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Experiment 6

(Mar 6-10, 2017)

BJT Circuits

Inverter

Experiment 6 (Mar 6-10, 2017) BJT Circuits Inverter and Amplifier

and

Amplifier

Concepts

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

Biasing

Modes of operation (Active, Cutoff, Saturation)

Current gain b

Amplifier

Gain

Inverter

BJT

NPN Transistor

BC 547

Familiarize with pin names before connecting in the

circuit

Familiarize with pin names before connecting in the circuit While changing any component in the circuit,

While changing any component in the circuit, please turn the power supply off

Let us analyze this circuit

Choose R C = 1 k

V i < V g

Transistor in cut off

I B =0; I C =0 V 0 =V CC

V i > V g

KVL in the BE loop:

V

i

I

B

R

B

V

BE

I B

V

CC 5 V R I C C R B + 47 k V CE +
CC
5 V
R
I C
C
R
B
+
47 k
V
CE
+
V
-
i
I B
V
BE
-
V
 V
i
BE

R

B

B R B  V BE I B  V CC 5 V R I C

V 0

I

V i

V

BE

B R

B

V i > V g

I

C bI

B

KVL in the CE loop:

V

CC

I

C

R

C

V

CE

V V

0

CE

V

CC

I

C

R

C

As V i increases …

b 100

V

CC 5 V R I C C R B + 47 k V CE +
CC
5 V
R
I C
C
R
B
+
47 k
V
CE
+
-
I B
V
BE
-
C • As V i increases … b  100 V CC 5 V R I

V i

C • As V i increases … b  100 V CC 5 V R I

V

0

V o as V i increases …

V o as V i increases …

How low can it go?

V

0

V

CE

V

CB

V

BE

V

CB

When

V

CE

V CE

V

BE

0.2 V

V CB

0.5 V

Both CB and BE junctions are forward biased and the transistor enters into saturation

V

CC 5 V R I C C R B + 47 k V CE +
CC
5 V
R
I C
C
R
B
+
47 k
V
CE
+
-
I B
V
BE
-
and the transistor enters into saturation V CC 5 V R I C C R B

V i

and the transistor enters into saturation V CC 5 V R I C C R B

V 0

Display this on the DSO

V 0 V OH Fig.3 V OL 0 V i V IL V IH
V
0
V
OH
Fig.3
V
OL
0
V i
V IL
V IH

Switch as an inverter (NOT gate)

R C = 1 k

V CC

5 V

V

i

V

0

BJT State

0

5

Cutoff (OFF)

5

0.2

Saturation (ON)

R C
R
C

R

V

0

B

47 k

1
1

D

0 5 Cutoff (OFF) 5 0.2 Saturation (ON) R C R V 0 B 47 k

V i

Diode D1 for Safety!!

Fig.2

0 5 Cutoff (OFF) 5 0.2 Saturation (ON) R C R V 0 B 47 k

What happens if R C = 15 k?

V

0

V

CE

V

CC

I

C

R

C

0.2

V

i

V

V

0.2

b

I

R

B

R

b

R

BE

CC

B

C

C

R

B

V CC

5 V

R C
R
C

0.2

V

i

V

V

BE

b

R

CC

B V CC 5 V R C   0.2  V i V  

C

R

V

0

B

47 k

1
1

D

R C =1k

CC 5 V R C   0.2  V i V   V BE

V i

R C =15k

Fig.2

CC 5 V R C   0.2  V i V   V BE

With R C = 15 k

Slope represents gain in active region

V

CC

R C
R
C

5 V

R

V

0

B

47 k

1
1

D

With R C = 15 k  Slope represents gain in active region V CC R

V

i

Fig.2

With R C = 15 k  Slope represents gain in active region V CC R

In the Lab: VTC of an inverter

Wire the BJT inverter circuit. Use R C = 1 k.

Adjust the FG to obtain a 200 Hz triangular wave (0 to +5 V) and connect the same as the input (V i ) to the circuit.

Display and record the VTC

Note down the approximate values of V OH , V OL , V IL , and

V IH .

