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Chapter 1: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

What is AI?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines that work and react like humans.

AI is concerned with the design of intelligence in an artificial device Intelligence is the ability to acquire, understand and apply knowledge

Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans.

A.I. is the study of making computers smart.

A.I. is the study concerned with building machines that simulate

human behavior. Artificial Intelligence is the part of computer science concerned with designing intelligent computer systems, i.e., systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior.

Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer- controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.

The main goal of AI is to Implement Human Intelligence in Machines i.e Creating systems

The main goal of AI is to Implement Human Intelligence in Machines i.e Creating systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans.

Artificial

specialization:

intelligence

includes

the

following

areas

of

Game Playing: programming computers to play games

against human opponents Expert Systems: programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)

Natural Language Processing: programming computers to understand natural human languages Robotics: programming computers to see and hear and react like humans.

to understand natural human languages Robotics: programming computers to see and hear and react like humans.

Early Work in AI

AI began to emerge as a separate field of study during the

1940s and 1950s when the computer became a commercial Prior to this work in AI already began in 1920s and 1930s

Turing, sometimes regarded as father of AI demonstrated a

simple computer processor could manipulate symbols and numbers. (Turing Machines) Cybernetics, the study of communication in human and

machines, became an active area of research during 1940s and 1950s During 1950 several events occurred marked as real

beginning of AI This was period noted for chess playing programs which were developed by researchers like Claude Shannon at MIT in 1952

Other types of game playing and simulation programs were also being developed during this time

Other types of game playing and simulation programs were

also being developed during this time In 1950s much efforts was being expended on machine

translation programs, to produce accurate translation from one language to another During this time researches work on automatic theorem

proving and new programming languages As a part of this development programming languages like

IPL (Information Processing Language), FORTRAN etc were developed in the area of natural language processing Several programming projects were developed during 1950 including GPS(General Problem Solver)developed by Newell and Simon written in IPL. Gelernter’s geometry theorem proving machine written in FORTRAN

Some significant AI events of the 1960s include the following 1961-A. L. Samuel developed a

Some

significant

AI

events

of

the

1960s

include

the

following 1961-A. L. Samuel developed a program which learned to play checkers at a master’s level

1965- DENDRAL was the first knowledge based expert p given only information of the constituents of the compound

s stem

y

develo ed

which

discover

molecular

structures

1968- work on MACSYMA was initiated at MIT by William Martin and Joel Moses. MACSYMA is a large interactive program which solves numerous types of mathematical problems.

AI and Related Fields

Fields that are closely related to AI includes Robotics,

Linguistics, Psychology, Engineering etc Robotics: Robotics is considered as a separate field which combines concepts and techniques of AI, electrical and mechanical engineering. The robots that can see and move around, perform mechanical tasks, and understand human speech. Eg. In manufacturing industry robots are used for moving, spraying, painting, precision checking, drilling, cleaning, coating, carving, etc Psychology: Psychology studies how human mind behave and how human brain processes information. Psychologist are concerned with the working of the mind, the mental and emotional processes that drive human behavior. Researchers in AI have much in common with psychologists. AI has adopted models of thinking and learning from psychologist in turn AI has given psychologist ability to model human functions on computer

Natural Language Processing: NLP allows a user to communicate with computer in user’s natural language.

Natural Language Processing: NLP allows a user to communicate with computer in user’s natural language. The computer can both understand and respond to commands given in natural language. Both NLP and AI fields have desired to build a system that understand natural languages

Expert System: Expert system concerned with solving real life situations

S eech and Voice Reco nition: The s eech reco nition aims at understanding WHAT was spoken. The objective of voice recognition is to recognize WHO is speaking.

p

g

p

g

Handwriting Recognition : The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.

Finally, AI overlap with almost all fields such as medicine, law, manufacturing, economics, banking, biology, chemistry, defense etc

AI Techniques

Different techniques are used to solve AI problems Three important AI techniques are

1. Search: Another general technique required when writing AI programs is search. Provides a way of solving problems for which no more direct approach is available. Often there is no direct way to find a solution to some problem. However, you do know how to generate possibilities. For example, in solving a puzzle you might know all the possible moves, but not the sequence that would lead to a solution.

2. Use of Knowledge: Solving simple problems requires a lots of knowledge. Use of knowledge Provides a way of solving complex problems by exploiting the structure of the objects that are involved. To understand a single sentence requires extensive knowledge of both language and of the context. In order to solve the complex problems encountered in artificial intelligence, one needs both a large amount of knowledge and some mechanisms for manipulating that knowledge to create solutions

3. Abstraction: Abstraction means to hide the details of something. For example, if we want

3. Abstraction: Abstraction means to hide the details of something. For example, if we want to compute the square root of a number then we simply call the function sqrt() in C. We do not need to know the implementation details of this function. Abstraction provides a way of separating important features and variations from the many unimportant ones that would otherwise overwhelm any process.

AI Problems

Following are some problems that can be solved by using AI. Following categories of problems are considered as AI problems.

Ordinary Problems

Perception Vision Voice Recognition Speech Recognition Natural Language Understanding

Generation Translation Robot Control

Formal Problems

Game Playing

Solving complex mathematical problem

Expert Problems

Design

Fault Finding

Scientific Analysis

Medical Diagnosis

Financial Analysis

Digital Notes by Yogesh Ingale, Assistant Professor, Dr. D. Y. Patil ACS College, Pimpri

Thank You Digital Notes by Yogesh Ingale, Assistant Professor, Dr. D. Y. Patil ACS College,

Thank You