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UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOGI

MARA

KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

OPEN

- ENDED MANUAL FOR UCTURAL

STR ENGINEERING

LABORATORY

BACHELOR OF ENGINEER

ING (HONS) CIVIL

( INFRASTRUCTURE

)

EC221

NT)

BY

ROHAMEZAN ROHIM

DR. YEE HOOI MIN

AMER YUSUFF

13500 Permatang Pauh,

Pulau Pinang.

1

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PREFACE ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii

INTRODUCTION TO OPEN ENDED LABORATORY ACTIVITIES iv

LIST OF SYMBOLS x

LAB 2: Shear centre: to find the shear centre and shear flow of a section 6

LAB 4: Indeterminate truss: to find the reaction by using the superposition 13 LAB

5:

LAB 6:

a. Three-Hinged Arch: to find forces at abutment. 21

APPENDIX 37

REFERENCES 38

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PREFACE

The laboratory work provides a realistic simulation to the actual event at field scale. It is hoped that

the student should be able to comprehend and appreciate the object of conducting laboratory work.

Conventional techniques of laboratory testing seem to be too straightforward where the student

couldnt appreciate and extract the value of conducting the laboratory procedures. Thus, a new

direction of laboratory work is designed to emphasize the need of cultivating enthusiastic and

passionate among the student. Besides provides challenges and new approaches, open-ended

investigation provides real practice at the field scale. This short manuscript offers a brief guideline

for students before conducting open-ended laboratory experimentation for Structural Engineering

Laboratory. Four degree of difficulty is measured based on the four items namely preamble, problem,

ways & mean and the answers. All the topic in the syllabus are distributed by inferring level 0 as the

most and level 3 the least. Level 0 is the simple, direct and guide-oriented type opposed to level 3

where a general problem is given with a minor guidance from the instructor. It is hoped that this brief

manual may help the student to carry out the open-ended laboratory work.

2

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to acknowledge the constructive comments and suggestions I have received from my

colleagues and students over the years of my teaching profession. These valuable suggestions have

inspired me and helped me in the development of this Manual. I am indebted to the external

reviewers appointed by the publishers and am appreciative of their constructive criticisms. This

Manual would not have been completed without the support received from the School of Civil

Engineering at the University Teknologi Mara, Kampus Pulau Pinang, where I have been employed

as an academic member of staff. I would like to thank Associate Prof. Abd Rahman Mahamod for his

encouragement and editorial assistance. I am also grateful for the help I received from members of

staff at University Teknologi Mara, Kampus Pulau Pinang in preparing the first version of the

manuscript.

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From Prescriptive to Investigative

Introduction

Various methods of innovative teaching may be implemented in the teaching and learning activities

methods may be in the form of Project Based Learning (PBL), Project Oriented Problem Based

Learning (POPBL), Active Learning (AL), Cooperative Learning (CL), Independent Learning (IL)

and others.

Previous methods of teaching laboratory courses are basically in the form of fully guided

assignment. The methods are described as prescriptive or traditional methods. However these

(1)

methods are now no longer adequate within the context of outcome based learning environments .

It could not provide the platform where students are given opportunities to explore their own

theory that is learnt through lectures. The laboratory should help students develop

should be adequate provision for laboratory or similar investigative work, which will

develop the young engineer the confidence to deal with new and unusual engineering

problem.

Thus the need for an open ended laboratory is emphasized in enhancing independent learning and

inculcating creativity and innovation of students. They are required to determine the objectives and

scope, identifying apparatus needed and preparing the methodology, running the experiment and

4

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

finally submitting the technical report. Through this process students must understand the principles

This brief paper looks at the practicality of implementing the open ended laboratory activities at

different levels of education for a four year engineering degree programme and how it was

implemented at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang.

Level of Openness

(1, 4)

Amongst the many papers which the author managed to review stated that fully open ended

laboratory activities should be introduced in the third year of the four year degree programme.

However, syllabi of most engineering programme contain laboratory courses spanning throughout

the four year programme. Thus it is impractical to introduce the open ended laboratory activities for

all laboratory courses from Year 1 to Year 4. The conduct of laboratory activities should be carried

The concept of different level of openness was discussed by many authors. In most discussion the

(5)

area of concern is categorized as problem, ways and means and answers. Kilinc, A., 2005

described the level of openness as shown in Table 1 below based on the one proposed by

HegartyHazel (1986). The ways and means are split into two different elements as apparatus and

procedures respectively.

5

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

NAME

inquiry

inquiry

McComas (1997) (6) presented the level of openness as envisaged by Schwab-Herron as in Table 2

below. Four levels were identified and three elements to be addressed were categorized. Table 2 :

Level of Openness according to Schwab-Herron

(3)

Petropol-Serb (2011) categorized the elements to be addressed in the open ended laboratory

activities as the experimental set-up, the experimental design and data analysis and report.

Asanovic (2009, 2012) (7, 8) referred to the elements as a directed portion and an open ended portion.

6

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

To simplify the matter it is suggested that there should be four (4) levels of openness, namely Levels

0-3, and three categories of element to be incorporated into the laboratory manual, namely problem,

ways and means and answers. The scientific enquiry rubric, as given by Fay, 2009, for the levels of

openness are summarized and described as in Table 3 below by the University of New South Wales,

Australia (9).

