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EVIDENCE

ATTY. NESTOR M. LEYNES, III

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I. Definition and Scope

Sections 1-2, Rule 128

Bustos v. Lucero, 81 Phil 640 (1948)

II. When Not Required

Judicial Notice
Sections 1-3, Rule 129

Baguio v. Vda. De Jalagat, 42 SCRA 337 (1971)


Prieto v. Arroyo, 14 SCRA 549 (1965)
Tabuena v. CA, 196 SCRA 650 (1991)
City of Manila v. Garcia, 19 SCRA 413 (1967)
Expertravel & Tours v. CA, 459 SCRA 147 (2005)
Social Justice Society v. Atienza G.R. No. 156052, 13 February 2008

Qualified By
Sections 24-25, Rule 132

Yao Kee v. Sy-Gonzales, 167 SCRA 736 (1988)

Section 46, Rule 130

Judicial Admissions
Section 4, Rule 129

Lucido v. Calupitan, 27 Phil 48 (1914)


Torres v. CA, 131 SCRA 24 (1984)

Qualified By
Section 7, Rule 18
Sections 2, 4, Rule 118

Pp v. Hernandez, 260 SCRA 25 (1996)

III. Kinds

Object / Real
Section 1, Rule 130

Villaflor v. Summers, 41 Phil 62 (1920)


Sison v. Pp, 250 SCRA 58 (1995)
Torralba v. Pp, 467 SCRA 552 (2005)

Rule on DNA Evidence, A.M. No. 06-11-5-SC


Rule on Electronic Evidence, A.M. No. 01-7-01-SC

Documentary
Section 2, Rule 130
Section 19, Rule 132

U.S. v. Orera, 11 Phil 596 (1907)

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Testimonial
Section 20, Rule 130

IV. Offer and Objection

Sections 34-39, Rule 132

Pp v. Yatco, 97 Phil 940 (1955)


Catuira v.CA, 236 SCRA 398 (1994)
Interpacific Transit v. Aviles, 186 SCRA 385 (1990)

Qualified By

Dizon v. CTA, G.R. No. 140944, 30 April 2008


Heirs of Saves v. Heirs of Saves, 632 SCRA 236 (2010)

Tender of Excluded Evidence


Section 40, Rule 132

Lamagan v. De la Cruz, 40 SCRA 101 (1971)

V. Presentation

Object / Real
Section 1, Rule 130

Phil. Movie Pictures Workers Assoc. v. Premiere Productions, Inc., 92 Phil 843 (1953)

Documentary
Sections 19-20, 22-33, Rule 132

E. Michael & Co., Inc. v. Enriquez, 33 Phil 87 (1915)


Antillon v. Barcelon, 37 Phil 148 (1917)
Lopez v. CA, L-31494, 23 Jan 1978
U.S. v. Que Ping, 40 Phil 17 (1919)
Lopez v. CA, G.R. No. 77008, 29 Dec 1987
Pacific Asia Overseas Shipping Corp. v. NLRC, 161 SCRA 132 (1988)
Vda. De Bonifacio v. BLT Bus Co., Inc., 34 SCRA 618 (1970)
ATCI Overseas Corporation v. Echin, 632 SCRA 528 (2010)
Vda. De Catalan v. Catalan-Lee, 665 SCRA 487 (2012)

Ancient Documents
Section 21, Rule 132

Bartolome v. IAC, 183 SCRA 103 (1990)


Heirs of Lacsa v. CA, 197 SCRA 234 (1991)

Testimonial
Section 36, Rule 130
Sections 1-18, Rule 132

Pp v. Brioso, 37 SCRA 336 (1971)


Pp v. Cusi, 14 SCRA 944 (1965)
Pp v. Gaddi, 170 SCRA 649 (1989)
Tarapen v. Pp, G.R. No. 173824, 08 August 2008

Rights / Obligations of the Witness


Section 3, Rule 132

Bagadiong v. Gonzales, L-25966, 28 Dec 1979

Qualified By

Bermudez v. Castillo, 64 Phil 483 (1937)

Pp v. Estenzo, 72 SCRA 428 (1976)


Pp v. Caparas, L-47411, 18 Jan 1982
Bachrach Motor Co., Inc. v. CIR, L-26136, 30 Oct 1978

Qualified By

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Fulgado v. CA, 182 SCRA 81 (1990)
Pp v. Abatayo, G.R. No. 139456, 07 July 2004

