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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and
emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols. In most
languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a
language but a form of technology that developed as tools developed with human
society. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as
speech, such as vocabulary, grammar and semantics, with the added dependency of a
system of signs or symbols.
The result of writing is generally called text, and the recipient of text is called a
reader. Motivations for writing include publication, story telling, correspondence and
diary. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture,
dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems. It
is also an important medium of expressing oneself by way of written words as do
authors, poets and the like.
Descriptive text is a text that describes the features of someone, something, or a
certain place. Descriptive text consists of introduction and description. Introduction
is the part of paragraph that introduces the character, and description is the part of
paragraph that describes the character. The students can use the simple present and
adjective clause in writing descriptive text. In writing the descriptive text, students
often find some difficulties. The students usually feel difficult to organize their ideas.
Furthermore, many students made some mistakes and faced difficulties to build and
develop their imagination.
Based on the researchers experience when practice teaching in SMAN 4
Palopo, the researcher found that the first year students of SMAN 4 Palopo have
studied about descriptive text. Nevertheless, when the researcher interviewed the
English teacher about the students achievement in their examination. Most of the
students have many mistakes in writing descriptive text, especially in using picture.
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Considering the statement above the researcher is interested in research this


case under the title The Difficulties Faced by the Students in Composing
Descriptive Text by Using Picture as Guidance at the First Year Students of SMAN 4
Palopo

1.2 Problem Statements


Based on the background above the writer formulates the following problem
statement as follows: What are difficulties faced by the students in composing
descriptive text by using picture as guidance at first year students of SMAN 4
Palopo?

1.3 Objective of the Research


Based on the problem statement, the objective of the research
as follows: To find out the difficulties faced by the students in composing
descriptive text by using picture as guidance at the first year students of SMAN 4
Palopo.

1.4 Significanceof the Research


The researcher hopes that this study can give significances to:
1. For teachers, this research can be useful information for the English teacher in
composing descriptive text by using picture as guidance.
2. For students, this research can be the useful information about their difficulties
faced in composing descriptive text using picture as guidance.
3. For other researchers, this research can be the useful information for the next
invent in teaching writing.

1.5 Scope of the Research


This research is restricted to find out the students difficulties in
composing descriptive text by using picture as guidance. Criteria
scoring of qualification applied in combining of writing aspects
commonly and descriptive text specially. The difference
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qualification between them namely content, organization,


grammar, vocabulary, mecanic. To know what are the students
difficulties in composing descriptive text by using picture as
guidance will be tested by giving written test.

1.6 Operational Definitions


There are some operational definitions as follows:
1. Descriptive Text is the text of the English language that explains or describes
something good it describes a person (someone), describe something about the
place, describe the animal, which aims to explain, describe, express people or
certain objects.

2. Describing Picture is the process when someone describe, explain, express about
the picture, whether in writing or speaking.
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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this part, the writer presents review of related literature which consists of
some pertinent ideas and previous of related findings.

2.1 Some Pertinent Ideas


1. Writing
a. Definition of writing
Hornby (1995) said that writing is one way to develop our opinions, ideas, or
thoughts. Sometimes we could not express our idea orally, but we can through
writing. Writing is a kind of expressing the main from the writes to reader. Barnet et.
al (1983:3) stated that writing as a physical act, it requires material and energy. And
like most physical acts, to be performed fully, to bring pleasure, to both performer
and audience, it requires practice.
Byrne (1984:1) stated that writing is the clearly much more than the production
of graphic symbol as speech is more than the production of sounds. The symbols
have been arranged according to convention to form words have to be arranged to
form sentences. However, we do not write just one sentence or a number of sentences
arranged in particular order linked together in certain ways. According to Byrne
(1991), writing is one of the language skills which inform a writers ideas on the
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written form. In delivering his/her ideas, a writer must produce a piece of


