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Version 1.

0 UiTM Penang March 2013


UNIVERSITI
TEKNOLOGI
MARA
KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

OPEN
- ENDED MANUAL FOR UCTURAL
STR ENGINEERING
LABORATORY

BACHELOR OF ENGINEER
ING (HONS) CIVIL
( INFRASTRUCTURE
)
EC221

(VER: 1.0- INSTRUCTION TO STUDE


NT)

BY

MOHD ASHAARI MASROM


ROHAMEZAN ROHIM
DR. YEE HOOI MIN
AMER YUSUFF

Unitversiti Teknologi MARA Pulau Pinang


13500 Permatang Pauh,
Pulau Pinang.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

PREFACE ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
INTRODUCTION TO OPEN ENDED LABORATORY ACTIVITIES iv
LIST OF SYMBOLS x

PART 1: LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURAL LABORATORY 1

LAB 1: Torsion: to find the torque of a structural member 2

LAB 2: Shear centre: to find the shear centre and shear flow of a section 6

LAB 3: Instability of struts: to find the critical load of a section experimentally 10

LAB 4: Indeterminate truss: to find the reaction by using the superposition 13 LAB

5:

a. Indeterminate beam: to find the reaction by using the superposition method. 16

b. Indeterminate frame: to find the reaction by using the superposition method. 19

LAB 6:
a. Three-Hinged Arch: to find forces at abutment. 21

b. Two Hinged Arch: to find forces at abutment. 24

PART 2: HEAVY STRUCTURAL LABORATORY 27

LAB 7, 8, 9: Reinforced Concrete beam retrofitting 28

LAB 10: Testing on Composite Materials: compressive test 31

LAB 11: Flexural strengthening of lightweight beam 33 LAB

12: Trusses strengthening techniques 35

APPENDIX 37

REFERENCES 38
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PREFACE

The laboratory work provides a realistic simulation to the actual event at field scale. It is hoped that

the student should be able to comprehend and appreciate the object of conducting laboratory work.

Conventional techniques of laboratory testing seem to be too straightforward where the student

couldnt appreciate and extract the value of conducting the laboratory procedures. Thus, a new

direction of laboratory work is designed to emphasize the need of cultivating enthusiastic and

passionate among the student. Besides provides challenges and new approaches, open-ended

investigation provides real practice at the field scale. This short manuscript offers a brief guideline

for students before conducting open-ended laboratory experimentation for Structural Engineering

Laboratory. Four degree of difficulty is measured based on the four items namely preamble, problem,

ways & mean and the answers. All the topic in the syllabus are distributed by inferring level 0 as the

most and level 3 the least. Level 0 is the simple, direct and guide-oriented type opposed to level 3

where a general problem is given with a minor guidance from the instructor. It is hoped that this brief

manual may help the student to carry out the open-ended laboratory work.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to acknowledge the constructive comments and suggestions I have received from my

colleagues and students over the years of my teaching profession. These valuable suggestions have

inspired me and helped me in the development of this Manual. I am indebted to the external

reviewers appointed by the publishers and am appreciative of their constructive criticisms. This

Manual would not have been completed without the support received from the School of Civil

Engineering at the University Teknologi Mara, Kampus Pulau Pinang, where I have been employed

as an academic member of staff. I would like to thank Associate Prof. Abd Rahman Mahamod for his

encouragement and editorial assistance. I am also grateful for the help I received from members of

staff at University Teknologi Mara, Kampus Pulau Pinang in preparing the first version of the

manuscript.

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INTRODUCTION TO OPEN ENDED LABORATORY ACTIVITIES


From Prescriptive to Investigative

Introduction
Various methods of innovative teaching may be implemented in the teaching and learning activities

to simulate an environment where students are encouraged to be proactive. These innovative

methods may be in the form of Project Based Learning (PBL), Project Oriented Problem Based

Learning (POPBL), Active Learning (AL), Cooperative Learning (CL), Independent Learning (IL)

and others.

Previous methods of teaching laboratory courses are basically in the form of fully guided

assignment. The methods are described as prescriptive or traditional methods. However these
(1)
methods are now no longer adequate within the context of outcome based learning environments .

It could not provide the platform where students are given opportunities to explore their own

simulation and design their own experimental works.

The Engineering Accreditation Manual (EAC) 2012 (2) stipulated that:

Students should receive sufficient laboratory work to complement engineering

theory that is learnt through lectures. The laboratory should help students develop

competence in executing experimental work. Throughout the programme, there

should be adequate provision for laboratory or similar investigative work, which will

develop the young engineer the confidence to deal with new and unusual engineering

problem.

Thus the need for an open ended laboratory is emphasized in enhancing independent learning and

inculcating creativity and innovation of students. They are required to determine the objectives and

scope, identifying apparatus needed and preparing the methodology, running the experiment and

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finally submitting the technical report. Through this process students must understand the principles

of technical reasoning and the experimental design (3).

This brief paper looks at the practicality of implementing the open ended laboratory activities at

different levels of education for a four year engineering degree programme and how it was

implemented at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Pulau Pinang.

Level of Openness
(1, 4)
Amongst the many papers which the author managed to review stated that fully open ended

laboratory activities should be introduced in the third year of the four year degree programme.

However, syllabi of most engineering programme contain laboratory courses spanning throughout

the four year programme. Thus it is impractical to introduce the open ended laboratory activities for

all laboratory courses from Year 1 to Year 4. The conduct of laboratory activities should be carried

out at different levels of openness throughout the period of study.

The concept of different level of openness was discussed by many authors. In most discussion the
(5)
area of concern is categorized as problem, ways and means and answers. Kilinc, A., 2005

described the level of openness as shown in Table 1 below based on the one proposed by

HegartyHazel (1986). The ways and means are split into two different elements as apparatus and

procedures respectively.

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Table 1 : Level of Openness according to Hegarty-Hazel, 1986

LEVEL PROBLEM APPARATUS PROCEDURE ANSWER COMMON


NAME

O Given Given Given Given Verification

1 Given Given Given Open Guided Inquiry

2a Given Given Open Open Open guided


inquiry

2b Given Open Open Open Open guided


inquiry

3 Open Open Open Open Open Inquiry

McComas (1997) (6) presented the level of openness as envisaged by Schwab-Herron as in Table 2
below. Four levels were identified and three elements to be addressed were categorized. Table 2 :
Level of Openness according to Schwab-Herron

Schwab/Herron Levels of Laboratory Openness

LEVEL PROBLEM WAYS & MEANS ANSWERS

0 Given Given Given

1 Given Given Open

2 Given Open Open

3 Open Open Open

(3)
Petropol-Serb (2011) categorized the elements to be addressed in the open ended laboratory

activities as the experimental set-up, the experimental design and data analysis and report.