Indicate the modes of operation of the BJT on the

different regions of the VTC.

Using the VTC, estimate the current gain b of the transistor.

V 0 V OH Fig.3 V OL 0 V i V IL V IH
V
0
V
OH
Fig.3
V
OL
0
V i
V IL
V IH

VTC of an inverter

Using the VTC, estimate the current gain b of the transistor.

V

CC 5 V I C R C R B + 47 k V CE +
CC
5 V
I C
R C
R B
+
47 k
V
CE
+
V i
-
I B
V
BE
-
I C R C R B + 47 k V CE + V i - I
I C R C R B + 47 k V CE + V i - I
V  V  V  I R  V 0 CE CC C C
V
V
V
I
R
V
0
CE
CC
C
C
oL
V
 V
iH
BE
V
CC
V
b
I
R
b
R
oL
B
C
C
R
B
R
V
V
CC
oL
R
V
V
C
iH
BE

b

B

V OL

B R  V  V  CC oL R  V  V  C
B R  V  V  CC oL R  V  V  C
B R  V  V  CC oL R  V  V  C
B R  V  V  CC oL R  V  V  C
B R  V  V  CC oL R  V  V  C
B R  V  V  CC oL R  V  V  C

0

V IL

V IH

V i

V 0

CE Amplifier

v in

C 1 100 µF

+

+

CE Amplifier v in C 1 100 µF – + + – + V i –

+

V i

R 1

33

k

V B

R 2

12 k

V

V

CC

12 V

C

R C

C 2 100 µF

+

V E

R E

1 k

R L

15

k

33 k  V B R 2 12 k  V V CC 12 V C

Fig.4

+

V 0

Before you come to the lab …

Biasing conditions (R C = 3.3 k)

Parameter

V

B

V

C

V

E

I

B

I

C

I

E

Mode

Calculated

             

Measured

             

Use b = 100, V BE = 0.7 V, and V CEsat = 0.2 V

An important step, but can you do it?

33

12

V V CC CC 12 V 12 V R R C R C 1 k
V
V
CC
CC
12 V
12 V
R
R C
R C
1
k 
V
3.3
k 
V
3.3
k 
C
C
V B
V B
V
V
E
E
R
R BB
2
R E
R E
k 
1 k
1 k
V BB

Bias Condition Check

Wire the CE amplifier circuit, omitting the capacitors, R L , and FG connections.

Choose R C = 3.3 k.

Make neat connections such that different

points of the circuit are easily accessible.

V CC 12 V R C R 1 R 1 33 k  VC R
V
CC
12 V
R
C
R
1
R 1
33
k 
VC
R C
3.3 k
R
E
VB
VE
R
2
R 2
R E
12
k 
1 k

Bias Condition Check

Without any AC signal ….

Measure the node voltages V B , V C , and V E using the DMM.

Estimate I B , I C , and I E . Tabulate the theoretical and the measured results (Table 1).

What is the mode of operation of the BJT? Justify your answer.

Gain Measurement

Switch-off the +12V V CC supply to the BJT circuit. Make R C =3.3 k. Now connect the electrolytic capacitors and R L . Take care to observe the correct polarities when you connect the electrolytic capacitors.

Adjust the FG output to give 0.2 sin t V (f=1 kHz). Switch on V CC and connect the FG output to the BJT circuit through capacitor C 1 .

V CC 12 V C 2 R R C 100 µF 1 C 1 33
V
CC
12 V
C 2
R
R C
100 µF
1
C 1
33
k
V
+
C
100 µF
+
+
V
R L
B
+
+
V
15 k
V 0
E
R
2
V
R E
i
12
k
1 k
Fig.4

Make neat connections such that different points of the circuit are easily accessible

v in

A challenge !!

If you think your circuit layout is the best …

please email a photograph of the circuit to

ShilpiG@iitk.ac.in

Eligible circuit:

CE amplifier with all components and cables included

a photograph of the circuit to ShilpiG@iitk.ac.in Eligible circuit: CE amplifier with all components and cables

Gain Measurement

Observe the amplifier input (V i = V B ) and output V O on CH-1 and CH-2, respectively.