writing which embodies correctness of form, appropriateness of style, and
unity of theme and topic.
Oshima et. al (2005) express the writing takes study and practice to develop
this skill. For both native speakers and new learners of English, it is important to note
the writing is a process, not a Product. Writing is a progressive activity. It means
that when learners for the first time write something down, learner have already been
thinking about what they are going to say and how they are going to say it. Then after
learners have finished writing, they read over what they have written and make
changes and corrections. Therefore, writing is never a one-step action; as it is a
process that has several steps. A lot of students said that writing is difficult skill. It is
actually easy and enjoyable activity if there is an appropriate method and interesting
teaching technique.
Harmer (2007:33) stated that writing is frequently useful as preparation for
some other activity, in particular when students write sentence as a preamble to
discussion activities. Hyland (2004:4) stated that writing like a dancing, allows for
creativity and the unexpected, established patterns often from the basis of any
variations.
Based on the statements above, the researcher concluded that writing is a skill
of language to write idea, feelings, and etc on the paper based on certain ways. And it
is expect, the reader can understand what the writer wants to convey in writing.
Writing is the achievement that somebody has to express her/his idea or opinion by
writing.
b. The component of writing
Heaton (1988:146) states that there are five components of writing namely:
contents, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanic.
1) Content
The content of writing should be clear to readers. So that the reader can
understand the message conveyed and gain information from it. There are at last
think that can be measure in connecting with component, the composition should
contain one central purpose only, should have unity, coherence`, continue, and should
be adequately developed.
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2) Organization
In organization of writing concerns with the way he writes arrange and
organized the ideas or the messages in the writing the purpose of the organizing
materials in writing involves coherence order of importance, general to specific
general, chronological order of which happened from the beginning to the end.
3) Vocabulary
The effective used of the words will always result good writing both specific
and technical writing, the dictionary is very considerable. Vocabulary is one of the
components of writing to express ideas, we always deal with vocabulary. The lack of
vocabulary makes same one fails to compose what they are going to say, because
she/he feels difficult to choose what appropriate will help the writers to compose the
writing and also make readers easy to understand.
4) Language use
Language use in writing description and other form writing involves correct
language and point of grammar. An adequate grammar should be one that capable of
producing grammar. We should not be able to do anything more than utter separate
items of language for separate function. And also grammar can help students improve
the use of formal language.
5) Mechanics
There are at last two-parts of mechanic in writing namely function and
capitalization. Function is important as they way to clarify meaning. In English
writing capital letter have to participles, first they used to distinguish between
particular and things second, it used us first word in quotations, a formal statements
and proper adjectives. This aspect is very important since it leads readers to
understand or recognize immediately what the writer means to express definitely.
c. Stages of Writing
Richards and Renandya in Rosnida (2002) stated that there are three stages in
writing. They are planning, drafting and revising.
1)Planning
Planning is a state of strategies designed to find and produce information in
writing when the people begin writing project, people have discover what a possible.
People need to locate and explore a variety of subjects.
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2) Drafting
Drafting is a series of strategies designed to organize develop sustained place
of writing. Drafting has enabled people to identify several subject and encouraged
people to gather information on these subjects from different perspective.
3) Revising
Revising is a series of strategies designed to examine and evaluated the choices
that have created a piece of writing. After people have completed their luminary draft
they need to stand back from their text and decide what action would seem to be
productive.

d. The purposes of writing


Everything happend has a purpose, so do in writing. There are four common
purposes of writing according to Clouse (2005), they are:
1) To inform, the purpose of the writer is develop the readers knowledge, make a
record, or provide help. For example, a magazine article about cholestrol
which inform about how this sustance affects the body, the goverment proceedings
is recorded become permanent history.
2) To persuade, it is designed to ask the reader to think or act a certain way. For
example, a newspaper campus which convince the student to vote a certain
student government candidate.
3) To relate experience, some people reveal their feeling about the interesting,
horror, or wonderful experience through writing. For instanse, you interviewed
for a job, afterward you e-mail your friend about the experience and your feeling
in that situation.
4) To entertain, humorous writing or newspaper, short storiest, and novelare
types of writing with the purpose to entertain people. In this type, the language
which is used by the writer is must not be heavy and easy to be read because the
writer would lose the important pleasure of the reader if she/ he writes without
creative writing in humor.
e. The importance of writing
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The researcher finds some reference of the importance of the writing activities.
Betty (2003: 26-27) stated that there is some reason why writing is very important as
follow:
1) Writing is tool of discover. We stimulate out though process by act of writing into
information and image that have our unconscious mind.
2) Writing down ideas allows us to distance ourselves from them.
3) Writing on a subject makes us active learners rather than passive learner of
information.
4) Writing help us observer the process information when we write the topic, we
learn them in writing.