Establishing the level of independence and autonomy expected of students to carry out

an assessment task

Level of Description

Enquiry

0 The problem, procedure and methods for achieving solutions are provided to the

student. The student performs the experiment and verifies the results with the

manual

1 The problem and procedure are provided to the student. The student interprets the

data in order to propose viable solutions

2 The problem is provided to the student. The student develops a procedure for

investigating the problem, decides what data to gather, and interprets the data in

order to propose viable solutions

3 A raw phenomenon is provided to the student. The student chooses the problem to

explore, develops a procedure for investigating the problem, decides what data to

gather, and interprets the data in order to propose viable solutions

Implementation of the laboratory activities at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Pulau Pinang

was progressively introduced, monitored, reviewed and streamlined since the last accreditation

exercise by EAC in 2008. New guidelines were introduced to facilitate the teaching and learning

activities to benefit not only the students but new lecturers taking the courses. Manual preparation

7

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

for each laboratory activities would include the elements as shown in Table 4. The preamble to the

laboratory manual should include introduction, objectives and learning outcomes. The lecturers may

MEANS NAME OF OF

LAB OPEN

ACTIVITIES ENDED

The implementation of open ended laboratory in Structural Engineering Laboratory can be seen in

Table 5. Each topic consists in Structural Engineering laboratory syllabus has assigned according to

level of openness.

8

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2 Shear centre: to find the shear centre and shear flow of a section 2 1

experimentally.

experimentally.

superposition method.

beam.

concrete structure.

TOTAL 28

The percentage for each level is calculated as the contact hours for each assigned topic. Table 6

shows percentage of each level.

Suggested

Level Problem Way & Means Answer Percentage

Breakdown based

on hours %

1 Given Given Open 14.29

2 Given Open Open 21.43

3 Open Open Open 35.71

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It can be seen in Table 5, the highest level of openness that can be implemented is up to level 1 for

the light structural laboratory activities. The reason why the level of openness of light structural

laboratory activities cant beyond to level 1 because most of the experimental setup/ procedure for

each lab topics have fixed standard specification that provided by the manufacturer. Therefore, the

student couldnt suggest their own procedure by themselves. Otherwise, they cant achieve the

objectives of study.

Conclusion

It is hope that the teaching of laboratory courses progressively from prescriptive to investigative in

nature will eventually mould the students to be better engineers in the future. It should be noted that

well-prepared laboratory manuals based on the different levels of openness alone could never

achieve the desired objectives without due attention and proper assessment of the activities by

respective course lecturers/laboratory facilitators. It is also anticipated that this nature of activities

would enable students to be better prepared in taking final year projects of investigative nature in the

fourth year.

LIST OF SYMBOLS

G shear modulus

T applied torque

angle of twist

Aw area of web

Af area of flange

e shear center

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L length of specimen

tw thickness of web

tf thickness of flange

b1 width of flange

h height of sample

M bending moment

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PART 1

LIGHT STRUCTURAL

LABORATORY

1

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UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOGI

MARA

KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES

511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

FOR

LAB : Torsion

1 ( CO1:PO3, CO2:PO

6)

LEVEL:0 CONTENT

LEVELS

member that is subjected to a twist action of applied

forces, as shown by the cantilever shaft subjected to a

torque at the free end (Figure 1). If the shaft is long and

has a circular section, its torsion and deformation are

characterized by the following:

Figure 1

plane perpendicular to the axis of the circular

member.

develops on the cross sections.

the bar is dominated by angle of twist, i.e., the

relative rotation between parallel planes

perpendicular to the axis.

plane after the twist moment is applied, i.e., no

warpage or distortion of parallel planes normal to

the axis of a member occurs.

2

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

G*J

T= x

L

T Or = Constant x

Hence

G*J

Constant = = Slope of the graph T Vs.

L

Thus Shear Modulus,

G = (Slope x L) / J

OBJECTIVES and the angle of twist and hence obtain the shear modulus.

LEARNING 1. determine the shear modulus, G of shaft.

OUTCOMES 2. describe the influence of torsion in structural design.

PROBLEM loading. It tends to fail due to torsion besides bending and

PROBLEM shear. Therefore, it is important to aware the torsion effect

STATEMENT on the beam.

3

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Procedure:

1. Switch on the digital proctractor and the load indicator unit

to warm the systems.

of the specimen.

WAYS & 3. Mount the torsiometer approximately at the center of the

PROCEDURES

MEANS

specimen and set the dial gauge reading to zero.

setting bar.

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

8. Push the specimen setting bar towards the other socket.

Once the specimen is in contact with the socket, try to push

the specimen so that it slides into the socket. If this is not

possible, turn the handle to rotate the socket slightly so that

the specimen can slide into the socket.

9. Once the socket and the specimen are in line pushed the

specimen until the whole the hexagon portion is

completely inside the socket.

lock the position of the specimen setting bar by tightening

the top and bottom screws.

11. Set the load indicator reading to zero by pressing the tare

button.

button

indicator face.