Pp v. Relucio, L-38790, 09 Nov 1978


Pp v. Buduhan, G.R. No. 178196, 06 August 2008
Pp v. De Guzman, 288 SCRA 346 (1998)
Pp v. Sandal, 54 Phil 883 (1930)
Design Sources International, Inc. v. Eristingcol, G.R. No. 193966, 19 February 2014
Borromeo v. CA, L-31342, 07 April 1976

VI. Admissibility

Sections 3-4, Rule 128

Pp v. Yatco, supra
Pp v. Toledo, 51 Phil 825 (1928)

Object / Real
Section 1, Rule 130

Phil. Movie Pictures Workers Assoc. v. Premiere Productions, Inc., supra

Documentary

Best Evidence Rule


Sections 3-7, Rule 130
Section 3e, Rule 131

Pp v. Tandoy, 192 SCRA 98 (1990)


Fiscal of Pampanga v. Reyes, 55 Phil 905 (1931)

Qualified By

Air France v. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155(1966)


Compania Maritima v. Allied Free Workers Union,
77 SCRA 24 (1977)

De Vera v. Aguilar, 218 SCRA 602 (1993)


National Power Corp. v. Codilla, G.R. No. 170491, 04 April 2007
Republic v. Marcos-Manotoc, G.R. No. 171701, 08 February 2012
E. Michael & Co., Inc. v. Enriquez, supra

Qualified By
Sections 5-6, Rule 76

Rodelas v. Aranza, 119 SCRA 16(1982)

Republic Act No. 8792, Electronic Commerce Act of 2000


Rules on Electronic Evidence

MCC Industrial Sales Corp. v. Ssangyong Corp., G.R. No.


170633, 17 October 2007

Parol Evidence Rule


Section 9, Rule 130

Enriquez v. Ramos, 6 SCRA 219 (1962)


Land Settlement & Devt v. Garcia Plantation, 7 SCRA 750 (1963)
Woodhouse v. Halili, 93 Phil 526 (1953)
De la Rama v. Ledesma, L-28498, 143 SCRA 6 (1986)
PNR v. CFI of Albay Branch 1, 83 SCRA 569 (1978)
Ong Chua v. Carr, 53 Phil 975 (1929)
Maulini v. Serrano, 28 Phil 640 (1914)
Canuto v. Mariano, 37 Phil 840 (1918)

Qualified By

Marquez v. Espejo, G.R. No. 168387, 25 August 2010


Lechugas v. CA, 143 SCRA 335 (1986)

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Abrenica v. Gonda, 34 Phil 739 (1916)

Inciong v. CA, 257 SCRA 578 (1996)


Ortanez v. CA, 266 SCRA 561 (1997)

Interpretation
Sections 10-19, Rule 130

Lambert v. Fox, 26 Phil 588 (1914)


Capital Insurance v. Sadang, 21 SCRA 1183 (1967)

Testimonial

Disqualifications
Sections 21-24, Rule 130

Pp v. Mendoza, 254 SCRA 18 (1996)


Pp v. Baid, 336 SCRA 656 (2000)
Pp v. Hayag, 101 SCRA 67 (1980)

Rule on Examination of a Child Witness, A.M. No. 00-4-07-SC

U.S. v. Concepcion, 31 Phil 182


Pp v. Castaneda, 88 SCRA 562 (1979)
Pp v. Francisco, 78 Phil 694 (1947)
Lezama v. Rodriguez, 23 SCRA 1166 (1968)
Guerrero v. St. Clares Realty Co., 124 SCRA 553 (1983)
Abraham v. Recto-Kasten, 4 SCRA 298 (1962)
Goni v. CA, 144 SCRA 222(1986)
Tongco v. Vianzon, 50 Phil 698 (1927)
Lichauco v. Atlantic Gulf & Pacific Co., 84 Phil 330 (1949)
Razon v. IAC, 207 SCRA 234 (1992)
Mendezona v. Vda. De Goitia, 54 Phil 557 (1930)
Ong Chua v. Carr, supra
Pp v. Carlos, 47 Phil 626 (1925)
U.S. v. Antipolo, 37 Phil 726 (1918)
Uy Chico v. Union Life, 29 Phil 163 (1915)
Barton v. Leyte Asphalt and Mineral Oil Co., 46 Phil 938 (1924)
Regala v. Sandiganbayan, 262 SCRA 124 (1996)
Orient Insurance v. Revilla, 54 Phil 919 (1930)
Pp v. Sandiganbayan, 275 SCRA 505(1997)
Lim v. CA, 214 SCRA 273 (1992)
Krohn v. CA, 233 SCRA 146 (1994)
Banco Filipino v. Monetary Board, 142 SCRA 523(1986)

