stresses and Strains 
226 
Solid Properties 
226 
Material Properties 
226 
Material Angles 
226 
Incompatible Bending Modes 
227 
Mass 
228 
SelfWeight Load 
228 
Gravity Load 
229 
Surface Pressure Load 
229 
Pore Pressure Load 
229 
Temperature Load 
230 
Stress Output 
230 
The Link/Support Element—Basic 
231 
Overview 
232 
Joint Connectivity 
233 
Conversion from OneJoint Objects to TwoJoint Elements 
233 
ZeroLength Elements 
233 
Degrees of Freedom 
234 
Local Coordinate System 
234 
Longitudinal Axis 1 
235 
Default Orientation 
235 
Coordinate Angle 
236 
Advanced Local Coordinate System 
236 
Axis Reference Vector 
237 
Plane Reference Vector 
238 
Determining Transverse Axes 2 and 3 
239 
Internal Deformations 
240 
Link/Support Properties 
243 
Local Coordinate System 
244 
Internal Spring Hinges 
244 
Spring ForceDeformation Relationships 
246 
Element Internal Forces 
247 
Uncoupled Linear ForceDeformation Relationships 
247 
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Chapter XV
Types of Linear/Nonlinear Properties 
249 
Coupled Linear Property 
250 
Fixed Degrees of Freedom 
250 
Mass 
251 
SelfWeight Load 
252 
Gravity Load 
252 
Internal Force and Deformation Output 
253 
The Link/Support Element—Advanced 
255 
Overview 
256 
Nonlinear Link/Support Properties 
256 
Linear Effective Stiffness 
257 
Special Considerations for Modal Analyses 
257 
Linear Effective Damping 
258 
Nonlinear Viscous Damper Property 
259 
Gap Property 
261 
Hook Property 
261 
MultiLinear Elasticity Property 
262 
Wen Plasticity Property 
262 
MultiLinear Kinematic Plasticity Property 
263 
MultiLinear Takeda Plasticity Property 
267 
MultiLinear Pivot Hysteretic Plasticity Property 
267 
Hysteretic (Rubber) Isolator Property 
269 
FrictionPendulum Isolator Property 
270 
Axial Behavior 
272 
Shear Behavior 
273 
Linear Behavior 
275 
DoubleActing FrictionPendulum Isolator Property 
275 
Axial Behavior 
275 
Shear Behavior 
276 
Linear Behavior 
277 
TriplePendulum Isolator Property 
277 
Axial Behavior 
278 
Shear Behavior 
278 
Linear Behavior 
282 
Nonlinear Deformation Loads 
282 
FrequencyDependent Link/Support Properties 
284 
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Chapter XVI 
The Tendon Object 
287 
Overview 
288 

Geometry 
288 

Discretization 
289 

Tendons Modeled as Loads or Elements 
289 

Connectivity 
289 

Degrees of Freedom 
290 

Local Coordinate Systems 
291 

Baseline Local Coordinate System 
291 

Natural Local Coordinate System 
291 

Section Properties 
292 

Material Properties 
292 

Geometric Properties and Section Stiffnesses 
292 

Tension/Compression Limits 
293 

Mass 
294 

Prestress Load 
294 

SelfWeight Load 
295 

Gravity Load 
296 

Temperature Load 
296 

Strain Load 
296 

Deformation Load 
297 

TargetForce Load 
297 

Internal Force Output 
298 

Chapter XVII 
Load Patterns 
299 
Overview 
300 

Load Patterns, Load Cases, and Load Combinations 
301 

Defining Load Patterns 
301 

Coordinate Systems and Load Components 
302 

Effect upon LargeDisplacements Analysis 
302 

Force Load 
303 

Ground Displacement Load 
303 

SelfWeight Load 
303 

Gravity Load 
304 

Concentrated Span Load 
305 

Distributed Span Load 
305 

Tendon Prestress Load 
305 

Uniform Load 
306 
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Surface Pressure Load 
306 
Pore Pressure Load 
306 
Temperature Load 
308 
Strain Load 
309 
Deformation Load 
309 
TargetForce Load 
309 
Rotate Load 
310 
Joint Patterns 
310 
Mass Source 
312 
Mass from Specified Load Patterns 
313 
Negative Mass 
314 
Multiple Mass Sources 
314 
Automated Lateral Loads 
316 
Acceleration Loads 
316 
Chapter XVIII Load Cases
319
Chapter XIX
Overview 
320 
Load Cases 
321 
Types of Analysis 
321 
Sequence of Analysis 
322 
Running Load Cases 
323 
Linear and Nonlinear Load Cases 
324 
Linear Static Analysis 
325 
MultiStep Static Analysis 
326 
Linear Buckling Analysis 
327 
Functions 
328 
Load Combinations (Combos) 
329 
Contributing Cases 
329 
Types of Combos 
330 
Examples 
330 
Additional Considerations 
332 
Equation Solvers 
332 
Accessing the Assembled Stiffness and Mass Matrices 
333 
Modal Analysis 
335 
Overview 
335 
Eigenvector Analysis 
336 
Number of Modes 
337 
Frequency Range 
338 
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Automatic Shifting 
339 