Asanovic (2009, 2012) (7, 8) referred to the elements as a directed portion and an open ended portion.

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To simplify the matter it is suggested that there should be four (4) levels of openness, namely Levels

0-3, and three categories of element to be incorporated into the laboratory manual, namely problem,

ways and means and answers. The scientific enquiry rubric, as given by Fay, 2009, for the levels of

openness are summarized and described as in Table 3 below by the University of New South Wales,

Australia (9).

Table 3: Scientific Enquiry Rubric

Establishing the level of independence and autonomy expected of students to carry out
an assessment task

Level of Description
Enquiry

0 The problem, procedure and methods for achieving solutions are provided to the
student. The student performs the experiment and verifies the results with the
manual

1 The problem and procedure are provided to the student. The student interprets the
data in order to propose viable solutions

2 The problem is provided to the student. The student develops a procedure for
investigating the problem, decides what data to gather, and interprets the data in
order to propose viable solutions

3 A raw phenomenon is provided to the student. The student chooses the problem to
explore, develops a procedure for investigating the problem, decides what data to
gather, and interprets the data in order to propose viable solutions

Implementation of Laboratory Activities

Implementation of the laboratory activities at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Pulau Pinang

was progressively introduced, monitored, reviewed and streamlined since the last accreditation

exercise by EAC in 2008. New guidelines were introduced to facilitate the teaching and learning

activities to benefit not only the students but new lecturers taking the courses. Manual preparation

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for each laboratory activities would include the elements as shown in Table 4. The preamble to the

laboratory manual should include introduction, objectives and learning outcomes. The lecturers may

also include basic theoretical information as and when necessary.

Table 4: Elements in a Laboratory Manual

LEVEL PREAMBLE PROBLEM WAYS & ANSWERS COMMON DEGREE


MEANS NAME OF OF
LAB OPEN
ACTIVITIES ENDED

0 Given Given Given Given Traditional 0%

1 Given Given Given Open Partially open 33%

2 Given Given Open Open Partially open 66%

3 Given Open Open Open Fully open 100%

The implementation of open ended laboratory in Structural Engineering Laboratory can be seen in

Table 5. Each topic consists in Structural Engineering laboratory syllabus has assigned according to

level of openness.

Table 5: Level assigned on each topic

Week Topic Hours Level

Light Structural Laboratory

1 Torsion: to find the torque of a structural member. 2 0

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2 Shear centre: to find the shear centre and shear flow of a section 2 1
experimentally.

3 Instability of struts: to find the critical load of a section 2 0


experimentally.

4 Indeterminate truss: to find the reaction by using the superposition 2 0

5 Indeterminate beam and frame: to find the reaction by using the 2 0


superposition method.

6 Three and two hinged arch: to find forces at abutment. 2 1

Heavy Structural Laboratory

7 Strengthening of normal reinforced concrete beam. 4 3

8 Reinforced concrete beam patch repair: to test the repaired concrete 4 3


beam.

9 Monitoring of crack propagation and movement of reinforced 2 3


concrete structure.

10 Testing on composite materials: compressive test. 2 2

11 Flexural strengthening of lightweight beam. 2 2

12 Trusses strengthening techniques. 2 2

TOTAL 28

The percentage for each level is calculated as the contact hours for each assigned topic. Table 6
shows percentage of each level.

Table 6: Elements in a Laboratory Manual

Suggested
Level Problem Way & Means Answer Percentage
Breakdown based
on hours %

0 Given Given Given 28.57


1 Given Given Open 14.29
2 Given Open Open 21.43
3 Open Open Open 35.71

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It can be seen in Table 5, the highest level of openness that can be implemented is up to level 1 for
the light structural laboratory activities. The reason why the level of openness of light structural
laboratory activities cant beyond to level 1 because most of the experimental setup/ procedure for
each lab topics have fixed standard specification that provided by the manufacturer. Therefore, the
student couldnt suggest their own procedure by themselves. Otherwise, they cant achieve the
objectives of study.

Conclusion

It is hope that the teaching of laboratory courses progressively from prescriptive to investigative in
nature will eventually mould the students to be better engineers in the future. It should be noted that
well-prepared laboratory manuals based on the different levels of openness alone could never
achieve the desired objectives without due attention and proper assessment of the activities by
respective course lecturers/laboratory facilitators. It is also anticipated that this nature of activities
would enable students to be better prepared in taking final year projects of investigative nature in the
fourth year.

LIST OF SYMBOLS

J polar moment of inertia

G shear modulus

T applied torque

angle of twist

Aw area of web

Af area of flange

e shear center

Pcr critical buckling load or Euler load

Le effective length of strut

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E Youngs modulus of material

I second moment of inertia

L length of specimen

tw thickness of web

tf thickness of flange

b1 width of flange

h height of sample

L deflection at left hand side of specimen cross-section

R deflection at right hand side of specimen cross-section

P,W,F applied load

V vertical reaction at support

M bending moment

d mid-span deflection of strut

H horizontal reaction at support

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PART 1

LIGHT STRUCTURAL
LABORATORY

CATEGORY MANUAL DESCRIPTION

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UNIVERSITI
TEKNOLOGI
MARA
KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
FOR
LAB : Torsion
1 ( CO1:PO3, CO2:PO
6)
LEVEL:0 CONTENT
LEVELS

Torsion is basic type of deformation of a structural


member that is subjected to a twist action of applied
forces, as shown by the cantilever shaft subjected to a
torque at the free end (Figure 1). If the shaft is long and
has a circular section, its torsion and deformation are
characterized by the following:

Figure 1

PREAMBLE INTRODUCTION i) The torque or twist moment is applied within a


plane perpendicular to the axis of the circular
member.

ii) Under the action of the torque, shear stress


develops on the cross sections.

iii) Under the action of the torque, the deformation of


the bar is dominated by angle of twist, i.e., the
relative rotation between parallel planes
perpendicular to the axis.

iv) A plane section perpendicular to the axis remains


plane after the twist moment is applied, i.e., no
warpage or distortion of parallel planes normal to
the axis of a member occurs.