14. Turn the handle until the load cell records a small reading

(approximately 5 Newtons) and the specimen is tight. This

is a preload condition.

15. Set the load indicator, the digital protractor and the

torsiometer reading to zero by pressing the tare button, the

R button and turning the face of the dial gauge

respectively.

17. Record the load cell, the digital protractor and the

torsiometer readings initially for every 5 division of the

torsiometer. Once yield is achieved loosen the

5

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

19. When the torsiometer reading starts to increase rapidly,

remove the torsiometer to avoid damage.

only, it is advisable that the torsional stress should not

exceed 0.3 the yield stress of the material.

torsiometer when the specimen approaches yield.

ACQUISITION Appendix 1.

Analysis

1. Draw the graph of applied torque, T N-mm verses the

angle of twist, radian using the data from the torsiometer.

3. Determine the slope of the graph. This represents the

average torque per unit angle of twist. Compare with the

theoretical value.

Conclusion

1. From the experimental data describe the relationship

ANALYSIS &

ANSWERS between applied torque and angle of twist.

CONCLUSION

2. How the value of G does obtained from the experiment

compares with that normally assumed in practice for the

material being tested.

surface. Does it reflect the type of material (brittle or

ductile) being tested?

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOGI

MARA

KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES

511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB2: Shear centre: to find the shear centre and

flowshear

of a section

experimentally.

LEVEL: 1

CATEGORY MANUAL

FOR DESCRIPTION

LEVELS CONTENT

7

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force in a plane, other than the plane of geometry,

=

which passes through thecentroid of the section, then

bending moment will be

r = radius of semicircle accompanied by twisting. In

order to avoid twisting and cause bending only, the

transverse forces

The shear must for

centre act an

through a point which may

angle:

not coincide with the centroid, but will depend upon

theThe

shape of the sectionyand

shear center ,(x

such a point is termed as

O) is located at the intersection

shear centre. In otherO words, loads must be applied at

of the angle leg axes.

particular point in the cross section, called shear center,

if the beam is to bend without twisting.

channel:

F t1

t2

h

e N.A

- section:

Z

The shear center for

- section

Z islocated at O.

b1

= 2 = area of web

= 11 = area of flange

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

centre for semi-circle, Z-section, C-channel & angle

section in the laboratory.

OBJECTIVES

2. To ascertain the position of the shear centre for

a sections.

1. determine the shear center of different sections (semi-

circle, Z-section, C-channel and angle section).

LEARNING

2. differentiate the stability of varies sections due to shear

OUTCOMES centre.

3. describe the influence of shear centre to the structure

element.

PROBLEM and /or y axis, it will cause bend including twisting.

PROBLEM The shear centre is a point where the load applied will

STATEMENT cause the member bend without twisting.

MEANS on the indicator bosses, turn the indicators outward to

contact the inner two datum pegs and lock off the

thumbscrews. This sets the two indicators parallel.

2. Fit the 'U' section into the bottom chuck.

3. Fit the top of the specimen into the top chuck in

the same relative position, ensuring that the specimen

is set squarely and all of the screws are tight.

4. Undo the top chuck hand wheel and rotate the

specimen so it is orientated. When hear the chuck

'click' into the correct position, tighten the hand wheel.

5. Fit the shear centre beam to the bottom chuck

as shown in Figure 3 and secure with the extension

piece.

6. Ensure that the indicators have roughly equal

travel forward and backward on the shear arm pegs. If

not, loosen the indicator top screw, slide the indicator

to the correct position and tighten the screw.

7. Tap the frame sharply to reduce the effect of

friction and zero the indicators.

8. Apply a load of 500 g to the left-hand notch (-

25 mm). With the cord over the pulley, ensure that the

pulley and cord remain parallel to the lines on the plate

below.

9. Record the resulting indicator readings in Table

1. 10. Repeat with the same load at the other notch

positions ensuring the cord remains parallel at all

9

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

times.

DATA

Appendix 2.

ACQUISITION

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

Analysis:

1. Based on the data collected in Table 2, purpose the

suitable way to plot the graph to determine the shear

center of sections for the experimental work.

experimental result?

ANSWERS

CONCLUSION with respect to theoretical values?

Conclusion:

Discussion in laboratory work must be reflecting

according to objectives of study.

experiment as a structural engineer?

11

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UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOGI

MARA

KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES

511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

: Instability of struts

LAB 3 ( CO1:PO3, CO2:PO

6)

LEVEL:0

CATEGORY MANUAL

FOR DESCRIPTION

LEVELS CONTENT

If compressive load is applied on a column, the member

may fail either by crushing or by buckling depending on

its material, cross section and length. If member is

considerably long in comparison to its lateral dimensions

it will fail by buckling. If a member shows signs of

buckling the member leads to failure with small increase

in load. The load at which the member just buckles is

called as crushing load. The buckling load, as given by

Euler, can be found by using following expression.

INTRODUCTION

following boundary condition:

PREAMBLE

Pined-Pined 1.0

Pined-Fixed 0.7

Fixed Fixed 0.5

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the week, students should be able to: 1.

determine the critical buckling loads of strut for

LEARNING different types of boundary conditions.