Convergence Tolerance 
339 

StaticCorrection Modes 
340 

RitzVector Analysis 
342 

Number of Modes 
343 

Starting Load Vectors 
343 

Number of Generation Cycles 
345 

Modal Analysis Output 
345 

Periods and Frequencies 
346 

Participation Factors 
346 

Participating Mass Ratios 
347 

Static and Dynamic Load Participation Ratios 
348 

Chapter XX 
ResponseSpectrum Analysis 
353 
Overview 
353 

Local Coordinate System 
355 

ResponseSpectrum Function 
355 

Damping 
356 

Modal Damping 
357 

Modal Combination 
358 

Periodic and Rigid Response 
358 

CQC Method 
360 

GMC Method 
360 

SRSS Method 
360 

Absolute Sum Method 
361 

NRC TenPercent Method 
361 

NRC DoubleSum Method 
361 

Directional Combination 
361 

SRSS Method 
361 

CQC3 Method 
362 

Absolute Sum Method 
363 

ResponseSpectrum Analysis Output 
364 

Damping and Accelerations 
364 

Modal Amplitudes 
364 

Base Reactions 
365 

Chapter XXI 
Linear TimeHistory Analysis 
367 
Overview 
368 

Loading 
368 

Defining the Spatial Load Vectors 
369 

Defining the Time Functions 
370 
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Chapter XXII
Initial Conditions 
372 
Time Steps 
372 
Modal TimeHistory Analysis 
373 
Modal Damping 
374 
DirectIntegration TimeHistory Analysis 
375 
Time Integration Parameters 
376 
Damping 
376 
Geometric Nonlinearity 
379 
Overview 
379 
Nonlinear Load Cases 
381 
The PDelta Effect 
383 
PDelta Forces in the Frame Element 
385 
PDelta Forces in the Link/Support Element 
388 
Other Elements 
389 
Initial PDelta Analysis 
389 
Building Structures 
390 
Cable Structures 
392 
Guyed Towers 
392 
Large Displacements 
392 
Applications 
393 
Initial LargeDisplacement Analysis 
393 
Chapter XXIII Nonlinear Static Analysis
395
Overview 
396 
Nonlinearity 
396 
Important Considerations 
397 
Loading 
398 
Load Application Control 
398 
Load Control 
399 
Displacement Control 
399 
Initial Conditions 
400 
Output Steps 
401 
Saving Multiple Steps 
401 
Nonlinear Solution Control 
403 
Maximum Total Steps 
404 
Maximum Null (Zero) Steps 
404 
Maximum Iterations Per Step 
404 
Iteration Convergence Tolerance 
405 
EventtoEvent Iteration Control 
405 
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Hinge Unloading Method 
405 
Unload Entire Structure 
406 
Apply Local Redistribution 
407 
Restart Using Secant Stiffness 
407 
Static Pushover Analysis 
408 
Staged Construction 
410 
Stages 
411 
Changing Section Properties 
413 
Output Steps 
413 
Example 
414 
TargetForce Iteration 
415 
Chapter XXIV Nonlinear TimeHistory Analysis 
419 
Chapter XXV
Overview 
420 
Nonlinearity 
420 
Loading 
421 
Initial Conditions 
421 
Time Steps 
422 
Nonlinear Modal TimeHistory Analysis (FNA) 
423 
Initial Conditions 
423 
Link/Support Effective Stiffness 
424 
Mode Superposition 
424 
Modal Damping 
426 
Iterative Solution 
427 
Static Period 
429 
Nonlinear DirectIntegration TimeHistory Analysis 
430 
Time Integration Parameters 
430 
Nonlinearity 
430 
Initial Conditions 
431 
Damping 
431 
Iterative Solution 
432 
FrequencyDomain Analyses 
435 
Overview 
436 
Harmonic Motion 
436 
Frequency Domain 
437 
Damping 
438 
Sources of Damping 
438 
Loading 
439 
Defining the Spatial Load Vectors 
440 
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Frequency Steps 
441 
SteadyState Analysis 
441 
Example 
442 
PowerSpectralDensity Analysis 
443 
Example 
444 
Chapter XXVI MovingLoad Analysis
447
Overview for CSiBridge 
448 
MovingLoad Analysis in SAP2000 
449 
Bridge Modeler 
450 
MovingLoad Analysis Procedure 
450 
Lanes 
452 
Centerline and Direction 
452 
Eccentricity 
452 
Width 
453 
Interior and Exterior Edges 
453 
Discretization 
453 
Influence Lines and Surfaces 
454 
Vehicle Live Loads 
456 
Direction of Loading 
456 
Distribution of Loads 
456 
Axle Loads 
456 
Uniform Loads 
457 
Minimum Edge Distances 
457 
Restricting a Vehicle to the Lane Length 
457 
Application of Loads to the Influence Surface 
457 
Length Effects 
459 
Application of Loads in MultiStep Analysis 
460 
General Vehicle 
460 
Specification 
461 
Moving the Vehicle 
462 
Vehicle Response Components 
463 
Superstructure (Span) Moment 
463 
Negative Superstructure (Span) Moment 
464 
Reactions at Interior Supports 
465 
Standard Vehicles 
465 
Vehicle Classes 
473 
MovingLoad Load Cases 
473 
Example 1 — AASHTO HS Loading 
474 
Example 2 — AASHTO HL Loading 
476 
Example 3 — Caltrans Permit Loading 
477 
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Example 4 — Restricted Caltrans Permit Loading 
479 
Example 5 — Eurocode Characteristic Load Model 1 
480 
Moving Load Response Control 
482 
Bridge Response Groups 
482 
Correspondence 
483 
Influence Line Tolerance 
483 
Exact and Quick Response Calculation 
483 
StepByStep Analysis 
484 
Loading 
485 
Static Analysis 
485 
TimeHistory Analysis 
486 
Enveloping and Load Combinations 
486 
Computational Considerations 
487 
Chapter XXVII References
489
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Chapter
I
Introduction
SAP2000, ETABS, SAFE, and CSiBridge are software packages from Computers and Structures, Inc. for structural analysis and design. Each package is a fully inte grated system for modeling, analyzing, designing, and optimizing structures of a particular type:
• SAP2000 for general structures, including stadiums, towers, industrial plants, offshore structures, piping systems, buildings, dams, soils, machine parts and many others
• ETABS for building structures
• SAFE for floor slabs and base mats
• CSiBridge for bridge structures
At the heart of each of these software packages is a common analysis engine, re ferred to throughout this manual as SAPfire. This engine is the latest and most pow erful version of the wellknown SAP series of structural analysis programs. The purpose of this manual is to describe the features of the SAPfire analysis engine.
Throughout this manual reference may be made to the program SAP2000, although it often applies equally to ETABS, SAFE, and CSiBridge. Not all features de scribed will actually be available in every level of each program.
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CSI Analysis Reference Manual
Analysis Features
The SAPfire analysis engine offers the following features:
• Static and dynamic analysis
• Linear and nonlinear analysis
• Dynamic seismic analysis and static pushover analysis
• Vehicle liveload analysis for bridges
• Geometric nonlinearity, including Pdelta and largedisplacement effects
• Staged (incremental) construction
• Creep, shrinkage, and aging effects
• Buckling analysis
• Steadystate and powerspectraldensity analysis
• Frame and shell structural elements, including beamcolumn, truss, membrane, and plate behavior
• Cable and Tendon elements
• Twodimensional plane and axisymmetric solid elements
• Threedimensional solid elements
• Nonlinear link and support elements
• Frequencydependent link and support properties
• Multiple coordinate systems
• Many types of constraints
• A wide variety of loading options
• Alphanumeric labels
• Large capacity
• Highly efficient and stable solution algorithms
These features, and many more, make CSI product the stateoftheart for structural analysis. Note that not all of these features may be available in every level of SAP2000, ETABS, SAFE, and CSiBridge.
2
Analysis Features
Chapter I
Introduction
Structural Analysis and Design
The following general steps are required to analyze and design a structure using SAP2000, ETABS, SAFE, and CSiBridge:
1. Create or modify a model that numerically defines the geometry, properties, loading, and analysis parameters for the structure
2. Perform an analysis of the model
3. Review the results of the analysis
4. Check and optimize the design of the structure
This is usually an iterative process that may involve several cycles of the above se quence of steps. All of these steps can be performed seamlessly using the SAP2000, ETABS, SAFE, and CSiBridge graphical user interfaces.
About This Manual
This manual describes the theoretical concepts behind the modeling and analysis features offered by the SAPfire analysis engine that underlies the various structural analysis and design software packages from Computers and Structures, Inc. The graphical user interface and the design features are described in separate manuals for each program.
It is imperative that you read this manual and understand the assumptions and pro cedures used by these software packages before attempting to use the analysis fea tures.
Throughout this manual reference may be made to the program SAP2000, although it often applies equally to ETABS, SAFE, and CSiBridge. Not all features de scribed will actually be available in every level of each program.
Topics
Each Chapter of this manual is divided into topics and subtopics. All Chapters be gin with a list of topics covered. These are divided into two groups:
• Basic topics — recommended reading for all users
Structural Analysis and Design
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CSI Analysis Reference Manual
• Advanced topics — for users with specialized needs, and for all users as they become more familiar with the program.
Following the list of topics is an Overview which provides a summary of the Chap ter. Reading the Overview for every Chapter will acquaint you with the full scope of the program.
Typographical Conventions
Throughout this manual the following typographic conventions are used.
Bold for Definitions
Bold roman type (e.g., example) is used whenever a new term or concept is de fined. For example:
The global coordinate system is a threedimensional, righthanded, rectangu lar coordinate system.
This sentence begins the definition of the global coordinate system.
Bold for Variable Data
Bold roman type (e.g., example) is used to represent variable data items for which you must specify values when defining a structural model and its analysis. For ex ample:
The Frame element coordinate angle, ang, is used to define element orienta tions that are different from the default orientation.
Thus you will need to supply a numeric value for the variable ang if it is different from its default value of zero.
Italics for Mathematical Variables
Normal italic type (e.g., example) is used for scalar mathematical variables, and bold italic type (e.g., example) is used for vectors and matrices. If a variable data item is used in an equation, bold roman type is used as discussed above. For exam ple:
0 da < db L
4
Typographical Conventions
Chapter I
Introduction
Here da and db are variables that you specify, and L is a length calculated by the program.
Italics for Emphasis