2. Descriptive Text
Wardiman (2008:122) stated that descriptive text is a part of factual genres. Its
social function is to describe a particular person, place or thing. Woodson (2007:73)
stated that description in writing is the process of creating visual images and sensory
impression through words. More often, description is a part of another piece of
writing and is used to inform an audience about how something or someone looked
or to persuade an audience to see something from the writers point of view.
Gerot (2001) stated that descriptive text is a kind of text with a purpose to give
information. The context of this kind of text is the description of particular thing,
animal, person, or others, for instance: our pets or a person we know well.
Hami (2011) says that the key to write a good description is showing the detail
that can help the reader imagine what it is look like. The important elements to write
a good descriptive text are using space order and using specific detail. In space order,
writer may describe something from the beginning until the end. As an example for
describing person, writer should explain from the person's head until the person's
feet. In using specific detail, writer must make readers sure that they could see what
the writer describe. The more specific the writer can do, the more clear readers can
see through the description. As an example, a lot of money into $ 500,000; a big
house into a big house colored blue with a car inside it. In order to make a
complete descriptive text, students need to master the generic structure of descriptive.
Pardiyono (2010) explain the generic structure of descriptive text:
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1. Identification
a) To identify the object which going to be described.
b) To make the reader to be excited to read the text.
2. Description
a) To give plenty description about the object as written in the identification part.
This part may usually consist of more than one paragraph.
b) The description of the object can be completed according to different angles, such
as size, length, strength, color, height, condition, weather, qualities, shape.

Jauhari (2007) also states that descriptive text also uses significant
lexicogrammatical features that support descriptive text itself such as focus on
specific noun, using adjective, using relational process, using figurative language,
and using simple present tense.
1. Descriptive text uses adjectives which have a function to describe, number, and
classify, for an example: two large hotels, razor sharp teeth.
2. Adjectives which have a function to describe, number, and classify, for an
example: two large hotels, razor sharp teeth.
3. Descriptive text uses relational process means using verb that describe situation or
condition of the participant or using signal preposition, for an example: the house
has 5 rooms and pool, my doll is really cute.
4. Descriptive text uses figurative language such as simile and metaphor to give
illustration to the reader. For an example its teeth is sharp as knife.
5. Descriptive text uses simple present tense. For example my father works as a
engineer.
Examples of descriptive text:
Descriptive Text My Best Friend Isna

She is one of my best friends. She is very honest, friendly and funny person. And she
is my classmate in Primary School. Her full name is IsnaHanifah. Her nickname is Isna.
Now, she is 16 years old. She was born in Jakarta on Mei 21 st 1998. Now she is live at
Delima Street No 6 in West Jakarta. Her father worked as a police officer and her mother
worked as a teacher in a primary school. Isna has a brother and sister. Her sister is
MiftaAulifa and her brother is IlmanAmanu.
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Isnaschool at 112 Senior High School Jakarta. She is very good at academic or non
academic. In academic she is very good math and english. At school ever a champion
olympiad math and sains. She is active in all of school activities. She is also confident at
every opportunity.

Isna has an oval face. She has curly hair. She has a pointed nose. The colour skin is
white. Her favourite food is fried rice. And her hobby is a swimming and drawing. She likes
cat very much. She always takes care of her cat kindly. She also likes to collect dolls,
especially Hello kitty doll.