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Recall the equation;


G*J
T= x

L
T Or = Constant x

Hence
G*J
Constant = = Slope of the graph T Vs.
L
Thus Shear Modulus,
G = (Slope x L) / J

To determine the relationship between the applied torque


OBJECTIVES and the angle of twist and hence obtain the shear modulus.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


LEARNING 1. determine the shear modulus, G of shaft.
OUTCOMES 2. describe the influence of torsion in structural design.

Beam is an element that normally sustains the vertical


PROBLEM loading. It tends to fail due to torsion besides bending and
PROBLEM shear. Therefore, it is important to aware the torsion effect
STATEMENT on the beam.

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Procedure:
1. Switch on the digital proctractor and the load indicator unit
to warm the systems.

2. Measure the length (only the round section) and diameter


of the specimen.
WAYS & 3. Mount the torsiometer approximately at the center of the
PROCEDURES
MEANS
specimen and set the dial gauge reading to zero.

4. Loosen the top screw that is attached to the specimen


setting bar.

5. Attached a socket to the end of the specimen setting bar.

6. Place the specimen in the socket.


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7. Place another socket at the free end.


8. Push the specimen setting bar towards the other socket.
Once the specimen is in contact with the socket, try to push
the specimen so that it slides into the socket. If this is not
possible, turn the handle to rotate the socket slightly so that
the specimen can slide into the socket.

9. Once the socket and the specimen are in line pushed the
specimen until the whole the hexagon portion is
completely inside the socket.

10. When the hexagon portion is completely inside the socket,


lock the position of the specimen setting bar by tightening
the top and bottom screws.

11. Set the load indicator reading to zero by pressing the tare
button.

12. Set the digital protractor reading to zero by pressing the R


button

13. Set the torsiometer reading to zero by turning the dial


indicator face.

14. Turn the handle until the load cell records a small reading
(approximately 5 Newtons) and the specimen is tight. This
is a preload condition.

15. Set the load indicator, the digital protractor and the
torsiometer reading to zero by pressing the tare button, the
R button and turning the face of the dial gauge
respectively.

16. Apply torque to the specimen by turning the handle.


17. Record the load cell, the digital protractor and the
torsiometer readings initially for every 5 division of the
torsiometer. Once yield is achieved loosen the

18. Increase the applied torque and for each increament


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record the corresponding angles of twist.


19. When the torsiometer reading starts to increase rapidly,
remove the torsiometer to avoid damage.

20. Continue increasing the load until the specimen breaks.

21. If the experiment is to be conducted in the linear range


only, it is advisable that the torsional stress should not
exceed 0.3 the yield stress of the material.

22. When conducting test to destruction, remove the


torsiometer when the specimen approaches yield.

DATA Test data to be recorded in the tables as given in


ACQUISITION Appendix 1.

Analysis
1. Draw the graph of applied torque, T N-mm verses the
angle of twist, radian using the data from the torsiometer.

2. Draw the best fit curve through the plotted points.


3. Determine the slope of the graph. This represents the
average torque per unit angle of twist. Compare with the
theoretical value.

Conclusion
1. From the experimental data describe the relationship
ANALYSIS &
ANSWERS between applied torque and angle of twist.
CONCLUSION
2. How the value of G does obtained from the experiment
compares with that normally assumed in practice for the
material being tested.

3. What are the possible sources of error in this experiment?

4. If the specimen is tested to failure describe the failure


surface. Does it reflect the type of material (brittle or
ductile) being tested?
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

UNIVERSITI
TEKNOLOGI
MARA
KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
LAB2: Shear centre: to find the shear centre and
flowshear
of a section
experimentally.
LEVEL: 1

CATEGORY MANUAL
FOR DESCRIPTION
LEVELS CONTENT

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The shear centre for semicircle:

PREAMBLE INTRODUCTION If a beam is subjected to bending moments and shear


force in a plane, other than the plane of geometry,

=
which passes through thecentroid of the section, then

bending moment will be
r = radius of semicircle accompanied by twisting. In
order to avoid twisting and cause bending only, the
transverse forces
The shear must for
centre act an
through a point which may
angle:
not coincide with the centroid, but will depend upon
theThe
shape of the sectionyand
shear center ,(x
such a point is termed as
O) is located at the intersection
shear centre. In otherO words, loads must be applied at
of the angle leg axes.
particular point in the cross section, called shear center,
if the beam is to bend without twisting.

The shear center of- C


channel:

F t1
t2
h
e N.A

The shear centre for


- section:
Z
The shear center for
- section
Z islocated at O.
b1

= 2 = area of web
= 11 = area of flange
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

1. To validate the theoretical equation of shear


centre for semi-circle, Z-section, C-channel & angle
section in the laboratory.
OBJECTIVES
2. To ascertain the position of the shear centre for
a sections.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


1. determine the shear center of different sections (semi-
circle, Z-section, C-channel and angle section).
LEARNING
2. differentiate the stability of varies sections due to shear
OUTCOMES centre.
3. describe the influence of shear centre to the structure
element.

Most of the cross sectional members not symmetry in x


PROBLEM and /or y axis, it will cause bend including twisting.
PROBLEM The shear centre is a point where the load applied will
STATEMENT cause the member bend without twisting.

WAYS & PROCEDURES 1. Loosen the two rearward facing thumbscrews


MEANS on the indicator bosses, turn the indicators outward to
contact the inner two datum pegs and lock off the
thumbscrews. This sets the two indicators parallel.
2. Fit the 'U' section into the bottom chuck.
3. Fit the top of the specimen into the top chuck in
the same relative position, ensuring that the specimen
is set squarely and all of the screws are tight.
4. Undo the top chuck hand wheel and rotate the
specimen so it is orientated. When hear the chuck
'click' into the correct position, tighten the hand wheel.
5. Fit the shear centre beam to the bottom chuck
as shown in Figure 3 and secure with the extension
piece.
6. Ensure that the indicators have roughly equal
travel forward and backward on the shear arm pegs. If
not, loosen the indicator top screw, slide the indicator
to the correct position and tighten the screw.
7. Tap the frame sharply to reduce the effect of
friction and zero the indicators.
8. Apply a load of 500 g to the left-hand notch (-
25 mm). With the cord over the pulley, ensure that the
pulley and cord remain parallel to the lines on the plate
below.
9. Record the resulting indicator readings in Table
1. 10. Repeat with the same load at the other notch
positions ensuring the cord remains parallel at all
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times.

