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2.1CONVENTIONAL
DRAFTING

Thepurposeof
draftingistopresent
technicalideasinprecise
andconciseforms.

Aproperlydrafted
drawingshouldbe
understoodbyanyengineer.

Asampleofadrafteddrawingisgivenbelow.

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2.1.1ManualDrafting

Thisistheuseofdraftingboards,pencils,pens,andanumberof
specializedtoolsfordrafting.Whilethismethodisstillverypopular,the
techniquesusedinmanualdraftingarequicklybeingdisplacedbyCAD
(ComputerAidedDesign)systems.

Iwillnotcoversomeofthemanualdrawingtopicslistbelow,butmore
informationonthemappearsinalargenumberofdraftingbooks.

lettering
handsketching
drawingellipses
etc

2.1.2TurningThreeDimensionsIntoTwo(MultiView
Drawings)

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Theproblemwithdraftingisthatthepaperisflat,whiletheobject
drawnisnot.

Togetaroundthiswecandevelopanumberofviewstoworkwith.

FrontView
TopView(PlanView)
RightSideView
LeftSideView

ThismethodofdevelopingviewsisknownasOrthographicprojection

Thismethodeliminatestheperspectivedistortioninrealvision,thus
makingiteasierfortechnicaldepiction.

Inthismethod,objectfacesthatareparalleltotheviewingplaneare
shownasactualsize,butobjectsthatarenotparallelareforeshortened.

Thenumberofviewsusedisafunctionofthegeometry.Forasimple
objectsuchasawasher,onlyoneviewisneeded.Amorecomplicatedobject,
suchasapiston,wouldrequireatleasttwoviews.

2.1.2.1TheGlassBox

Theviewsaredevelopedasifaglassboxwasplacedovertheobject.
Theviewfromeachdirectionwasfrozen,andwhentheboxisunfolded,the
resultingviewsareseen.

Imagingthecasebelowofasmalltetrahedron(athreepointed
triangle),

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Thedrawingsarelayedoutwithcertainconventions.Theexample
aboveiscontinuedbelowforillustration,Inthefigureextraconstructionlinesare
addedtoshowhowthedrawingsinthedifferentviewsarerelated.Notethatthe
topviewisrelatedtothesideviewusinga45line.Thesepropertiesarearesult
oftheglassboxconcept.Thefoldinglinesareoftenshownondrawings(they
havetwodashesandonelong).Alsonotethatinthefigureshownbelow,the
pointsinthetopviewwillbethesamedistancefromthefoldinglineastheyare
inthesideview.

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Thelayoutofthedrawingsisdonebyconvention.Inthisdrawingthe
rightsideviewistotherightofthefrontview.Ifthisdrawingobservedeuropean
standards,therightsideviewwouldbeonthelefthandside.

Ausefulmethodforkeepingthelargenumberofpointsinadrawing
sortedistonumberthem.Forexample,

Theviewthatisselectedasthefrontisarbitrary,butitshould

beanaturalfronttotheobject.
bethemostimportantview
appearstable
chosentominimizehiddenlinesinotherviews
containmostofthedetail

2.1.3Lines

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Thenumberoflinesondrawingswillbecomeconfusing,thereforethis
callsforsomemethodfordifferentiatingbetweenlines.

Hiddenlinesaredashedlinesusedtoshowlinesthatnotvisible.

Centrelinesareusedtoshowtheaxisofrotationforanobjectsurface.
Theselineshavelong/shortdashes.

Constructionlinesaredrawnontohelplocatefinaldrawinglines.
Theselinesaresolightthattheyareoftennotevenerasedwhenthedrawingis
complete.

Someobjectshavedisproportionatedimensions.Asaresult,itmaybe
necessarytobreakthemtoshowanyreasonablelevelofdetail.Therearethree
typesofbreakscommonlyused,

Sbreaksforroundobjects
Zbreaksforthinlong/wideobjects
freehandbreaksforlongrectangularobjects

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2.1.4Holes

Thereareanumberofholescommonlydepictedindrawings,

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2.1.5SpecialCases

2.1.5.1AlignedFeatures

Alignedfeaturesinsomecases,featuresarerevolved,andshownat
aconsistentradialdistance,butnotnecessarilyinthecorrectposition.

Holesarecommonlyrotatedtosimplifyviews

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Ribsandwingsarecommonlyrotatedtosimplifyviews

Largefeaturesonpartsmayberotatedtosimplifyviews.small
features,suchasslotsmayalsoberotatedbetweenviewsforclarity.

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Sheetmetalpartsstartoutflat,butaredeformedtonewusefulshapes.
Thereforeitiscommontodrawsheetmetalpartsinthedeformed,andthe
undeformedstate.

2.1.5.2IncompleteViews

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Incompleteviewscertaindetailscanbeomittedtosimplifytheview.
Thismethodproducesdrawingsthatarenotcorrect,buttheyarecommonlyused
inpractice.

Someviewswillenduphavinganexcessivenumberofhiddenlines.
Tocombatthisproblem,wemaysometimesjustleavethemout.