Sketch the two waveforms. Measure the voltage gain of the amplifier (Voltage gain, A V = V O /V i ).

Comment on the phase relationship between the amplifier input and output waveforms.

How not to increase the gain!!

Change R C to 15 k.

Measure the gain of the amplifier. Does it increase? If necessary, decrease the amplitude of the input signal.

Measure the DC biasing conditions to

determine the mode of operation of the BJT.

Let us increase the gain

Change R C back to 3.3 k.

Connect a 100mF capacitor across R E , and measure the gain.

The smallest signal from the FG is ~20mV, not

small enough

You may need to use a potential divider to reduce the amplitude of the input signal (5mV to 10mV peak)

Potential Divider

FG

V s

Potential Divider FG V s R p1 10 k  + V in V B +

R p1

10 k

Potential Divider FG V s R p1 10 k  + V in V B +
Potential Divider FG V s R p1 10 k  + V in V B +
Potential Divider FG V s R p1 10 k  + V in V B +
Potential Divider FG V s R p1 10 k  + V in V B +

+

V

in

V B

+

Potential Divider FG V s R p1 10 k  + V in V B +

R p2

1 k

–

Have a good lab session …

ASSIGNMENT-7

Problem 1. Determine V cc and R B in the following circuit

Problem 1. Determine V c c and R B in the following circuit V CC R
Problem 1. Determine V c c and R B in the following circuit V CC R
Problem 1. Determine V c c and R B in the following circuit V CC R
V CC R B 2.2k + 7.2V 10mA - 4mA
V
CC
R B
2.2k
+
7.2V
10mA
-
4mA

Problem 2. Determine I C and V CE in the following circuit.

Determine I C and V C E in the following circuit. Let us assume transistor is
Let us assume transistor is in forward active mode 20V 2.4k 510k I C b100
Let us assume transistor is in forward active mode
20V
2.4k
510k
I
C
b100
+
V
CE
I
-
Applying KVL
B
1.5k

Applying KVL

Problem 3. Determine I C and V CE in the following circuit

Let us assume transistor is forward active mode

16V I C + I B 3.6k I 470k C + b120 V CE I
16V
I C + I B
3.6k
I
470k
C
+
b120
V
CE
I
B
-
I C + I B
510
Applying KVL
Applying KVL
mode 16V I C + I B 3.6k I 470k C + b120 V CE I
mode 16V I C + I B 3.6k I 470k C + b120 V CE I
10V I CQ 220k 1k b=100 i + + i V v + CEQ 0
10V
I
CQ
220k
1k
b=100
i
+
+
i
V
v
+
CEQ
0
-
-
v
i
-

Problem 4: DC analysis

10V

I CQ 220k 1k b=100 i + + i V v + CEQ 0 -
I
CQ
220k
1k
b=100
i
+
+
i
V
v
+
CEQ
0
-
-
v
i
-
1k b=100 i + + i V v + CEQ 0 - - v i -

Applying KVL

10V

I CQ 220k 1k b=100 + i i V CEQ - I BQ
I
CQ
220k
1k
b=100
+
i i
V
CEQ
-
I
BQ
b=100 i + + i V v + CEQ 0 - - v i - Applying

Problem 4: AC analysis

10V

10V

I CQ 220k 1k b=100 + i i + V v + CEQ 0 -
I
CQ
220k
1k
b=100
+
i i
+
V
v
+
CEQ
0
-
-
v
i
-
I CQ 220k 1k b=100 + i i + V v + CEQ 0 -
I
CQ
220k
1k
b=100
+
i i
+
V
v
+
CEQ
0
-
-
v
i
-
1k b=100 + i i + V v + CEQ 0 - - v i -

v

o

C

+ g m v  v  
+
g
m v 
v

R

v o C + g m v  v   R v V i S
v V i S
v
V
i
S

R B

r

v o C + g m v  v   R v V i S
v o C + g m v  v   R v V i S
v o C + g m v  v   R v V i S