Test data to be recorded in the table as given in


DATA
Appendix 2.
ACQUISITION
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Analysis:
1. Based on the data collected in Table 2, purpose the
suitable way to plot the graph to determine the shear
center of sections for the experimental work.

2. How do you compare the theoretical value and


experimental result?

ANALYSIS & 3. How do you check the accuracy of experimental result


ANSWERS
CONCLUSION with respect to theoretical values?

Conclusion:
Discussion in laboratory work must be reflecting
according to objectives of study.

What is the important to carry out this particular


experiment as a structural engineer?

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UNIVERSITI
TEKNOLOGI
MARA
KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
: Instability of struts
LAB 3 ( CO1:PO3, CO2:PO
6)
LEVEL:0

CATEGORY MANUAL
FOR DESCRIPTION
LEVELS CONTENT
If compressive load is applied on a column, the member
may fail either by crushing or by buckling depending on
its material, cross section and length. If member is
considerably long in comparison to its lateral dimensions
it will fail by buckling. If a member shows signs of
buckling the member leads to failure with small increase
in load. The load at which the member just buckles is
called as crushing load. The buckling load, as given by
Euler, can be found by using following expression.

INTRODUCTION

Where Le = L. The coefficient, is depend on the


following boundary condition:
PREAMBLE
Pined-Pined 1.0
Pined-Fixed 0.7
Fixed Fixed 0.5

To determine the buckling load for a strut.


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the week, students should be able to: 1.
determine the critical buckling loads of strut for
LEARNING different types of boundary conditions.
OUTCOMES 2. describe the important of critical buckling load in
column design.

Column is a slender member. It tends to fail due to


PROBLEM buckling behavior instead of material itself. Therefore, it is
PROBLEM
STATEMENT important to determine the buckling load of column so that
can serve its primary function.
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Procedure:
1. Choose a specimen and measure its length, width and
thickness at three places. Note the readings.

2. Calculate the theoretical buckling load for a strut with


pinned end condition. This is to ensure that the load
applied to the strut does not exceed the buckling load.

3. Placed the knife-edge support into the slot of the


attachment for the end conditions. Refer appendix for
proper installation of the knife-edge.

4. Move the top platen upwards or downwards to bring the


distance between the two knife edges closer to the length
of the strut

5. Note the reading on the digital indicator. If it is not zero


press F1 until the word tare is displayed.
WAYS & (negative sign indicates compressive load) 6.
PROCEDURES
MEANS
Place the specimen on the lower knife edges.

7. Adjust the jack so that the upper knife edge just rests in the
groove at the other end of the sample. If the distance
between the two knife edges is slightly less than the length
of the strut, turn the screw jack handle counter clockwise.
If the distance between the two knife edges is slightly
greater than the length of the strut, turn the screw jack
handle clockwise.

8. Note the reading on the digital indicator. If the


compressive load is greater than 10 N turn the jack handle
counter clockwise to bring the compressive load to less
then 10N.

9. Check the position of the dial gauge to ensure that it is at


the mid-length of the specimen. Set the dial gauge reading
to zero.

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10. Press F1 until the word tare is displayed.


11. Load the specimen at suitable increments by turning the
screw jack handle slowly in the clockwise direction.

12. Increase the load and for each load increment record the
load and the corresponding mid-span deflection.
(Important: please ensure that the applied load is
always less then 80 % of the buckling load.)

13. Unload the specimen by turning the jack handle in the


counter clockwise direction.

14. Carry out the experiment for pinned-pinned, pinnedfixed


and fixed-fixed boundary condition.

Test data to be recorded in the table as given in Appendix


DATA
3.
ACQUISITION
Analysis
1. From data plot the graph of deflection versus
(deflection/load)
2. Draw the best straight line through the points plotted.
3. From the plot determine the slope of the line. This
represents the buckling load for the specimen.
ANALYSIS &
ANSWERS 4. Compare the theoretical and the experimental value.
CONCLUSION
Conclusion
1. Comments on your findings in the experiment.
2. In your opinion, after went through the experiment,
what is the important to determine the buckling load in
column design?
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

UNIVERSITI
TEKNOLOGI
MARA
KAMPUS PULAU PINANG

CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
: Indeterminate
LAB 4 truss( CO1:PO3,CO2:PO6)
LEVEL:0

CATEGORY MANUAL
FOR DESCRIPTION
LEVELS CONTENT

In statics, a structure is statically indeterminate when the static


equilibrium equations are insufficient for determining the internal
forces and reactions on that structure. In order to analyze the
indeterminate structures, considerations in the material properties
and compatibility in deformations are taken to solve statically
indeterminate. A statically indeterminate truss can be determined
INTRODUCTION using the formula as below:

DOI = (m + r) (2j + c)

Where m = member, r = reaction, j = joint, c = internal hinge

PREAMBLE
To compare the member forces of indeterminate truss determined
OBJECTIVES in theoretical structural analysis with respect to experimental
result.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:

LEARNING 1. able to find the member forces in the truss system by


using the superposition method.
OUTCOMES 2. describe the principal of superposition approach in solving
indeterminate truss problem.

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A truss is a structure that is made of straight, slender bars that are


PROBLEM joined together to form a pattern of triangles. Trusses are usually
PROBLEM designed to transmit forces over relatively long spans. Common
STATEMENT examples of trusses are bridge trusses and roof trusses.

WAYS & PROCEDURE


PROCEDURES
MEANS 1. Switch on the computer and the data acquisition module. For
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stability of the reading the data acquisition must be switched


on 10 minutes before taking readings.

2. Select a truss configuration. (see attachment for possible


configuration)

3. Assemble the truss according to the selected configuration using


the members available.

4. Place one end of the plane truss on the roller support and the other
on the pin support (please ensure that the centre of the joint is
located on the knife edge and at the centre of the roller).

5. Ensure that the pinned support is properly secured to the frame.

6. Attached the screw jack to the joint to be loaded.


7. Loosen the screw jack so that the truss is free from applied load.

8. Connect the wire from the load cell to the data acquisition module,
each load cell occupying one channel of the module.