Normal italic type (e.g., example) is used to emphasize an important point, or for the title of a book, manual, or journal.
Capitalized Names
Capitalized names (e.g., Example) are used for certain parts of the model and its analysis which have special meaning to SAP2000. Some examples:
Frame element
Diaphragm Constraint
Frame Section
Load Pattern
Common entities, such as “joint” or “element” are not capitalized.
Bibliographic References
References are indicated throughout this manual by giving the name of the author(s) and the date of publication, using parentheses. For example:
See Wilson and Tetsuji (1983).
It has been demonstrated (Wilson, Yuan, and Dickens, 1982) that …
All bibliographic references are listed in alphabetical order in Chapter “Refer ences” (page 489).
Bibliographic References
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Bibliographic References
Chapter
II
Objects and Elements
The physical structural members in a structural model are represented by objects. Using the graphical user interface, you “draw” the geometry of an object, then “as sign” properties and loads to the object to completely define the model of the physi cal member. For analysis purposes, SAP2000 converts each object into one or more elements.
Basic Topics for All Users
• Objects
• Objects and Elements
• Groups
Objects
The following object types are available, listed in order of geometrical dimension:
• Point objects, of two types:
– Joint objects: These are automatically created at the corners or ends of all other types of objects below, and they can be explicitly added to represent supports or to capture other localized behavior.
Objects
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CSI Analysis Reference Manual
– Grounded (onejoint) link/support objects: Used to model special sup port behavior such as isolators, dampers, gaps, multilinear springs, and more.
• Line objects, of four types
– Frame objects: Used to model beams, columns, braces, and trusses
– Cable objects: Used to model slender cables under self weight and tension
– Tendon objects: Used to prestressing tendons within other objects
– Connecting (twojoint) link/support objects: Used to model special member behavior such as isolators, dampers, gaps, multilinear springs, and more. Unlike frame, cable, and tendon objects, connecting link objects can have zero length.
• Area objects: Shell elements (plate, membrane, and fullshell) used to model walls, floors, and other thinwalled members; as well as twodimensional sol ids (planestress, planestrain, and axisymmetric solids).
• Solid objects: Used to model threedimensional solids.
As a general rule, the geometry of the object should correspond to that of the physi cal member. This simplifies the visualization of the model and helps with the de sign process.
Objects and Elements
If you have experience using traditional finite element programs, including earlier versions of SAP2000, ETABS, and SAFE, you are probably used to meshing phys ical models into smaller finite elements for analysis purposes. Objectbased model ing largely eliminates the need for doing this.
For users who are new to finiteelement modeling, the objectbased concept should seem perfectly natural.
When you run an analysis, SAP2000 automatically converts your objectbased model into an elementbased model that is used for analysis. This elementbased model is called the analysis model, and it consists of traditional finite elements and joints (nodes). Results of the analysis are reported back on the objectbased model.
You have control over how the meshing is performed, such as the degree of refine ment, and how to handle the connections between intersecting objects. You also have the option to manually mesh the model, resulting in a onetoone correspon dence between objects and elements.
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Objects and Elements
Chapter II
Objects and Elements
In this manual, the term “element” will be used more often than “object”, since what is described herein is the finiteelement analysis portion of the program that operates on the elementbased analysis model. However, it should be clear that the properties described here for elements are actually assigned in the interface to the objects, and the conversion to analysis elements is automatic.
One specific case to be aware of is that both onejoint (grounded) link/support ob jects and twojoint (connecting) link/support objects are always converted into twojoint link/support elements. For the twojoint objects, the conversion to ele
ments is direct. For the onejoint objects, a new joint is created at the same location and is fully restrained. The generated twojoint link/support element is of zero length, with its original joint connected to the structure and the new joint connected
to ground by restraints.
Groups
A group is a named collection of objects that you define. For each group, you must
provide a unique name, then select the objects that are to be part of the group. You can include objects of any type or types in a group. Each object may be part of one
of more groups. All objects are always part of the builtin group called “ALL”.