Short DC voltage source and capacitors

R v V i S R B r  Short DC voltage source and capacitors Replace

Replace transistor with its small signal model

R v V i S R B r  Short DC voltage source and capacitors Replace

Problem 4: AC analysis

Problem 4: AC analysis i v o i R C + g v m  r
i v o i R C + g v m  r v v R
i
v
o
i
R
C
+
g
v
m
r
v
v
R
B
V
i
S
R C + g v m  r v v R   B V i

Small signal voltage gain

v

v

in

v o



g

m

v

R

C

v 0 A   g R v m C v in
v
0
A
 g R
v
m
C
v
in
 v  in v o  g m v   R C v 0

Input impedence

 v  in v o  g m v   R C v 0

Problem 4 continued: In order to increase the input impedance of the amplifier, an emitter resistor was introduced into the circuit, as shown in the following figure. Calculate V CEQ , I CQ , A v , and Z i

10V I CQ 220k 1k i b=100 + + i + V v CEQ 0
10V
I
CQ
220k
1k
i
b=100
+
+
i
+
V
v
CEQ
0
v
-
-
i
0.5k
-
i b=100 + + i + V v CEQ 0 v - - i 0.5k -

DC analysis

10V I CQ 220k 1k b=100 i i + + V CEQ v - I
10V
I
CQ
220k
1k
b=100
i i
+
+
V
CEQ
v
-
I BQ
i
0.5k
-

Applying KVL

- i 0.5k - DC analysis 10V I CQ 220k 1k b=100 i i + +

Problem 4 continued: In order to increase the input impedance of the amplifier, an emitter resistor was introduced into the circuit, as shown in the following figure. Calculate V CEQ , I CQ , A v , and Z i

10V I CQ 220k 1k i b=100 + + i + V v CEQ 0
10V
I
CQ
220k
1k
i
b=100
+
+
i
+
V
v
CEQ
0
-
-
v
i
0.5k
-

v

o

 g v

m

R

C

v i 0.5k - v o  g v m   R C AC analysis
v i 0.5k - v o  g v m   R C AC analysis
v i 0.5k - v o  g v m   R C AC analysis
v i 0.5k - v o  g v m   R C AC analysis

AC analysis

- v o  g v m   R C AC analysis v o C

v

o

C

v i + g m v  v   v x
v i
+
g
m v 
v
v
x

R

v o C v i + g m v  v   v x R
v V i S
v
V
i
S

R B

r

v o C v i + g m v  v   v x R
v o C v i + g m v  v   v x R
AC analysis v o C v i + g m v  v v r

AC analysis

v

o

C

v i + g m v  v v r   R B V
v
i
+
g
m v 
v
v
r 
R B
V
i
S
v
x

R

v o C v i + g m v  v v r   R

v o



g

m

v

R

C

C v i + g m v  v v r   R B V
C v i + g m v  v v r   R B V
C v i + g m v  v v r   R B V
C v i + g m v  v v r   R B V
C v i + g m v  v v r   R B V
C v i + g m v  v v r   R B V
10V I CQ 220k 1k i + i b=100 + v + V 0 CEQ
10V I CQ 220k 1k i + i b=100 + v + V 0 CEQ
10V
I
CQ
220k
1k
i
+
i
b=100
+
v
+
V
0
CEQ
-
v
-
i
0.1k
-
0.4k

Problem 6: Determine R B and R C such that the transistor is in saturation with I C =2mA and b forced =20 when V i =5V. Draw the voltage transfer characteristics (a plot of V 0 vs V i ) with these resistances

5V

transfer characteristics (a plot of V 0 vs V i ) with these resistances 5 V
I C R C R B V 0 V i b=100
I
C
R
C
R
B
V
0
V i
b=100

Problem 6 continued: Determine R B and R C such that the transistor is in saturation with I C =2mA and b forced =20 when V i =5V. Draw the voltage transfer characteristics (a plot of V 0 vs V i ) with these resistances

(a plot of V 0 vs V i ) with these resistances 5V I C R
(a plot of V 0 vs V i ) with these resistances 5V I C R