9. Run the Winview CP Plus software.


10. Select the setting option to set the modules and channels to be
acquired

11. When the setting is complete, return to the sub menu. Click the
start button and choose the overwrite file option.

12. Some figures will be displayed in the boxes of the chosen


channels. These figures are the voltage outputs from the load
cells. They are in millivolt units. For this apparatus 1 millivolt is
equivalent to 100 N force.

13. Allow approximately 20 seconds of readings to be captured. After


20 seconds press the stop button (watch the graph for the time
span). This will be the initial readings for each load cell.

14. On the sub menu click the start button. Choose the append

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option.
15. Turn the screw jack handle to apply loads in the downward
direction and observe the readings of the screw jack. When the
desired load is reached, stop turning the screw jack.

16. Allow approximately 20 seconds of readings to be captured. After


20 seconds press the stop button.

17. Repeat step 14 to 16 for a few more load increments.


18. At the end of the experiment, export the data to the excel
spreadsheet and carry out the necessary analysis.

DATA
Test data to be recorded in the table as given in Appendix 4.
ACQUISITION

Analysis:
1. Draw the truss and indicate the loaded joint.
2. Calculate the average force in each member for each load
increment. Remember to subtract the initial reading from the data
acquired for each load increment.

3. Fill the results in Table 4.


4. Plot the graph of forces in the members versus the applied load for
the experimental and theoretical case.

ANALYSIS & 5. Determine the percentage error by calculating the slope of each
ANSWERS CONCLUSION graph.

Conclusion:
1. State the relationship between the applied load and the force in
the members.

2. State the possible source of errors.


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CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
LAB5(a): Indeterminate beam
LEVEL: 0

CATEGORY FOR MANUAL


DESCRIPTION
LEVELS CONTENT

The redundant in form of reaction exist in an


indeterminate system. However, static equation
itself unable to solve that particular redundant.
The superposition method is one of the suitable
approaches to determine this reaction. The fixed
INTRODUCTION end moment of a fixed end beam is given by;

MFAB = - W * a * b2/ L2 (1)

MFBA = - W * a2 * b/ L2 (2)

PREAMBLE To validate the theoretical equation of fixed end


moment through experimental work by using the
OBJECTIVES superposition method for indeterminate beam.

At the end of the week, students should be able


to:
LEARNING
1. determine the reaction of the indeterminate
OUTCOMES beam by using superposition method.
2. describe the principal of superposition approach.

19
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Structural could be classified into statically


determinate and indeterminate system. Static
PROBLEM equation can be use to solve the determinate
PROBLEM problem. Meanwhile, superposition method can
STATEMENT be use to solve the indeterminate problem.

PROCEDURE:

1. Please refer to attachment for experimental set


up in Figure 5(a) in appendix 5(a).
2. Fixed the two supports tightly to the base with
the distant between them equals to the span of
the beam.
3. Check that the load cell is properly secured to
the pivoting plate.
4. Place the ends of the beam between the
clamping plates of the supports and tightened
the two screws to fix the beam.
PROCEDURES 5. Clipped the load hanger at the position where
the beam is to be loaded.
WAYS & MEANS 6. Connect the load cell from the support pier to
the display unit, each load cell occupying one
terminal on the display.
7. Switch on the display and beginning with
channel 1 record the initial reading for each
channel.
8. Place a suitable load on the load hanger and
record the reading of each load cell.
9. Increase the load on the load hanger and record
the pier reaction.

Test data to be recorded in the table as given in


DATA
Appendix 5(a).
ACQUISITION

20
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Experimental slope is obtained from the graph

ANSWERS ANALYSIS & Analysis: (








=

100
1.


From Equation 1 and 2 above write down the
CONCLUSION
Conclusion:
equations for the fixed end moment at A and B
1.for this For
experiment.
a beam loaded with a single point load
2. Usingas
theabove,
data from
statethe
theTable 5(b) plot the
the relationship between
graphthe
of fixed
fixed end
endmoment
momentverses
and load
load for both
2.supports
Will the relationship
betweenreactionand
load be the
3. Determine linear if of
slope theeach
beam is loaded with
graph.
4. Calculate
more thethan
percentage error different
1 load with using themagnitude?
slope
3.obtained fromon
Comment thethe
above graph. of the result
accuracy
obtained
For support A; in this experiment.
Theoretical slope = a * b2/ L2
For support B; Theoretical slope = a2 * b/ L2

21
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CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
LAB 5(b):Indeterminate
frame( CO1:PO3, CO2:PO
6)
LEVEL:0

CATEGORY MANUAL
FOR DESCRIPTION
LEVELS CONTENT

In statics, a structure is statically indeterminate when the


static equilibrium equations are insufficient for
determining the internal forces and reactions on that
structure. In order to analyze the indeterminate structures,
considerations in the material properties and compatibility
in deformations are taken to solve statically indeterminate.
A statically indeterminate frame can be determined by
INTRODUCTION using the following formula:

DOI = (3m + r) (3j + c)

Where m = member, r = reaction, j = joint, c = internal


hinge
PREAMBLE

To validate the reactions of indeterminate frame


determined in theoretical structural analysis with respect to
OBJECTIVES
experimental result.

At the end of the week, students should be able to:


LEARNING 1. find the reactions of indeterminate frame by using the
superposition method.
OUTCOMES 2. describe the principal of superposition approach.

22
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A portal frame is statically determinate if there are only


three external reactions. If a portal frame has more than
three reactions, it is classified as statically indeterminate.
PROBLEM The degree of indeterminacy or redundancy being equal to
PROBLEM the number of redundant or extra reactions to be
STATEMENT
determined.

1. Connect the load cell to the digital indicator


2. Switch on the indicator. For stability of the reading the
indicator must be switch on 10 minutes before taking
readings.

3. Place a load hanger at the location where the load is to be


applied.

4. Note the indicator reading. If it is not zero press the tare


PROCEDURES
button.
WAYS &
5. Place a load on the load hanger.
MEANS
6. Record the indicator reading. This represents the
horizontal reaction of the pinned support.

7. Increase the load on the load hanger and record the


horizontal reaction.

8. Repeat step 7 for another 4 load increments

Test data to be recorded in the table as given in Appendix


DATA
5(b).
ACQUISITION

23
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Analysis:
1. Draw the shape of the portal frame under test and give the
important dimensions. Indicate the position where the
frame is loaded.