. Source: cahyalestari(2014)

3. Kinds of descriptive text


Adrianti (2015:12) stated that there are five types of descriptive text, They are:
a) Describing Process
Describing a process not only explains how something was done, but also explains
why it was done and what was needed to complete the process.
b) Describing and event
To describe an event, a writer should be able to memorize and remember what
happened in the event. Supposed the writer will write about Tsunami that was
happened in Japan. In this case, he/she has to explain all details related to the
event, so that the readers can imagine the real situation and condition.
c) Describing a personality
In describing a person, the first thing that we do was recognizing his/her
individual characteristics. We need to describe people occurs fairly areas of
physical attribute (hair, eyes), emotional (warm, nervous), moral attributes
(greedy, honest, worthy, trust), and intellectual (cleverness, perception)
d) Describing a place
Presenting something concrete was the way to describe place, for example: a
home, a hospital, and school.
e) Describing an object
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To describe an object accurately was done by providing the physical


characteristics of the object such as the color, form, shape, and so on.

3. Pictures
According to Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary (2008), picture is an image,
drawing, etc that gives you an idea about a scene, a person or object. Another
definition from Oxford Learners Dictionary (2008), picture is a description that
gives you an idea in your mind of what something is like. In teaching English,
pictures can also be used as a media. Raimes (1983) says that pictures (drawings,
photographs,posters, slides, cartoons, magazine advertisement, diagrams, graphs,
tables, charts, and maps) can be rich resources for teaching writing.
According to Latuheru (1988), pictures have a number of functions in the
teaching and learning process. First, pictures are able to explain abstract ideas into
more realistic forms. Second, pictures can be obtained easily, for example from
schoolbooks, newspapers and magazines. Third, pictures are able to use in any kind
of academic levels. Fourth, for teachers, picture can be an alternative ways to reduce
the usage of time and energy.
As stated by Klasek (1972), picture has some advantage such as: picture is easy
to get and take less cost than another media; picture are manageable and adaptable to
many subjects; picture can prevent and correct misconceptions about an explanation;
picture can translate word symbols, record events, explain a process, extend
experiences, draw a comparison, show a difference, show a continuity, focus
attentions, and develop a critical judgment.
The importance of using pictures as learning media can be seen from the
enthusiasm of people for pictures. Harmer (2004), adds that pictures are often used to
present situations to help students work with grammar and vocabulary. But their
potential to bring students to different worlds also means that they can be used to
encourage students to fly in their creative imagination.
Webster (1991) states that pictures as a part of visual aids are used as a
technique in teaching English vocabulary at elementary schools. Pictures that can be
sketches, drafts, graphs, comic, poster, cartoon, board drawing, picture in
newspapers, magazines, posters, family photograph, calendars, wall chart, slides,
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diagrams and maps are widely used as media. According to Webster (1991), picture
is an image or likeness of an object, person, scene, reproduced, on flat surface,
especially by painting, of photography; a metal image or impression; an idea.
Wright (1989:2) states some roles for pictures in speaking and writing:
1. Pictures can motivate students and make him or her want to pay attention and take
apart.
2. Pictures contribute to the context in which language is being used.
3. Pictures can be described in an objective way or interpreted or responded
subjectively.
4. Pictures can responses to questions or cue substitutions through controlled
practice.
5. Pictures can stimulate and provide information to be referred to in conversation,
discussion, and storytelling.
From the explanation above it can be seen that pictures are useful to focus the
students attention to imagine on what the text says. Pictures are not ambiguous; a
picture should contain only what the word means. Using picture is also an effort to
help students to understand and comprehend something clearly and easily.

2.2 Previous Studies


Many researcher have conducted research in writing by using various
technique, some of them are as follow:
1. Darwin (2013), conducted the research under the title Using Anecdote in
Teaching Writing: Pre-Experimental Study to The Second Year Students of SMA
Negeri 1 Palopo. Concludes that there was a significant difference between the
result of the students writing scores on pre-test who were taught by using
anecdote. The students writing was impoved after teaching them using anecdote
in treatment.
2. Nurmilasari. 2014. The Use Scaffolding Technique to Improve The Students
Competence in Writing Descriptive Text at The Second Year Of SMPN 6 Palopo.
The result of data analysis shows that there is significant difference between the
pre-test and the post-test. The using of scaffolding technique is effective in
teaching writing descriptive text to the students at the second year students of
SMP Negeri 6 Palopo.
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3. Zarti (2010), in her research entitled The Effectiveness of Using Pictures in