Largeradial/cylindricalpartsareoftencroppedtosavespace.But,
enoughisshowntomaketheremainderofthegeometryobvious.

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2.1.6SectionViews

whentherearecomplicatedinternalfeatures,theymaybehardto
identifyinnormalviewswithhiddenlines.Aviewwithsomeofthepartcut
awaycanmaketheinternalfeaturesveryeasytosee,thesearecalledsection
views.

Intheseviewshiddenlinesaregenerallynotused,exceptforclarityin
somecases.

Thecuttingplaneforthesectionis,

shownwiththickblackdashedlines.
hasarrowsattheendofthelinetoindicatetheviewdirection
haslettersplacedbesidethearrowheads.Thesewillidentifythe
section
doesnothavetobeastraightline

sectionscanbelinedtoindicate,

whenthesectionplaneslicesthroughmaterial
twomethodsforrepresentingmaterials.First,use45lines,andrefer
tomaterialintitleblock.Iftherearemultiplematerials,linesat30
and60maybeusedforexample.Second,useaconventionalsetof
filllinestorepresentthedifferenttypesofmaterials.

2.1.6.1FullSections

Fullsectionsgenerallyastraightsectionlinecutsthroughapartto
giveacompleteviewoftheinside.Thissectiontypicallyreplacesoneofthe
viewsthatisconfusing.

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2.1.6.2OffsetSection

Fullsectionswillexperiencedifficultieswhenthefeaturesdonotlie
alongasingleline.

Wecanuseasectionlinethatisturnedtocutthroughfeatures.This
viewcanbeusedtoreplaceoneoftheprincipleviews.

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2.1.6.3HalfSection

Insomecasesitisbettertoillustrateinternalfeatureswithbotha
section,andafullview.Inthiscasewecancutawayonlypart(aquarter)ofthe
object,anddrawaviewthatishalfnormal,halfsection.

thismethodiswellsuitedtosymmetricalparts,withthesection
startingattheaxisofsymmetry

Takenotethatthesectionlinehereonlyhasonearrowhead,butthe
directionmustbeobserved

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2.1.6.4CutAwaySections

Insteadofdoinglargescalesections,wecancutawayaveryspecific
regionofinterest.

Inthiscaseabreaklineisused,andthecuttingplanelinesusedin
othercasesarenotapplicable.

2.1.6.5RevolvedSection
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Whenwehavetransitionpieces,suchasribs,orairplanewings,we
willwanttoshowtheshape,butthisisnoteasywithconventionalviews,Inthis
casewecanbreakoutasection.

Thebasicprocedureisto

1.selectacharacteristicsection,anddrawcutlinestoeitherside.
2.inbetweenthebreaks,drawasectionthatisrotated90sothatitis
obviousonthedrawing.

Thismethodisusefulwhenspaceisatapremium

Thecuttingplanelineisnotusedwiththistechnique

2.1.6.6RemovedSection

thisisamoreexactalternativetotherevolvedsectionmethod.

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Withthismethodabreakisnotused,butacuttingplanelineis.The
sectionsarethendrawnatsomeotherlocationonthepage.

Theonlyfeaturesshownarethefeaturesofthesection.

labelssuchasAA,BB,etcareusedtoavoidambiguity.

theseviewsareoftenplacedatadistanceandarrangedinthesame
orderasthesections.

Thesesectionmayalsobeshownusinglinesextendedfromtheobject

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modifiedscalesmayalsobeusedwithappropriatenotation

2.1.6.7AuxiliarySection

Asectioncanbedonethatdoesnotlieinoneoftheprimaryplanes.

Thisdoneasanormalsection

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2.1.6.8ThinWallSection

Thismethodisusedforassembliesofthinmaterials,suchassheet
metal.

Thisillustrateshowthepiecesbuttupagainsteachother.

Thesectionsarefilledwithblack,butasmallspaceisleftbetweenthe
piecetoindicatetheassembledfaces(operationssuchascrimping,spot
welding,etcareusedforthese)

2.1.6.9AssemblySection

Whenplacingpartstogetherwewanttoverifythattheywillmatch,and
thattheycanbeassembled.Wealsowanttoprovideassistancetothe
assembler.Todothisacutawayassemblydrawingcanbeused.

Thereareanumberofelementspresentinthesediagrams,

twoormoreparts

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apartslistwithnumbereditems
generallysectionviewsareused,andorientedalongthemain
assemblyaxis

2.1.6.10SpecialCases

Becausesectionsaretoclarifyconfusingfeaturesondiagrams,they
aresometimesnottheoreticallycorrect.

Afewofthecasesthatareconsideredwhenworkingwithsections
are,

1.cuttinglinesmayintersectribs,buttheymaybedrawnoffset
somewhattoclarifytheribgeometry.

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2.sectionsmaybealignedtoclarifytheviews

3.Ifacuttingplanecutsthroughintersectingfeatures,thelessimportant
featuremaybeomittedforclarity,ortosavetime.Forexample,two
roundsthatintersectatanangleotherthan90wouldhavean
unusualshape,ifoneisnotdrawn,thesectionbecomesmucheasier
todo.