OUTCOMES 2. describe the important of critical buckling load in

column design.

PROBLEM buckling behavior instead of material itself. Therefore, it is

PROBLEM

STATEMENT important to determine the buckling load of column so that

can serve its primary function.

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

Procedure:

1. Choose a specimen and measure its length, width and

thickness at three places. Note the readings.

pinned end condition. This is to ensure that the load

applied to the strut does not exceed the buckling load.

attachment for the end conditions. Refer appendix for

proper installation of the knife-edge.

distance between the two knife edges closer to the length

of the strut

press F1 until the word tare is displayed.

WAYS & (negative sign indicates compressive load) 6.

PROCEDURES

MEANS

Place the specimen on the lower knife edges.

7. Adjust the jack so that the upper knife edge just rests in the

groove at the other end of the sample. If the distance

between the two knife edges is slightly less than the length

of the strut, turn the screw jack handle counter clockwise.

If the distance between the two knife edges is slightly

greater than the length of the strut, turn the screw jack

handle clockwise.

compressive load is greater than 10 N turn the jack handle

counter clockwise to bring the compressive load to less

then 10N.

the mid-length of the specimen. Set the dial gauge reading

to zero.

13

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11. Load the specimen at suitable increments by turning the

screw jack handle slowly in the clockwise direction.

12. Increase the load and for each load increment record the

load and the corresponding mid-span deflection.

(Important: please ensure that the applied load is

always less then 80 % of the buckling load.)

counter clockwise direction.

and fixed-fixed boundary condition.

DATA

3.

ACQUISITION

Analysis

1. From data plot the graph of deflection versus

(deflection/load)

2. Draw the best straight line through the points plotted.

3. From the plot determine the slope of the line. This

represents the buckling load for the specimen.

ANALYSIS &

ANSWERS 4. Compare the theoretical and the experimental value.

CONCLUSION

Conclusion

1. Comments on your findings in the experiment.

2. In your opinion, after went through the experiment,

what is the important to determine the buckling load in

column design?

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOGI

MARA

KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES

511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

: Indeterminate

LAB 4 truss( CO1:PO3,CO2:PO6)

LEVEL:0

CATEGORY MANUAL

FOR DESCRIPTION

LEVELS CONTENT

equilibrium equations are insufficient for determining the internal

forces and reactions on that structure. In order to analyze the

indeterminate structures, considerations in the material properties

and compatibility in deformations are taken to solve statically

indeterminate. A statically indeterminate truss can be determined

INTRODUCTION using the formula as below:

DOI = (m + r) (2j + c)

PREAMBLE

To compare the member forces of indeterminate truss determined

OBJECTIVES in theoretical structural analysis with respect to experimental

result.

using the superposition method.

OUTCOMES 2. describe the principal of superposition approach in solving

indeterminate truss problem.

15

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

PROBLEM joined together to form a pattern of triangles. Trusses are usually

PROBLEM designed to transmit forces over relatively long spans. Common

STATEMENT examples of trusses are bridge trusses and roof trusses.

PROCEDURES

MEANS 1. Switch on the computer and the data acquisition module. For

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

on 10 minutes before taking readings.

configuration)

the members available.

4. Place one end of the plane truss on the roller support and the other

on the pin support (please ensure that the centre of the joint is

located on the knife edge and at the centre of the roller).

7. Loosen the screw jack so that the truss is free from applied load.

8. Connect the wire from the load cell to the data acquisition module,

each load cell occupying one channel of the module.

10. Select the setting option to set the modules and channels to be

acquired

11. When the setting is complete, return to the sub menu. Click the

start button and choose the overwrite file option.

channels. These figures are the voltage outputs from the load

cells. They are in millivolt units. For this apparatus 1 millivolt is

equivalent to 100 N force.

20 seconds press the stop button (watch the graph for the time

span). This will be the initial readings for each load cell.

14. On the sub menu click the start button. Choose the append

17

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

option.

15. Turn the screw jack handle to apply loads in the downward

direction and observe the readings of the screw jack. When the

desired load is reached, stop turning the screw jack.

20 seconds press the stop button.

18. At the end of the experiment, export the data to the excel

spreadsheet and carry out the necessary analysis.

DATA

Test data to be recorded in the table as given in Appendix 4.

ACQUISITION

Analysis:

1. Draw the truss and indicate the loaded joint.

2. Calculate the average force in each member for each load

increment. Remember to subtract the initial reading from the data

acquired for each load increment.

4. Plot the graph of forces in the members versus the applied load for

the experimental and theoretical case.

ANALYSIS & 5. Determine the percentage error by calculating the slope of each

ANSWERS CONCLUSION graph.

Conclusion:

1. State the relationship between the applied load and the force in

the members.

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOGI

MARA

KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES

511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB5(a): Indeterminate beam

LEVEL: 0

DESCRIPTION

LEVELS CONTENT

indeterminate system. However, static equation

itself unable to solve that particular redundant.