5V

I C R C R B V 0 V i b=100
I
C
R
C
R
B
V
0
V i
b=100
with these resistances 5V I C R C R B V 0 V i b=100 Determine
with these resistances 5V I C R C R B V 0 V i b=100 Determine

Determine transition point from forward active to saturation using this condition

Problem 6 continued

Problem 6 continued 5 V 0.2 V 0.7 V 1.56 V
5 V 0.2 V 0.7 V 1.56 V
5 V
0.2 V
0.7 V
1.56 V

Additional problems

Determine the Q point of the transistor. (V BE =0.7V, V CEsat =0.2V)

b F 100
b
F 100

0.7

I

I

E

C

1

k

2.3

I

E

mA

3

 

0

2.3

1.01

2.28

mA

I

R

3

10

2.28

7.72

mA

b F 100

V

C

V

E

V

CE

1 k I

R 3

 0.7 V

7.72 V

V

C

V

E

8.42 V

A

v

v

0

v in

+

 

v

in

 

g

m

v

1

k

 

v

 91.2

g

I CQ

m
V

T

r

V

T

I

CQ

b

F

r

+

v

b F 100

2.28

25

0.0912

100

0.0912

1.096

k

g m v

v 0

1k

Determine the mode of operation of the transistor in the following circuits

5 V

Determine the mode of operation of the transistor in the following circuits 5 V Resistance in

Resistance in ohms

b 5 V
b
5 V

F 100

5 V

Plot the voltage transfer characteristics

1 k D1 V i D2 V 0 1 k 5 V 10 V
1 k
D1
V i
D2
V 0
1 k
5 V
10 V
- V D1 + 1 k V i D1 D2 V 0 1 k 5
- V D1 +
1 k
V i
D1
D2
V 0
1 k
5 V
10 V

Suppose D2 is OFF

D1 is ON when V D1 = 0.7 V

V 10 0.7

i

V i 9.3 V

V

i

V

i

9.3

V

9.3

V

Both the diodes are OFF, and V 0 = 10 V

D1 is ON and D2 is OFF

V

i

I

V

0

V

0

10

1

k

I

 

0.7

1

k

I

 

V

i

9.3

 
 

2

k

 

10

1

k

V

i

9.3

 

 
   

2

k

V

i

10.7

 

2

0

- V D1 + 1 k V i D1 D2 V 0 1 k 5
- V D1 +
1 k
V i
D1
D2
V 0
1 k
5 V
10 V

D2 is OFF until:

V

0

(5

0.7)V

V

0

V

i

V 10.7
i

2

 2.1 V

4.3 V

For V i <-2.1V, D2 is ON

V 0 =4.3V

D1,D2 Off 0 D1:ON,D2: Off D1,D2: ON 4.3 -2.1 9.3 Vi
D1,D2 Off
0
D1:ON,D2: Off
D1,D2: ON
4.3
-2.1
9.3
Vi

V

Plot the voltage transfer characteristics -

+ V D 1 k V i V 0 = 2 V 1 k V
+ V D
1 k
V i
V 0
= 2 V
1 k
V Z
Suppose the diode is not
connected
5 V
 V
V
 5  0
i
D

V

D

V

i

5

V

D

V

0

0.7

 

5

1

k

V

i

5

0.7

V

i

5.7

V

i

0.7

5

2

k

V

i

4.3

2

V

Diode is forward biased

+ V D - 1 k V i V 0 = 2 V 1 k
+ V D
-
1 k
V i
V 0
= 2 V
1 k
V Z
5 V
V
V
5

D

i

V

D

V

0

2

V

 

5

1

k

V

i

5 2

V

i

2

V  

i

5

2

k

V

i

7

2

3

V

Diode is in Zener mode

3 V V 5.7 V

i

Diode is OFF and V 0 = 5 V

V 0

Zener mode

Forward biased

3

Off

5.7

Vi

Plot the voltage transfer characteristics

V i

- V - V D2 + + V D1 V 0 D1 D2 1 k
-
V - V D2 +
+ V D1
V 0
D1
D2
1 k
1 k
4 V
2 V
12 V 5.6 k 86 k b F =90 22 k 1.5 k
12 V
5.6 k
86 k
b
F =90
22 k
1.5 k