2. Using the data in the Table 5(c), draw the graph of load
verses displacement at the roller support. Draw the best fit
curve through the plotted points.
ANALYSIS &
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION Conclusion:
1. From the result of this experiment, deduce the relationship
between load and displacement at the roller.

2. Comment on the accuracy of the experimental results.


3. List the probable factors that affect the accuracy of the
results and steps to be taken to overcome it.

CATEGORY MANUAL
DESCRIPTION
FOR LEVELS CONTENT

24
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PREAMBLE INTRODUCTION An arch may be looked upon as a curved girder, either


a solid rib or braced, supported at its ends and carrying
transverse loads which are frequently vertical. Since
the transverse loading at any section normal to the axis
of the girder is at an angle to the normal face, an arch
is subjected to three restraining forces: thrust, shear
force and bending moment. Depending upon the
number of hinges, arches may be divided into four
classes which is three hinged arch, two hinged arch,
single hinged arch and fixed arch (hingeless arch).A
three hinged arch is statically determinate structures
while the rest three arches are statically indeterminate.
In bridge construction, especially in railroad bridges,
the more used arches are two-hinged and the fixed end
ones.

25
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CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
LAB6(a): Three
- Hinge
d Arch
LEVEL: 1

The horizontal thrust is given by :


HA = WkL / (2h)

21

To study three-hinged arch for the horizontal thrust of


the roller end for a given system of loading and to
OBJECTIVES
compare the same with those obtained analytically.

26
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At the end of the week, students should be able to:

1. determine the relationship between applied load and


the horizontal thrust at the support of a three-hinged
parabolic arch.
LEARNING 2. analyze three-hinged arch for external loading.
OUTCOMES 3. compute horizontal reaction in three-hinged arch.
4. realize the application of the three-hinged arch in
structure engineering.

In the case of three-hinged arch, we have three hinges:


two at the support and one at the crown thus making it
statically determinate structure. There are four reaction
components in the three-hinged arch. One more
PROBLEM equation is required in addition to three equations of
PROBLEM
STATEMENT static equilibrium for evaluating the four reaction
components. Taking moment about the hinge of all the
forces acting on either side of the hinge can set up the
required equation.

PROCEDURE:
1. Fix the simple support and the roller support to the
support frame at a distance equals to the span of the
arch i.e. 1000 mm.
2. The roller support must be anchored such that the
pulley is located on the inside of the arch.
3. Take the wire rope at the roller end of the arch and
pass it over the pulley attached to the roller support.
4. Place a load hanger at the end of the wire rope and at a
selected location of the arch.
WAYS & MEANS PROCEDURES 5. Offset the dead load by placing sufficient load on the
load hanger at the end of the wire rope so that the arch
is level. (Horizontal thrust due to dead load is
approximately 12 N)
6. Place a load on the load hanger at the selected location
of the arch.
7. Add sufficient loads on the load hanger at the end of
the wire rope to level the arch.
8. Record the magnitude of the applied load and the load
at the roller support.

9. Increase the applied load and repeat step 6 to 9.


10. Repeat the above experiment for another two tests to
27
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obtain average reading of the measured values.

Test data to be recorded in the table as given in


DATA
Appendix 6(a).
ACQUISITION

Analysis:

1. Derive the horizontal thrust at the pinned support for


the three hinged arch in terms of the applied loading,
span and height of the crown.

2. Based on the data collected in Table 6(a), purpose the


suitable way to plot the graph of thrust for the
experimental and theoretical case.

3. How do you check the accuracy of experimental result


with respect to theoretical values?
ANALYSIS &
ANSWERS Conclusion:
CONCLUSION
1. From the results above state the relationship between
the horizontal thrust at the support and the applied
load.

2. State the probable source of error for this experiment.

3. Briefly explain the application of the three hinged arch


concept in structural analysis by giving an example for
bridge structure.

28
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CES
511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
LAB6(b): Two Hinge
d Arch
LEVEL: 1

CATEGORY FOR MANUAL


DESCRIPTION
LEVELS CONTENT
PREAMBLE The two hinged arch is a statically indeterminate
INTRODUCTION structure of the first degree. A typical two-
hinged arch is shown in Fig.6 (b). The horizontal
thrust is the redundant reaction and is obtained
by the use of strain energy methods. Two hinged
arch is made determinate by treating it as a
simply supported curved beam and horizontal
thrust as a redundant reaction. The arch spreads
out under external load. Horizontal thrust is the
redundant reaction is obtained by the use of
strain energy method.

Figure 6(b)
The horizontal thrust is given by :
H = 5 W L (k4 2k3 + k) / ( 8h )

29
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

To study two hinged arch for the horizontal


thrust of the roller end for a given system of
OBJECTIVES
loading and to compare the same with those
obtained analytically.
At the end of the week, students should be able
to:

1. determine the relationship between applied load


and the horizontal thrust at the support of a two
hinge parabolic arch.
LEARNING 2. analyze two-hinged arch for external loading.
OUTCOMES 3. compute horizontal reaction in twohinged arch.
4. realize the application of the two-hinged arch in
structure engineering.

In the case of two-hinged arch, we have four


unknown reactions, but there are only three
PROBLEM equations of equilibrium available. Hence, the
PROBLEM degree of statically indeterminacy is one for two
STATEMENT
hinged arch.

PROCEDURE:

1. Switch on the indicator. For stability of the


reading the indicator must be switch on 10
minutes before taking readings.
2. Fix the two supports tightly to the support
frame. Measure the span of the arch.
3. Press the Tare button to set the dial indicator
PROCEDURES reading to zero.
WAYS & MEANS 4. Place a load on the load hanger at the arch.
5. Record the indicator reading.
6. Increase the applied load and repeat step 4 and
5.
7. Repeat the experiment to get an average of two
readings.

Test data to be recorded in the table as given in


DATA Appendix 6(b).
ACQUISITION

30
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Analysis:

1. Derive the horizontal thrust at the pinned


ANALYSIS &
ANSWERS support for the three hinged arch in terms of
CONCLUSION
the applied loading, span and height of the
crown.

2. Based on the data collected in Table 6(b),


purpose the suitable way to plot the graph of
thrust for the experimental and theoretical case.

3. How do you check the accuracy of experimental


result with respect to theoretical values?

