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Krzysztof Ludwinek

Kielce University of Technology

MUTUAL INDUCTANCES IN A SALIENT POLE SYNCHRONOUS

GENERATOR IN THE NO-LOAD STATE

Abstract: This paper presents a representation of the stator to rotor self and mutual inductance and derivative

distributions in the 5.5 kVA salient pole synchronous generator with damping circuits, both with and without a

rotor skew in the no-load steady state. In the circuital linear and nonlinear model, the stator to rotor mutual

inductances are determined in the FEM program. Presented distributions allow to express the waveforms of

induced phase stator voltages in the no-load steady state using a circuital model in the natural reference frame

of the stator and rotor.

A 3-phase synchronous generator is used as a many transients stages, e.g. the hunting [6],

constantly increasing reserved power source. reducing higher harmonics in the field winding

A synchronous generator as a source of power current or increasing of higher harmonics in

has good quality if the contents of the higher armature currents [7]. As will be shown in the

harmonic induced in armature windings are no-load steady state, the discrete distribution of

very low [1, 2]. The content of higher harmonic the damping bars due to higher harmonic

voltages induced in the armature windings is current has an influence on higher harmonic

particularly evident in low power up to several contents in induced voltages.

kVA salient pole synchronous generators In the no-load of the steady state of a salient

especially [3]. The largest content of harmonics pole synchronous generator the distribution of

in the induced phase voltage (in low power magnetic flux density in the air gap is distorted

generators) occurs with the synchronous due to: saturation of the magnetic circuit

generators with the single-layer stator winding (mainly low order odd harmonics) [8, 9], the

without the rotor (or stator) skew. In 3-phase influence of the stator slot opening or rotor

low power synchronous generators (less than 10 damping cage slot opening [10], magnetic rotor

kVA) dominate single layer windings. Apart asymmetry [5, 9, 11, 12] and static and dynamic

from that, many low-cost synchronous stator and rotor eccentricity [9, 11, 12].

generators in the Polish market have the stator In circuital modelling an analytical way of

and rotor structures without a skew. No skew describing a distribution of the self- and mutual

causes a significant increase in higher harmonic inductances with taking into account the

order in stator and rotor inductance electrical angle of the rotor position and current

distributions [3, 4] in the induced voltages [1, 2, are described in [9, 10, 11, 13]. However, this

4] and in currents during powering of various method requires correction of coefficients

types of electronic equipment (AV, etc.), describing the self- and mutual inductances [14,

computers, notebooks, UPS, compact 15]. These coefficients the most frequently are

fluorescent lamps, etc. The presence of higher expressed in the form of Fourier series or based

harmonics in the phase voltage and current on the co-energy are determined as a function

waveforms of synchronous generators has of the electrical angle of the rotor position and

negative economic consequences. Because of current using analytical or FEM methods [12 -

additional power losses these generator sets 16]. The correction of the analytical form of

consume more fuel. coefficients the most often is carried out on the

In dynamic states the electromagnetic basis of experimental investigation or using the

properties of a synchronous machine depend on FEM methods (if the detailed geometry and

the presence of the damping circuits [5, 6]. construction-material data are known) [14].

There are many methods to obtain the This article examines the influence of

parameters of the damping circuits from representation of the stator to the rotor winding

experimental, analytical or FEM methods [5, 6]. mutual inductances on the induced voltages in

118 Zeszyty Problemowe Maszyny Elektryczne Nr 4/2014 (104)

the 3-phase armature winding in a 5.5 kVA, Figure 1 shows the equivalent circuit

salient pole synchronous generator both with parameters of a synchronous generator in the

and without rotor skew under no-load steady stator and the rotor natural reference frame in

state conditions. In part 2 of this article, the the no-load state (ia, ib and ic are equal to zero).

higher harmonic contents in induced stator The equivalent circuit represents the stator

phase voltages are calculated when the DC windings, the field winding and shorted

voltage or DC current is powering the field equivalent 5-damping bars per pole.

winding. The symmetry of the stator windings For such arranged equivalent circuit (Fig. 1),

and field winding with 10 equivalent shorted the voltage ua, ub, uc of a salient pole

damping bars, with the linearity and synchronous generator induced in the three-

nonlinearity of the magnetic circuit have been phase armature windings, taking into account

assumed. The self- and mutual inductances are the field winding, shorted damping bars and the

determined using Flux 2D Skew and FEMM electrical angle of the rotor position can be

programs [3, 4]. The end effects (leakage derived from the equations, in stator

inductance and resistance) are calculated using coordinates (for the stator windings) and in

the analytical technique. rotor coordinates (for the rotor windings).

