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CHAPTER 1 (week 1-3) Strain Analysis
CHAPTER 1 (week 1-3) Strain Analysis
CHAPTER 1
(week 1-3)
Strain Analysis
CHAPTER 1 (week 1-3) Strain Analysis

What is plane strain?

Perpendicular force applied on a

surface

With a very large z-axis dimension

plane strain

plane strain? • Perpendicular force applied on a surface • With a very large z-axis dimension
plane strain? • Perpendicular force applied on a surface • With a very large z-axis dimension

What is plane stress?

Thin plate loaded parallel to the plane

Uniform over the thickness

No stress along z-axis

is plane stress? • Thin plate loaded parallel to the plane • Uniform over the thickness
is plane stress? • Thin plate loaded parallel to the plane • Uniform over the thickness
GENERAL EQUATION OF PLANE STRAIN TRANSFORMATION
GENERAL EQUATION OF PLANE STRAIN
TRANSFORMATION
GENERAL EQUATION OF PLANE STRAIN TRANSFORMATION  Transform normal & shear strain  x, y component

Transform normal & shear

strain

x, y component to x’, y’

SIGN CONVENTION!!

strain e

and e

y

are positive

x

if cause elongation along x

and y axis

Shear strain g

is positive

xy

if the interior angle AOB become smaller than 90 0 .

q 0 will be positive counterclockwise

g is positive xy if the interior angle AOB become smaller than 90 0 . 
Normal Strains , e x , e y
Normal Strains , e x , e y

Normal Strains, e x , e y

In Fig a :

 

'

dx

dy

dx cos dx sin

'

q

q

 e x = dx/dx

dx cos  dx sin ' q q  e x = d x/dx • Positive

Positive e x occur line d x elongated e x d x

• which cause line dx’ to elongated



e x d x cos q.

e x occur line d x elongated e x d x • which cause line dx’
Normal Strains, e x , e y
Normal Strains, e x , e y

Normal Strains, e x , e y

Similiar for e y

 e y = dy/dy

• cause line dy’ to elongated

 e y d y sin q

x , e y • Similiar for e y  e y = d y/dy •
x , e y • Similiar for e y  e y = d y/dy •
x , e y • Similiar for e y  e y = d y/dy •
Shear strain, g x y

Shear strain, g xy

Shear strain, is angle in radian

For small angle tan g  g

Shear strain g xy ,since tan g  g

tan g xy  g xy = e xy /dy

dy displaced g xy dy to the right.

• Solve along x’ dx’ elongate  g xy dy cos q

•  dy displaced g x y dy to the right. • Solve along x’ 
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.) • Adding all the elongations d  dx e cosq
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)
• Adding all the elongations
d
 dx
e cosq
e sin q g cosq
dy
dy
x
'
x
y
xy
dx
 dx cos
'
q
'
d
x
dy
 dx sin
'
q
e
'
'
x
d x
'
'
'
e
( d x cos ) cos
q
q  e
( d x sin
q
) sin
q  g
( d x sin q ) cos q
x
y
xy
e
'
'
x
d x
2
2
e
 e
cos
q  e
sin
q  g
sin
q
cos
q
'
x
y
xy
x
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)

e

'

x

 e cos q  e sin q  g sin q cos q

x

y

xy

2

2

cos

cos

2

2

q

q

sin 2

q

sin

2

q

1

q

(1 cos 2 ) / 2

2 sin

q

cos

q

e

x

e

y

'

'

hence

e

x

e

y

e

x

2

e

y

2

x e y ' ' hence   e x  e y e x 2

e

x

e

y

e

x

2

e

y

2

cos 2

q

cos 2

q

g

xy

2

g

xy

2

sin 2

q

sin 2

q

Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.)

Using trigonometric identities:

Normal and Shear Strains (cont.) Using trigonometric identities:
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.) Using trigonometric identities:
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.) Using trigonometric identities:
Normal and Shear Strains (cont.) Using trigonometric identities:

Principal Strains

Only normal strains

No shear strain

Direction axis of principle strain:

Max in Plane shear strain

Ave shear strain

Direction axis of shear

strain

• Ave shear strain • Direction axis of shear strain e  e 2  g
e  e 2  g 2  e e    xy x
e
 e
2
 g
2
 e
e
  xy
x
y
x
y
e
1, 2
 
2
2
2
 
g
xy
tan 2 q 
p
(
e
 e
)
x
y
2
2
g
 e
 e
 g
max, i n plane
x
y
xy
 
2
2
2
e
 e
x
y
e
ave
2
 e
 e
x
y
tan 2 q  
s
g
xy

Construction of the Mohr’s Circle

(horizontal) represents the

normal strain e, with positive to

the right

value of the shear strain, g/2, with positive downward.

of the shear strain, g /2 , with positive downward . (vertical) represents half the •

(vertical) represents half the

center of the circle

C,

is on

the e axis, e avg = (e x the origin.