Groups are used for many purposes in the graphical user interface, including selec tion, design optimization, defining section cuts, controlling output, and more. In this manual, we are primarily interested in the use of groups for defining staged construction. See Topic “Staged Construction” (page 79) in Chapter “Nonlinear Static Analysis” for more information.
Groups
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Groups
Chapter
III
Coordinate Systems
Each structure may use many different coordinate systems to describe the location of points and the directions of loads, displacement, internal forces, and stresses. Understanding these different coordinate systems is crucial to being able to prop erly define the model and interpret the results.
Basic Topics for All Users
• Overview
• Global Coordinate System
• Upward and Horizontal Directions
• Defining Coordinate Systems
• Local Coordinate Systems
Advanced Topics
• Alternate Coordinate Systems
• Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
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Overview
Coordinate systems are used to locate different parts of the structural model and to define the directions of loads, displacements, internal forces, and stresses.
All coordinate systems in the model are defined with respect to a single global coor dinate system. Each part of the model (joint, element, or constraint) has its own lo cal coordinate system. In addition, you may create alternate coordinate systems that are used to define locations and directions.
All coordinate systems are threedimensional, righthanded, rectangular (Carte sian) systems. Vector cross products are used to define the local and alternate coor dinate systems with respect to the global system.
SAP2000 always assumes that Z is the vertical axis, with +Z being upward. The up ward direction is used to help define local coordinate systems, although local coor dinate systems themselves do not have an upward direction.
The locations of points in a coordinate system may be specified using rectangular or cylindrical coordinates. Likewise, directions in a coordinate system may be specified using rectangular, cylindrical, or spherical coordinate directions at a point.
Global Coordinate System
The global coordinate system is a threedimensional, righthanded, rectangular coordinate system. The three axes, denoted X, Y, and Z, are mutually perpendicular and satisfy the righthand rule.
Locations in the global coordinate system can be specified using the variables x, y, and z. A vector in the global coordinate system can be specified by giving the loca tions of two points, a pair of angles, or by specifying a coordinate direction. Coor dinate directions are indicated using the values X, Y, and Z. For example, +X defines a vector parallel to and directed along the positive X axis. The sign is re quired.
All other coordinate systems in the model are ultimately defined with respect to the global coordinate system, either directly or indirectly. Likewise, all joint coordi nates are ultimately converted to global X, Y, and Z coordinates, regardless of how they were specified.
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Overview
Chapter III
Coordinate Systems
Upward and Horizontal Directions
SAP2000 always assumes that Z is the vertical axis, with +Z being upward. Local coordinate systems for joints, elements, and groundacceleration loading are de fined with respect to this upward direction. Selfweight loading always acts down ward, in the –Z direction.
The XY plane is horizontal. The primary horizontal direction is +X. Angles in the horizontal plane are measured from the positive half of the X axis, with positive an gles appearing counterclockwise when you are looking down at the XY plane.
If you prefer to work with a different upward direction, you can define an alternate
coordinate system for that purpose.
Defining Coordinate Systems
Each coordinate system to be defined must have an origin and a set of three, mutuallyperpendicular axes that satisfy the righthand rule.
The origin is defined by simply specifying three coordinates in the global coordi nate system.
The axes are defined as vectors using the concepts of vector algebra. A fundamental knowledge of the vector cross product operation is very helpful in clearly under standing how coordinate system axes are defined.
Vector Cross Product
A vector may be defined by two points. It has length, direction, and location in
space. For the purposes of defining coordinate axes, only the direction is important. Hence any two vectors that are parallel and have the same sense (i.e., pointing the same way) may be considered to be the same vector.
Any two vectors, V _{i} and V _{j} , that are not parallel to each other define a plane that is parallel to them both. The location of this plane is not important here, only its orien
tation. The cross product of V _{i} and V _{j} defines a third vector, V _{k} , that is perpendicular
to them both, and hence normal to the plane. The cross product is written as:
V _{k} = V _{i} V _{j}
Upward and Horizontal Directions
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The length of V _{k} is not important here. The side of the V _{i} V _{j} plane to which V _{k} points
is determined by the righthand rule: The vector V _{k} points toward you if the acute
angle (less than 180°) from V _{i} to V _{j} appears counterclockwise.
Thus the sign of the cross product depends upon the order of the operands:
V _{j} V _{i} = – V _{i} V _{j}
Defining the Three Axes Using Two Vectors
A righthanded coordinate system RST can be represented by the three mutually
perpendicular vectors V _{r} , V _{s} , and V _{t} , respectively, that satisfy the relationship:
V _{t} = V _{r} V _{s}
This coordinate system can be defined by specifying two nonparallel vectors:
• An axis reference vector, V _{a} , that is parallel to axis R
• A plane reference vector, V _{p} , that is parallel to plane RS, and points toward the positiveS side of the R axis
The axes are then defined as:
V _{r} = V _{a}
V _{t} = V _{r} V _{p}
V _{s} = V _{t} V _{r}
Note that V _{p} can be any convenient vector parallel to the RS plane; it does not have
to be parallel to the S axis. This is illustrated in Figure 1 (page 15).
Local Coordinate Systems
Each part (joint, element, or constraint) of the structural model has its own local co ordinate system used to define the properties, loads, and response for that part. The axes of the local coordinate systems are denoted 1, 2, and 3. In general, the local co ordinate systems may vary from joint to joint, element to element, and constraint to constraint.
There is no preferred upward direction for a local coordinate system. However, the upward +Z direction is used to define the default joint and element local coordinate systems with respect to the global or any alternate coordinate system.
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Local Coordinate Systems
Chapter III
Coordinate Systems
V
a
V
p
is parallel to R axis
is parallel to RS plane
V
r
V
= V
a
= V
trp
V
str
= V
x V
x V
V t
Z
Cube is shown for visualization purposes
Global
X
Y
Figure 1 Determining an RST Coordinate System from Reference Vectors V _{a} and V _{p}
The joint local 123 coordinate system is normally the same as the global XYZ coordinate system. However, you may define any arbitrary orientation for a joint local coordinate system by specifying two reference vectors and/or three angles of rotation.
For the Frame, Area (Shell, Plane, and Asolid), and Link/Support elements, one of the element local axes is determined by the geometry of the individual element. You may define the orientation of the remaining two axes by specifying a single reference vector and/or a single angle of rotation. The exception to this is onejoint or zerolength Link/Support elements, which require that you first specify the lo cal1 (axial) axis.
The Solid element local 123 coordinate system is normally the same as the global XYZ coordinate system. However, you may define any arbitrary orientation for a solid local coordinate system by specifying two reference vectors and/or three an gles of rotation.
The local coordinate system for a Body, Diaphragm, Plate, Beam, or Rod Con straint is normally determined automatically from the geometry or mass distribu tion of the constraint. Optionally, you may specify one local axis for any Dia
Local Coordinate Systems
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phragm, Plate, Beam, or Rod Constraint (but not for the Body Constraint); the re maining two axes are determined automatically.
The local coordinate system for an Equal Constraint may be arbitrarily specified; by default it is the global coordinate system. The Local Constraint does not have its own local coordinate system.
For more information:
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 24) in Chapter “Joints and De grees of Freedom.”
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 92) in Chapter “The Frame Ele ment.”
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 164) in Chapter “The Shell Ele ment.”
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 197) in Chapter “The Plane Ele ment.”
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 207) in Chapter “The Asolid Ele ment.”
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 220) in Chapter “The Solid Ele ment.”
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 233) in Chapter “The Link/Sup port Element—Basic.”
• See Chapter “Constraints and Welds (page 49).”
Alternate Coordinate Systems
You may define alternate coordinate systems that can be used for locating the joints; for defining local coordinate systems for joints, elements, and constraints; and as a reference for defining other properties and loads. The axes of the alternate coordinate systems are denoted X, Y, and Z.
The global coordinate system and all alternate systems are called fixed coordinate systems, since they apply to the whole structural model, not just to individual parts as do the local coordinate systems. Each fixed coordinate system may be used in rectangular, cylindrical or spherical form.
Associated with each fixed coordinate system is a grid system used to locate objects in the graphical user interface. Grids have no meaning in the analysis model.
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Alternate Coordinate Systems
Chapter III
Coordinate Systems
Each alternate coordinate system is defined by specifying the location of the origin and the orientation of the axes with respect to the global coordinate system. You need:
• The global X, Y, and Z coordinates of the new origin
• The three angles (in degrees) used to rotate from the global coordinate system to the new system
Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