Writing Procedure Text at the First Year Students at SMA Negeri 1 Malili.
Reported that there was significant difference of the ability students in create a
paragraph. Thus, the use of picture in teaching is effective in building up students
ability.
The above researchers also focus on writing skill, but in this research the
researcher is different from them because the researcher intends to know the
students difficulties in writing/composing descriptive text by using picture as
guidance at the first year students of SMAN 4 Palopo.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter consists of the research method, time and location of the
research, population and sample, instrument of the research, procedure of collecting
data and technique of analyzing data.

3.1 Research Design


In this research, the researcher used descriptive design to know the
difficulties faced by the students in composing descriptive text by using picture as
guidance at the first year students of SMAN 4 Palopo.

3.2 Time and Location of the Research


The researcher conducted this research on 18th April until 18th May 2016.
Then, this research took place at SMAN 4 Palopo at the First years students. This
school is located in Jl. Dr. Ratulangi Palopo.

3.3 Population and Sample


a. Population
The population of this research is 180 students in 6 classes at the first students of
SMAN 4 Palopo in academic year 2015/2016.
b. Sample
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In determining the sample, the research used random sampling technique,


because the number of the population is relatively large. The writer took 6 classes
and took 6 students from each class randomly at the first students of SMAN 4
Palopo. Furthermore, the number of the sample is 36 students.

3.4 Instrument of the Research


The instrument that used to collected the data in this research was written test.
The written test used to find out the difficulties faced by the students in composing
descriptive text by using picture at the first year students of SMAN 4 Palopo.

3.5 Procedure of Collecting Data


In collecting data the researcher used the procedures below:
1. The researcher came to the class.
2. The researcher gave test to the students in an hour
3. The researcher collected the students test.

3.6 Technique of Analyzing Data


To analyze the data collected in this research, the researcher followed the
procedures below:

1. Criteria scoring of qualification applied in combining of writing aspects


commonly and descriptive text specially, the difference qualification between
them as follow:
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Tabel1. Criteria of Writing Scoring Aspect


Scoring Aspect Score
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Content
a. If the central process, the unity, the coherence and the continuity of the 17-20
composition are all correct.
b.If the composition a few errors of the central purpose, the unity, the coherence 14-16
and the continuity.
c. If the composition some errors of central purpose, the unity, the coherence and 11-13
the continuity.
d.If the composition dominant errors of central purpose, the unity, the coherence, 8-10
and the continuity.
e. If the central purpose, the unity, the coherence, and the continuity of the 5-7
composition are all incorrect.
Organization
a. If the words, sentence and paragraph line form are a clear pattern. 17-20
b.If the composition contains a few errors of the word, sentence, and paragraph
in line form. 14-16
c. If the composition contains some errors of the word, sentence and paragraph
line form. 11-13
d.If the composition contains is dominated errors of the word, sentence,
paragraph line form. 8-10
e. If the composition of the word, sentence, and paragraph line form are all
incorrect. 5-7
Grammar
a. If the grammar of the composition are all correct. 17-20
b.If the composition contains a few errors of grammar 14-16
c. If the composition contains some errors of grammar. 11-13
d.If the composition contains is dominated errors of grammar. 8-10
e. If the grammar of the composition are all incorrect. 5-7
Vocabulary
a. If the composition wide range of vocabularies and using effective words. 17-20
b.If the composition contains occasion of vocabularies but the meaning is not
obscured. 14-16
c. If the composition contains frequent errors of vocabularies but the meaning is
not obscured. 11-13
d.The use of efficiency words and terms about theme are mostly incorrect.
e. The use of efficiency words and terms about theme are all incorrect. 8-10
Mechanics 5-7
a. If the punctuation, spelling, and capitalization of the composition are all
correct. 17-20
b. If the composition contains a few errors of punctuation, spelling and
capitalization. 14-16
c. If the composition contains some errors of punctuation, spelling, and
capitalization. 11-13
d. If the composition is dominated by errors of punctuation, spelling, and
capitalization. 8-10
e. If the punctuation, spelling and capitalization of the composition are all
incorrect. 5-7

