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101

Chapter 10 Suspension and steering


Contents
Front hub bearings - renewal 3 Rear axle assembly - removal and refitting 17
Front swivel hub assembly - removal and refitting 2 Rear hub assembly - removal and refitting 11
Front suspension and steering check See Chapter 1 Rear hub bearings - renewal 12
Front suspension anti-roll bar - removal and refitting 8 Rear shock absorber - removal, testing and refitting 13
Front suspension anti-roll bar connecting link - removal and refitting 9 Rear suspension anti-roll bar - removal and refitting 16
Front suspension lower arm balljoint - removal and refitting 7 Rear suspension torsion bar - removal and refitting 14
Front suspension lower arm - removal, overhaul and refitting 6 Rear suspension trailing arm - removal and refitting 15
Front suspension strut - overhaul 5 Steering column - removal, inspection and refitting 20
Front suspension strut - removal and refitting 4 Steering gear assembly - removal, overhaul and refitting 22
Front suspension subframe - removal and refitting 10 Steering gear rubber gaiters - renewal 23
General information 1 Steering wheel - removal and refitting 19
Ignition switch/steering column lock - removal and refitting 21 Track rod - removal and refitting 27
Power steering pump - removal and refitting 25 Track rod balljoint - removal and refitting 26
Power steering pump drivebelt check, Vehicle ride height - checking and adjustment 18
adjustment and renewal See Chapter 1 Wheel alignment and steering angles - general information 28
Power steering fluid level check See Chapter 1 Wheel and tyre maintenance and tyre pressure
Power steering system - bleeding 24 checks See Chapter 1

Degrees of difficulty
Easy, suitable for Fairly easy, suitable Fairly difficult, suitable Difficult, suitable for Very difficult,
novice with little for beginner with for competent DIY experienced DIY suitable for expert DIY
experience some experience mechanic mechanic or professional

Specifications
Front suspension
Front ride height - fully-laden*:
1124 cc and 1360 cc models 177 10 mm
1580 cc and 1761 cc models 185 10 mm
1905 cc and 1998 cc 8-valve models 167 10 mm
1998 cc 16-valve models 165 10 mm
* Fully-laden - 4 occupants and 40 kg of luggage in the vehicle
Rear suspension
Rear ride height - fully-laden*:
1124 cc and 1360 cc models 201 10 mm
1580 cc models:
Three-door models 189 10 mm
Five-door models 209 10 mm
1761 cc models 189 10 mm
1905 cc and 1998 cc 8-valve models 200 10 mm
1998 cc 16-valve models 199 10 mm
* Fully-laden - 4 occupants and 40 kg of luggage in the vehicle

Steering
Power steering fluid type . Dexron type II ATF
Tyres
Tyre size .. 165/70 R 13, 175/65 R 14, 185/60 R 14 or 195/55 R 15 (depending
on model)
Pressures - (tyres cold): Front Rear
165/70 R 13 tyres 2.2 bar (32 psi) 2.2 bar (32 psi)
175/65 R 14 tyres 2.1 bar (30 psi) 2.1 bar (30 psi)
185/60 R 14 tyres* 2.2 bar (32 psi) 2.2 bar (32 psi)
195/55 R 15 tyres* 2.2 bar (32 psi) 2.3 bar (33 psi)
Note: Pressures apply only to original-equipment tyres, and may vary if any other make or type is fitted; check with the tyre manufacturer or
supplier for correct pressures if necessary.
* Models with these tyres have a "space-saver" spare wheel fitted with a smaller tyre. The smaller spare tyre should run at 2.4 bars (35 psi), noting
the vehicle should not be driven at speeds exceeding 100 mph (160 km/h) whilst the spare wheel is fitted.
102 Suspension and steering

Roadwheels
Type Pressed-steel or aluminium alloy (depending on model)
Size 5B x 13, 5J x 13, 5.5J x 14 or 6J x 15 (depending on model)
Maximum run-out at rim 1.2 mm
Maximum eccentricity on tyre bead locating surface 0.8 mm

Wheel alignment and steering angles


Front wheel camber angle:
Unladen 0 30' 40'
Fully-laden* 0 40'
Castor angle
Unladen:
Manual steering 0 30' 40'
Power-assisted steering 2 40'
Fully-laden*:
Manual steering 1 30' 40'
Power-assisted steering 3 40'
Steering axis inclination/kingpin inclination 10 45' 40'
Front wheel toe setting:
Unladen
Manual steering 0 to 2 mm (toe-out)
Power-assisted steering -2.5 to -4.5 mm (toe-in)
Fully-laden*:
Manual steering 1 to 3 mm (toe-out)
Power-assisted steering -1 to -3 mm (toe-in)
Rear wheel camber setting -1 40'
Rear wheel toe setting:
Unladen -2 to 2 mm (toe-in/toe-out)
Fully-laden* -2.5 to -6.0 mm (toe-in)
* Fully-laden - 4 occupants and 40 kg of luggage in the vehicle

Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ft


Front suspension
Strut-to-swivel hub bolt 55 41
Strut upper mounting bolts 20 15
Strut upper mounting retaining nut 45 33
Lower arm balljoint clamp bolt 40 30
Lower arm balljoint retaining nuts 45 33
Lower arm front pivot bolt 60 44
Lower arm rear pivot bush mounting bolts:
8 mm bolt 27 20
10 mm bolt 55 41
Anti-roll bar (models with anti-roll bar connected to lower arm):
Mounting clamp bolts 55 41
Bar-to-connecting link nuts 30 22
Connecting link-to-bracket bolt 40 30
Bracket-to-lower arm bolts 20 15
Anti-roll bar (models with anti-roll bar connected to strut):
Mounting clamp bolts 55 41
Connecting link nuts 40 30
Subframe mounting bolts 84 62
Rear suspension
Shock absorber upper mounting bolt 75 55
Shock absorber lower mounting bolt 120 89
Rear hub nut:
Models with rear drum brakes 200 148
Models with rear disc brakes 180 133
Torsion bar Torx retaining screw 20 15
Anti-roll bar retaining bracket bolt 35 26
Brake backplate bolts (drum brakes only) 37 27
Rear axle mountings:
Front mounting-to-body nuts 55 41
Front mounting-to-crossmember bolts 70 52
Rear mounting nuts 45 33
Suspension and steering 103

Torque wrench settings (continued) Nm lbf ft


Steering
Track rod balljoint-to-swivel hub nut 35 26
Track rod-to-steering rack 50 37
Steering gear mounting bolts 40 30
Steering wheel nut 35 26
Steering column mounting nuts 17 13
Universal joint clamp bolt 25 18
Power-assisted steering gear fluid unions:
Feed pipe 25 18
Return pipe 20 15
Roadwheels
Wheel bolts 90 66

onto the subframe, and is either connected to movement of the rear axle assembly has the
both lower suspension arms or directly to the effect of actually turning the rear wheels
1 General information front suspension struts, depending on the slightly, to help steer the vehicle in the
model (see illustration). required direction. This improves the handling
The independent front suspension is of the The rear suspension is of the independent of the vehicle when cornering at extreme
MacPherson strut type, incorporating coil trailing arm type, which consists of two trailing speeds.
springs and integral telescopic shock arms, linked by a tubular crossmember. The steering column has a universal joint
absorbers. The MacPherson struts are Torsion bars linking the trailing arms are fitted in the centre of its length, which is
located by transverse lower suspension arms, situated in front of and behind the connected to an intermediate shaft having a
which utilise rubber inner mounting bushes, crossmember, and an anti-roll bar linking the second universal joint at its lower end. The
and incorporate a balljoint at the outer ends. arms passes through the centre of the lower universal joint is clamped to the steering
The front swivel hubs, which carry the wheel crossmember (see illustration). gear pinion by means of a clamp bolt (see
bearings, brake calipers and the hub/disc The complete rear axle assembly is illustration).
assemblies, are bolted to the MacPherson mounted onto the vehicle underbody by four The steering gear is mounted onto the front
struts, and connected to the lower arms via "self-steering" rubber mountings. These subframe, and is connected by two track
the balljoints. A front anti-roll bar is fitted to all mountings are designed to move slightly rods, with balljoints at their outer ends, to the
models. The anti-roll bar is rubber-mounted under extreme cornering forces. This steering arms projecting rearwards from the

1.1 Cross-sectional view of the front suspension 1.2 Cross-sectional view of the rear suspension components
components
104 Suspension and steering

2.6 Slacken and remove the bolt securing


the wiring retaining bracket to the swivel
hub
Chapter 9. If not, unscrew the two bolts
securing the brake caliper assembly to the
swivel hub, and slide the caliper assembly off
the disc. Using a piece of wire or string, tie the
caliper to the front suspension coil spring, to
avoid placing any strain on the hydraulic
brake hose. Discard the caliper mounting
bolts - they must be renewed whenever they
are disturbed.
1.4 Cross-sectional view of the steering column and associated components
6 Slacken and remove the bolt securing the
wiring retaining bracket to the top of the
swivel hubs. The track rod ends are threaded, 3 On all 1580 cc and larger-engined models, swivel hub (see illustration).
to facilitate adjustment. withdraw the R-clip, and remove the locking 7 On models with ABS, remove the wheel
Power-assisted steering is fitted as cap from the driveshaft retaining nut. sensor as described in Chapter 9.
standard on some models, and is available as 4 Refit at least two roadwheel bolts to the 8 On all models, slacken and remove the nut
an option on all others. The hydraulic steering front hub, and tighten them securely. Have an securing the steering gear track rod balljoint
system is powered by a belt-driven pump, assistant firmly depress the brake pedal, to to the swivel hub, and release the balljoint
which is driven off the crankshaft pulley. prevent the front hub from rotating, then using tapered shank using a universal balljoint
a socket and extension bar, slacken and separator.
2 Front swivel hub assembly - remove the driveshaft retaining nut. 9 Slacken and remove the three nuts
removal and refitting securing the balljoint to the lower suspension
A tool to prevent the hub
rotating can be fabricated arm, then withdraw the bolts and free the
from two lengths of steel strip balljoint from the arm (see illustration).
Removal (one long, one short) and a nut 10 Undo the nut and withdraw the swivel
1 Chock the rear wheels, then firmly apply the and bolt; the nut and bolt forming the hub-to-suspension strut clamp bolt, noting
handbrake. Jack up the front of the vehicle, pivot of a forked tool. Bolt the tool to the which way around it is fitted.
and support it on axle stands. Remove the hub using two wheel bolts, and hold the 11 Free the swivel hub assembly from the
appropriate front roadwheel. tool to prevent the hub from rotating as end of the strut, then release it from the outer
2 On 1124 cc and 1360 cc models, using a the driveshaft nut is undone (see constant velocity joint splines, and remove it
hammer and a chisel-nosed tool, tap up the Chapters, Section 2). from the vehicle. If the swivel hub is a tight fit
staking securing the driveshaft retaining nut in on the strut, use a large flat-bladed
position. Note that a new retaining must be 5 If the hub bearings are to be disturbed, screwdriver to carefully open up the clamp a
used on refitting. remove the brake disc as described in little (see illustration).

