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RESEARCH DESIGN

Yulia Sofiatin

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics


2013

Research Method
Causal
inference

RESEARCH
QUESTION
HYPOTHESIS
variable

Error

RESEARCH
Statistical Method
DESIGN

Sampling and Statistical test


sample size

Basic computer skills


Conclusion

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Objectives
To understand the concepts of
different study design
To learn the advantages and
disadvantages of several study design

Classification of Study Design

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Classification
Time Statistical Type of Data
Purpose
frame Analysis Data collection

Prevalence study
Prospective Descriptive Qualitative Cohort

Analytic Diagnostic study


Observational
Cross-sectional Quantitative Case-control
Correlational
association
Experimental /
Clinical trial
Prognosic study
Retrospective Cross-sectional

Therapeutic study

Types of study design


Quantitative Qualitative

Analytic Descriptive

Experimental Non-experimental
Observational

Grounded theory Case report


Randomizes Non-randomized
Clinical Trial Clinical Trial Phenomenology

Ethnography

Cohort Case-control Cross-sectional

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Time line of different study


design

Cross
Sectional

Case Control Cohort study


Case
T i m e l i n e
Report
Case `Series Clinical Trial

Epidemiologic Study Design


Descriptive epidemiology:
Measure the frequency in which disease
occur
Collect descriptive data on possible causal
factors
Analytic epidemiology
Specify the causes of particular disease

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Types of Studies
Experimental: study factor is
manipulated by the investigator
Pure vs quasi experimental
Laboratory vs real world
Observational: no manipulation of study
factor
Descriptive vs analytic
Prospective vs retrospective

Quantitative research

a formal, objective, systematic process in


which numerical data are utilized to
obtain information about the world

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Natural history of influenza

Quantitative research
Is used to
- describe variables
- examine relationships among variables
- determine cause- and-effect interactions
between variables

the predominantly used method of scientific


investigation

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Qualitative research

a systematic, subjective approach used


to describe life experiences and give
them meaning

not a new idea in social and behavioral


sciences

2. Comparison of Quantitative
and Qualitative Research

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2. Comparison of Quantitative
and Qualitative Research

Quantitative Qualitative
Research Research

Hard science Soft science


Focus : concise and narrow Focus : complex and broad

Reductionistic Holistic
Objective Subjective

Quantitative Research
Control
Instruments Qualitative Research
Basic elements of analysis: Shared interpretation
numbers Communication and
observation
Basic elements of analysis:
words

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Quantitative Research

Statistical analysis
Generalization

Qualitative Research

Individual interpretation
Uniqueness

Qualitative

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Objectives
To gain deeper understanding of human
behaviour and its causes
Answering WHY and HOW
Smaller sample
Output: text description, audio/video
recording, picture
explorative

History
Since the 1970s was developed for
medical/health research
First area of interests: Research on
Womens health
Disability
Nursing
Services
Comunication

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Methods for Qualitative


Research
Case study
Case report (can be Quantitative)

Focused Group discussion


Interview, in-depth interview

Types of Qualitative Research

1. Phenomenology
2. Grounded Theory
3. Ethnography

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1. Phenomenological Research

an inductive, descriptive approach


developed from phenomenon

The focus is understanding the response of whole


human being, not just specific parts of behaviors

1. Phenomenological Research

The aim : to describe an experience as it is lived


by the person
describing a persons experience of pain as it
is lived by that person

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2. Grounded Theory Research

an inductive research technique


useful in discovering
problems which exist in a social scene
the process persons use to handle them

GTR emphasizes observation and the development of


practice-based intuitive relationships between
variables

2. Grounded Theory Research

The research process involves


formulation,
testing,
and redevelopment
of propositions until a theory evolves.

The theory developed is grounded or has its


roots in the data from which it was derived

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3. Ethnographic Research

investigating cultures through an in-depth study of


the members of the culture.
attempts to tell the story of peoples daily lives while
describing the culture they are a part of

ER process is the systematic collection, description,


and analysis of data to develop a theory of cultural
behavior

3. Ethnographic Research

Using ER different cultures are described,


compared and contrasted to add to the
understanding of the impact of culture on human
behavior and health

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Mix/Complementary method
K
O Dist n
P ribu o
How many of
What is the T tion
condition and I
them took a
Why wl
particular -
Why
O option? e
Patt
N ern
d
S g
e

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Laboratory

experimental

Main concern
Aim: exploration of a treatment
Present? design?
Significant? design?
Homogenous subjects no room for
selection bias ?

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Laboratory experimental

Result
Treatment No Yes

Subject CONCLUSION

Control No Yes

Random
allocation

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