2. Model of a salient pole synchronous

d a d b d c

generator in the stator and rotor natural = ua , = ub , = uc (1)

dt dt dt

reference frame

d f

The Parks transformation of the higher + Rf i f = u f (2)

harmonics of the stator self- and mutual dt

inductance distributions to the dq0-axes [9, 14, d r ( k ) ir ( k )

+ Rr ( k ) ir ( k ) + Ler =0 (3)

17] does nothing and only introduces additional dt dt

unnecessary calculations. In this case the self- d

and mutual inductance distributions in the dq0- = and ir (1) + ir ( 2 ) + ... + ir (10 ) = 0 (4)

dt

axes are dependent on the angle position of the

rotor. Hence, the induced phase stator voltages Where: a, b and c indexes of stator windings,

ua, ub and uc in simulations is easier to carry out f field winding index, r(k) index of kth-

with a circuital model of a salient pole damping bar, k = {1, 2, 10},a, b, c

synchronous generator in the stator and rotor stator linkage fluxes, ua, ub, uc stator phase

natural reference frame. voltages, electrical angle of the rotor

a) b) position, = mpb, m mechanical angle of the

rotor position, = (1/pb)d/dt electrical

angular velocity, Rf resistance of the field

winding, if field current, ir(1), ..., ir(10) current

in equivalent 10 damping bars and ring

elements, Rr(1), ..., Rr(10) resistance of the

equivalent 10-damping bars and ring elements,

respectively, whereas, Rr(k) resistance of

c) equivalent damping bar and ring elements Rr(k)=

Rpr + Rer/{2sin((k)/Qr)}, Rpr, Rer resistance of

Ler Ler Ler Ler damping bar and ring elements, respectively,

(k) is the angle between the equivalent k

Rr(1) Rr(5) Rr(6) Rr(10)

rotor damping bar (with ring elements) and the

ir(1) ir(5) ir(6) ir(10)

d r(1) d r(5) d r(6) d r(10) rotor reference axis, Qr number of rotor bars,

dt dt dt dt Ler inductance of end ring elements.

Fig. 1. Equivalent circuit parameters of a The equation for differential linkage fluxes (1) -

salient pole synchronous generator in the stator (3) taking into account the influence of currents

and rotor natural reference frame in the no- and electrical angle of the rotor position can

load state a) field winding, b) stator windings, be derived from the equations [9,13, 18]:

c) damping circuits

Zeszyty Problemowe Maszyny Elektryczne Nr 4/2014 (104) 119

LLLL

iiii

iiii

iiii

LLLL

iiii

d d ( , )

= + ( , ) d (5) 3. Determination of the self- and mutual

dt dt dt inductances

The self- and mutual inductances in the

Based on the expressions (1) - (3) and (5) and

expressions (6) - (7) are calculated on the basis

the mutual inductances of the stator to rotor

of the real construction data (non-uniform air

windings and the self inductance of the field

gap at the periphery of the stator and rotor)

winding, the induced phase stator voltages ua,

received from the manufacturer of synchronous

ub, uc can be expressed as: LLLL generators that are used frequently in generator

sets in Poland. While calculating the inductance

LLLL

sr di r

us = ir + sr (6) distributions (as a function of the electrical

dt

rotor position angle , with 10 damping bars

and nonlinearity) in the Flux 2D Skew and

However, the equation describing the excitation

FEMM software [3, 4], the factory single-layer

of the field winding and damping bars can be

winding placed in the stator slots is taken into

expressed as

account. The self- and mutual inductances are

LLLL

RRRR

LLLL

fr di fr

(7)

u fr = + fr i fr +

fr generator (with and without the rotor skew)

dt

rated: SN = 5.5 kVA, UN = 400 V (Y), nN = 3000

rpm, IN = 7.9 A, cosN = 0.8, Qs = 24 (number

Where: us = [ua, ub, uc]T matrix of induced

of stator slots), q = 15 (factory rotor skew

Laf Lar (1) ... Lar (10)

equal to stator slot pitch), pb = 1 (number of

stator phase voltages, L sr = Lbf Lbr (1) ... Lbr (10)

pole pairs).