Conclusion:
1. From the results above state the relationship
between the horizontal thrust at the support and
the applied load.

2. State the probable source of error for this


experiment.

3. Brief explain the application of the two hinged


arch concept in structural analysis by giving an
example for bridge structure.

31
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PART 2

HEAVY STRUCTURAL
LABORATORY

32
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CES511
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
LAB7, 8, &9: ReinforcedConcrete beam retrofitting
LEVEL: 3

CATEGORY
FOR MANUAL CONTENT DESCRIPTION
LEVELS
Reinforced concrete building is the common structure
that constructed worldwide. Basically, RC building is
designed for 30 to 50 years designed life. Sometimes,
it cannot serve for intended designs life due to crack.
INTRODUCTION Therefore, retrofitting of concrete structure need to
be carried out so that the buildings can serve through
it designs life.

Expose the student to the real case of deteriorated


beam that suffered by cracking and poor construction
quality. Subsequently, find the method to retrofit the
OBJECTIVES deteriorated beam and observe the performance of
strengthening beam with respect to the normal beam
PREAMBLE condition.

At the end of the week, student should be able to:

1. transform the designed experiment into physical


application.
2. determine the performance of the structures.
LEARNING 3. fix the problem of deteriorated beam by
OUTCOMES investigation.
4. develop critical thinking skills, team work skills,
scientific problem solving skills, computer literacy
skills, and time management skills.

33
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Some of the RC buildings deteriorated before it


PROBLEM reached the designed life due to overloading and lack
PROBLEM
STATEMENT of construction quality and design. In conjunction
with that, students are required to make an
observation (investigation) of existing building
around which suffered crack and undue flexural
deformation. The scope of observation is limited
only on the reinforced concrete beam element in the
structural building. To gain better understanding,
students need to enter the heavy structural laboratory
to carry out an experiment in order to study how to
enhance the flexural behavior of the RC beam by
using the composite material to strengthen the
cracked beam.

Three number of beams need to be casted in the


concrete and heavy structural laboratory. The three
beams consist of:
1 normal RC beam(control specimen)
1 normal RC beam that has been strengthened
1 normal RC beam that has been deteriorated
Students need to propose the techniques for
strengthening one reinforced concrete beam by
using any composite material to enhance the flexural
performance of the beam. Then, set up an experiment
to carry out the flexural testing on the specimens.
PROCEDURES (You may refer BS 1881 - Part 118:1983: method for
determination of flexural strength). Patching repair
WAYS & need to be undertaken for deteriorated specimen.
MEANS During testing, students need to monitor crack
propagation of each specimen. The task is
accommodating for 5 sequences week. The detail
weekly program of work/tasks can be seen in the
lesson plan.

What data needs to be taken?


How is data reported? Data tables are good ideas!
DATA The units for physical measurements in a data table
ACQUISITION should be specified in the column heading only.

34
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ANSWERS ANALYSIS & Analysis:


CONCLUSION How do you interpret data?
Include all graphs, analysis
Studentof graphs,
centeredlaboratory
learning:
calculation.
Conclusion: 1. How does the crack width will
affect
Discussion in laboratory themust
work strength of the with
be reflecting
beam?
respect to objectives of study.
2. What happened to the high rise
building if there are major
crack occurred and how to
overcome this problem.
Discuss deeply.
3. What happened to the
structures if the ultimate loads
of the structures are not
achieved and how you can
solve this problem? Discuss
briefly.

35
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36
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CES511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY


LAB 10: Testing on Composite Materials: compressive test.
LEVEL: 2

CATEGORY
FOR MANUAL CONTENT DESCRIPTION
LEVELS
Composite materials are formed by the combination
of two or more materials that retain their respective
characteristics when combined together to achieve
properties (physical, chemical, etc.) that are superior
to those of individual constituents. The main
INTRODUCTION components of composites are reinforcing agents and
matrix. Composites are able to meet diverse design
requirements with significant weight savings as well
as high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to
conventional materials.

To study the performance of composite material


PREAMBLE
OBJECTIVES under compressive stress.

At the end of the week, student should be able to:


1. transform the designed experiment into physical
application.
2. determine the performance of the composite material
LEARNING as compared to homogenous material.
OUTCOMES 3. develop critical thinking skills, team work skills,
scientific problem solving skills, and time
management skills.

PROBLEM PROBLEM The design of a structural component using


STATEMENT composites involves both material and structural
design. For instance, the hardened concrete itself is
insufficient to withstand as a structures frame.
Therefore, the composite action in between the
reinforced bar and concrete is able to meet diverse
37
as well as high strength-to-
weight ratio as compared to
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013 used concrete solely.
Composite properties (e.g.,
design requirements with significant
stiffness, weightexpansion,
thermal savings
etc.) can be varied
continuously over a broad
range of values under the
control of the designer.

Prepare the sufficient cube specimens so that you can


make a compressive strength comparison between
homogenous and composite specimens. For the
composite specimen you may use steel, wood or any
PROCEDURES other possible material to combine with concrete. You
may refer BS 1881 - Part 116:1983 as a guideline for
WAYS & determination of compressive strength of cubes.
MEANS

What data needs to be taken?


DATA How is data reported? Data tables are good ideas!
The units for physical measurements in a data table
ACQUISITION
should be specified in the column heading only.

Analysis:
How do you interpret data?
Include all graphs, analysis of graphs, laboratory
calculation.
Conclusion:
ANALYSIS &
ANSWERS Does the difference in compressive strength between
CONCLUSION
composite and homogenous material follow your
expectation? Briefly explain according to result
obtained in the experiment.

CES511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY


LAB 11: Flexural strengthening of lightweight beam

LEVEL: 2

CATEGORY
FOR MANUAL CONTENT DESCRIPTION
LEVELS

38
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PREAMBLE INTRODUCTION Generally beam deflections are caused primarily by
the bending action of applied loads. In some
instances, however, where a beams cross-sectional
dimensions are not small compared with its length,
deflections due to shear become significant and must
be calculated. It is important to consider beam
deflections due to shear in additionthat
parameters to those produced
influence the
by bending. There aredeflection
several different methods
of the beam such of
strengthening the deflections in beams, the
material properties, cross choice
depending upon the type of problem
section and spanbeing solved.
of the beam.