2.11 Removing the swivel hub assembly. 2.14 On refitting, ensure the swivel hub
2.9 Undo the three lower suspension arm Note the use of the screwdriver to open up clamp is aligned with the lug (arrowed) on
balljoint retaining nuts the hub clamp the strut prior to inserting the clamp bolt
Suspension and steering 105

Refitting 22 On 1580 cc and larger-engined models, circlip, ensuring that it is correctly located in
engage the locking cap with the driveshaft nut the groove in the swivel hub.
12 Note that all Nyloc nuts disturbed on
so that one of its cut-outs is aligned with the 9 Securely support the outer face of the hub
removal must be renewed as a matter of
driveshaft hole. Secure the cap with the R- flange, and locate the swivel hub bearing
course. These nuts have threads which are
clip. inner race over the end of the hub flange.
pre-coated with locking compound (this is
23 Refit the roadwheel, then lower the Press the bearing onto the hub, using a
only effective once), and include the track rod
vehicle to the ground and tighten the tubular spacer which bears only on the inner
balljoint nut, lower suspension arm balljoint
roadwheel bolts to the specified torque. race of the hub bearing, until it seats against
nuts, and the swivel hub clamp bolt nut.
the hub shoulder. Check that the hub flange
13 Ensure the driveshaft outer constant
rotates freely, and wipe off any excess oil or
velocity joint and hub splines are clean, then
grease.
slide the hub fully onto the driveshaft splines.
14 Slide the hub assembly fully onto the 3 Front hub bearings - renewal 10 Refit the swivel hub assembly as
described in Section 2.
suspension strut, aligning the split in the hub
clamp with the lug on the base of the strut.
Insert the swivel hub-to-suspension strut Note: The bearing is a sealed, pre-adjusted
clamp bolt from the front side of the strut, and pre-lubricated, double-row roller type, 4 Front suspension strut -
then fit a new nut to the clamp bolt, and and is intended to last the car's entire service removal and refitting
tighten it to the specified torque (see life without maintenance or attention. Never
illustration). overtighten the driveshaft nut beyond the
15 Align the balljoint with the lower arm, and specified torque wrench setting in an attempt Removal
fit the three retaining bolts. Fit new retaining to "adjust" the bearing. 1 Chock the rear wheels, apply the
nuts to the bolts, and tighten them to the handbrake, then jack up the front of the
specified torque. Note: A press will be required to dismantle vehicle and support on axle stands. Remove
16 Engage the track rod balljoint in the swivel and rebuild the assembly; if such a tool is not the appropriate roadwheel.
hub, then fit a new retaining nut and tighten it available, a large bench vice and spacers 2 Unscrew the two bolts securing the brake
to the specified torque. (such as large sockets) will serve as an caliper to the swivel hub, and discard them;
17 Where necessary, refit the brake disc to adequate substitute. The bearing's inner races new bolts must be used on refitting. Slacken
the hub, referring to Chapter 9 for further are an interference fit on the hub; if the inner and remove the bolt securing the wiring
information. If the threads of the new caliper race remains on the hub when it is pressed retaining bracket to the swivel hub, then slide
mounting bolts are not already pre-coated out of the hub carrier, a knife-edged bearing the caliper assembly off the disc. Using a
with locking compound, apply a suitable puller will be required to remove it. piece of wire or string, tie the caliper to the
locking compound to them. Slide the caliper front suspension lower arm, to avoid placing
assembly into position over the disc, then fit any strain on the hydraulic brake hose.
1 Remove the swivel hub assembly as
the mounting bolts and tighten them to the 3 On models where the anti-roll bar is
described in Section 2.
specified torque (see Chapter 9). connected to the suspension strut body, undo
2 Support the swivel hub securely on blocks
18 Where necessary, refit the ABS wheel the nut and washer securing the connecting
or in a vice. Using a tubular spacer which
sensor as described in Chapter 9. link to the strut, and position the link clear of
bears only on the inner end of the hub flange,
19 Refit the wiring retaining bracket to the press the hub flange out of the bearing. If the the strut (see illustration). Discard the nut - a
top of the swivel hub, and tighten its retaining bearing's outboard inner race remains on the new one must be used on refitting.
bolt securely. hub, remove it using a bearing puller (see note 4 Undo the nut and withdraw the swivel hub-
20 Lubricate the inner face and threads of above). to-suspension strut clamp bolt, noting which
the driveshaft retaining nut with clean engine way around it is fitted. Discard the nut - a new
3 Extract the bearing retaining circlip from the
oil, and refit it to the end of the driveshaft. Use one must be used on refitting.
inner end of the swivel hub assembly (see
the method employed on removal to prevent 5 Slacken and remove the two suspension
illustration).
the hub from rotating, and tighten the strut upper mounting bolts.
driveshaft retaining nut to the specified torque 4 Where necessary, refit the inner race back
in position over the ball cage, and securely 6 Release the strut from the swivel hub, and
(see Chapter 8). Check that the hub rotates withdraw it from under the wheel arch. If the
freely. support the inner face of the swivel hub.
Using a tubular spacer which bears only on
21 On 1124 cc and 1360 cc models, stake
the inner race, press the complete bearing
the nut firmly into the driveshaft grooves using
assembly out of the swivel hub.
a hammer and punch.
5 Thoroughly clean the hub and swivel hub,
removing all traces of dirt and grease, and
polish away any burrs or raised edges which
might hinder reassembly. Check both for
cracks or any other signs of wear or damage,
and renew them if necessary. Renew the
circlip, regardless of its apparent condition.
6 On reassembly, apply a light film of oil to
the bearing outer race and hub flange shaft, to
aid installation of the bearing.
7 Securely support the swivel hub, and locate
the bearing in the hub. Press the bearing fully
into position, ensuring that it enters the hub
squarely, using a tubular spacer which bears
only on the bearing outer race. 4.3 Where the anti-roll bar is linked to the
3.3 Front hub bearing retaining circlip 8 Once the bearing is correctly seated, strut, undo the retaining nut and free the
secure the bearing in position with the new connecting link from the strut body
106 Suspension and steering

Removing the front suspension strut 4.8 Tighten the suspension strut upper 5.9a Ensure all components are clean and
mounting bolts to the specified torque. dry, then slide the rubber damper stop . . .
Note upper mounting locating pin
swivel hub is a tight fit on the strut, carefully (arrowed) dismantled, examine all the components for
open up the clamp a little using a large flat- wear, damage or deformation, and check the
bladed screwdriver (see illustration). bearing for smoothness of operation. Renew
any of the components as necessary.
Refitting 5 Front suspension strut - 6 Examine the strut for signs of fluid leakage.
7 Manoeuvre the strut assembly into position, overhaul Check the strut piston for signs of pitting
ensuring that the top mounting plate locating along its entire length, and check the strut
Warning: Before attempting to body for signs of damage. While holding it in
pin is correctly located in its hole. Engage the
dismantle the front suspension an upright position, test the operation of the
lower end of the strut with the swivel hub,
strut, a suitable tool to hold the strut by moving the piston through a full
aligning the split in the hub clamp with the lug
coil spring in compression must be stroke, and then through short strokes of 50
on the base of the strut. obtained. Adjustable coil spring
8 Insert the two strut upper mounting bolts, to 100 mm. In both cases, the resistance felt
compressors are readily-available, and are should be smooth and continuous. If the
and tighten them to the specified torque (see recommended for this operation. Any
illustration). resistance is jerky, or uneven, or if there is any
attempt to dismantle the strut without
visible sign of wear or damage to the strut,
9 Insert the swivel hub-to-suspension strut such a tool is likely to result in damage or
renewal is necessary.
clamp bolt from the front side of the strut. Fit personal injury.
7 If any doubt exists about the condition of
a new nut to the clamp bolt, and tighten it to
the coil spring, carefully remove the spring
the specified torque.
1 With the strut removed from the car as compressors, and check the spring for
10 Where necessary, refit the anti-roll bar
described in Section 4, clean away all external distortion and signs of cracking. Renew the
connecting link to the strut. Fit a new nut to spring if it is damaged or distorted, or if there
dirt, then mount it upright in a vice.
the connecting link, and tighten it to the is any doubt as to its condition.
2 Fit the spring compressor, and compress
specified torque. the coil spring until all tension is relieved from 8 Inspect all other components for signs of
11 Slide the brake caliper into position over the upper mounting plate. damage or deterioration, and renew any that
the disc. If the threads of the new caliper 3 Remove the rubber cap, then slacken the are suspect.
mounting bolts are not already pre-coated upper mounting retaining nut whilst retaining 9 To reassemble the strut, follow the
with locking compound, apply a suitable the strut piston with an Allen key. accompanying photos, beginning with
locking compound to them. Install the bolts 4 Remove the nut and washer, then lift off the illustration 5.9a. Be sure to stay in order, and
and tighten them to the specified torque (see collar, mounting plate, bearing, upper spring carefully read the caption underneath each
Chapter 9). seat and flat washer. Remove the coil spring, (see illustrations).
12 Refit the roadwheel, then lower the then slide off the damper piston dust cover 10 Refit the rubber cap to the top of the strut
vehicle to the ground and tighten the and rubber damper stop. piston, then refit the strut to the vehicle as
roadwheel bolts to the specified torque. 5 With the strut assembly now completely described in Section 4.

5.9b . . . and dust cover into position on 5.9c Refit the coil spring, ensuring the 5.9d Fit the flat washer to the top of the
the strut spring end is correctly located against its strut piston . . .
stop on the lower seat (arrowed)
Suspension and steering 107

5.9e . . . then locate the upper spring seat 5.9f Refit the bearing to the upper spring
on the spring, ensuring that the spring seat seat, ensuring that it is fitted the correct 5.9g Locate the upper mounting plate on
stop (arrowed) is correctly located against way around the spring s e a t . . .
the spring end

6 Front suspension lower arm -


removal, overhaul and refitting

Removal
1 Chock the rear wheels, firmly apply the
handbrake, then jack up the front of the
vehicle and support on axle stands. Remove
the appropriate front roadwheel.
2 On models where the anti-roll bar is
mounted onto the lower suspension arm,
slacken and remove the two nuts securing the 5.9i Refit the washer and upper mounting
mounting bracket to the lower arm, then 5.9h . . . and refit the collar to the retaining nut, and tighten the nut to the
withdraw then retaining bolts and free the mounting plate specified torque
bracket from the arm. Discard the nuts - new
ones must be used on refitting.
3 Slacken and remove the nut, then withdraw
the lower arm balljoint clamp bolt from the
swivel hub (see illustration). Discard the nut -
a new one must be used on refitting.
4 Lever the arm downwards to release the
balljoint from the swivel hub, and remove the
protector plate which is fitted to the balljoint
shank (see illustration).
5 Slacken and remove the lower arm front
pivot bolt and nut, then undo the two bolts
securing the rear mounting bush to the
subframe (the larger of which is also the anti-
roll bar mounting clamp bolt), and recover the 5.9j Ensure that the spring ends are still 5.9k With the compressors removed, push
nut from the top of the subframe. Manoeuvre correctly located against the seat stops, the rubber bump stop and gaiter upwards
the lower arm assembly out from underneath then release the spring compressors and until they are correctly seated inside the
the vehicle (see illustrations). remove them from the strut upper mounting plate

6.4 Release the balljoint from the swivel


6.3 Removing the lower suspension arm hub, and remove the protector plate from 6.5a Slacken and remove the lower
balljoint clamp bolt the balljoint shank suspension arm front pivot b o l t . . .
108 Suspension and steering

6.12 With the vehicle resting on its wheels,


6.5b . . . and the two rear mounting bush 6.5c . . . then remove the lower arm from tighten the lower arm front pivot bolt to the
bolts (second bolt arrowed)... the vehicle specified torque setting