The superposition method is one of the suitable

approaches to determine this reaction. The fixed

INTRODUCTION end moment of a fixed end beam is given by;

MFBA = - W * a2 * b/ L2 (2)

moment through experimental work by using the

OBJECTIVES superposition method for indeterminate beam.

to:

LEARNING

1. determine the reaction of the indeterminate

OUTCOMES beam by using superposition method.

2. describe the principal of superposition approach.

19

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

determinate and indeterminate system. Static

PROBLEM equation can be use to solve the determinate

PROBLEM problem. Meanwhile, superposition method can

STATEMENT be use to solve the indeterminate problem.

PROCEDURE:

up in Figure 5(a) in appendix 5(a).

2. Fixed the two supports tightly to the base with

the distant between them equals to the span of

the beam.

3. Check that the load cell is properly secured to

the pivoting plate.

4. Place the ends of the beam between the

clamping plates of the supports and tightened

the two screws to fix the beam.

PROCEDURES 5. Clipped the load hanger at the position where

the beam is to be loaded.

WAYS & MEANS 6. Connect the load cell from the support pier to

the display unit, each load cell occupying one

terminal on the display.

7. Switch on the display and beginning with

channel 1 record the initial reading for each

channel.

8. Place a suitable load on the load hanger and

record the reading of each load cell.

9. Increase the load on the load hanger and record

the pier reaction.

DATA

Appendix 5(a).

ACQUISITION

20

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=

100

1.

From Equation 1 and 2 above write down the

CONCLUSION

Conclusion:

equations for the fixed end moment at A and B

1.for this For

experiment.

a beam loaded with a single point load

2. Usingas

theabove,

data from

statethe

theTable 5(b) plot the

the relationship between

graphthe

of fixed

fixed end

endmoment

momentverses

and load

load for both

2.supports

Will the relationship

betweenreactionand

load be the

3. Determine linear if of

slope theeach

beam is loaded with

graph.

4. Calculate

more thethan

percentage error different

1 load with using themagnitude?

slope

3.obtained fromon

Comment thethe

above graph. of the result

accuracy

obtained

For support A; in this experiment.

Theoretical slope = a * b2/ L2

For support B; Theoretical slope = a2 * b/ L2

21

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UNIVERSITI

TEKNOLOGI

MARA

KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES

511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB 5(b):Indeterminate

frame( CO1:PO3, CO2:PO

6)

LEVEL:0

CATEGORY MANUAL

FOR DESCRIPTION

LEVELS CONTENT

static equilibrium equations are insufficient for

determining the internal forces and reactions on that

structure. In order to analyze the indeterminate structures,

considerations in the material properties and compatibility

in deformations are taken to solve statically indeterminate.

A statically indeterminate frame can be determined by

INTRODUCTION using the following formula:

hinge

PREAMBLE

determined in theoretical structural analysis with respect to

OBJECTIVES

experimental result.

LEARNING 1. find the reactions of indeterminate frame by using the

superposition method.

OUTCOMES 2. describe the principal of superposition approach.

22

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three external reactions. If a portal frame has more than

three reactions, it is classified as statically indeterminate.

PROBLEM The degree of indeterminacy or redundancy being equal to

PROBLEM the number of redundant or extra reactions to be

STATEMENT

determined.

2. Switch on the indicator. For stability of the reading the

indicator must be switch on 10 minutes before taking

readings.

applied.

PROCEDURES

button.

WAYS &

5. Place a load on the load hanger.

MEANS

6. Record the indicator reading. This represents the

horizontal reaction of the pinned support.

horizontal reaction.

DATA

5(b).

ACQUISITION

23

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Analysis:

1. Draw the shape of the portal frame under test and give the

important dimensions. Indicate the position where the

frame is loaded.

2. Using the data in the Table 5(c), draw the graph of load

verses displacement at the roller support. Draw the best fit

curve through the plotted points.

ANALYSIS &

ANSWERS

CONCLUSION Conclusion:

1. From the result of this experiment, deduce the relationship

between load and displacement at the roller.

3. List the probable factors that affect the accuracy of the

results and steps to be taken to overcome it.

CATEGORY MANUAL

DESCRIPTION

FOR LEVELS CONTENT

24

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

a solid rib or braced, supported at its ends and carrying

transverse loads which are frequently vertical. Since

the transverse loading at any section normal to the axis

of the girder is at an angle to the normal face, an arch

is subjected to three restraining forces: thrust, shear

force and bending moment. Depending upon the

number of hinges, arches may be divided into four

classes which is three hinged arch, two hinged arch,

single hinged arch and fixed arch (hingeless arch).A

three hinged arch is statically determinate structures

while the rest three arches are statically indeterminate.

In bridge construction, especially in railroad bridges,

the more used arches are two-hinged and the fixed end

ones.

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511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB6(a): Three

- Hinge

d Arch

LEVEL: 1

HA = WkL / (2h)

21

the roller end for a given system of loading and to

OBJECTIVES

compare the same with those obtained analytically.

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the horizontal thrust at the support of a three-hinged

parabolic arch.

LEARNING 2. analyze three-hinged arch for external loading.

OUTCOMES 3. compute horizontal reaction in three-hinged arch.