See also R.A. Nos. 53 and 1477


Articles 229 and 230 of the Revised Penal Code

Privilege
Section 25, Rule 130

Admissions
Sections 26-27, 32, Rule 130
Section 4, Rule 129

Pp v. Damaso, 190 SCRA 595 (1990)


Keller & Co. v. COB, 141 SCRA 86 (1986)
Pp v. Paragsa, 83 SCRA 105(1978)
Pp v. Alegre, 94 SCRA 109 (1979)
U.S. v. Bay, 27 Phil 495 (1914)
Pp v. Tia Fong, 98 Phil 609 (1956)

Confessions
Section 33, Rule 130

Section 17, Article III of the 1987 Constitution


R.A. No. 7438

Pp v. Tuniaco, G.R. No. 185710, 19 January 2010


U.S. v. Tolosa, 5 Phil 616 (1906)

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U.S. v. Corrales, 28 Phil 362 (1914)
Pp v. Lorenzo, 240 SCRA 624
U.S. v. Flores, 26 Phil 262 (1913)
Pp v. Nishishima, 57 Phil 26 (1932)
Pp v. Tampus, 90 SCRA 624 (1980)
Pp v. Taylaran, 108 SCRA 378(1981)

Res Inter Alios Acta Rule


Sections 28 and 34, Rule 130

U.S. v. Pineda, 37 Phil 456 (1918)


Pp v. Alegre, supra
Pp v. Raquel, 265 SCRA 248 (1996)

Exceptions
Sections 29-31, Rule 130

Pp v. Cabrera, 57 SCRA 715 (1974)


Pp v. Yatco, supra
Tamargo v. Awingan, G.R. No. 177727, 19 January 2010
Pp v. Serrano, 105 Phil 531 (1959)
Pp v. Nierra, 96 SCRA 1 (1980)
Pp v. Badilla, 48 Phil 718 (1926)
Alpuerto v. Pastor, 38 Phil 785 (1918)
City of Manila v. Del Rosario, 5 Phil 227 (1905)

Tender of Payment
Section 35, Rule 130

Hearsay Rule
Section 36, Rule 130

Dantis v. Maghinang, G.R. No. 191696, 10 April 2013


Philippine Realty v. Firematic, G.R. No. 156251, 27 April 2007
NDC v. Diato-Bernal, G.R. No. 180979, 15 December 2010

Exceptions to Hearsay Rule

Dying Declaration
Section 37, Rule 130

Pp v. Sabio, 2 SCRA 218 (1981)


Pp v. Ola, L-47147, 03 July 1987
Pp v. Aniel, 96 SCRA 1999(1980)
Pp v. Odencio, 88 SCRA 1(1979)
Pp v. Sarabia, 127 SCRA 100(1984)

Qualified By
Section 42, Rule 130

Pp v. Gueron, 121 SCRA 115 (1983)


Pp v. Lanza, 94 SCRA 613 (1979)
Pp v. De Joya, 203 SCRA 343 (1991)

Res Gestae
Section 42, Rule 130

Pp v. Lungayan, 162 SCRA 100 (1988)


Pp v. Putian, 74 SCRA 133 (1976)
Pp v. Tolentino, 218 SCRA 337 (1993)
Pp v. Siscar, 140 SCRA 316 (1985)
Pp v. Tulagan, 143 SCRA 107 (1986)
Pp v. Cortezano, 375 SCRA 95 (2002)
Pp v. Berame, 72 SCRA 184 (1976)
DBP v. Radio Mindanao Network, G.R. No. 147039, 27
January 2006

Declaration Against Interest


Section 38, Rule 130

Pp v. Toledo, supra

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Fuentes v. CA, 253 SCRA 430 (1996)
Lichauco v. Atlantic Gulf & Pacific Co., supra
Pp v. Bernal, 274 SCRA 197
Philippine Free Press v. CA, G.R. No. 132864, 24 October 2005
Parel v. Prudencio, G.R. No. 146556, 19 April 2006