Overhaul 11 Where necessary, align the anti-roll bar bolts. Fit new nuts to the bolts, and tighten
6 Thoroughly clean the lower arm and the mounting bracket with the lower arm, and them to the specified torque.
area around the arm mountings, removing all insert its retaining bolts. Fit new nuts to the 5 Carry out the operations described in
traces of dirt and underseal if necessary, then bolts, and tighten them to the specified paragraphs 10 to 12 of Section 6.
check carefully for cracks, distortion or any torque.
other signs of wear or damage, paying 12 Refit the roadwheel, then lower the
vehicle and tighten the roadwheel bolts to the
8 Front suspension anti-roll
particular attention to the pivot bushes, and
renew components as necessary. specified torque. Rock the vehicle to settle the bar - removal and refitting
7 Check that the lower arm balljoint moves disturbed components in position, then
freely, without any sign of roughness; check tighten the lower arm front pivot bolt to the Removal
also that the balljoint gaiter shows no sign of specified torque (see illustration). 1 Chock the rear wheels, firmly apply the
deterioration, and is free from cracks and handbrake, then jack up the front of the
splits. If renewal is necessary, slacken and 7 Front suspension lower arm vehicle and support on axle stands. Remove
remove its retaining bolts, and remove the both front roadwheels.
balljoint from the arm. Fit the new balljoint,
balljoint - removal and refitting
2 On models where the anti-roll bar is
and insert its retaining bolts. Fit new retaining mounted onto the lower suspension arm,
nuts to the bolts, and tighten them to the Removal slacken and remove the two nuts and bolts
specified torque. securing the mounting bracket to the left-
1 Release the balljoint from the swivel hub as
8 Examine the shank of the pivot bolt for hand lower arm, then undo the nut securing
described in Section 6, paragraphs 1 to 4.
signs of wear or scoring, and renew if the connecting link to the anti-roll bar, and
2 Slacken and remove the three nuts, then
necessary. remove the connecting link and bracket
withdraw the balljoint retaining bolts and
Refitting remove the balljoint from the lower arm (see assembly. Repeat the procedure on the right-
9 Manoeuvre the lower arm assembly into illustrations). Discard the nuts - new ones hand side.
position, and refit the front pivot bolt, must be used on refitting. 3 On models where the anti-roll bar is
tightening it finger-tight only. Refit the two 3 Check that the lower arm balljoint moves connected to the suspension strut body, undo
rear pivot bush retaining bolts, and tighten freely, without any sign of roughness. Check the nut and washer securing the left-hand
both to their specified torque settings. also that the balljoint gaiter shows no sign of connecting link to the anti-roll bar, and
10 Refit the protector plate to the lower arm deterioration, and is free from cracks and position the link clear of the bar. Repeat the
balljoint, then locate the balljoint shank in the splits. Renew worn or damaged components procedure on the right-hand side.
swivel hub, ensuring that the lug on the as necessary. 4 On models with power steering, using
protector plate is correctly located in the brake hose clamps, clamp both the supply
clamp split. Insert the balljoint clamp bolt, Refitting and return hoses near the power steering fluid
then fit the new retaining nut and tighten it to 4 Locate the balljoint in the end of the reservoir. This will minimise fluid loss during
the specified torque. suspension arm, and insert the three retaining subsequent operations. Mark the unions to
ensure they are correctly positioned on
reassembly, then unscrew the feed and return
pipe union nuts from the steering gear
assembly; be prepared for fluid spillage, and
position a suitable container beneath the
pipes whilst unscrewing the union nuts.
Disconnect both pipes, and plug the pipe
ends and steering gear orifices, to prevent
excessive fluid leakage and the entry of dirt
into the hydraulic system.
5 On all models, using a hammer and punch,
white paint or similar, mark the exact
relationship between the steering intermediate
shaft universal joint and the steering gear
drive pinion. Slacken and remove the clamp
7.2a Remove the three retaining bolts . . . 7.2b . . . and remove the lower arm bolt securing the joint to the pinion, and free
balljoint the intermediate shaft from the steering gear.
Suspension and steering 109

8.10 Slacken and remove the bolt and nut 9.3a Anti-roll bar connecting link lower 9.3b . . . and upper retaining nut - models
(arrowed) and remove the anti-roll bar retaining n u t . . . with the anti-roll bar connected to the
mounting clamp
suspension strut body
6 Slacken and remove the nut securing the tighten the mounting clamp retaining bolts to connected to the strut, slacken and remove
left-hand steering gear track rod balljoint to the specified torque. the upper and lower connecting link retaining
the swivel hub, and release the balljoint 15 The remainder of the refitting is a reversal nuts and washers, and remove the link from
tapered shank using a universal balljoint of the removal procedure, noting the following the vehicle (see illustrations).
separator. Repeat the procedure on the right- points:
hand side. 4 Examine the connecting link for signs of
(a) All Nyloc nuts disturbed on removal must damage, paying particular attention to the
7 On 1580 cc and larger-engined models with be renewed as a matter of course. These mounting bushes or balljoints (as applicable),
manual transmission, using a large nuts have threads which are pre-coated and renew if necessary. It is not possible to
screwdriver, carefully lever the three with locking compound (this is only renew the bushes or balljoints separately.
gearchange linkage link rods off their effective once), and include the track rod Note that the connecting link retaining nuts
balljoints on the transmission unit. balljoint nuts, connecting link nuts, engine must be renewed as a matter of course.
8 Slacken and remove the engine/trans- mounting bolt nut, and the intermediate
mission rear mounting through-bolt and nut. shaft clamp bolt nut. The intermediate Refitting
9 Slacken and remove the four front shaft clamp bolt nut is retained by a metal 5 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
subframe mounting bolts which are situated cage; release the cage retaining tangs, procedure, using new retaining nuts and
at the rear of the subframe. Loosen the two then remove the old nut from inside the tightening them to the specified torque
front subframe mounting bolts by a few turns, cage and install the new one. Refit the setting.
until it is possible to lower the rear edge of the cage to the shaft, and secure it in position
subframe approximately 65 mm. Wedge a
with the retaining tangs.
block of wood between the rear of the 10 Front suspension subframe -
(b) Tighten all nuts and bolts to the specified
subframe and the vehicle underbody, to hold removal and refitting
the subframe in this position. torque settings (where given).
(c) Align the marks made on removal when
10 Slacken the two anti-roll bar mounting Removal
reconnecting the intermediate shaft to the
clamp retaining bolts, and recover the nuts
steering gear splines. 1 Chock the rear wheels, firmly apply the
from the top of the clamps (see illustration).
(d) On models with power steering, bleed the handbrake, then jack up the front of the
Remove both clamps from the subframe.
hydraulic system as described in Sec- vehicle and support it on axle stands. Remove
11 Manoeuvre the anti-roll bar out from both front roadwheels.
tion 24.
underneath the vehicle, and remove the
(e) On completion check and, if necessary, 2 Remove the anti-roll bar connecting links as
mounting bushes from the bar.
adjust the front wheel alignment as described in Section 9.
12 Carefully examine the anti-roll bar
described in Section 28. 3 Slacken and remove the rear
components for signs of wear, damage or
engine/transmission through-bolt and nut,
deterioration, paying particular attention to
then undo the nut and bolt securing the
the mounting bushes. Renew worn 9 Front suspension anti-roll bar
mounting bracket to the subframe and
components as necessary. connecting link - remove the bracket.
removal and refitting 4 Slacken and remove the three nuts, then
Refitting withdraw the balljoint retaining bolts and
Removal disengage the left-hand balljoint from the
13 Fit the rubber mounting bushes to the lower arm. Repeat the procedure on the right-
anti-roll bar, ensuring that the recess on the 1 Firmly apply the handbrake, then jack up hand side.
inside of each bush engages with the lugs on the front of the car and support it on axle 5 Slacken the steering gear mounting bolts,
the anti-roll bar. Rotate each bush so that its stands.
and recover the nuts. Withdraw the mounting
marking is aligned with the paint mark on the 2 On models where the anti-roll bar is bolts, and recover the spacers from the
anti-roll bar. connected to the lower suspension arms, subframe apertures.
14 Offer up the anti-roll bar, and manoeuvre slacken and remove the nut and bolt securing 6 On 1580 cc and larger-engined models with
it into position on the subframe. Refit the the link to the lower arm bracket, then undo manual transmission, using a large
mounting clamps, ensuring that their ends are the nut and washer securing the link to the screwdriver, carefully lever the three
correctly located in the hooks on the anti-roll bar. Disengage the connecting link gearchange linkage link rods off their
subframe, and refit the retaining bolts and from the end of the anti-roll bar, and remove it balljoints on the transmission unit. Slacken
nuts. Ensure that the bush markings are still from the vehicle. and remove the pivot bolt securing the
aligned with the paint marks on the bars, then 3 On models where the anti-roll bar is selector rod to the gearchange lever.
1010 Suspension and steering

10.7 Power steering pipe-to-subframe 10.9a Front subframe left-hand rear 10.9b . . . and front mounting bolt
retaining clip mounting bolts (arrowed)...

7 On models with power steering, undo the 5 Using a puller, draw the hub assembly off
nut securing the steering gear pipe to its 11 Rear hub assembly - the stub axle, along with the outer bearing
mounting bracket on the subframe, and free removal and refitting race (see illustration). With the hub removed,
both pipes from any subframe retaining clips use the puller to draw the inner bearing race
(see illustration). off the stub axle, then remove the hub spacer,
8 On right-hand-drive models, undo the nut Rear drum brakes noting which way around it is fitted.
securing the clutch cable retaining clip to the 1 On models with rear drum brakes, the rear 6 Refit the races to the hub bearing, and
subframe, and disengage the cable from its hub is an integral part of the brake drum. check the hub bearing for signs of roughness.
retaining clips on either side of the subframe. Refer to Chapter 9 for drum removal and It is recommended that the bearing should be
9 Slacken and remove the four rear front refitting details. renewed as a matter of course, as it is likely to
subframe mounting bolts and the two front have been damaged during removal. This
mounting bolts, then carefully lower the means that the complete hub assembly must
subframe assembly out of position and Rear disc brakes be renewed, since it is not possible to obtain
remove it from underneath the vehicle (see the bearing separately.
Note: Do not remove the hub assembly unless
illustrations). On models with power steering,
it is absolutely necessary. A puller will be 7 With the hub removed, examine the stub
take great care to ensure the subframe
required to draw the hub assembly off the axle shaft for signs of wear or damage, and if
assembly does not catch the power steering
stub axle, and the hub bearing will almost necessary renew it. The stub axle is an
pipes as it is lowered out of position.
certainly be damaged by the removal interference fit in the trailing arm, and can
Refitting procedure. either be tapped out of position, using a
10 Refitting is a reversal of the removal hammer and a soft-metal drift, or pushed out
Removal
procedure, noting the following points: using a heavy-duty bearing puller. When
(a) All Nyloc nuts disturbed on removal must 2 Remove the rear brake disc as described in installing the new stub axle, align its splines
be renewed as a matter of course. These Chapter 9. with those of the trailing arm, and drift or
nuts have threads which are pre-coated 3 Using a hammer and a large flat-bladed press it fully into position in the arm.
with locking compound (this is only screwdriver, carefully tap and prise the cap
effective once), and include the out of the centre of the hub. Discard the cap -
connecting link nuts, lower arm balljoint a new one must be used on refitting. Using a Refitting
nuts, engine mounting bolt nuts and hammer and a chisel-nosed tool, tap up the 8 Lubricate the stub axle shaft with clean
steering gear bolt nuts. staking securing the hub retaining nut to the engine oil, then slide on the spacer, ensuring it
(b) Tighten all nuts and bolts to the specified groove in the stub axle (see illustrations). is fitted the correct way round.
torque settings (where given). 4 Using a socket and long bar, slacken and 9 Fit the new bearing inner race, and tap it
(c) On completion check and, if necessary, remove the rear hub nut, and withdraw the fully onto the stub axle using a hammer and a
adjust the front wheel alignment as thrustwasher. Discard the hub nut - a new nut tubular drift which bears only on the flat inside
described in Section 28. must used on refitting. edge of the race.