R B

86

k

22 k

86

k

22

k

17.52

k

V

B

12

2.44

22

108

I

BQ

2.44 V

17.52 k

0.7

I

EQ

I

BQ

I CQ

b

F

;

I

EQ

I

CQ

(1

1

b

F

1.5

)

k

2.44

I CQ

90

17.52

I

CQ

1.02

mA

k

0.7

I

CQ

(1

1

90

12

V CEQ

1.02

5.6

4.74 V

V

(1  1 90  12 V CEQ  1.02  5.6  4.74 V V

b

R

C

CC

5.6 k

R B V
R
B
V

F =90

 5.6  4.74 V V b R C CC 5.6 k  R B V

R E

1.5 k

5.6  4.74 V V b R C CC 5.6 k  R B V F

B

k

5.6  4.74 V V b R C CC 5.6 k  R B V F

)1.5

V

CEQ

1.02(1

1

90

)

1.5

A

v

5.6 k

17.52 k

g

m

I CQ

V

T

1.02 mA

25

mV

0.0408 S

v

0

v in

+ g m v  v v r   R B V in S
+
g
m v 
v
v
r 
R B
V
in
S
17.52 k



v o

R C

5.6

0.0408

5600

228.5

 g R 

m

C

k

12 V 5.6 k 86 k b F =90 22 k 1.5 k
12 V
5.6 k
86 k
b
F =90
22 k
1.5 k

v in

r

g

m

I CQ

V

T

1.02 mA

25

mV

17.52 k

0.0408 S

r

+

v

g m v

1.5 k

V

T

I CQ

b

25

mV

90

1.02 mA

2.206

k

v 0

5.6 k

v in

v

i

0

e



i

b

g

17.52 k

R B

R

i

v

m

i

c

C

b

(1

b

)

r

+

v

g m v

R C

5.6 k

i e v in  v    v i 
i e
v
in
 v
 
v
i

1.5 k

R E

i R

e

E

b

(1

b

)

R

E

 

v

v
(1

r

b ) R

E

v

in

v

r

(1

b

) R

E

r

v 0

v in

17.52 k

R B

v

0



g

m

R

A

v

v

0

v in

r

+ g m v

v

 

i e

1.5 k

R

v

in

C

 

r

(1

b

) R

E

 
 

r

 

0.0408

5.6 k

 

2.206 k (1

90)1.5 k

 

2.206 k

 

R C

5.6 k

E

 3.63

v 0

Plot the voltage transfer characteristics

1 k D1 V i D2 V 0 1 k 5 V 10 V
1 k
D1
V i
D2
V 0
1 k
5 V
10 V

V i

1 k

- V D1 +

D1

1 k I
1 k
I

10 V

Suppose D2 is ON

V

5

0  

0.7 4.3V

Current through 1kresistor is:

I

10

4.3 1 k

5.7 mA

Since this cannot flow through D2, D1 is also ON

When the current through D2 is zero, D2 switches OF

D2

5 V

V 0

This occurs when (KVL output to

input via D1),

4.3

0.7

V  2.1

i

5.7

V 0

i

When V i <-2.1V, both the diodes are ON

When V i >-2.1V, D1 is ON and D2 is OFF

V i

1 k

- V D1 +

D1

1 k

10 V

D2

5 V

When Vi>-2.1V, D1 is ON and D2 is OFF

I

Vi

10

0.7

2

k

V 9.3
i

2

k

V

0

10

1

k

V

i

9.3

2

k

V

i

10.7

2

V 0

With this situation, D1 will be ON until I=0

I

V 9.3

i

2 k

V 9.3 V
i

0

V i 9.3 V

Plot the voltage transfer characteristics

- V - V D2 + + V D1 V 0 D1 D2 1 k
-
V - V D2 +
+ V D1
V 0
D1
D2
1 k
1 k
4 V
2 V

Determine V 0 and V.