2. Scoring the students point by using the following formula:


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students correct answer


score= x 100
t h e total of item

(Heaton, 1988:146)

3. Classifying the students score into some classification as below:


Table 2. The classification score of each criteria
Classification Score
Very good 17-20
Good 14-16
Average 11-13
Poor 8-10
Very poor 5-7
Source: Heaton (1988:146)

Table3. Students Score Classification


No. Classification Score
1. Excellent 96-100
2. Very good 86-95
3. Good 76-85
4. Average 66-75
5. Fair 56-65
6. Poor 36-55
7. Very poor 0-35
Source: Depdikbud (1996:3)

4. Calculating the rate percentage of students score by using formula as follow:


F
P= 100
N

Notations:
P = The percentage from the students achievement
F = The frequency of respondents
N = The total number of the students
(Gay, 1981:292)
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CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Findings
The findings obtained through the writing test in the eighth grade of SMAN 4
Palopo in 2015/2016 academic year presented as follows:
1. The students score
Table 4. The students writing score in descriptive text
Score of Each Component Observed
Student Conten Organization Gramma Vocabulary Mechanic Total
t r
1 11 11 11 12 10 55
2 13 13 10 11 10 57
3 14 14 10 14 11 62
4 17 14 14 15 14 74
5 8 9 11 9 9 46
6 12 13 13 13 13 64
7 9 9 9 10 9 46
8 6 9 9 6 7 37
9 12 11 10 13 13 59
10 12 11 10 8 8 48
11 6 7 8 8 9 38
12 9 10 9 7 8 43
13 14 13 10 12 10 59
14 10 10 10 10 10 50
15 8 7 7 8 7 37
16 8 7 7 8 8 38
17 11 12 10 10 8 51
18 7 8 8 8 9 40
19 10 9 9 8 9 45
20 8 9 8 8 9 42
21 12 11 11 12 10 56
22 14 13 13 13 13 66
23 5 7 8 8 7 42
24 7 7 8 8 8 38
25 9 10 8 8 9 44
26 13 12 10 11 11 57
27 8 9 8 8 9 42
28 9 9 9 8 7 42
29 16 14 14 14 13 71
30 12 10 10 11 8 51
31 9 10 10 9 10 48
32 9 8 8 9 8 42
33 13 10 12 13 10 58
34 9 8 9 7 8 41
35 6 7 8 9 8 38
36 7 8 8 7 7 37
Total 363 359 347 353 336 1761
Mean Score 10.08 9.97 9.64 9.81 9.33 48.83
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Where:
C : Content
O : Organization
G : Grammar
V : Vocabulary
M : Mechanic

It can be seen in table 4 that from the 36 samples and 5 aspects scoring of
component observed, the highest score of each content component is 17 for content
component score, 14 for organization component score, 14 for grammar component
score, 15 for vocabulary component score, and 14 for mechanic component score.
Contrary, the lowest score in 6 for content component score, 7 for organization
component score, 7 for grammar component score, 7 for vocabulary component, and
7 for mechanic component score. Moreover the highest total score for all components
is 16 and the lowest is 6.

2. Scoring classification
The total students writing score in narrative text can be seen in table 3 from
30 students. The students score of writing test was classified as bellow:
Table 5. The students score classification
No Classification Score Frequency
1 Excellent 96-100 0
2 Very good 86-95 0
3 Good 76-85 0
4 Fairly Good 66-75 3
5 Fair 56-65 8
6 Poor 36-55 25
7 Very Poor 0-35 0
Total 36

The data shows that nothing students are classified into excellent, nothing
students are classification into very good, nothing students are classified into good
and nothing students are classified into very poor. But, the data shows that only 3
students is classified into fairly good, 8 students are classified into fair. Then, there
are 25 students are classified into poor.
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3. The classification score of each criteria


Table 6. The criteria and percentages of students content
N Classification Score Frequency Percentages
o
1 Very good 17-20 1 2.7%
2 Good 14-16 4 11.1%
3 Average 11-13 10 27.8%
4 Poor 8-10 14 38.9%
5 Very poor 5-7 7 19.5%
Total

Based on the Table 6 , the result of the writing test in the content aspect there
were 1 (2.7%) students got very good score, 4 (11.1%) of students got good score, 10
(27.8%) of students got average score, 14 (38.9%) of students got poor score, 7
(19.5%) of students got very poor score.

