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Oil & Gas

Oil & Gas From exploration to distribution Week 3 – V25 – Refining and Petrochemical Synergies

From exploration to distribution

Week 3 – V25 – Refining and Petrochemical Synergies

Christine Travers

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 1

© IFPEN - IFP School 2015 / © TOTAL SA 2015 / © IFP Training 2015

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 1 © IFPEN - IFP School 2015 /
W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 1 © IFPEN - IFP School 2015 /

Refining and Petrochemistry Integrations

Refining and Petrochemistry Integrations In this part you will learn how the different areas you have

In this part you will learn how the different areas you have studied in the previous lectures, refining, petrochemistry and gas, are interconnected.

Let first remind you of the main ones before considering the possible integrations which could help to improve the economic situation of these two industries.

It is important to keep in mind that the situation of refining and petrochemistry differs from one region of the world to another.

The situation of refining can be summarized such as:

Refining is restrained by a continuous evolution of products specifications (sulfur and aromatics content for example for gasoline)

In a near future, it will have to process heavier feeds coming from countries such as Venezuela or Canada.

Refining is subjected to a strong imbalance in terms of offer and demand: particularly in Europe where it is driven by an ever increasing demand for diesel oil,

it faces a Hydrogen shortage due to a significant development of hydrotreatment and hydrocracking processes

finally refining suffers from low return on investment , and has to manage with a low profit margin, especially in Europe.

The situation of petrochemistry is completely different:

petrochemistry is always looking for cheap “opportunity feeds”, it launches products with high added values and high growth dynamics,

petrochemistry is driven by an increasing need for base chemicals in emerging countries,

it faces a propylene and butadiene shortage

petrochemistry is a cyclic industry from an economic point of view.

To cope with these issues, petroleum companies invest in the possible synergies between

refining and petrochemistry bringing respective flexibilities.

these two industries closer together to improve their

Moreover, integration will allow :

low added value products to be upgraded to high added value ones, for example by

transforming a gasoline base into ethylene and propylene for polyethylene and polypropylene production

a better balance of the refining streams to correspond to the demand

improved energy efficiency and environmental impact. For example emissions and water demand could be divided by 1.5 on an integrated site.

All this, of course, with a major goal which is to optimize the global economics.

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 2

© IFPEN - IFP School 2015 / © TOTAL SA 2015 / © IFP Training 2015

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 2 © IFPEN - IFP School 2015 /
To achieve this integration, there are different possibilities and among them:  The exchange of

To achieve this integration, there are different possibilities and among them:

The exchange of streams between refining and petrochemical units

The merger of different technical departments such as utilities, logistics, storage……

But also the merger of general departments as Human Resources, infirmary, fire station, restaurant….

Streams Exchanges

From Refinery to Petrochemistry

Let us focus now on stream exchanges, and have a look at some of the streams which could be exchange between refinery and the petrochemical plant.

be exchange between refinery and the petrochemical plant. Remember, olefins and aromatics are base chemicals for

Remember, olefins and aromatics are base chemicals for the petrochemical industry and are produced either by steam cracking in the petrochemical plant or by refining. In the refinery olefins are produced by Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) and aromatics by Catalytic Reforming. These olefins and aromatics, if they are not used in refining operations, can be sent to a petrochemical plant to increase the availability of base chemicals. In Europe, excess gasoline can also be used as feed for the steamcracker where it will be converted into base chemicals.

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 3

© IFPEN - IFP School 2015 / © TOTAL SA 2015 / © IFP Training 2015

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 3 © IFPEN - IFP School 2015 /

From Petrochemistry to Refinery

From Petrochemistry to Refinery Remember, cracking reactions which occur in the steamcracker produce some H2 as
From Petrochemistry to Refinery Remember, cracking reactions which occur in the steamcracker produce some H2 as

Remember, cracking reactions which occur in the steamcracker produce some H2 as a secondary product. This H2, the purity of which is about 95%, can be sent, after carbon monoxide removal, to the refinery to be used in the hydrotreatment processes (HDS, DHC). The steamcracker also produces pyrolysis gasoline , rich in aromatics which consequently develops a high octane number (RON), but contains a large amount of diolefins and sulfur compounds. After removal of these impurities, this gasoline, in regions where gasoline is needed, can be sent to the refinery to be added to the gasoline pool. This is done when there are no other outlets for the aromatics.

Natural Gas Integrations

Natural gas which is becoming more and more a key player in this scene , due to the fact that :

huge amounts of natural gas are available

its price is not the same in all the regions of the world. The middle East and now the US with shale gas, are able to deliver low cost natural gas, making this raw material highly competitive

its environmental impact is lower than that of oil and coal.

The natural gas industry interacts strongly with refining and petrochemical industries, either directly by providing feed for the steamcracker or through different chemical transformations.

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 4

© IFPEN - IFP School 2015 / © TOTAL SA 2015 / © IFP Training 2015

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 4 © IFPEN - IFP School 2015 /
For example, natural gas can be gasified to produce a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO)

For example, natural gas can be gasified to produce a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), called syngas.

of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), called syngas. Starting from this syngas and using catalytic

Starting from this syngas and using catalytic processes, it is possible to produce either high quality diesel oil through Fischer- Tropsch synthesis or olefins through methanol synthesis and further decomposition of this methanol . This high quality diesel oil then becomes part of the refinery’s diesel pool. The olefins produced are used in the petrochemical plant as base chemicals for polymers production.

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 5

© IFPEN - IFP School 2015 / © TOTAL SA 2015 / © IFP Training 2015

W4V25 - Refining and Petrochemical Synergies – p. 5 © IFPEN - IFP School 2015 /