11.3a Tap off the hub centre cap . . . 11.3b . . . then tap up the rear hub staking 11.5 Use a puller to draw the hub
using a hammer and suitable punch assembly off the stub axle
Suspension and steering 1011

11.11a Fit the thrustwasher and new hub 11.11b . . . and tighten the nut to the 11.11c Using a hammer and punch . . .
nut... specified torque

10 Ensure that the bearing is packed with


grease, then slide the hub assembly onto the
stub axle. Fit the new outer bearing race, and
tap it into position using the tubular drift.
11 Fit the thrustwasher and new hub nut, and
tighten the hub nut to the specified torque.
Stake the nut firmly into the groove on the
stub axle to secure it in position, then tap the
new hub cap into place in the centre of the
hub (see illustrations).
12 Refit the rear brake disc as described in
Chapter 9.

12 Rear hub bearings - renewal 11.11d . . . stake the hub nut firmly into the 11.11e . . . then fit the new hub cap
stub axle groove . . .

Note: The bearing is intended to last the car's The stub axle is an interference fit in the complete rear hub assembly must be
entire service life without maintenance or trailing arm, and can either be tapped out of renewed. Refer to Section 11 for hub removal
attention. Never overtighten the hub nut position, using a hammer and a soft-metal and refitting procedures.
beyond the specified torque wrench setting, in drift, or pushed out using a heavy-duty
an attempt to "adjust" the bearings. bearing puller. When installing the new stub
axle, align its splines with those of the trailing
Rear drum brakes arm, and drive or press it fully into position in 13 Rear shock absorber -
the arm. removal, testing and refitting
1 Remove the rear brake drum as described
in Chapter 9. 7 On reassembly, apply a light film of clean
2 Using a flat-bladed screwdriver, lever the engine oil to the bearing outer race, to aid Removal
spacer out of the rear of the brake drum, installation of the bearing.
8 Securely support the drum, and locate the 1 Chock the front wheels, then jack up the
noting which way around it is fitted. rear of the vehicle and support it on axle
bearing in the hub. Press the bearing fully into
3 Using circlip pliers, extract the bearing stands. Remove the relevant rear roadwheel.
position, ensuring that it enters the hub
retaining circlip from the centre of the brake 2 On some models, note that if the left-hand
squarely, using a tubular spacer which bears
drum. shock absorber is to be removed, it will first
only on the bearing outer race.
4 Securely support the drum hub, then press be necessary to remove the exhaust tailpipe
9 Ensure the bearing is correctly seated
or drive the bearing out of position, using a and tailpipe heatshield, in order to allow the
against the hub shoulder, and secure it in
tubular drift which bears on the bearing inner shock absorber upper mounting bolt to be
position with the new circlip. Ensure that the
race. withdrawn. If this is the case, refer to Chapter
circlip is correctly seated in its hub groove.
5 Thoroughly clean the hub, removing all 10 Fit the new spacer to the drum, ensuring it 4 for information on exhaust system removal.
traces of dirt and grease, and polish away any is fitted the correct way around, and use a 3 Using a trolley jack, raise the trailing arm
burrs or raised edges which might hinder tubular spacer to press it into squarely into until the shock absorber is slightly
reassembly. Check the hub for cracks or any position. compressed.
other signs of wear or damage, and renew 11 Refit the brake drum as described in 4 Free the handbrake cable from its'retaining
them if necessary. The bearing and its circlip Chapter 9. clip on the bottom of the trailing arm. Slacken
must be renewed whenever they are and remove the nuts and washers from both
disturbed. Note that a replacement bearing the upper and lower shock absorber mounting
kit, which consists of the bearing, circlip and Rear disc brakes bolts, and free the brake hose mounting
spacer, is available from Citroen dealers. 12 On models with rear disc brakes, it is not bracket from the lower mounting bolt.
6 Examine the stub axle shaft for signs of possible to renew the rear hub bearing 5 Withdraw the mounting bolts, noting which
wear or damage, and if necessary renew it. separately. If the bearing is worn, the way around they are fitted, and manoeuvre
1012 Suspension and steering

13.5a Withdraw the shock absorber lower 13.5b . . . and the upper mounting bolt 13.5c . . . and remove the shock absorber
mounting b o l t . . . (arrowed)... from underneath the vehicle

the shock absorber out from underneath the the complete unit if any damage or excessive of the trailing arm, and the lower bolt from the
vehicle (see illustrations). wear is evident; the mounting bushes are not outside.
available separately. Inspect the shanks of the 9 Refit the nuts and washers to the mounting
Testing mounting bolts for signs of wear or damage, bolts, not forgetting to refit the brake hose
6 Examine the shock absorber for signs of and renew as necessary. bracket to the lower bolt, tightening them by
fluid leakage or damage. Test the operation of hand only at this stage. Clip the handbrake
the shock absorber, while holding it in an Refitting cable onto the trailing arm bracket.
upright position, by moving the piston through 7 Prior to refitting the shock absorber, mount 10 Refit the roadwheel, then lower the car to
a full stroke and then through short strokes of it upright in the vice, and operate it fully ground and tighten the roadwheel bolts to the
50 to 100 mm. In both cases, the resistance through several strokes in order to prime it. specified torque.
felt should be smooth and continuous. If the Apply a smear of multi-purpose grease to 11 With the car standing on its wheels, rock
resistance is jerky, or uneven, or if there is any both the shock absorber mounting bolts. the car to settle the shock absorber in
visible sign of wear or damage, renewal is 8 Manoeuvre the shock absorber into position, then tighten both the upper and
necessary. Also check the rubber mounting position, and insert its mounting bolts; ensure lower mounting bolts to their specified torque
bushes for damage and deterioration. Renew that the upper bolt is inserted from the inside settings.
12 Where necessary, refit the heat shield and
tailpipe as described in the relevant part of
Chapter 4.

14 Rear suspension torsion


bar - removal and refitting

Note: To ensure the trailing arm is correctly


positioned prior to refitting the torsion bar, a
special bracket is required. This bracket
(special tool number 9501-T.G3) can be
obtained from a Citroen dealer, or
alternatively, a home-made substitute can be
fabricated; the dimensions of the Citroen tool
are shown in illustration 14.0. Note that the
substitute bracket must be accurately
fabricated to be of use.

Removal
1 Chock the front wheels, then jack up the
rear of the vehicle and support it on axle
stands. Remove both rear roadwheels, then
proceed as described under the relevant sub-
heading.
Front torsion bar
2 Remove the right-hand shock absorber as
described in Section 13.
3 With the trailing arm unsupported, measure
the distance between the centres of the upper
and lower shock absorber mounting bolt
holes, on the side from which the shock
Drill 14mm diameter hole absorber has been removed, and note this
down; this measurement will be needed on
14.0 Citroen trailing arm positioning bracket dimensions refitting.
Suspension and steering 1013

14. 6 Using a slide-hammer to withdraw a 14. 10 Using a jacking bolt to draw the 14. 14a Attach the position bracket (1) to
torsion bar retaining bracket off the end of the anti-roll the shock absorber lower mounting bolt
bar hole as shown, using the mounting bolt
and nut and a suitable spacer
4 Position a trolley jack underneath the end of 7 Once the splines of the torsion bar are
the trailing arm, and raise the jack until it is free, the bar can be withdrawn completely
supporting the weight of the trailing arm. It is from its location. Note that the front and rear
necessary to support the trailing arm, to torsion bars are not interchangeable; the
prevent it moving as the torsion bar is bars can be identified by the markings on
removed. Excess trailing arm movement will their shafts. The front bar has one band
place strain on the brake lines, which could painted around the left-hand end of its shaft,
cause them to fracture. and the rear bar has two bands painted
around its right-hand end.

Rear torsion bar


8 Remove the left-hand shock absorber as
described in Section 13.
9 Carry out the operations described above in
paragraphs 3 and 4. 14. 14b Using a feeler blade to check the
10 Slacken and remove the bolt securing the positioning bracket-to-crossmember
anti-roll bar retaining bracket to the left-hand clearance
trailing arm, and unscrew the plastic plug from
the centre of the bracket. Obtain a 12 x
1. 5 mm bolt at least 70 mm long, lubricate its 14 Ensure the distance between the upper
A tool to hold the trailing arm in threads and screw it into the bracket. The bolt and lower shock absorber mounting bolt
position can be fabricated from a can then be used as a jacking bolt, to draw holes is still as measured prior to removal, and
length of threaded bar, and attached to the bracket out of position (see illustration). adjust as necessary. Attach the positioning
the shock absorber mounting bolt Once the bracket is free from the anti-roll bar bracket (see note above) to the shock
holes. splines, remove it from the trailing arm, along absorber lower mounting bolt hole as shown
with its sealing rings. Discard the sealing rings in illustration 14.14a. Using feeler blades,
5 Slacken and remove the Torx screw and - new ones should be used on refitting. check that the clearance between the inner
washer from the right-hand end of the torsion 11 Slacken and remove the Torx screw and edge of the bracket and the edge of the
bar. Using a punch or scriber, make alignment washer from the left-hand end of the torsion tubular crossmember is 0. 05 mm. If
marks between the torsion bar and trailing bar. Using a punch or scriber, make alignment necessary, adjust the position of the trailing
arm. Unscrew the retaining nut from the left- marks between the torsion bar and trailing arm by tapping it lightly with a soft-faced
hand end of the torsion bar, and remove the arm. Unscrew the retaining nut from the right- mallet until the 0. 05 mm feeler blade is a light,
washer. hand end of the torsion bar, and remove the sliding fit (see illustrations).
6 The torsion bar can now be withdrawn from washer. 15 Where the original torsion bar is being
the right-hand side, using a slide-hammer 12 Withdraw the torsion bar from the left- installed, rotate the bar until the marks made
which is screwed into the 8 mm threaded hole hand side, using the information given above on removal are aligned, then slide the bar into
in the end of the bar (see illustration). in paragraphs 6 and 7. position. The bar should engage freely with
the trailing arm splines for the first 8 to 10
mm, and can then be tapped fully into
Refitting position using a hammer and a soft metal
It is possible to improvise drift.
torsion bar removal by Front torsion bar 16 If a new bar is being installed, rotate the
screwing a long bolt with a 13 Ensure that the trailing arm and torsion bar until the position is found where the bar
flat washer into the bar, and placing bar splines are clean and dry, then lubricate can be freely engaged with the first 8 to 10
the jaws of a spanner against the the splines with molybdenum disulphide mm of the trailing arm splines. Having found
washer. Striking the spanner sharply grease. Where a new torsion, bar is being this position, tap the bar fully home using a
with a hammer should free the torsion installed, unscrew the threaded stud from the hammer and a soft metal drift.
bar. original bar, and screw it fully into the smaller- 17 Once the torsion bar is fully home, refit the
diameter end of the new bar. washer and Torx screw to the end of the
1014 Suspension and steering

