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WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

PELATIHAN AMC 10 & 12

SABTU, 11 FEBRUARI 2017

1. What is the value of

when
?

Jawab : Factorizing the numerator,

to

which is

then becomes

which is equal

2. If
, what is
?

Jawab :

which is

.

3. Let

. What is the value of

?

Jawab : Substituting carefully,

becomes
which is
.

4. Zoey read books, one at a time. The first book took her day to read, the second book took her days to read, the third book took her days to read, and so on, with each book taking her more day to read than the previous book. Zoey finished the

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

first book on a Monday, and the second on a Wednesday. On what day the week did

she finish her

th book?

Jawab : The process took

last day was

been the same day of the week, so the answer is

is divisible by

.

days, so the

, both must have

days after the first day. Since

5. The mean age of Amanda's

cousins is

, and their median age is

. What is the sum

of the ages of Amanda's youngest and oldest cousins?

Jawab : The sum of the ages of the cousins is

an even number of cousins, so there is no single median, so

of the two in the middle. Therefore the sum of the ages of the two in the middle is

times the mean, or

. There are

must be the median

.

Subtracting from produces .

6. Laura added two three-digit positive integers. All six digits in these numbers are

different. Laura's sum is a three-digit number . What is the smallest possible value

for the sum of the digits of ?

Jawab : Let the two three-digit numbers she added

 be and with be at least and
and
, so
and

. The hundreds digits of these numbers must .

Say need many solutions, but

that

and
with
and
and

is attainable.

; then we just

having different digits which aren't

or

.There are

give
which proves

7. The ratio of the measures of two acute angles is

, and the complement of one of

these two angles is twice as large as the complement of the other. What is the sum of

the degree measures of the two angles?

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

Jawab : We can set up a system of equations where

and

are the two acute

angles. WLOG, assume that

than the complement of

for

 in order for the complement of to be greater . Therefore, and . Solving

in the first equation and substituting into the second equation yields

Substituting this

leaving

value back into the first equation yields

.

equal to

,

8. What is the tens digit of

Jawab : Notice that, for
to
when
,
is even and
yourself). Since
is
even,
and
.

is congruent

when

is odd. (Check for

.
9. All three vertices of
are lying on the parabola defined by
, with
at
the origin and
parallel to the
-axis. The area of the triangle is
. What is the
length of
?
 Jawab : The area of the triangle is , so , giving a total distance across the top of , which is answer .

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

10. A thin piece of wood of uniform density in the shape of an equilateral triangle with side

length inches weighs ounces. A second piece of the same type of wood, with the

same thickness, also in the shape of an equilateral triangle, has side length

of inches. Which of the following is closest to the weight, in ounces, of the second

piece?

Jawab : We can solve this problem by using similar triangles, since two equilateral triangles are always similar. We can then use

.

We can then solve the equation to get

which is closest to

11. Carl decided to fence in his rectangular garden. He bought fence posts, placed one

on each of the four corners, and spaced out the rest evenly along the edges of the

garden, leaving exactly yards between neighboring posts. The longer side of his

garden, including the corners, has twice as many posts as the shorter side, including

the corners. What is the area, in square yards, of Carl’s garden?

Jawab : To do this problem, we have to draw a rectangle. We also have to keep track

of the fence posts. Putting a post on each corner leaves us with only posts. Now

there are twice as many posts on the longer side then the shorter side. From this we

can see that we can put posts on the longer side and posts on the shorter side.

On the shorter side, we have spaces between the posts. On the longer side, we

have 7 spaces between the 8 fence posts. There are yards between each post.

.

12. Two different numbers are selected at random from

and multiplied

together. What is the probability that the product is even?

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

Jawab : The product will be even if at least one selected number is even, and odd if

none are. Using complementary counting, the chance that both numbers are odd

is

which is

.

13. At Megapolis Hospital one year, multiple-birth statistics were as follows: Sets of twins,

triplets, and quadruplets accounted for of the babies born. There were four times

as many sets of triplets as sets of quadruplets, and there was three times as many

sets of twins as sets of triplets. How many of these babies were in sets of

Jawab : We can set up a system of equations where

is the sets of twins,

is the

sets of triplets, and is the sets of quadruplets.

Solving for and in the second and third equations and substituting into the first

.

equation yields

Since we are trying to find the number of babies and NOT the number of sets of, the solution is not , but rather . Therefore, we strategically use the second initial equation to realize that , leaving us with the number of babies born as

14. How many squares whose sides are parallel to the axes and whose vertices have

coordinates that are integers lie entirely within the region bounded by the line

, the line

and the line

Jawab : The vertical line is just to the right of , the horizontal line is just , and the sloped line will always be above the value of . This means they will always miss being on a coordinate with integer coordinates so you just have to count the number of squares to the left, above, and under these lines. After counting the number of 1x1, 2x2, 3x3, squares and getting 30, 15, and 5 respectively, and we end

up with

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

15. All the numbers

are written in a array of squares, one

number in each square, in such a way that if two numbers are consecutive then they

occupy squares that share an edge. The numbers in the four corners add up to . What is the number in the center?

Jawab : Consecutive numbers share an edge. That means that it is possible to walk

by single steps north, south, east, or west. Consequently, the squares in

from to

the diagram with different shades have different parity:

But there are only four even numbers in the set, so the five darker squares must contain the odd numbers, which sum to . Therefore if the sum of the numbers in the corners is , the number in the centre must be , which is

.