Act or Declaration / Family Reputation or Tradition on Pedigree


Sections 39-40, Rule 130

Gravador v. Mamigo, 20 SCRA 742 (1967)


Pp v. Alegado, 201 SCRA 364 (1991)
U.S. v. Evangelista, 32 Phil 321 (1951)
Ferrer v. de Ynchausti, 38 Phil 905 (1918)
Tecson vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 161434, 3 March 2004

Common Reputation
Section 41, Rule 130

City of Manila v. Del Rosario, supra


In re Mallare, 59 SCRA 45

Entries in the Course of Business


Section 43, Rule 130

Chapman v. Garcia, 64 Phil 618 (1937)


Aznar v. Citibank, G.R. No. 164273, 28 March 2007
Jose v. Michaelmar Phils., G.R. No. 169605, 27 November 2009

Entries in Official Records


Section 44, Rule 130

Africa v. Caltex [Phil], Inc., 16 SCRA 448 (1966)


Salmon, Dexter & Co. v. Wijangco, 46 Phil 386 (1924)
Manalo v. Robles Trans. Co., Inc., 99 Phil 729 (1956)
Remigio v. Ortiga, 33 Phil 614 (1915)
Seguritan v. Pp, G.R. No. 172896, 19 April 2010

Commercial Lists
Section 45, Rule 130

PNOC Shipping, v. CA, 299 SCRA 402 (1998)

Learned Treaties
Section 46, Rule 130

Testimony or Deposition
Section 47, Rule 130

Tan v. CA, 20 SCRA 54 (1967)


Guevarra v. Almario, 56 Phil 476 (1932)
Toledo, Jr. v. Pp, L-36603, 30 Sept 1978
Manliclic v. Calaunan, G.R. No. 150157, 25 February 2007

Opinion Rule
Sections 48-50, Rule 130

Galian v. State Assurance Co., Ltd., 29 Phil 413 (1915)


Domingo v. Domingo, G.R. No. 150897, 11 April 2005
Jao v. CA, L-49162, 28 July 1987
China Banking v. CA, G.R. No. 155299, 24 July 2007
Camacho-Reyes v. Reyes, G.R. No. 185286, 18 August 2010
Pp vs. Adoviso, 309 SCRA 1

Character Evidence
Section 51, Rule 130
Section 11, Rule 132
Section 14, Rule 132

U.S. v. Pineda, supra


Pp v. Irang, 64 Phil 285 (1937)
Pp v. Babiera, 52 Phil 97 (1928)

6
U.S. v. Mercado, 26 Phil 127 (1913)

Section 201, Tax Reform Act of 1997

Republic Act No. 1405, Law on Secrecy of Bank Deposits

Republic Act No. 4200, Anti-Wiretapping Act

VII. Burden of Proof

Section 1, Rule 131

Bautista v. Sarmiento, 138 SCRA 587 (1985)

Sections 1-7, Rule 133

Pp v. Peruelo, 105 SCRA 226 (1981)


Pp v. Marong, 119 SCRA 430 (1982)
Pp v. Laganzon, 129 SCRA 333(1984)
U.S. v. Lasada, 18 Phil 90 (1910)
Pp v. Baao, 142 SCRA 476 (1986)
Pp v. Amon, 133 SCRA 384 (1984)
Pp v. Notarion, G.R. No. 181493, 28 August 2008
Pp v. Ola, supra
Pp v. Jara, 144 SCRA 516 (1986)
Pp v. Soriano, G.R. No. 191271, 13 March 2013

VIII. Presumptions

Conclusive
Section 2, Rule 131

Lazo v. Republic Surety &Insurance Co., Inc., 31 SCRA 329(1970)

Disputable
Sections 3-4, Rule131

Santos v. NSO, G.R. No. 171129, 06 April 2011


Ormachea v. Trillana, 13 Phil 194 (1909)
Pp v. Padiernos, 69 SCRA 484 (1976)
Sebastian v. WCC, L-42587, 28 Feb 1978
Metropolitan Bank v. Tobias, G.R. No. 177780, 25 January 2012

IX. Special Rules

Rule on the Writ of Amparo (Sections 13, 17 and 18, A.M. No. 07-9-12-SC, 16 October 2007)

Rule on the Writ of Habeas Data (Section 1 and 16, A.M. No. 08-1-16-SC, 22 January 2008)

R.A. No. 8505 Section 6 (Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act) rape shield rule