14. 17a Refit the offset w a s h e r . . . 14. 1 7 b . . . and the retaining screw to the 14. 1 7 c . . . and tighten the screw to the
end of the torsion b a r . . . specified torque

torsion bar, and tighten it to the specified mallet, tap the bracket into position until the 14. 0. Note that the substitute bracket must be
torque (see illustrations). clearance between the inside of the bracket accurately fabricated to be of use.
18 Ensure the trailing arm is still correctly and the trailing arm is 1. 0 mm; this can be
positioned, then unscrew the threaded stud checked using a feeler blade. If the bracket is Removal
from the opposite end of the torsion bar until a tight fit on the anti-roll bar splines, screw a 1 Chock the front wheels, then jack up the
its shoulder contacts the trailing arm cup; do long 8 mm bolt, nut and washer into the end rear of the vehicle and support it on axle
not force the stud against the cup. Refit the of the anti-roll bar. The bracket can then be stands. Remove both rear roadwheels.
washer and nut to the stud, and securely drawn into position by tighten the nut (see 2 Remove the relevant shock absorber as
tighten the nut whilst retaining the stud with a illustration 16. 13b). described in Section 13.
small flat-bladed screwdriver (see 24 Once the bracket is correctly positioned,
illustrations). 3 Slacken and remove the bolt securing the
refit its retaining bolt, not forgetting to position anti-roll bar retaining bracket to the left-hand
19 Refit the rear shock absorber as the handbrake cable bracket underneath it, trailing arm, and unscrew the plastic plug from
described in Section 13, then check and, if and tighten it to the specified torque setting. the centre of the bracket. Obtain a 12 x
necessary, adjust the vehicle ride height as Unscrew the bolt(s) from the end(s) of the anti- 1.5 mm bolt at least 70 mm long, lubricate its
described in Section 18. roll bar, then wipe clean the threads of the threads and screw it into the bracket. The bolt
Rear torsion bar retaining bracket holes. Apply a smear of can then be used as a jacking bolt, to draw
sealant to the plugs, and refit them to the the bracket out of position. Once the bracket
20 Refit the torsion bar as described above in brackets.
paragraphs 13 to 19. is free from the anti-roll bar splines, remove it
25 Refit the rear shock absorber as from the trailing arm, along with its sealing
21 Unscrew the plastic plug from the centre
described in Section 13, then check and, if rings. Discard the sealing rings - new ones
of the opposite anti-roll bar retaining bracket, necessary, adjust the vehicle ride height as
and screw a short 8 mm bolt and washer into should be used on refitting. Proceed as
described in Section 18. described under the relevant sub-heading.
the end of the anti-roll bar. Securely tighten
the bolt to hold the anti-roll bar in position. Rear drum brakes
22 Apply a smear of the special grease 15 Rear suspension trailing
(Mobil Temp G9, available from your Citroen arm - removal and refitting 4 Remove the brake drum as described in
dealer) to the new sealing rings, and fit them Chapter 9.
to the anti-roll bar bracket. In the absence of Note: To ensure the trailing arm is correctly 5 Work back along the length of the brake
the special grease, a good-quality positioned on refitting, a special bracket is pipe/hose, and remove any retaining clips
molybdenum disulphide grease can be used. required. This bracket (special tool number securing it to the trailing arm. Note that on
23 Insert the retaining bracket into position in 9501-T. G3) can be obtained from a Citroen some models, it may be necessary to split the
the trailing arm, aligning its retaining bolt hole dealer, or alternatively, a home-made brake hose at its union in order to free it from
with that of the trailing arm, and engage it with substitute can be fabricated; the dimensions the trailing arm bracket; refer to Chapter 9 for
the anti-roll bar splines. Using a soft-faced of the Citroen tool are shown in illustration further information.
6 Undo the four bolts and washers securing
the brake backplate to the trailing arm.
Carefully ease the backplate assembly over
the end of the stub axle, and position it clear
of the trailing arm. Tie the backplate assembly
to the vehicle underbody, to prevent undue
strain being placed on the brake pipe.
7 Remove the relevant torsion bar as
described in Section 14.
8 The trailing arm can then be withdrawn
from the crossmember, and removed from the
vehicle.
9 Inspect the trailing arm bearings, axle tube
tracks and crossmember outer sleeves for
signs of wear and damage. If renewal is
14. 18a Screw the threaded stud out from 14. 18b Refit the washer and retaining nut, necessary, the task should be entrusted to a
the end of the opposite end of the bar until and securely tighten the nut whilst Citroen dealer. The bearing renewal
it just contacts the cup retaining the stud with the screwdriver procedure involves the use of numerous
Suspension and steering 1015

15. 15 Ensure the seal (1) is fitted the 16. 5a Slide the inner. 16. 5 b . . . and outer sealing rings off the
correct way around, and is correctly anti-roll bar
located on the trailing arm shoulder (a)

special tools to remove the original bearings 18 Refit the torsion bar as described in
and install the new ones. Attempting to install paragraphs 13 to 18 of Section 14. 16 Rear suspension anti-roll
the bearings without these special tools will bar - removal and refitting
Rear drum brakes
almost certainly lead to damage during fitting.
19 Ensure the mating surfaces of the brake
Rear disc brakes backplate and trailing arm are clean and dry. Removal
10 Work back along the length of the brake Locate the backplate over the stub axle, then 1 Chock the front wheels, then jack up the
hose/pipe, and remove any retaining clips refit its retaining bolts and tighten them to the rear of the vehicle and support it on axle
securing it to the trailing arm. Note that on specified torque setting. stands. Remove both rear roadwheels.
some models, it may be necessary to split the 20 Refit the anti-roll bar retaining bracket as 2 Slacken and remove the bolt securing the
brake hose at its union in order to free it from described in paragraphs 21 to 24 of Sec- anti-roll bar retaining bracket to the right-hand
the trailing arm bracket; refer to Chapter 9 for tion 14. trailing arm, and unscrew the plastic plug from
further information. On models with ABS, 21 Reconnect the brake pipe/hose (where the centre of the bracket. Obtain a 12 x
trace the wiring back from the wheel sensor, split), and ensure the brake pipe/hose and 1.5 mm bolt at least 70 mm long, lubricate its
and disconnect it at the wiring connector.
handbrake cable are securely retained by all threads and screw it into the bracket. The bolt
11 Slacken the two bolts securing the caliper the necessary fasteners. Refit the brake drum, can then be used as a jacking bolt, to draw
assembly to the trailing arm, and remove them referring to the relevant Sections of Chapter 9. the bracket out of position. Once the bracket
along with the mounting plate, noting which
22 Refit the rear shock absorber as is free from the anti-roll bar splines, remove it
way around the plate is fitted. Discard the
described in Section 13, then check and, if from the trailing arm, along with its sealing
caliper mounting bolts - they should be
necessary, adjust the vehicle ride height as rings. Discard the sealing rings - new ones
renewed whenever they are disturbed.
described in Section 18. should be used on refitting.
12 Slide the caliper assembly off the brake
disc. Where the brake hose/pipe has not been Rear disc brakes 3 Slacken and remove the bolt securing the
split, tie the caliper to the vehicle underbody, anti-roll bar retaining bracket to the left-hand
23 Slide the caliper into position over the trailing arm, and unscrew the plastic plug from
to prevent any undue strain being placed on brake disc.
the brake hose. the centre of the bracket.
24 If the threads of the new caliper mounting 4 The anti-roll bar and right-hand retaining
13 Remove the relevant torsion bar as bolts are not already pre-coated with locking
described in Section 14. bracket assembly can now be withdrawn from
compound, apply a suitable locking the left-hand side, using a slide-hammer
14 The trailing arm can then be withdrawn
compound to them. Install the new caliper which is screwed into the 8 mm threaded hole
from the crossmember, and examined as
mounting bolts and the mounting plate, noting in the end of the anti-roll bar. It is possible to
described above in paragraph 9.
that the mounting plate must be fitted so that improvise by screwing a long bolt with a flat
Refitting its bend curves away from the caliper body. washer into the bar, and placing the jaws of a
With the plate correctly positioned, tighten the spanner against the washer. Striking the
15 Prior to refitting, inspect the trailing arm
caliper bolts to the specified torque setting spanner sharply with a hammer should free
seal for signs of wear or damage, and renew if
(see Chapter 9). the torsion bar. Alternatively, the bar can be
necessary. Ensure the new seal is installed the
correct way around, and is pressed fully onto 25 Refit the anti-roll bar retaining bracket as tapped out of position, using a hammer and a
the trailing arm (see illustration). described in paragraphs 21 to 24 of Sec- soft-metal drift on the exposed right-hand end
16 Goat the lips of the seal, and the bearing tion 14. of the bar.
and bearing tracks, with a smear of the 26 Reconnect the brake pipe/hose (where 5 Remove the sealing rings from the left-hand
special grease (Total Multis G6, available from split), and ensure the brake hose/pipe and end of the bar (see illustrations).
your Citroen dealer). In the absence of the handbrake cable are securely retained by all 6 If it is wished, the anti-roll bar and left-hand
special grease, a good-quality molybdenum the necessary fasteners. Where necessary, retaining bracket can be separated using the
disulphide grease can be used. reconnect the ABS wheel sensor wiring jacking bolt (see paragraph 2). Prior to
17 Slide the trailing arm into position in the connector, referring to Chapter 9 for further separation, make alignment marks between
crossmember, until its seal is against the information. the bar and bracket.
crossmember sleeve. Support the trailing arm 27 Refit the rear shock absorber as 7 Inspect the anti-roll bar and retaining
so that the distance between the upper and described in Section 13. Check and, if brackets for signs of wear or damage, and
lower mounting bolt holes is as noted prior to necessary, adjust the vehicle ride height as renew if necessary. The sealing rings should
removal. described in Section 18. be renewed as a matter of course.
1016 Suspension and steering

16. 10 Secure the left-hand bracket in


16. 9a If a new anti-roll bar is being 16. 9b Using a nut and bolt to draw the position with a short 8 mm bolt and
installed, align the cut-out (arrowed) with retaining bracket into position on the anti- washer before refitting the anti-roll bar to
the bracket retaining bolt hole roll bar the vehicle

Refitting position the handbrake cable bracket


8 Ensure the splines of the anti-roll bar and underneath it, and tighten it to the specified
retaining bracket(s) are clean and dry, then torque setting (see illustrations).
apply a smear of the special grease (Mobil 12 Fit the new sealing rings to the right-hand
Temp G9, available from your Citroen dealer) retaining bracket.
to them and the new sealing rings. In the 13 Insert the right-hand retaining bracket into
absence of the special grease, a good- position in the trailing arm, aligning its
quality molybdenum disulphide grease can retaining bolt hole with that of the trailing arm,
be used. and engage it with the anti-roll bar splines.
9 If the left-hand retaining bracket and anti- Using a soft-faced mallet, tap the bracket into
roll bar were separated, refit the bracket to the position until the clearance between-the inside
bar, aligning the marks made on removal. If a of the bracket and the trailing arm is 1. 0 mm;
new bar or bracket is being fitted, align the this can be checked using a feeler blade. If the
16. 11a Refit the anti-roll bar and bracket
bracket retaining bolt hole with the cut-out on bracket is a tight fit on the anti-roll bar splines,
assembly to the vehicle...
the end of the anti-roll bar. Tap the bracket screw a long 8 mm bolt, nut and washer into
fully onto the splines using a soft-faced the end of the anti-roll bar. The bracket can
mallet. If the bracket is a tight fit on the anti- then be drawn into position by tightening the
roll bar splines, screw a long 8 mm bolt, nut nut (see illustrations).
and washer into the end of the anti-roll bar. 14 Once the bracket is correctly positioned,
The bracket can then be drawn into position refit its retaining bolt, not forgetting to position
by tightening the nut (see illustrations). the handbrake cable bracket underneath it,
10 Screw a short 8 mm bolt and washer into and tighten it to the specified torque (see
the left-hand end of the anti-roll bar, and illustrations).
tighten it securely (see illustration). This will 15 Unscrew the bolt(s) from the end(s) of the
ensure that the bar and bracket will stay anti-roll bar, then wipe clean the threads of
correctly engaged during the refitting the retaining bracket holes. Apply a smear of
procedure. sealant to the threads of the plastic plugs, and
11 Slide the new sealing rings onto the anti- refit them to the brackets (see illustration).
roll bar, then slide the bar into position from 16 Refit the roadwheels, then lower the car to
16. 1 1 b . . . then refit the retaining bracket the left-hand side of the vehicle. Refit the ground and tighten the roadwheel bolts to the
bolt, and tighten it to the specified torque retaining bracket bolt, not forgetting to specified torque.

