Sei sulla pagina 1di 52  CHAPTER 1
(week 1-3)
Strain Analysis What is plane strain?

Perpendicular force applied on a

surface

With a very large z-axis dimension

plane strain  What is plane stress?

Thin plate loaded parallel to the plane

Uniform over the thickness

No stress along z-axis   GENERAL EQUATION OF PLANE STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION Transform normal & shear

strain

x, y component to x’, y’

SIGN CONVENTION!!

strain e

and e

y

are positive

x

if cause elongation along x

and y axis

Shear strain g

is positive

xy

if the interior angle AOB become smaller than 90 0 .

q 0 will be positive counterclockwise   Normal Strains, e x , e y

In Fig a :

 ' dx dy  dx cos  dx sin ' q q

 e x = dx/dx Positive e x occur line d x elongated e x d x

• which cause line dx’ to elongated e x d x cos q.   Normal Strains, e x , e y

Similiar for e y

 e y = dy/dy

• cause line dy’ to elongated

 e y d y sin q    Shear strain, g xy

Shear strain, is angle in radian

For small angle tan g  g

Shear strain g xy ,since tan g  g

tan g xy  g xy = e xy /dy

dy displaced g xy dy to the right.

• Solve along x’ dx’ elongate  g xy dy cos q  Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)
d
 dx
e cosq
e sin q g cosq
dy
dy
x
'
x
y
xy
dx
 dx cos
'
q
'
d
x
dy
 dx sin
'
q
e
'
'
x
d x
'
'
'
e
( d x cos ) cos
q
q  e
( d x sin
q
) sin
q  g
( d x sin q ) cos q
x
y
xy
e
'
'
x
d x
2
2
e
 e
cos
q  e
sin
q  g
sin
q
cos
q
'
x
y
xy
x Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)

e

'

x

 e cos q  e sin q  g sin q cos q

x

y

xy

2

2

cos

cos

2

2

q

q

sin 2

q

sin

2

q

1

q

(1 cos 2 ) / 2

2 sin

q

cos

q

e

x

e

y

'

'

hence

e

x

e

y

e

x

2

e

y

2 e

x

e

y

e

x

2

e

y

2

cos 2

q

cos 2

q

g

xy

2

g

xy

2

sin 2

q

sin 2

q Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)

Using trigonometric identities:    Principal Strains

Only normal strains

No shear strain

Direction axis of principle strain:

Max in Plane shear strain

Ave shear strain

Direction axis of shear

strain  e
 e
2
 g
2
 e
e
  xy
x
y
x
y
e
1, 2
 
2
2
2
 
g
xy
tan 2 q 
p
(
e
 e
)
x
y
2
2
g
 e
 e
 g
max, i n plane
x
y
xy
 
2
2
2
e
 e
x
y
e
ave
2
 e
 e
x
y
tan 2 q  
s
g
xy           Construction of the Mohr’s Circle

(horizontal) represents the

normal strain e, with positive to

the right

value of the shear strain, g/2, with positive downward. (vertical) represents half the

center of the circle

C,

is on

the e axis, e avg = (e x the origin.

Represents

R = distance between A to C

+ e y )/2 from

Plot point A = (e x , g xy /2).

q = 0. Once R has been determined,

sketch the circle centred C

Principal Strains

Only normal strains

No shear strain

Direction axis of principle strain:

Max in Plane shear strain

Ave shear strain

Direction axis of shear

strain  e
 e
2
 g
2
 e
e
  xy
x
y
x
y
e
1, 2
 
2
2
2
 
g
xy
tan 2 q 
p
(
e
 e
)
x
y
2
2
g
 e
 e
 g
max, i n plane
x
y
xy
 
2
2
2
e
 e
x
y
e
ave
2
 e
 e
x
y
tan 2 q  
s
g
xy

Principal Strain

Principal strain = no shear strain

B, D = e 1 , e 2

Angle on Mohrs circle = 2q

critical angle = (angle between CA to horizantal

)/2

Direction of plane same as

circle

+ve value = elongate at plane   Maximum In Plane Shear Strain

At points E and F. i.e

= 2R

Angle is halves the same direction as on circle E.g line CA to CE Strains on Arbitrary Plane Similar as value at arbitrary

plane (other plane angle)

Correspond normal and shear strain at P & Q         Strain Rosettes  The axes of the three

gauges are arranged at the

angles of qa, qb, qc.

If the reading of e a , e b , e c taken, e x , e y , g xy can be defined.

Value of e x , e , g

are

y

xy

determined by solving

these equations.

2

q

a

sin

2

 e

y

 e

y

q

a

sin q

sin q

e

e

e

a

b

 e cos

x

 e

x

2

 g

 g

xy

Not

given

cos q

2

b

2

sin q

2

b  xy

cos q  e sin q  g
c

 e

x

c

y

c

sin q cos q

xy 45 o or Rectangular Rosette
0
q
 0
a
0
q
 45
b
0
q
 90
c
The equation become:
e
 e
x a
e
 e
y
c
g
 2 e
e
 e
xy
b
a
c
Example of 45 o strain rosette 60 0 Strain Rosette
0
q
 0
a
0
q
 60
b
0
q
 120
c
The equation become:
e  e
x
a
1
e 
2 e
 2 e
 e
y
b
c
a
3
2
g
e
 e
xy
b
c
3 Example   Stress Strain Relationship If a material subject to triaxial

stress (s x , s , s z ), associated normal stress(e x , e , e z ) developed in the material.

y

y

When s x is applied in

x-

direction, the element elongated

with e x in x direction.

Application on s

y

cause the

element to contract with a strain ex in the x direction.

Application Of s z cause the element to contract with a strain e’’’ x in the x direction. given

Not

given   s
'
x
e
x 
s
y
'
'
e
x  
s
'
' '
z
e
x    Stress Strain Relationship (cont.)
• The same result can be
given
1

e
s
  s
 s
developed for the normal
strain in the y and z
direction.
x
x
y
z
1

e
s
  s
 s
y
y
x
z
• Final results can be
Not
1
written as…

given
e
s
  s
 s
z
z
x
y Stress Strain Relationship (cont.)
Applying only shear stress,t y to the element.
 If to apply shear stress,t y to the element.
 t xy will only cause deformation to g xy.

t xy will not cause deformation to g yz. and g xz

and t xz will only cause deformation to

t

g

yz

yz

and g xz respectively.

Hooke Law for shear stress and shear

strain written as:

g

xz

g

xy

g

yz 1
t
xy
G
1
t
yz
G
1
t
xz
G

given    Not
given

Element subjected to normal stresses only

Shear stress applied to the elements Stress Strain Relationship (cont.)
E
• Modulus of elasticity, E is
G 
given
related to shear modulus, G.
2 1

• Dilatation (the change in
volume per unit volume or
1  2 
e 
s
 s
 s
x
y
z
E
‘volumetric strain’, e.
Not
given
E
• Bulk Modulus (volume
modulus of elasticity), k.
k 
31  2     pressure=stress   