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2.1.6.11FillPatterns

Sectionscanbefilledwithanumberofpatternstoindicatedifferent
materials

Thiswasacommontechniqueinthepast.Someexamplesaregiven
below.

2.1.7AuxiliaryViews

Theglassboxcanalsobefoldedatoddangles.Thistechnique
producesviewsknownasAuxiliaryviews.

Theseviewsareusefulwhenwewanttodrawaviewofasurfacethat
isnotnormaltooneoftheprimaryviewingplanes.

commontermsusedforthismethodaretruesize,andtrueshape.
keepinmindthatifafeaturedoesnotlieparalleltooneoftheprimaryviewing
planes,itwillappeardistortedineveryview.

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Theseviewscanbeconstructedfromanyviewinadrawing.typical
namesfortheseidentifytheviewthattheyaredrawnfrom,

frontauxiliaryview
topauxiliaryview
sideauxiliaryview

Wecanalsouseauxiliaryviewstoprojectotherviewsforgeometric
purposes

hiddenlinesaretypicallynotusedinauxiliaryviews,unlessneededfor
clarity.Also,anumberofsurfacesarenotincludedbecausetheyaredistorted,
andoflittlevalue.

typicallystepsfollowedtoconstructanauxiliaryview,

1.selectthefacethatistobedrawnasi)atruesurface,ii)atruelength
line,iii)anendviewofaline.
2.drawconstructionlinesperpendiculartothesurface/line/pointof
interest.Thislineshouldgoinadirection,andfarenoughthatleaves
enoughspacefortheview.
3.drawafoldinglineatanappropriatedistance.Thiswillactasa
referenceplane.
4.transferdistancesfromanotherview.Thisviewwilltypicallybethe
viewadjoiningtheviewthattheauxiliaryisdrawnfrom.
5.Completetheview.

anexampleisgivenbelow,andallfacesaredrawnforillustration,but
normallyonlytheangledfacewouldbedrawn.Becausethisisthefirstauxiliary
fromthedrawing,itiscalledtheprimaryauxiliaryview.

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Therearespecialdraftingtechniquesforrounded,orcurvedsurfaces,
thesecanbefoundinanydraftingtextbook.

2.1.7.1SecondaryAuxiliaryViews

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sometimesitisnecessarytomakeanauxiliaryview,usinganauxiliary
view.Whenthisisdone,thefirstauxiliaryisconstructedasnormal.Thesecond
auxiliaryismadefromthefirst,butthedistancescanonlybetransferredfrom
thefirstauxiliaryforthesecondauxiliary.

Theseviewscanbeneededforanumberofpurposes,butgenerally
theywillbeneededwhentheobjectdoesnotlieperpendicular,orparalleltoany
oftheviewingplanes.

2.1.7.2PartialAuxiliaryViews

Itisnotnecessarytodrawentireauxiliaryviews,theycanbedrawin
part,andbreaklinesuse.

Thistechniqueallowssimplifiedillustrationsoffeaturesofinterest,
withoutfulldevelopmentofanauxiliaryview.

2.1.8DescriptiveGeometry

Theuseofdraftingtodeterminegeometricproperties,suchasshortest
distancesbetweenpointsandlines.

Thesemethodscanalsobeusedtosolvestatics(vector)problems,
etc.

Thesemethodsuseextensionstothemethodsofauxiliaryviewsthat
allowcurvedsurfacetobeconsidered.

thebasicstepsinthesemethodsare,

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1.findthetruelengthsofaline
2.findtheendviewofaline
3.findtheedgeviewofthesurface
4.findthetrueshapeofthesurface

Thesestepswillallowdeterminationofanumberofproperties,

pointscanbeprojectedintootherviews
linescanbeprojectedintootherviews
thetruelengthofalinecanbedetermined
apointviewofalinecanbefound
distancesbetweenpointsandlinescanbefound
distancesbetweenlinescanbefound
distancebetweenapointandplane
anglebetweentwoplanes
edgeviewofaplane

2.1.9IsometricViews

Theseviewsaredoneasawayofrealisticallydrawingobjects.Thisis
notcorrect,asaperspectivedrawingwouldbe,butitisverygoodforengineering
problems.

Theviewingdirectionsareskewedsothatupisstillup,butstraight
backnowgoestotheleftandback,andrightgoestotherightandback.Bothof
themovedaxisaredrawnat30tothehorizontal.

Thevaluesmeasuredofftheseviewswillbeaccuratewhenmeasured
alongtheaxis.

2.1.10SpecialTechniques

Thereareanumberofspecialtechniquesofinterestwhendoing
manualdrafting,butofdeclininginterestinviewofmodernCADsystems.Alist

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ofthesetechniquesaregivenbelow,andaredescribedingooddetailinmost
draftingbooks,

drawingellipses
drawingwithcircles
drawingwithrevolution
drawingwithfourcentres
isometricdrawing
using30/60angles
usingspecialpaper
Obliqueviews
cavalier(45,withfulldepthsize)
cabinet(090,withhalfdepthsize)
general(090,withbetweenhalfandfulldepthsize)

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