Table 7. The criteria and percentages of students organization


N Classification Score Frequency Percentages
o
1 Very good 17-20 0 0%
2 Good 14-16 3 8.3%
3 Average 11-13 10 27.8%
4 Poor 8-10 17 47.2%
5 Very poor 5-7 6 16.7%
Total 36 100%

Based on the Table 7, the result of the writing test in the organization aspect
there were 0 (0%) students got very good score, 3 (8.3%) of students got good score,
10 (27.8%) of students got average score, 17 (47.2%) of students got poor score, 6
(16.7%) of students got very poor score.

Table 8. The criteria and percentages of students grammar


N Classification Score Frequency Percentages
o
1 Very good 17-20 0 0%
2 Good 14-16 2 5.5%
3 Average 11-13 6 16.7%
4 Poor 8-10 26 72.3%
5 Very poor 5-7 2 5.5%
Total 36 100%

Based on the Table 8, the result of the writing test in the grammar aspect there
were 0 (0%) students got very good score, 2 (5.5%) of students got good score, 6
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(16.7%) of students got average score, 26 (72.3%) of students got poor score, 2
(5.5%) of students got very poor score.
Table 9. The criteria and percentages of students vocabulary
N Classification Score Frequency Percentages
o
1 Very good 17-20 0 0%
2 Good 14-16 3 8.3%
3 Average 11-13 10 27.8%
4 Poor 8-10 19 52.8%
5 Very poor 5-7 4 11.1%
Total 36 100%

Based on the Table 9, the result of the writing test in the vocabulary aspect
there were 0 (0%) students got very good score, 3 (8.3%) of students got good score,
10 (27.8%) of students got average score, 19 (52.8%) of students got poor score, 4
(11.1%) of students got very poor score.

Table 10. The criteria and percentages of students mechanic


N Classification Score Frequency Percentages
o
1 Very good 17-20 0 0%
2 Good 14-16 1 2.7%
3 Average 11-13 6 16.7%
4 Poor 8-10 24 66. 7%
5 Very poor 5-7 5 13.9%
Total

Based on the Table 10, the result of the writing test in the mechanic aspect
there were 0 (0%) students got very good score, 1 (2.7%) of students got good score,
6 (16.7%) of students got average score, 24 (66.7%) of students got poor score, 5
(13.9%) of students got very poor score.

4.2 Discussions
This part describes the discussion about the data analysis obtained through
writing test based on the picture.
1. The ability of the students to write descriptive text
The students basically have sufficient number ideas, general knowledge,
comment, ideas, and their own experiences that related much with the topic assigned.
It is proved by the data gained through the writing test. Shows that the mean score
for the five components observed 48.83.
22

Based on the data collected, it was proved by students score in


five components namely content, organization, grammar,
vocabulary, and mechanics. The researcher difficulty in determining
the content aspect because the students do not understand the
characteristics of the individual in areas of physical attribute (hair,
eyes), emotional (warm, nervous), moral attributes (greedy, honest,
worthy, trust), and intellectual (cleverness, perception). The
researcher difficulty in determining the organisation aspect because
students write sentences in paragraph form that coherence is not
the sentence beginning to end is not clear. The researcher difficulty
in determining the grammar aspect because the composition
contins a few errorrs of grammar example: He is standing in front
of a window in his house. It should be like this: He stands in front of
a window in his house. The researcher difficulty in determining the
vocabulary aspect because composition contains occasion of
vocabularies but the meaning is not obscured for example: lips
should be lip. The researcher difficulty in determining the
vocabulary aspect because there are few errors in wordspelling
capitalization for example: in spelling ekonomic should be
economic while in the capitalization his should be His.