4. realize the application of the three-hinged arch in

structure engineering.

two at the support and one at the crown thus making it

statically determinate structure. There are four reaction

components in the three-hinged arch. One more

PROBLEM equation is required in addition to three equations of

PROBLEM

STATEMENT static equilibrium for evaluating the four reaction

components. Taking moment about the hinge of all the

forces acting on either side of the hinge can set up the

required equation.

PROCEDURE:

1. Fix the simple support and the roller support to the

support frame at a distance equals to the span of the

arch i.e. 1000 mm.

2. The roller support must be anchored such that the

pulley is located on the inside of the arch.

3. Take the wire rope at the roller end of the arch and

pass it over the pulley attached to the roller support.

4. Place a load hanger at the end of the wire rope and at a

selected location of the arch.

WAYS & MEANS PROCEDURES 5. Offset the dead load by placing sufficient load on the

load hanger at the end of the wire rope so that the arch

is level. (Horizontal thrust due to dead load is

approximately 12 N)

6. Place a load on the load hanger at the selected location

of the arch.

7. Add sufficient loads on the load hanger at the end of

the wire rope to level the arch.

8. Record the magnitude of the applied load and the load

at the roller support.

10. Repeat the above experiment for another two tests to

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DATA

Appendix 6(a).

ACQUISITION

Analysis:

the three hinged arch in terms of the applied loading,

span and height of the crown.

suitable way to plot the graph of thrust for the

experimental and theoretical case.

with respect to theoretical values?

ANALYSIS &

ANSWERS Conclusion:

CONCLUSION

1. From the results above state the relationship between

the horizontal thrust at the support and the applied

load.

concept in structural analysis by giving an example for

bridge structure.

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511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB6(b): Two Hinge

d Arch

LEVEL: 1

DESCRIPTION

LEVELS CONTENT

PREAMBLE The two hinged arch is a statically indeterminate

INTRODUCTION structure of the first degree. A typical two-

hinged arch is shown in Fig.6 (b). The horizontal

thrust is the redundant reaction and is obtained

by the use of strain energy methods. Two hinged

arch is made determinate by treating it as a

simply supported curved beam and horizontal

thrust as a redundant reaction. The arch spreads

out under external load. Horizontal thrust is the

redundant reaction is obtained by the use of

strain energy method.

Figure 6(b)

The horizontal thrust is given by :

H = 5 W L (k4 2k3 + k) / ( 8h )

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thrust of the roller end for a given system of

OBJECTIVES

loading and to compare the same with those

obtained analytically.

At the end of the week, students should be able

to:

and the horizontal thrust at the support of a two

hinge parabolic arch.

LEARNING 2. analyze two-hinged arch for external loading.

OUTCOMES 3. compute horizontal reaction in twohinged arch.

4. realize the application of the two-hinged arch in

structure engineering.

unknown reactions, but there are only three

PROBLEM equations of equilibrium available. Hence, the

PROBLEM degree of statically indeterminacy is one for two

STATEMENT

hinged arch.

PROCEDURE:

reading the indicator must be switch on 10

minutes before taking readings.

2. Fix the two supports tightly to the support

frame. Measure the span of the arch.

3. Press the Tare button to set the dial indicator

PROCEDURES reading to zero.

WAYS & MEANS 4. Place a load on the load hanger at the arch.

5. Record the indicator reading.

6. Increase the applied load and repeat step 4 and

5.

7. Repeat the experiment to get an average of two

readings.

DATA Appendix 6(b).

ACQUISITION

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Analysis:

ANALYSIS &

ANSWERS support for the three hinged arch in terms of

CONCLUSION

the applied loading, span and height of the

crown.

purpose the suitable way to plot the graph of

thrust for the experimental and theoretical case.

result with respect to theoretical values?

Conclusion:

1. From the results above state the relationship

between the horizontal thrust at the support and

the applied load.

experiment.

arch concept in structural analysis by giving an

example for bridge structure.

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PART 2

HEAVY STRUCTURAL

LABORATORY

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CES511

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LAB7, 8, &9: ReinforcedConcrete beam retrofitting

LEVEL: 3

CATEGORY

FOR MANUAL CONTENT DESCRIPTION

LEVELS

Reinforced concrete building is the common structure

that constructed worldwide. Basically, RC building is

designed for 30 to 50 years designed life. Sometimes,

it cannot serve for intended designs life due to crack.

INTRODUCTION Therefore, retrofitting of concrete structure need to

be carried out so that the buildings can serve through

it designs life.

beam that suffered by cracking and poor construction

quality. Subsequently, find the method to retrofit the

OBJECTIVES deteriorated beam and observe the performance of

strengthening beam with respect to the normal beam

PREAMBLE condition.

application.

2. determine the performance of the structures.

LEARNING 3. fix the problem of deteriorated beam by

OUTCOMES investigation.

4. develop critical thinking skills, team work skills,

scientific problem solving skills, computer literacy

skills, and time management skills.