The location of points in the global or an alternate coordinate system may be speci fied using polar coordinates instead of rectangular XYZ coordinates. Polar coor dinates include cylindrical CRCACZ coordinates and spherical SBSASR coor dinates. See Figure 2 (page 19) for the definition of the polar coordinate systems. Polar coordinate systems are always defined with respect to a rectangular XYZ system.
The coordinates CR, CZ, and SR are lineal and are specified in length units. The co ordinates CA, SB, and SA are angular and are specified in degrees.
Locations are specified in cylindrical coordinates using the variables cr, ca, and cz. These are related to the rectangular coordinates as:
cz = z
x
Locations are specified in spherical coordinates using the variables sb, sa, and sr. These are related to the rectangular coordinates as:
sb = tan
1
z
sa = tan ^{}^{1}
y
x
sr =
x
2 + y
2
+ z
2
Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
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CSI Analysis Reference Manual
A vector in a fixed coordinate system can be specified by giving the locations of two points or by specifying a coordinate direction at a single point P. Coordinate directions are tangential to the coordinate curves at point P. A positive coordinate direction indicates the direction of increasing coordinate value at that point.
Cylindrical coordinate directions are indicated using the values CR, CA, and CZ. Spherical coordinate directions are indicated using the values SB, SA, and SR. The sign is required. See Figure 2 (page 19).
The cylindrical and spherical coordinate directions are not constant but vary with angular position. The coordinate directions do not change with the lineal coordi nates. For example, +SR defines a vector directed from the origin to point P.
Note that the coordinates Z and CZ are identical, as are the corresponding coordi nate directions. Similarly, the coordinates CA and SA and their corresponding co ordinate directions are identical.
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Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
Chapter III
Coordinate Systems
+CZ
X
Z
Cubes are shown for visualization purposes
X
Figure 2 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates and Coordinate Directions
Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
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Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
Chapter
IV
Joints and Degrees of Freedom
The joints play a fundamental role in the analysis of any structure. Joints are the points of connection between the elements, and they are the primary locations in the structure at which the displacements are known or are to be determined. The displacement components (translations and rotations) at the joints are called the de grees of freedom.
This Chapter describes joint properties, degrees of freedom, loads, and output. Ad ditional information about joints and degrees of freedom is given in Chapter “Con straints and Welds” (page 49).
Basic Topics for All Users
• Overview
• Modeling Considerations
• Local Coordinate System
• Degrees of Freedom
• Restraint Supports
• Spring Supports
• Joint Reactions
• Base Reactions
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CSI Analysis Reference Manual
• Masses
• Force Load
• Degree of Freedom Output
• Assembled Joint Mass Output
• Displacement Output
• Force Output
Advanced Topics
• Advanced Local Coordinate System
• Nonlinear Supports
• Distributed Supports
• Ground Displacement Load
• Generalized Displacements
• Element Joint Force Output
Overview
Joints, also known as nodal points or nodes, are a fundamental part of every struc tural model. Joints perform a variety of functions:
• All elements are connected to the structure (and hence to each other) at the joints
• The structure is supported at the joints using Restraints and/or Springs
• Rigidbody behavior and symmetry conditions can be specified using Con straints that apply to the joints
• Concentrated loads may be applied at the joints
• Lumped (concentrated) masses and rotational inertia may be placed at the joints
• All loads and masses applied to the elements are actually transferred to the joints
• Joints are the primary locations in the structure at which the displacements are known (the supports) or are to be determined
All of these functions are discussed in this Chapter except for the Constraints, which are described in Chapter “Constraints and Welds” (page 49).
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Overview
Chapter IV
Joints and Degrees of Freedom
Joints in the analysis model correspond to point objects in the structuralobject model. Using the SAP2000, ETABS, SAFE, or CSiBridge graphical user interface, joints (points) are automatically created at the ends of each Line object and at the corners of each Area and Solid object. Joints may also be defined independently of any object.
Automatic meshing of objects will create additional joints corresponding to any el ements that are created.
Joints may themselves be considered as elements. Each joint may have its own lo cal coordinate system for defining the degrees of freedom, restraints, joint proper ties, and loads; and for interpreting joint output. In most cases, however, the global XYZ coordinate system is used as the local coordinate system for all joints in the model. Joints act independently of each other unless connected by other elements.