2. The result of the students writing


Based on the data collected, it was proved by students score in five
components namely content, organization, grammar, vocabulary, and mechanics that
is focused in writing test by the researcher. For each component, many students got
average score.

The example of students writing got average can be seen from the real data
example:
23

Based on the result of the student score in writing tes, student got average
score namely 74 from 36 students, because in content student only got Score 17,
because some errors of the central unity, coherence and continuity for example:
He is a teacher of economic account teaching in class 1 and 2. He named is lukas
sulan layuk, He is a teacher economic account, he name is lukas sulan layuk.
Organization got score 14, because the composition contains few words, sentence
and paragraph for example: He is teacher of ekonomic account it should be like
this: He is an economic teacher account . Grammar got score 14 because the
composition contins a few errorrs of grammar for example: He is standing in front
of a window in his house. It should be like this: He stands in front of a window in
his house. Vocabulay got score 15 because composition contains occasion of
vocabularies but the meaning is not obscured for example: lips should be lip.
Mechanic got score 14 because there are few errors in wordspelling capitalization
for example: in spelling ekonomic should be economic while in the
capitalization his should be His.
The example of students writing got fair can be seen from the real data
example:
That was one of the student writing test got poor score namely 37 from 36
students, because in content student got Score 7, because the central purpose, the
unity, coherence and continuity for example: He was a teachers at the school
SMAN 4 palopo it should be like this: He is a teacher at SMAN 4 palopo.
Organization got score 8, because the composition contains is dominated errors of
the words, sentence and paragraph for example: He is wearring blue and body fat,
eyes ketch it should be like this: He wears blue shirt and he has fat body, it should
be like this: He wears blue shirt. He has fat body, and ketch eyes. Grammar got
score 8 because the composition contains is dominated errors of grammar for
example: He is wearing blue and body fat, eyes ketch it should be like this: He
wears blue shirt and he has fat body, eyes ketch. Vocabulary got score 7 because
the use of efficiency words and terms about theme for example: teachers should
be teacher. Mechanic got score 7 because the punctuation, spelling and
capitalization for example: he should be He.
From the example in writing test of the students is poor. It can be seen that
the mean score of the students writing test was 48.83. The mean score in the content
24

is 10.08. The mean score in organization is 9.97, in grammar is 9.64, in vocabulary is


9.81 and the mean score in mechanic is 9.33. It can be concluded that the students
difficulties in writing descriptive text by using picture the first year students of
SMAN 4 Palopo is Mechanic aspect because the students got lowest score (9.33
mean score).

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the findings and discussion of the previous chapter,


the researcher can conclude that the students of SMAN 4 Palopo are
difficulties in writing Descriptive text in all aspects of writing
(content, organization, grammar, vocabulary, mechanic). Because it
is proven by the mean score of the students writing test is content
aspect is 10.08, score of the students writing test is organization
aspect is 9.97, score of the students writing test is grammar aspect
is 9.64, score of the students writing test is vocabulary aspect is
9.81, score of the students writing test is mechanic aspect is 9.33.
The data shows that nothing students are classified into excellent,
nothing students are classification into very good, nothing students
are classified into good and nothing students are classified into very poor.

5.2 Suggestions
Based on the conclusion above, the researcher would like to present some
suggestions below:
1. For the teacher, the researcher hopes the teachers should give more
knowledge on each aspect in writing excercise to the students to write in text
especially in mechanic aspect (give practice to the students in using
punctuation, spelling, and capitalization).
25

2. For the students especially the students in senior high school, the researcher
hopes the students should a lot of excercise to practice their writing skill in
writing decriptive text especially in mechanic aspect (practice in using
punctuation, spelling, and capitalization).
3. The researcher suggested to further researchers to focus their
writing skill in writing decriptive text in teaching writing.

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APPENDIX
WRITTEN TEST

Name :
28

Compose a descriptive paragraph with using picture above as your guidance!

Lukas Sulan Layuk BA


29

DOCUMENTATIONS

1. The researcher explained how to do the test


30

2. The researchercontrolled the students


31

3. The students worked the test