16. 13b Using a nut and bolt arrangement


16. 13a Fit the new sealing rings to the to draw the right-hand bracket into 16. 14a Refit the handbrake cable bracket
right-hand retaining bracket, then refit the position, whilst using a feeler blade to to the trailing arm, then refit the retaining
bracket to the anti-roll bar measure bracket-to-arm clearance bracket b o l t . . .
Suspension and steering 1017

(d) Adjust the handbrake cable as described


in Chapter 9.
(e) On completion, lower the vehicle to the
ground, and bleed the braking system
hydraulic circuit as described in Chap-
ters.
(f) Check and, if necessary, adjust the
vehicle ride height as described in
Section 18.

18 Vehicle ride height -


checking and adjustment

16.14b . . . and tighten it to the specified 16.15 Apply a smear of sealant to the Checking
torque threads of the plastic plugs, and refit them
to the retaining brackets 1 Position the unladen vehicle on a level
surface, with the tyres correctly inflated; roll
Lift up the rear luggage compartment carpet the vehicle backwards and forwards, to
17 Rear axle assembly - to gain access to the rear axle retaining nuts. relieve any stress in the suspension
removal and refitting Slacken and remove the two retaining nuts components. For the ride height
and washers from each front mounting measurements to be accurate, the vehicle
assembly, and the single nut and washer must be loaded with the equivalent of 4
Removal securing each rear mounting assembly to the occupants and approximately 40 kg of
1 Remove the rear seat assembly as vehicle. luggage.
described in Chapter 11. 10 Carefully lower the jack and axle 2 The front ride height is measured between
2 Firmly chock the front wheels, then jack up assembly out of position, and remove it from the centre of the front lower suspension arm
the rear of the vehicle and support it on axle underneath the vehicle. pivot and the ground; the rear ride height
stands. Remove both rear roadwheels, then 11 Examine the rear axle mountings for signs measurement is taken between the lower
lower the spare wheel out from underneath or damage or deterioration of the mounting edge of the 58 mm section of the tubular
the rear of the vehicle, and unhook the wheel rubber, and renew if necessary. Note that all crossmember and the ground (see
carrier. four mountings should be renewed as a set; illustration).
3 Remove the exhaust system and heat do not renew the mountings individually. 3 Take three measurements on the right-hand
shield(s) as described in Chapter 4. side of the vehicle, then take the average of
Refitting these three to be the correct right-hand
4 Remove the handbrake lever cover, and
fully slacken the handbrake cable adjuster 12 Refitting is a reversal of the removal height. Repeat the procedure on the left-hand
nut. Refer to Chapter 9 for further information. procedure, bearing in mind the following side, to find the correct left-hand height. Note
5 On models with rear drum brakes, points: that the maximum permissible difference
disconnect both cables from the handbrake (a) Raise the rear axle assembly into position, between the left- and right-hand side is
lever. From underneath the vehicle, work and tighten the mounting retaining nuts to 10 mm. Add both the left- and right-hand side
along the length of each cable, and free them their specified torque settings. averages together, and divide by two to
from any retaining clips which secure them to (b) Ensure the brake pipes, handbrake cables obtain the correct vehicle ride height.
the vehicle underbody. and wiring (as applicable) are correctly 4 Compare the measurement obtained with
6 On models with rear disc brakes, free the routed, and retained by all the necessary those given in the Specifications at the start of
end of the handbrake inner cable from the retaining clips. this Chapter.
caliper handbrake lever, then tap the outer (c) Securely tighten the brake pipe union 5 If the front ride height differs significantly
cable out of the caliper using a hammer and nuts. from that specified, one OT the suspension
punch. Where necessary, disconnect the ABS
wheel sensors at the wiring connectors, and
free them from any retaining clips.
7 Trace the brake pipes back from the
caliper/backplate to their unions, which are
situated just in front of the rear axle assembly.
Slacken the union nuts, and disconnect the
pipes. Plug the pipe ends, to minimise fluid
loss and prevent the entry of dirt into the
hydraulic system. Remove any retaining clips
securing the rear section of the pipe to the
vehicle underbody.
8 Make a final check that all necessary
components have been disconnected and
positioned so that they will not hinder the
removal procedure, then position a trolley jack
beneath the centre of the rear axle assembly.
Raise the jack until it is supporting the weight
of the axle. Rear axie
Front axle
9 Remove the luggage compartment lower
side trim panels as described in Chapter 11. 18.2 Vehicle front (a) and rear (b) ride height measurement points
1018 Suspension and steering

components must be worn or damaged; no


adjustment is possible. Inspect all the front
suspension components for signs of wear or
damage, such as worn bushes, and renew
components as necessary. If no sign of
damage can be found, the vehicle should be
taken to a Citroen dealer for a more detailed
examination.
6 If the rear ride height differs from that
specified, adjust it as follows.
Adjustment (rear ride height only)
7 Determine the amount of adjustment
required. The rear suspension height can be
adjusted in multiples of 3 mm, by rotating the 19.2a Remove the centre pad . . . 19.2b . . . then slacken and remove the
rear torsion bars. If adjustment is necessary, steering wheel retaining nut
determine the number of splines the torsion
bar must be moved, noting that one spline is in Section 14, and repeat the procedure whilst pulling upwards to release it from the
equal to roughly 3 mm of ride height. For described in paragraphs 10 and 11 on the shaft splines.
example, if the ride height needs adjusting by right-hand side. Secure the bar in position as
described in Section 14. Refitting
10 mm, the torsion bar should be moved by
three splines. If the height difference between 14 Refit the roadwheels, then lower the car to 4 Refitting is a reversal of removal, noting the
sides was excessive, compensate for this ground and tighten the roadwheel bolts to the following points:
during the adjustment procedure. specified torque. (a) Check the indicator cancelling lug fitted to
15 With the car standing on its wheels, rock the rear of steering wheel is in good
8 Chock the front wheels, then jack up the
the car to settle the disturbed suspension condition, and if necessary renew it. The
rear of the vehicle and support it on axle
components, then tighten the shock absorber lug is retained by a circlip (see
stands. Remove both rear roadwheels.
mounting bolts to the specified torque illustration).
9 Working first on the left-hand side, remove
settings. (b) Prior to refitting, ensure that the indicator
the rear torsion bar as described in Sec-
16 Recheck the vehicle ride heights as switch stem is in its central position.
tion 14.
described earlier in this Section and, if Failure to do this could lead to the
10 Noting that a 2 mm change in distance
necessary, repeat the adjustment procedure. steering wheel lug breaking the switch tab
between the rear shock absorber mounting
Note that it may be necessary to adjust the as the steering wheel is refitted.
bolt holes equals a 3 mm change in ride
headlight beam alignment, referring to (c) On refitting, align the marks made on
height, or one spline of torsion bar movement,
Chapter 12 for further information. removal, and tighten the retaining nut to
raise or lower the trailing arm by the required
amount. Note that increasing the distance the specified torque (see illustration).
between the bolt holes increases ride height, 19 Steering wheel -
and decreasing the distance lowers the ride removal and refitting 20 Steering column - removal,
height; if the ride needs lowering by 9 mm, inspection and refitting
decrease the distance between the shock
absorber mounting bolt holes by 6 mm by Removal
raising the trailing arm. 1 Set the front wheels in the straight-ahead Removal
11 Rotate the torsion bar by the required position, and release the steering lock by 1 Disconnect the battery negative terminal.
number of splines and in the required inserting the ignition key. 2 Remove the steering wheel as described in
direction, and relocate it with the trailing arm 2 Carefully ease off the steering wheel centre Section 19.
splines. The bar should engage freely with the pad, then slacken and remove the steering 3 Release the panel fasteners by rotating
trailing arm splines for the first 8 to 10 mm, wheel retaining nut (see illustrations). them through a quarter of a turn, and remove
and can then be tapped into fully into position 3 Mark the steering wheel and steering the driver's side lower facia panel.
using a hammer and a soft metal drift. column shaft in relation to each other, then lift 4 Slacken and remove the five screws which
12 Refit the anti-roll bar retaining bracket as the steering wheel off the column splines. If it secure the two halves of the steering column
described in Section 14. is tight, tap it up near the centre, using the shrouds together, then remove both the upper
13 Remove the front torsion bar as described palm of your hand, or twist it from side to side, and lower shroud (see illustrations).

19.4a Indicator cancelling lug is secured to 19.4b Tighten the steering wheel retaining 20.4a Undo the five steering column
the base of the steering wheel by a circlip nut to the specified torque shroud retaining screws (arrowed)...
Suspension and steering 1019

20.4b . . . then remove the both the 20.4c . . . and upper shroud sections 20.6 Disconnecting the ignition switch
lower... wiring connectors

5 Release the facia felt undercover retaining illustrations). Release the shaft from the Refitting
clips, and peel back the material. Release the pinion splines, and remove it from the
13 Where removed, refit the intermediate
heater duct, and remove the duct to gain vehicle. shaft, aligning the marks made prior to
access to the steering column mountings.
Inspection removal, and engaging the universal joint with
6 Tilt the steering column fully downwards, the steering gear drive pinion splines. Refit the
and disconnect the wiring connectors from 10 The steering column incorporates a shaft clamp bolt, and tighten it to the
the steering column combination switches telescopic safety feature. In the event of a specified torque setting. Slide the rubber
and the three wiring connectors from the front-end crash, the shaft collapses and gaiter down the intermediate shaft, and locate
ignition switch (see illustration). Free the prevents the steering wheel injuring the driver. it in the floorpan.
wiring from any relevant retaining clips. Before refitting the steering column, examine 14 Manoeuvre the steering column assembly
7 Make alignment marks between the the column and mountings for signs of into position then, aligning the marks made
universal joint on the base of the steering damage and deformation, and renew as prior to removal, engage the universal joint
column and the intermediate shaft, then necessary. with the intermediate shaft splines.
slacken and remove the universal joint clamp 11 Check the steering shaft for signs of free 15 Fit the column over its mounting studs,
bolt. and refit the steering column mounting nuts,
play in the column bushes, and check the
8 Slacken and remove the four steering
universal joints for signs of damage or
column mounting nuts, then release the
roughness in the joint bearings. If any damage
steering column from its mountings, and
or wear is found on the steering column
recover the column mounting spacers from
the lower mounting studs (see illustration). universal joints or shaft bushes, the column
Disengage the universal joint from the must be renewed as an assembly. Inspect the
intermediate shaft, and remove the steering column lower mounting rubbers for signs of
column assembly from the vehicle. damage or deterioration, and renew if
9 To remove the intermediate shaft, firmly necessary.
apply the handbrake, then jack up the front 12 The steering column nuts (and, where
of the vehicle and support it on axle stands. disturbed, the intermediate shaft clamp bolt
Disengage the rubber gaiter from the floor, nuts) must be renewed as a matter of course.
and slide it off the end of the shaft. Make Each nut is retained by a metal cage; release
alignment marks between the universal joint the cage retaining tangs, then remove the old
on the base of the intermediate shaft and nut from inside the cage and install the new
steering gear pinion, then slacken and one. Refit the cage, and secure it in position 20.8 Steering column lower mounting nuts
remove the universal joint clamp bolt (see with the retaining tangs (see illustration). (arrowed)