Represents

R = distance between A to C

+ e y )/2 from

Plot point A = (e x , g xy /2).

q = 0.

from Plot point A = ( e x , g x y /2). q = 0

Once R has been determined,

sketch the circle centred C

Principal Strains

Only normal strains

No shear strain

Direction axis of principle strain:

Max in Plane shear strain

Ave shear strain

Direction axis of shear

strain

• Ave shear strain • Direction axis of shear strain e  e 2  g
e  e 2  g 2  e e    xy x
e
 e
2
 g
2
 e
e
  xy
x
y
x
y
e
1, 2
 
2
2
2
 
g
xy
tan 2 q 
p
(
e
 e
)
x
y
2
2
g
 e
 e
 g
max, i n plane
x
y
xy
 
2
2
2
e
 e
x
y
e
ave
2
 e
 e
x
y
tan 2 q  
s
g
xy

Principal Strain

Principal strain = no shear strain

B, D = e 1 , e 2

Angle on Mohrs circle = 2q

critical angle = (angle between CA to horizantal

)/2

Direction of plane same as

circle

+ve value = elongate at plane

angle = (angle between CA to horizantal )/2 • Direction of plane same as circle +ve
Maximum In Plane Shear Strain • At points E and F. i.e = 2R •
Maximum In Plane Shear Strain
Maximum In Plane Shear Strain

At points E and F. i.e

= 2R

Angle is halves the same direction as on circle E.g line CA to CE

Shear Strain • At points E and F. i.e = 2R • Angle is halves the

Strains on Arbitrary Plane

Strains on Arbitrary Plane • Similar as value at arbitrary plane (other plane angle) • Correspond

Similar as value at arbitrary

plane (other plane angle)

Correspond normal and shear strain at P & Q

Plane • Similar as value at arbitrary plane (other plane angle) • Correspond normal and shear
Plane • Similar as value at arbitrary plane (other plane angle) • Correspond normal and shear

Strain Rosettes

Strain Rosettes • The axes of the three gauges are arranged at the angles of q
Strain Rosettes • The axes of the three gauges are arranged at the angles of q

The axes of the three

gauges are arranged at the

angles of qa, qb, qc.

If the reading of e a , e b , e c taken, e x , e y , g xy can be defined.

Value of e x , e , g

are

y

xy

determined by solving

these equations.

2

q

a

sin

2

 e

y

 e

y

q

a

sin q

sin q

e

e

e

a

b

 e cos

x

 e

x

2

 g

 g

xy

Not

given

cos q

2

b

2

sin q

2

b

x  e x 2  g  g xy Not given cos q 2 b
x  e x 2  g  g xy Not given cos q 2 b

xy

cos q  e sin q  g
c

 e

x

c

y

c

sin q cos q

xy

45 o or Rectangular Rosette 0 q  0 a 0 q  45 b
45 o or Rectangular Rosette
0
q
 0
a
0
q
 45
b
0
q
 90
c
The equation become:
e
 e
x a
e
 e
y
c
g
 2 e
e
 e
xy
b
a
c
Example of 45 o strain rosette
60 0 Strain Rosette 0 q  0 a 0 q  60 b 0
60 0 Strain Rosette
0
q
 0
a
0
q
 60
b
0
q
 120
c
The equation become:
e  e
x
a
1
e 
2 e
 2 e
 e
y
b
c
a
3
2
g
e
 e
xy
b
c
3
Example
Example

Stress Strain Relationship

Stress Strain Relationship • If a material subject to triaxial stress ( s x , s

If a material subject to triaxial

stress (s x , s , s z ), associated normal stress(e x , e , e z ) developed in the material.

y

y

When s x is applied in

x-

direction, the element elongated

with e x in x direction.

Application on s

y

cause the

element to contract with a strain ex in the x direction.

Application Of s z cause the element to contract with a strain e’’’ x in the x direction.

with a strain e ’’’ x in the x direction. given Not given s ' x

given

Not

given

e ’’’ x in the x direction. given Not given s ' x e x 
e ’’’ x in the x direction. given Not given s ' x e x 
s ' x e x   s y ' ' e x  
s
'
x
e
x 
s
y
'
'
e
x  
s
'
' '
z
e
x  
s ' x e x   s y ' ' e x   
Stress Strain Relationship (cont.) • The same result can be given 1   
Stress Strain Relationship (cont.)
• The same result can be
given
1

e
s
  s
 s
developed for the normal
strain in the y and z
direction.
x
x
y
z
1

e
s
  s
 s
y
y
x
z
• Final results can be
Not
1
written as…

given
e
s
  s
 s
z
z
x
y
Stress Strain Relationship (cont.) Applying only shear stress,t y to the element.  If to
Stress Strain Relationship (cont.)
Applying only shear stress,t y to the element.
 If to apply shear stress,t y to the element.
 t xy will only cause deformation to g xy.

t xy will not cause deformation to g yz. and g xz

and t xz will only cause deformation to

t

g

yz

yz

and g xz respectively.

Hooke Law for shear stress and shear

strain written as:

g

xz

g

xy

g

yz

1 t xy G 1 t yz G 1 t xz G
1
t
xy
G
1
t
yz
G
1
t
xz
G

given

g yz  1 t xy G 1 t yz G 1 t xz G given
g yz  1 t xy G 1 t yz G 1 t xz G given
g yz  1 t xy G 1 t yz G 1 t xz G given
Not given
Not
given

Element subjected to normal stresses only

Shear stress applied to the elements

Stress Strain Relationship (cont.) E • Modulus of elasticity, E is G  given related
Stress Strain Relationship (cont.)
E
• Modulus of elasticity, E is
G 
given
related to shear modulus, G.
2 1

• Dilatation (the change in
volume per unit volume or
1  2 
e 
s
 s
 s
x
y
z
E
‘volumetric strain’, e.
Not
given
E
• Bulk Modulus (volume
modulus of elasticity), k.
k 
31  2

pressure=stress

pressure=stress
pressure=stress