OBJECTIVES Work in group;the


To strengthen determine
flexural the equation
of simply of deflection
supported beam
for simply supported
by reducing the deflection. beam. Study the parameter
consists in the equation. By playing with the
parameters studied, setup your own experimental
PROCEDURES
LEARNING At theinend of the
work order to week, student should
strengthening be able
the simply to:
supported
OUTCOMES 1. describe the parameters that influence the
beam so that the reduction in beam deflection can bedeflection
WAYS & of beam.
happened.
MEANS 2. determine the method to reduce the deflection of
beam.
What data needs to be taken?
PROBLEM PROBLEM Beamis must
How possess sufficient
data reported? Data tablesstiffness
are goodsoideas!
that
DATA
STATEMENT The units for
excessive physical do
deflections measurements
not have aninadverse
a data effect
table
ACQUISITION
should be specified in the column heading
on adjacent structural members. In many cases, only.
maximum allowable deflections are specified by
Codes of Practice in terms of the dimensions of the
beam, particularly the span. Beams may be designed
Analysis:
1. How
using doeither
you elastic
interpretorand compare
plastic the data
analysis. from
However,
experimental result with respect to theoretical?
since beam deflections must always occur within the
2. Include all graphs,
elastic limit of the analysis
material ofof graphs,
a beamlaboratory
they are
calculation.
determined using elastic theory. There are few
Conclusion:
Discussion in laboratory work must be
reflecting with respect to objectives of study.
ANALYSIS & Student centered learning:
ANSWERS
CONCLUSION
1. Does maximum deflection always occur at the
position where bending moment is
maximum?
39
2. If two beams have the same length and
flexural rigidity and are subjected to the same
external loads, are the deflections of the two
beams identical, and why?
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

CES511STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY


LAB 12: Trusses strengthening techniques

LEVEL: 2

CATEGORY MANUAL CONTENT


DESCRIPTION
FOR LEVELS

Truss system is light and can minimize the depth for


a long span beam compared to other beam system.
The knowledge of laboratory work as well as
INTRODUCTION
numerical approach (simulation) plays an important
role.

1. to collect the data for the member forces of the


determinate truss system.
PREAMBLE OBJECTIVES 2. to reduce the member forces (certain members) of the
truss system.

At the end of the week, student should be able to:


LEARNING 1. trace the excessive stress that cause the
failure in the member of truss structure.
OUTCOMES 2. determine the method to strengthen the truss.

The members in the truss structure are exerted by


axial force either tension or compression force.
Sometimes, excessive axial stress imposes at certain
PROBLEM member in the truss. Therefore, it necessary to add up
PROBLEM
STATEMENT new members in the truss structure system so that it
can help to cater the excessive axial load at particular
member in the truss.

Work in group:
1. Collect the data (member forces) from the
WAYS & determinate truss system.
PROCEDURES
MEANS 2. Using any numerical approach, compare the result
between laboratory work and simulation.

40
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3. Discuss with your team and suggest the


techniques to strengthen the truss system.
Show the result by using the simulation.

4. Produce the laboratory report.

What data needs to be taken?


DATA How is data reported? Data tables are good ideas!
The units for physical measurements in a data table
ACQUISITION
should be specified in the column heading only.

Analysis:
1. How do you interpret and compare the
data between experimental result and
ANALYSIS & simulation result?
ANSWERS 2. Include all graphs, analysis of graphs,
CONCLUSION
laboratory calculation.
Conclusion:
Discussion in laboratory work must be
reflecting with respect to objectives of study.

41
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

APPENDIX

Appendix 1
Results

Length of specimen = mm Diameter of specimen = mm Polar moment of inertia. = mm

Gauge length torsion meter = 50 mm

Torque arm, L = 100 mm

For the torsion meter, 1 division represents 0.015 degrees

Table 1(a)

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Load Cell Torsiometer Digital Actual Angle


Proctractor
W

Appendix 1

Table 1(b)

43
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Applied Torque Angle Of Twist Angle Of Twist

T = W * 100 (Torsiometer) (Digital Proctractor)

Nmm = (div * 0.02)*/180 = actual * /180

(radian) (radian)

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Appendix 2

Table 2
Hole 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Position
Left
L (mm)
Right
R (mm)
L- R (mm)

45
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Appendix 3

Results
Length of member = mm Width of member =

mm

Thickness of member = mm

Moment of inertia of member = mm4

Dial gauge reading, 1 div = 0.01 mm

Table 3(a)

Load P Mid-Span Deflection (mm) Average Deflection

N Run 1 Run 2 (Run 1 +Run 2)

mm
Div mm Div mm

Table 3(b)
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Load, P Mid-Span Deflection, d d/P

N div mm mm / N

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Appendix 4
Table 4: Forces in Members of Truss

Members Initial Readings Final Readings In Members

Screw Jack
(Applied load,
N)
Member 1

Member 2

Member 3

Member 4

Member 5

Member 6

Member 7

Member 8

Deflection(mm)

42
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Appendix 5(a)

Results
Beam Span = mm

Distance of load from support A = mm

Fixed end moment (exp) = (V * 55) Nmm

Table 5(a)

Load On The Beam Load Cell Reading Load Cell Reading

At Support A, VA At Support B, VB

N N N

Table 5(b)

Load On Beam Fixed End Moment At Support A Fixed End Moment At Support B

(W) Nmm Nmm


F F F
M (Exp) = M (Theory), refer M (Exp) = MF(Theory), refer
equation 1 equation 2
VA * 55 VB * 55

49
L
Version
55 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013
a b

A B

Figure 5(a): Setup for Fixed End Beam

Appendix 5(b)

Results
Width of member = mm

Thickness of member = mm
50
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

Second moment of area, I = mm

Table 5(c)

Load (N) Horizontal Displacement (N)


Experimental Theoretical

Appendix 6(a)

Results
Span of arch = mm

Thickness of the arch = mm

51
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Width of the arch = mm


Distance of the load from the pinned support = mm

Table 6(a)

Load, W Horizontal Thrust (N)

Experimental Theoretical

Test 1 Test 2 Average

Appendix 6(b)

Results
Span of arch = mm

52
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Thickness of the arch = mm

Width of the arch = mm


Distance of the load from the pinned support = mm

Table 6(b)

Load, W Horizontal Thrust (N)

Experimental Theoretical

Test 1 Test 2 Average

53
Version 1.0 UiTM Penang March 2013

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