There are six displacement degrees of freedom at every joint — three translations and three rotations. These displacement components are aligned along the local co ordinate system of each joint.
Joints may be loaded directly by concentrated loads or indirectly by ground dis placements acting though Restraints, spring supports, or onejoint (grounded) Link/Support objects.
Displacements (translations and rotations) are produced at every joint. Reaction forces and moments acting at each supported joint are also produced.
For more information, see Chapter “Constraints and Welds” (page 49).
Modeling Considerations
The location of the joints and elements is critical in determining the accuracy of the structural model. Some of the factors that you need to consider when defining the elements, and hence the joints, for the structure are:
• The number of elements should be sufficient to describe the geometry of the structure. For straight lines and edges, one element is adequate. For curves and curved surfaces, one element should be used for every arc of 15° or less.
• Element boundaries, and hence joints, should be located at points, lines, and surfaces of discontinuity:
– Structural boundaries, e.g., corners and edges
– Changes in material properties
Modeling Considerations
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CSI Analysis Reference Manual
– Changes in thickness and other geometric properties
– Support points (Restraints and Springs)
– Points of application of concentrated loads, except that Frame elements may have concentrated loads applied within their spans
• In regions having large stress gradients, i.e., where the stresses are changing rapidly, an Area or Solidelement mesh should be refined using small ele ments and closelyspaced joints. This may require changing the mesh after one or more preliminary analyses.
• More that one element should be used to model the length of any span for which dynamic behavior is important. This is required because the mass is al ways lumped at the joints, even if it is contributed by the elements.
Local Coordinate System
Each joint has its own joint local coordinate system used to define the degrees of freedom, Restraints, properties, and loads at the joint; and for interpreting joint out put. The axes of the joint local coordinate system are denoted 1, 2, and 3. By default these axes are identical to the global X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. Both systems are righthanded coordinate systems.
The default local coordinate system is adequate for most situations. However, for certain modeling purposes it may be useful to use different local coordinate sys tems at some or all of the joints. This is described in the next topic.
For more information:
• See Topic “Upward and Horizontal Directions” (page 13) in Chapter “Coordi nate Systems.”
• See Topic “Advanced Local Coordinate System” (page 24) in this Chapter.
Advanced Local Coordinate System
By default, the joint local 123 coordinate system is identical to the global XYZ coordinate system, as described in the previous topic. However, it may be neces sary to use different local coordinate systems at some or all joints in the following cases:
• Skewed Restraints (supports) are present
• Constraints are used to impose rotational symmetry
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Local Coordinate System
Chapter IV
Joints and Degrees of Freedom
• Constraints are used to impose symmetry about a plane that is not parallel to a global coordinate plane
• The principal axes for the joint mass (translational or rotational) are not aligned with the global axes
• Joint displacement and force output is desired in another coordinate system
Joint local coordinate systems need only be defined for the affected joints. The global system is used for all joints for which no local coordinate system is explicitly specified.
A variety of methods are available to define a joint local coordinate system. These may be used separately or together. Local coordinate axes may be defined to be par allel to arbitrary coordinate directions in an arbitrary coordinate system or to vec tors between pairs of joints. In addition, the joint local coordinate system may be specified by a set of three joint coordinate angles. These methods are described in the subtopics that follow.
For more information:
• See Chapter “Coordinate Systems” (page 11).
• See Topic “Local Coordinate System” (page 24) in this Chapter.
Reference Vectors
To define a joint local coordinate system you must specify two reference vectors that are parallel to one of the joint local coordinate planes. The axis reference vec tor, V _{a} , must be parallel to one of the local axes (I = 1, 2, or 3) in this plane and have a positive projection upon that axis. The plane reference vector, V _{p} , must
have a positive projection upon the other local axis (j = 1, 2, or 3, but I j) in this plane, but need not be parallel to that axis. Having a positive projection means that the positive direction of the reference vector must make an angle of less than 90 with the positive direction of the local axis.
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