16. The sum of an infinite geometric series is a positive number

in the series is

. What is the smallest possible value of

, and the second term

Jawab
:
After
observation
we
realize
that
in
order
to
minimize
our
sum
with being the reciprocal of r. The common ratio has to be in the form
of
with being an integer as anything more than divided by would give a
larger sum than a ratio in the form of
.

.

The first term has to be

, so then in order to minimize the sum, we have minimize

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

The smallest possible value for

such that it is an integer that's greater than

is

.

So our first term is

Solution 2 by No_One

and our common ratio is

. Thus the sum is

or

.

17. All the numbers are assigned to the six faces of a cube, one number to

each face. For each of the eight vertices of the cube, a product of three numbers is

computed, where the three numbers are the numbers assigned to the three faces that

include that vertex. What is the greatest possible value of the sum of these eight

products?

Jawab : We first find the factorization

Solution1.By using AM-GM, we

using the method in

get,

. To maximize, the

factorization, we get the answer is

18. In how many ways can

be written as the sum of an increasing sequence of two or

more consecutive positive integers?

Jawab : Factor

. Suppose we take an odd number

of consecutive

integers, centered on

. Then
with
 of , the possible values of are on respectively.

. Looking at the factors

centred

Suppose instead we take an even number

of consecutive integers, centred

. Looking again at the

on
and
. Then
with

factors of

on

, the possible values of

centred

are

respectively.

.

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

19. Rectangle
has
and
.
Point
lies
on
so
that
point
lies on
so that
and point
lies on
so
that
. Segments
and
intersect
at
and
, respectively. What
is the value of
?
Jawab
:Since
the
opposite
sides
of
a
rectangle
are parallel
and
due to vertical angles,
. Furthermore, the
ratio
between
the
side
lengths
of
the
two
triangles
is
.
Labeling
and
,
we see that
turns out
to be equal
to
.
Since the denominator of
must now be a multiple of 7, the only possible solution
.

20. A dilation of the planethat is, a size transformation with a positive scale factor

 sends the circle of radius centered at to the circle of radius centered at . What distance does the origin , move under this transformation?

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

 Jawab : The center of dilation must lie on the line , which can be expressed . Also, the ratio of dilation must be equal to , which is the ratio of the radii of the circles. Thus, we are looking for a point such that (for the -coordinates), and . Solving these, we get and . This means that any point on the plane will dilate to the point , which means that the point dilates to . Thus, the origin moves units. 21. What is the area of the region enclosed by the graph of the equation

Jawab : WLOG note that if a point in the first quadrant satisfies the equation, so do its corresponding points in the other three quadrants. Therefore, we can assume

that

We can rearrange the equation to

get

circle with center four circles with overlap.

, which implies that

and

, and multiply by

at the end.

, which describes a

It's clear we now want to find the union of

note that if you connect

There are several ways to find the area, but to its other three respective points in the other three

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

quadrants, you get a square of area

for a total area of

, along with four half-circles of diameter

which is

.
,

22. A set of teams held a round-robin tournament in which every team played every other

games; there were no ties.

team exactly once. Every team won

games and lost

How many sets of three teams

were there in which

beat

,

beat ,

and beat

sets of three teams must

Jawab : There are

either be a fork (in which one team beat both the others) or a cycle:

teams. Any of the

But we know that every team beat

exactly

always exactly

and all the rest must be cycles.

choices for

other teams, so for each possible

and

at the head of a fork, there are

. Therefore there are

forks,

which is

.

23. In regular hexagon

, points

,
,

, and

are chosen on sides

,

, and

respectively, so lines

,
,

, and

are parallel and

to the area of

,

equally spaced. What is the ratio of the area of hexagon

hexagon

?

Jawab :

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

First, like in the first solution, split the large hexagon into 6 equilateral triangles. Each

equilateral triangle can be split into three rows of smaller equilateral triangles. The first

row will have one triangle, the second three, the third five. Once you have drawn these

lines, it's just a matter of counting triangles. There are small triangles in

hexagon , and small triangles in the whole hexagon.

.

24. How many four-digit integers

digit integers

number is

, where

, have the property that the three two-

form an increasing arithmetic sequence? One such

, with

,
,

, and

.

Jawab : The numbers are

zero, and that

.

and

. Note that only

can be

To form the sequence, we need This can be rearranged as

. Notice that since the left-
, the right-hand side can only be
or
. (A value
and
.) Therefore we have two
.

hand side is a multiple of

of

cases:

Case 1

If

If

If

for

, then

, then

, then

, so
, so
, so

. This gives

. This gives

.
.

, giving

. There is no solution

. Added together, this gives us

Case 2

This means that the digits themselves are in arithmetic sequence. This gives

two cases together, we find the answer to be

.
25. Let
, where
denotes the greatest integer less than or
equal to
. How many distinct values does
assume for
?

WARDAYA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

Jawab : Since

, we have

The function can then be simplified into

which becomes

can equal integers from 0 to k-1.

We can see that for each value of k,

Clearly, the value of

changes only when x is equal to any of the

.

fractions

So we want to count how many distinct fractions have the form

where

.

where

We can find this easily by computing

Function. Basically

(after simplification). This comes out to be

Because the value of

of

is the Euler Totient

counts the number of fractions with

.

as its denominator

is at least 0 and can increase 31 times, there are a total

.

different possible values of