V i

Suppose D1 is OFF and D2 is ON

V i

+ V D1

D1

-

V - V D2 +

1 k

D2

1 k

2 V

D1 is OFF and D2 is ON

V

0

V

 

4

1

k

V

0

0.7

4

 

2

0.7

2 k

0.65V

1.35 V

4 V

When will D1 be ON?

V 0

V i

+ V D1

D1

-

V - V D2 +

D2

V 0

D1:OFF,

D2: ON

1 k

2 V

D2 is ON

D1 will be ON when

V i 0.7

V

0.65

1.35 V

i

V i < 1.35 V D1: OFF; D2: ON V i > 1.35 V D1,D2: ON

1 k

4 V

with D1,D2: ON

Both ON D1:OFF, D2: ON
Both ON
D1:OFF,
D2: ON

Determine V 0 and V.

V

V

0

V V

i

D 1

V V

D 2

V 0.7

i

V

i

When will D2 turn OFF?

V i

+ V D1

D1

-

V - V D2 +

1 k

D2

V i + V D 1 D1 - V - V D 2 + 1 k

I

D2

1 k

V 0

2 V

D2 will turn OFF when,

I

D 2

4 V

i

1 k

V

i

4 V

0

I D 2

0

When

V

i

4 V

4 V

D2 is OFF and D1 is ON

V

0

4V

V 0

1.35

D1:OFF, D2: ON

D1,D2: ON

1.35

4

D1 ON, D2 Off

Vi

V i

Assume: D1, D2 On

V

0

V 0

-10V

V

D

1

V

D 2

0

Determine the current through the diodes.

V i

I

0.7 V

V i I  0.7 V I 1 2  0 (   10) 5

I 1

2

0

(

 

10)

5 k

I

I

1

D

V 0.7
i

10 k

1

I

1

I

D

2

5 k I I 1 D V  0.7 i  10 k 1  I

I D2

I D1  2 mA
I D1
 2 mA

I

I 2

D 2

-10V

V 0

D1, D2 On

V

0

V

D

1

V

D

2

0

D1 is OFF when I D1 =0

V

i

10

k

V

i

2.07 mA 0

20.7 V

V i > 20.7 V D1, D2 On V i < 20.7 V D1: OFF, D2: ON

I

D 1

V

i

10

k

0.07 mA

2

mA

V

i

10

k

2.07 mA

V i

V

i

I

I

 

10

k

V 9.3
i

15 k

V

0

V

0



10

5

k

V
i 6.9

3

15 k V 0 V 0  10  5 k  V i  6.9

I

V 0

D1: OFF, D2 On

Determine V 0

0.7

I

 

V 9.3
i

15 k

5

k

10

-10V

0

D2 is OFF when I=0

V i  9.3 V

V i  9.3 V V 0  10 V

V

0

 10 V

when I =0 V i  9.3 V V 0  10 V V i >

V i > 20.7 V D1, D2 On

V i < 20.7 V D1: OFF, D2: ON V i < -9.3 V D1, D2: OFF

V

0

V

0

V

0

0

V

i

3

6.9 V

 10 V

Determine the voltage transfer characteristics.

V i

1k

V Z =3V

D1

V 0

1k

D2

Assume: D1: Zener mode, D2: On

V 0 =3V

D1: OFF

D2:ON

D1: Zener

D2:ON
D2:ON

When current through D1 is zero, it goes in to OFF state, but D2 is still ON. This happens when V 0 =V Z

V

0

V

i

0.7

5.3

V

1

k

V

i

0.7

2

k

V

i

0.7

2

V

Z

3

V i > 5.3 V D1: Zener, D2: On; V 0 =3V V i < 5.3 V D1: OFF, D2: ON; V 0 =0.5V i +0.35

V i

1k

V Z =3V

D1

V 0

1k

D2

D1: OFF

D2:ON

D1: ON

D2:OFF

D1: Zener

D2:ON
D2:ON
V 0 1k  D2 D1: OFF D2:ON D1: ON D2:OFF D1: Zener D2:ON D1: OFF

D1: OFF

D2:OFF

When V i = 0.7 V D2 also switches OFF; and V 0 = V i `

When V i = -0.7 V D1 turns ON!!; and V 0 = -0.7V