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PROBLEM reached the designed life due to overloading and lack

PROBLEM

STATEMENT of construction quality and design. In conjunction

with that, students are required to make an

observation (investigation) of existing building

around which suffered crack and undue flexural

deformation. The scope of observation is limited

only on the reinforced concrete beam element in the

structural building. To gain better understanding,

students need to enter the heavy structural laboratory

to carry out an experiment in order to study how to

enhance the flexural behavior of the RC beam by

using the composite material to strengthen the

cracked beam.

concrete and heavy structural laboratory. The three

beams consist of:

1 normal RC beam(control specimen)

1 normal RC beam that has been strengthened

1 normal RC beam that has been deteriorated

Students need to propose the techniques for

strengthening one reinforced concrete beam by

using any composite material to enhance the flexural

performance of the beam. Then, set up an experiment

to carry out the flexural testing on the specimens.

PROCEDURES (You may refer BS 1881 - Part 118:1983: method for

determination of flexural strength). Patching repair

WAYS & need to be undertaken for deteriorated specimen.

MEANS During testing, students need to monitor crack

propagation of each specimen. The task is

accommodating for 5 sequences week. The detail

weekly program of work/tasks can be seen in the

lesson plan.

How is data reported? Data tables are good ideas!

DATA The units for physical measurements in a data table

ACQUISITION should be specified in the column heading only.

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CONCLUSION How do you interpret data?

Include all graphs, analysis

Studentof graphs,

centeredlaboratory

learning:

calculation.

Conclusion: 1. How does the crack width will

affect

Discussion in laboratory themust

work strength of the with

be reflecting

beam?

respect to objectives of study.

2. What happened to the high rise

building if there are major

crack occurred and how to

overcome this problem.

Discuss deeply.

3. What happened to the

structures if the ultimate loads

of the structures are not

achieved and how you can

solve this problem? Discuss

briefly.

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LAB 10: Testing on Composite Materials: compressive test.

LEVEL: 2

CATEGORY

FOR MANUAL CONTENT DESCRIPTION

LEVELS

Composite materials are formed by the combination

of two or more materials that retain their respective

characteristics when combined together to achieve

properties (physical, chemical, etc.) that are superior

to those of individual constituents. The main

INTRODUCTION components of composites are reinforcing agents and

matrix. Composites are able to meet diverse design

requirements with significant weight savings as well

as high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to

conventional materials.

PREAMBLE

OBJECTIVES under compressive stress.

1. transform the designed experiment into physical

application.

2. determine the performance of the composite material

LEARNING as compared to homogenous material.

OUTCOMES 3. develop critical thinking skills, team work skills,

scientific problem solving skills, and time

management skills.

STATEMENT composites involves both material and structural

design. For instance, the hardened concrete itself is

insufficient to withstand as a structures frame.

Therefore, the composite action in between the

reinforced bar and concrete is able to meet diverse

37

as well as high strength-to-

weight ratio as compared to

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013 used concrete solely.

Composite properties (e.g.,

design requirements with significant

stiffness, weightexpansion,

thermal savings

etc.) can be varied

continuously over a broad

range of values under the

control of the designer.

make a compressive strength comparison between

homogenous and composite specimens. For the

composite specimen you may use steel, wood or any

PROCEDURES other possible material to combine with concrete. You

may refer BS 1881 - Part 116:1983 as a guideline for

WAYS & determination of compressive strength of cubes.

MEANS

DATA How is data reported? Data tables are good ideas!

The units for physical measurements in a data table

ACQUISITION

should be specified in the column heading only.

Analysis:

How do you interpret data?

Include all graphs, analysis of graphs, laboratory

calculation.

Conclusion:

ANALYSIS &

ANSWERS Does the difference in compressive strength between

CONCLUSION

composite and homogenous material follow your

expectation? Briefly explain according to result

obtained in the experiment.

LAB 11: Flexural strengthening of lightweight beam

LEVEL: 2

CATEGORY

FOR MANUAL CONTENT DESCRIPTION

LEVELS

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PREAMBLE INTRODUCTION Generally beam deflections are caused primarily by

the bending action of applied loads. In some

instances, however, where a beams cross-sectional

dimensions are not small compared with its length,

deflections due to shear become significant and must

be calculated. It is important to consider beam

deflections due to shear in additionthat

parameters to those produced

influence the

by bending. There aredeflection

several different methods

of the beam such of

strengthening the deflections in beams, the

material properties, cross choice

depending upon the type of problem

section and spanbeing solved.

of the beam.

To strengthen determine

flexural the equation

of simply of deflection

supported beam

for simply supported

by reducing the deflection. beam. Study the parameter

consists in the equation. By playing with the

parameters studied, setup your own experimental

PROCEDURES

LEARNING At theinend of the

work order to week, student should

strengthening be able

the simply to:

supported

OUTCOMES 1. describe the parameters that influence the

beam so that the reduction in beam deflection can bedeflection

WAYS & of beam.

happened.

MEANS 2. determine the method to reduce the deflection of

beam.

What data needs to be taken?