20.9a From inside the vehicle, slide the 20.9b . . . then slacken and remove the 20.12 Ensure the universal joint clamp bolt
rubber gaiter off the intermediate shaft.. universal joint clamp bolt, and free the nut cage is securely held in position by its
shaft from the steering gear retaining tangs (arrowed)
1020 Suspension and steering

20.15a Ensure the mounting rubbers and 20.15b . . . then refit the steering column 20.16 Adjust the position of the steering
spacers are correctly positioned on the to the vehicle shaft as described in text prior to
column lower mountings . . .
tightening the universal joint clamp bolt
not forgetting the lower mounting stud and locks securely with the lever locked. Note
spacers, and tighten them to the specified 6 Insert the key, and rotate it so that is
that on some models, a single Nyloc nut is aligned with the mark positioned between the
torque (see illustrations). used instead of the locknut and adjuster nut "A" and "S" marks on the barrel. Using a small
16 Position the column universal joint on the arrangement. Where necessary, hold the flat-bladed screwdriver, depress the lock
intermediate shaft, so that the top of the adjuster nut stationary and securely tighten retaining lug, then withdraw the lock assembly
steering shaft protrudes from the top of the the locknut. Check the operation of the lever from the steering column (see illustrations).
steering column by 58 mm (see illustration). and, if necessary, repeat the adjustment
Once correctly positioned, refit the clamp bolt procedure. If a Nyloc nut is fitted, it may be Refitting
and tighten it to the specified torque. necessary to renew it, to restore its
7 Refitting is a reversal of the removal
17 Ensuring that the wiring is correctly routed effectiveness.
procedure, ensuring that the lock assembly is
and retained by any necessary retaining clips, securely held in position by its retaining lug.
reconnect the wiring connectors to the Prior to refitting the column shroud, remove
21 Ignition switch/steering column
combination switches and the ignition switch. the ignition key and check that the steering
18 Refit the heater duct, ensuring that it is
lock - removal and refitting
lock functions correctly.
correctly seated at each end, and clip the
undercover back into position. Removal
19 Position the upper and lower column 22 Steering gear assembly -
1 Disconnect the battery negative terminal. removal, overhaul and refitting
shrouds around the steering column, then refit
2 Working inside the car, release the panel
the retaining screws and tighten them
fasteners by rotating them through a quarter
securely. Removal
of a turn, and remove the driver's side lower
20 Refit the lower facia panel, and secure it in facia panel.
position by rotating the fasteners through a 1 Chock the rear wheels, firmly apply the
3 Slacken and remove the five screws which handbrake, then jack up the front of the
quarter of a turn.
secure the two halves of the steering column vehicle and support on axle stands. Remove
21 Refit the steering wheel as described in shrouds together, then remove the lower
Section 19. both front roadwheels.
shroud.
22 Release the column tilt lever, check that 2 Slacken and remove the nuts securing the
4 Tilt the steering column fully downwards, steering gear track rod balljoints to the swivel
the column moves freely, then lock the lever then trace the wiring back from the ignition
and check the column is securely held. If hubs, and release the balljoint tapered shanks
switch, and disconnect its three wiring using a universal balljoint separator.
adjustment is necessary, working through the connectors from the main wiring loom.
aperture in the lower shroud, slacken the lever 3 Using a hammer and punch, white paint or
5 Slacken and remove the lock retaining similar, mark the exact relationship between
locknut, then slacken the adjuster nut until the screw and washer from the side of the lock
column moves freely with the lever released the intermediate shaft universal joint and the
(see illustration). steering gear drive pinion. Slacken and

21.5 Ignition switch/steering column lock 21.6a Insert the key, positioning it as 21.6b . . . and withdraw the lock assembly
retaining screw (arrowed) described in the text, then depress the from the steering column
lock retaining lug . . .
Suspension and steering 1021

22.3 Intermediate shaft universal joint 22.5a Slacken and remove the two 22.5b . . . recover the nuts from the rear of
clamp bolt (arrowed) viewed from steering gear retaining bolts (viewed the steering gear, and the spacers from
underneath underneath the front of the vehicle)... the subframe apertures (arrowed)

remove the clamp bolt securing the joint to excessive free play between the steering gear hubs, then fit a new retaining nut to each one.
the pinion, and free the intermediate shaft pinion and rack. It is possible to overhaul the Tighten the nuts to the specified torque.
from the steering gear (see illustration). steering gear assembly housing components, 19 On models with power steering, wipe
4 Where necessary, undo the two retaining but this task should be entrusted to a Citroen clean the feed and return pipe unions, then
screws, then unclip the heat shield and dealer. The only components which can be refit them to their respective positions on the
remove it from the top of the steering gear renewed easily by the home mechanic are the steering gear, and tighten the union nuts to
assembly. steering gear gaiters, the track rod balljoints their specified torque settings. Ensure the
and the track rods. Track rod, track rod pipes are correctly routed, and are securely
Manual steering gear held by all the necessary retaining clips.
balljoint and steering gear gaiter renewal
5 Slacken the steering gear mounting bolts, procedures are covered in Sections 27, 26 20 On all models, refit the roadwheels, then
and recover the nuts. Withdraw the mounting and 23 respectively. lower the vehicle to the ground and tighten
bolts, and recover the spacers from the 12 On models with power steering, inspect the roadwheel bolts to the specified torque.
subframe apertures (see illustrations). all the steering gear fluid unions for signs of 21 Where necessary, remove the hose
6 The steering gear assembly can then be leakage, and check that all union nuts are clamps from the power steering hoses, then
manoeuvred out from underneath the right- securely tightened. Also examine the steering top-up the fluid reservoir and bleed the
hand wheel arch. Note that on left-hand-drive gear hydraulic ram for signs of fluid leakage or hydraulic system as described in Section 24.
1580 cc and larger-engined models with damage, and if necessary renew it. 22 On completion check and, if necessary,
manual transmission, it may be necessary to adjust the front wheel alignment as described
disconnect one or more of the gearchange Refitting in Section 28.
linkage link rods from their balljoints on the
13 Note that all Nyloc nuts disturbed on
transmission unit, to gain the necessary
removal must be renewed as a matter of
clearance required to withdraw the steering
course. These nuts have threads which are 23 Steering gear rubber
gear.
pre-coated with locking compound (this is gaiters - renewal
Power-assisted steering gear only effective once), and include the track rod
7 Using brake hose clamps, clamp both the balljoint nuts, steering gear mounting bolt
supply and return hoses near the power nuts, and the intermediate shaft clamp bolt Manual steering gear
steering fluid reservoir. This will minimise fluid nut. The intermediate shaft clamp bolt nut is 1 Remove the track rod balljoint as described
loss during subsequent operations. retained by a metal cage; release the cage in Section 26.
8 Mark the unions to ensure they are retaining tangs, then remove the old nut from 2 Mark the correct fitted position of the gaiter
correctly positioned on reassembly, then inside the cage and install the new one. Refit on the track rod, then release the retaining
unscrew the feed and return pipe union nuts the cage to the shaft, and secure it in position clips and slide the gaiter off the steering gear
from the steering gear assembly; be prepared with the retaining tangs (illustration 20.12). housing and track rod end.
for fluid spillage, and position a suitable 14 Manoeuvre the steering gear assembly 3 Thoroughly clean the track rod and the
container beneath the pipes whilst into position from the right-hand side of the steering gear housing, using fine abrasive
unscrewing the union nuts. Disconnect both vehicle. paper to polish off any corrosion, burrs or
pipes, and plug the pipe ends and steering 15 Position the spacers in the subframe sharp edges, which might damage the new
gear orifices, to prevent fluid leakage and to apertures, then insert the mounting bolts. Fit gaiter's sealing lips on installation. Scrape off
keep dirt out of the hydraulic system. the new nuts onto the steering gear, then all the grease from the old gaiter, and apply it
9 Free the power steering pipes from any tighten the mounting bolts to the specified to the track rod inner balljoint. (This assumes
retaining clips, and position them clear of the torque. Where necessary, clip the gearchange that grease has not been lost or contaminated
steering gear so that they will not hinder the linkage link rods onto their balljoints. as a result of damage to the old gaiter. Use
removal procedure. 16 Clip the heat shield (where fitted) onto the fresh grease if in doubt.)
10 Remove the steering gear as described top of the steering gear, and securely tighten 4 Carefully slide the new gaiter onto the track
above in paragraphs 5 and 6. its two retaining screws. rod end, and locate it on the steering gear
17 Aligning the marks made prior to removal, housing. Align the outer edge of the gaiter
Overhaul engage the intermediate shaft universal joint with the mark made on the track rod prior to
11 Examine the steering gear assembly for with the steering gear pinion splines. Refit the removal, then secure it in position with new
signs of wear or damage, and check that the clamp bolt with a new nut, and tighten it to the retaining clips.
rack moves freely throughout the full length of specified torque. 5 Refit the track rod balljoint as described in
its travel, with no signs of roughness or 18 Engage the track rod balljoints in the swivel Section 26.
1022 Suspension and steering

25.3 Undo the retaining nut (arrowed), and


free the feed pipe from the rear of the 25.5a The two front power steering pump
power steering pump. Fluid supply hose 25.5b Power steering pump upper
retaining bolts can be accessed through mounting bolts (viewed from above)
retaining clip also arrowed holes in the drive pulley
Power-assisted steering gear by turning the wheels to the straight-ahead 7 Fit a new O-ring to the feed pipe union,
6 On power-assisted steering gear position and switching off the engine. If the then reconnect the pipe to the pump and
assemblies, it is only possible to renew the fluid level in the reservoir rises, then air is securely tighten the union nut. Refit the supply
gaiter nearest the drive pinion, ie the right- present in the system, and further bleeding is pipe to the pump, and securely tighten its
hand gaiter on right-hand-drive models, and necessary. retaining clip. Remove the brake hose clamps
the left-hand gaiter on left-hand-drive models. 6 Once all traces of air have been removed used to minimise fluid loss.
This can be renewed as described above in from the power steering hydraulic system, 8 Refit the fluid hose retaining clip to the rear
paragraphs 1 to 5. turn the engine off and allow the system to of the pump, and securely tighten its retaining
7 The task of renewing the opposite gaiter cool. Once cool, check that fluid level is up to nut.
should be entrusted to a Citroen dealer. This the maximum mark on the power steering 9 Refit the drivebelt to the pump pulley, and
is necessary since it is not possible to pass fluid reservoir, topping-up if necessary. tension it as described in Chapter 1.
the gaiter over the steering rack stud to which 10 On completion, bleed the hydraulic
the hydraulic ram is fixed. Therefore, the 25 Power steering pump - system as described in Section 24.
steering gear must be dismantled and the removal and refitting
rack removed from the housing to allow the
26 Track rod balljoint -
gaiter to be renewed.
Removal removal and refitting
8 The only task on this end of the assembly
which can be carried out by the home 1 Release the drivebelt tension as described
mechanic is the renewal of the track rod inner in Chapter 1, and unhook the drivebelt from Removal
balljoint dust cover. The dust cover can be the pump pulley. The power steering pump is
1 Apply the handbrake, then jack up the front
renewed once the track rod balljoint has been either mounted directly above or directly
below the alternator, depending on the engine of the vehicle and support it on axle stands.
removed as described in Section 26. On
type and the specification level of the vehicle. Remove the appropriate front roadwheel.
refitting, ensure the dust cover is correctly
2 If the balljoint is to be re-used, use a
located on the track rod and steering rack, 2 Using brake hose clamps, clamp both the
supply and return hoses near the power straight-edge and a scriber, or similar, to mark
then refit the balljoint.
steering fluid reservoir. This will minimise fluid its relationship to the track rod.
loss during subsequent operations. 3 Hold the track rod, and unscrew the
24 Power steering system - 3 Undo the retaining nut, and free the power balljoint locknut by a quarter of a turn. Do not
bleeding steering hose retaining clip from the rear of move the locknut from this position, as it will
the pump, where necessary (see illustration). serve as a handy reference mark on refitting.
1 This procedure will only be necessary when 4 Slacken the retaining clip, and disconnect 4 Slacken and remove the nut securing the
any part of the hydraulic system has been the fluid supply hose from the rear of the track rod balljoint to the swivel hub, and
disconnected. pump. If the original Citroen clip is still fitted, release the balljoint tapered shank using a
2 Referring to Chapter 1, remove the fluid cut the clip and discard it; replace it with a universal balljoint separator (see illustration).
reservoir filler cap, and top-up with the standard worm-drive hose clip on refitting.
specified fluid to the maximum level mark. Slacken the union nut, and disconnect the
3 With the engine stopped, slowly move the feed pipe from the pump, along with its O-
steering from lock-to-lock several times to ring. Be prepared for some fluid spillage as
purge out the trapped air, then top-up the the pipe and hose are disconnected, and plug
level in the fluid reservoir. Repeat this the hose/pipe end and pump unions, to
procedure until the fluid level in the reservoir minimise fluid loss and prevent the entry of
does not drop any further. dirt into the system.
4 Start the engine, then slowly move the 5 Slacken and remove the three bolts
steering from lock-to-lock several times to securing the power steering pump, and
purge out any remaining air in the system. remove the pump from the engine
Repeat this procedure until bubbles cease to compartment (see illustrations).
appear in the fluid reservoir. Refitting
5 If, when turning the steering, an abnormal 6 Manoeuvre the pump into position, then
26.4 Using a universal balljoint separator
noise is heard from the fluid lines, it indicates refit its mounting bolts and tighten them
to free the balljoint shank from the swivel
that there is still air in the system. Check this securely.
hub
Suspension and steering 1023

Discard the nut - a new one must be used Refitting caused by wear or damage to the body or
when refitting. suspension components.
6 Locate the new lock washer assembly on
5 Counting the exact number of turns 6 Steering axis inclination/SAI - also known
the end of the steering rack, and apply a few
necessary to do so, unscrew the balljoint from as kingpin inclination/KPI - is the angle
drops of locking fluid to the track rod inner
the track rod end. between the steering axis and a vertical line
balljoint threads.
6 Count the number of exposed threads drawn through each roadwheel's centre and
7 Screw the balljoint into the steering rack,
between the end of the balljoint and the tyre contact patch, when viewed from the
and tighten it to the specified torque whilst
locknut, and record this figure. If a new front or rear of the car.
retaining the lock washer with a pair of grips.
balljoint is to be fitted, unscrew the locknut 7 SAI/KPI is not adjustable, and is given for
Again, take great care not to damage or mark
from the old balljoint. reference only.
the track rod balljoint or steering rack.
7 Carefully clean the balljoint and the threads. 8 Toe is the difference, viewed from above,
8 Where a gaiter was removed, carefully slide
Renew the balljoint if its movement is sloppy between lines drawn through the roadwheel
on the new gaiter, and locate it on the steering
or too stiff, if excessively worn, or if damaged centres and the car's centre-line. "Toe-in" is
gear housing. Turn the steering fully from
in any way; carefully check the stud taper and when the roadwheels point inwards, towards
lock-to-lock, to check that the gaiter is
threads. If the balljoint gaiter is damaged, the each other at the front, while "toe-out" is
correctly positioned on the track rod, then
complete balljoint assembly must be when they splay outwards from each other at
secure it in position with new retaining clips.
renewed; it is not possible to obtain the gaiter the front.
9 Where a dust cover was removed, carefully
separately. 9 The front wheel toe setting is adjusted by
slide on the new cover, and locate it in its
Refitting grooves on the steering rack collar and track
rod.
8 If a new balljoint is to be fitted, screw the 10 Refit the track rod balljoint as described in
locknut onto its threads, and position it so Section 26.
that the same number of exposed threads are
visible, as was noted prior to removal. Castor
9 Screw the balljoint into the track rod by the
number of turns noted on removal. This 28 Wheel alignment and steering
should bring the balljoint locknut to within a angles - general information
quarter of a turn from the locknut, with the
alignment marks that were made on removal
Definitions
(if applicable) lined up.
10 Refit the balljoint shank to the swivel hub, 1 A car's steering and suspension geometry
then fit a new retaining nut and tighten it to is defined in four basic settings - all angles are
the specified torque. expressed in degrees (toe settings are-also
11 Refit the roadwheel, then lower the expressed as a measurement); the steering
vehicle to the ground and tighten the axis is defined as an imaginary line drawn
through the axis of the suspension strut, Camber
roadwheel bolts to the specified torque.
12 Check and, if necessary, adjust the front extended where necessary to contact the
wheel toe setting as described in Section 28, ground (see illustration).
then securely tighten the balljoint locknut. 2 Camber is the angle between each
roadwheel and a vertical line drawn through
its centre and tyre contact patch, when
27 Track rod - viewed from the front or rear of the car.
removal and refitting Positive camber is when the roadwheels are
tilted outwards from the vertical at the top;
negative camber is when they are tilted
Removal inwards.
1 Remove the track rod balljoint as described 3 Camber is not adjustable, and is given for
in Section 26. Steering axis
reference only; while it can be checked using inclination
2 Either release the retaining clips and slide a camber checking gauge, if the figure
the steering gear gaiter off the end of the track obtained is significantly different from that
rod, or release the track rod balljoint dust specified, the vehicle must be taken for
cover from rack, and slide it off the track rod careful checking by a professional, as the fault
(as applicable). Refer to Section 23 for further can only be caused by wear or damage to the
information. body or suspension components.
3 Unscrew the track rod inner balljoint from the 4 Castor is the angle between the steering
steering rack end, preventing the steering rack axis and a vertical line drawn through each
from turning by holding the balljoint lock roadwheel's centre and tyre contact patch,
washer with a pair of grips. Take great care not when viewed from the side of the car. Positive
to mark the surfaces of the rack and balljoint. castor is when the steering axis is tilted so FRONT
4 Remove the track rod assembly, and that it contacts the ground ahead of the
discard the lock washer - a new one must be vertical; negative castor is when it contacts
used on refitting. the ground behind the vertical.
5 Examine the track rod inner balljoint for 5 Castor is not adjustable, and is given for Toe-out
signs of slackness or tight spots, and check reference only; while it can be checked using
that the track rod itself is straight and free a castor checking gauge, if the figure obtained
from damage. If necessary, renew the track is significantly different from that specified,
rod; it is also recommended that the steering the vehicle must be taken for careful checking 28.1 Wheel alignment and steering angle
gear gaiter/dust cover is renewed. by a professional, as the fault can only be measurements
1024 Suspension and steering

screwing the balljoints in or out of their track rear inside edges of the roadwheel rims.
rods, to alter the effective length of the track Proprietary toe measurement gauges are
rod assemblies. available from motor accessory shops.
10 Rear wheel toe setting is not adjustable, 16 Prepare the vehicle as described in
and is given for reference only. While it can be paragraphs 12 to 14 above.
checked, if the figure obtained is significantly 17 Measure the distance between the front
different from that specified, the vehicle must edges of the wheel rims and the rear edges of
be taken for careful checking by a the rims. Subtract the rear measurement from
professional, as the fault can only be caused the front measurement, and check that the
by wear or damage to the body or suspension result is within the specified range.
components. 18 If adjustment is necessary, apply the
handbrake, then jack up the front, of the
Checking - general vehicle and support it securely on axle stands.
11 Due to the special measuring equipment Turn the steering wheel onto full-left lock, and
necessary to check the wheel alignment, and record the number of exposed threads on the 28.21 Adjusting the front wheel alignment
the skill required to use it properly, the right-hand track rod end. Now turn the
checking and adjustment of these settings is steering onto full-right lock, and record the
best left to a Citroen dealer or similar expert. number of threads on the left-hand side. If
Note that most tyre-fitting shops now possess their balljoints) will reduce toe-in/increase toe-
there are the same number of threads visible
sophisticated checking equipment. out (see illustration).
on both sides, then subsequent adjustment
should be made equally on both sides. If there 22 When the setting is correct, hold the track
12 For accurate checking, the vehicle must
are more threads visible on one side than the rods and securely tighten the balljoint
be at the kerb weight, ie unladen and with a
other, it will be necessary to compensate for locknuts. Check that the balljoints are seated
full tank of fuel, and the ride height must be
this during adjustment. Note: It is most correctly in their sockets, and count the
correct (see Section 18).
important that after adjustment, the same exposed threads to check the length of both
13 Before starting work, check first that the
number of threads are visible on each track track rods. If they are not the same, then the
tyre sizes and types are as specified, then
rod end. adjustment has not been made equally, and
check the tyre pressures and tread wear, the
problems will be encountered with tyre
roadwheel run-out, the condition of the hub 19 First clean the track rod threads; if they scrubbing in turns; also, the steering wheel
bearings, the steering wheel free play, and the are corroded, apply penetrating fluid before spokes will no longer be horizontal when the
condition of the front suspension components starting adjustment. Release the rubber gaiter wheels are in the straight-ahead position.
(Chapter 1). Correct any faults found. outboard clips (where necessary), and peel
23 If the track rod lengths are the same,
14 Park the vehicle on level ground, check back the gaiters; apply a smear of grease to
lower the vehicle to the ground and re-check
that the front roadwheels are in the straight- the inside of the gaiters, so that both are free,
the toe setting; re-adjust if necessary. When
ahead position, then rock the rear and front and will not be twisted or strained as their
the setting is correct, securely tighten the
ends to settle the suspension. Release the respective track rods are rotated.
track rod balljoint locknuts. Ensure that the
handbrake, and roll the vehicle backwards 1 20 Use a straight-edge and a scriber or rubber gaiters are seated correctly, and are
metre, then forwards again, to relieve any similar to mark the relationship of each track not twisted or strained, and secure them in
stresses in the steering and suspension rod to its balljoint then, holding each track rod position with new retaining clips (where
components. in turn, unscrew its locknut fully. necessary).
Toe setting - checking and 21 Alter the length of the track rods, bearing
in mind the note made in paragraph 18. Screw Rear wheel toe setting
adjusting them into or out of the balljoints, rotating the 24 The procedure for checking the rear toe
Front wheel toe setting track rod using an open-ended spanner fitted setting is same as described for the front in
15 The front wheel toe setting is checked by to the flats provided on the track rod. paragraph 17. The setting is not adjustable -
measuring the distance between the front and Shortening the track rods (screwing them into see paragraph 10.