PROBLEM PROBLEM Beamis must

How possess sufficient

data reported? Data tablesstiffness

are goodsoideas!

that

DATA

STATEMENT The units for

excessive physical do

deflections measurements

not have aninadverse

a data effect

table

ACQUISITION

should be specified in the column heading

on adjacent structural members. In many cases, only.

maximum allowable deflections are specified by

Codes of Practice in terms of the dimensions of the

beam, particularly the span. Beams may be designed

Analysis:

1. How

using doeither

you elastic

interpretorand compare

plastic the data

analysis. from

However,

experimental result with respect to theoretical?

since beam deflections must always occur within the

2. Include all graphs,

elastic limit of the analysis

material ofof graphs,

a beamlaboratory

they are

calculation.

determined using elastic theory. There are few

Conclusion:

Discussion in laboratory work must be

reflecting with respect to objectives of study.

ANALYSIS & Student centered learning:

ANSWERS

CONCLUSION

1. Does maximum deflection always occur at the

position where bending moment is

maximum?

39

2. If two beams have the same length and

flexural rigidity and are subjected to the same

external loads, are the deflections of the two

beams identical, and why?

Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

LAB 12: Trusses strengthening techniques

LEVEL: 2

DESCRIPTION

FOR LEVELS

a long span beam compared to other beam system.

The knowledge of laboratory work as well as

INTRODUCTION

numerical approach (simulation) plays an important

role.

determinate truss system.

PREAMBLE OBJECTIVES 2. to reduce the member forces (certain members) of the

truss system.

LEARNING 1. trace the excessive stress that cause the

failure in the member of truss structure.

OUTCOMES 2. determine the method to strengthen the truss.

axial force either tension or compression force.

Sometimes, excessive axial stress imposes at certain

PROBLEM member in the truss. Therefore, it necessary to add up

PROBLEM

STATEMENT new members in the truss structure system so that it

can help to cater the excessive axial load at particular

member in the truss.

Work in group:

1. Collect the data (member forces) from the

WAYS & determinate truss system.

PROCEDURES

MEANS 2. Using any numerical approach, compare the result

between laboratory work and simulation.

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techniques to strengthen the truss system.

Show the result by using the simulation.

DATA How is data reported? Data tables are good ideas!

The units for physical measurements in a data table

ACQUISITION

should be specified in the column heading only.

Analysis:

1. How do you interpret and compare the

data between experimental result and

ANALYSIS & simulation result?

ANSWERS 2. Include all graphs, analysis of graphs,

CONCLUSION

laboratory calculation.

Conclusion:

Discussion in laboratory work must be

reflecting with respect to objectives of study.

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APPENDIX

Appendix 1

Results

Table 1(a)

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Proctractor

W

Appendix 1

Table 1(b)

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(radian) (radian)

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Appendix 2

Table 2

Hole 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Position

Left

L (mm)

Right

R (mm)

L- R (mm)

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Appendix 3

Results

Length of member = mm Width of member =

mm

Thickness of member = mm

Table 3(a)

mm

Div mm Div mm

Table 3(b)

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Load, P Mid-Span Deflection, d d/P

N div mm mm / N

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Appendix 4

Table 4: Forces in Members of Truss

Screw Jack

(Applied load,

N)

Member 1

Member 2

Member 3

Member 4

Member 5

Member 6

Member 7

Member 8

Deflection(mm)

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Appendix 5(a)

Results

Beam Span = mm

Table 5(a)

At Support A, VA At Support B, VB

N N N

Table 5(b)

Load On Beam Fixed End Moment At Support A Fixed End Moment At Support B

F F F

M (Exp) = M (Theory), refer M (Exp) = MF(Theory), refer

equation 1 equation 2

VA * 55 VB * 55

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L

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a b

A B

Appendix 5(b)

Results

Width of member = mm

Thickness of member = mm

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Table 5(c)

Experimental Theoretical

Appendix 6(a)

Results

Span of arch = mm

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Distance of the load from the pinned support = mm

Table 6(a)

Experimental Theoretical

Appendix 6(b)

Results

Span of arch = mm

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Distance of the load from the pinned support = mm

Table 6(b)

Experimental Theoretical

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References

1 Abd Rahman, N., et al., 2011. Comparative Study between Open Ended Laboratory and Traditional

Laboratory

3 Petropol-Serb, G. D., et al., 2011. Open Ended Laboratory Method Applied in the Conception of a

Test Bench to Simulate a Diesel-Electric Transmission

4 Kofli, N. T., et al, 2012. Open Ended Laboratory Assignment As Enhancing Generic Skills Amongst

Engineering Students.

5 Kilinc, A., 2005. The Opinions of Turkish High School Pupils on Inquiry Based Laboratory

Activities

6 McComas, W.E, 1997. The nature of the laboratory experience: a guide for describing, classifying

and enhancing hands-on activities. CSTA Journal 6-9.

8 Asanovic, K., Celio, C., 2012. C152 Laboratory Exercise 1

9 UNSW, Australia. Assessment Toolkit. Assessing Laboratory Learning

10 Tianjian Ji and Adrian Bell, 2008. Seeing and Touching Structural Concepts. Taylor and Francis.

11 Siti Hawa & et al, 2005. Understanding Reinforced Concrete through Experiment. Upena.

12 BS 1881-116-1983(1983). Testing concrete, Part 116: Method for determination of compressive

strength of concrete cubes, Britain.

13 BS 1881-118-1983(1983). Testing concrete, Part 118: Method for determination of flexural strength,

Britain.

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