Lcf Lcr (1) ... Lcr (10)

Figure 2 presents magnetic flux distribution

matrix of mutual inductances of stator-to- lines of the examined 5.5 KVA nonlinear

rotor damping bars and ring elements, Laf, Lbf, salient pole synchronous generator in the no

Lcf mutual inductance of stator-to-field load steady state with shorted equivalent

windings, Lar(1), Lbr(1), Lcr(1), Lar(10), Lbr(10), damping 5 bars per pole with initial rotor

Lcr(10) mutual inductance of stator windings to position 0 = 0. A method of determining the

10 damping bars (and ring elements), self- and mutual inductance distributions in

FEMM program is detailed presented in [18].

L f + Lef L fr (1) ... L fr (10)

L fr = L fr (1) Lr (1) + Ler ... Lr (1, 10) matrix

... ... ...

L Lr (10,1) ... Lr (10) + Ler

fr (10)

damping bars and ring elements, Lf self

inductance of the field winding, Lfr(1), Lfr(10)

mutual inductance of field winding to 10

damping bars and ring elements, Lr(1), Lr(10)

self inductance of 10 damping bars and ring

elements, ir = [ir(1), ... , ir(10)]T matrix currents

in damping bars, ifr = [if, ir(1), ... , ir(10)]T matrix Fig. 2. Magnetic flux distribution lines in the

of field winding current and currents in 5.5-kVA salient pole synchronous generator

damping bars, ufr = [uf, 0, ... , 0]T matrix of Figure 3 shows the comparison of the

voltages of field winding and in shorted 10 distributed stator to field winding mutual

damping bars and ring elements, respectively, inductances and their derivatives for linear and

Rfr = [Rf, Rr(1), ... , Rr(10)] diagonal matrix of nonlinear 5.5 kVA salient pole synchronous

resistance of the field winding and 10 damping generator with and without the rotor skew. The

bars and ring elements, Lr(m,n) mutual mutual inductances for nonlinear model are

inductance of damping bars and ring elements very similar to the linear ones. The differences

(m n) and m, n = {1, , 10} [18]. are only visible after calculation of the product

of Lafn/ and due to Fourier analysis.

120 Zeszyty Problemowe Maszyny Elektryczne Nr 4/2014 (104)

1

Laf skew, n index for nonlinear model. Detailed

0.5 L analysis of the self- and mutual inductance

- [H]

afn

0 distributions for the salient pole synchronous

generator is described in [3, 4].

af

L

-0.5

Figure 4 shows the contents of harmonic

-1

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

magnitudes due to Fourier analysis in

- [deg] inductances Laf and derivatives Laf/ for

b) linear and nonlinear model (Figs. 3a - 3c) with

400

d L /d - [ H/s ]

200

The contents of harmonic in inductances (Fig.

0

dLaf/d 4) from 43rd to the 75th harmonic are less than

af

-400 reduction of the harmonic content is achieved

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

- [deg] by using the rotor skew (or stator skew).

c)

400

1

d L /d - [ H/s ]

200 0.75

k - [-]

0.5

0

q

afn

dLafn/d 0.25

-200 0

dLafsn/d

-400 -0.25

0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84

0 60 120 180 240 300 360 harmonics

- [deg]

Fig. 3. Comparison of the stator to field Fig. 5. Skew factor kq for the q = 15 and pb = 1

winding mutual distributions of a) inductances

a)

and b), c) the product of Laf/ for linear 4 x 10

-4

Lar(1)

and nonlinear model with and without the rotor

- [H]

2 Lar(2)

skew, respectively Lar(3)

0

ar(k)

Lar(4)

L

-2

a) Lar(5)

8 -4

Laf 0 60 120 180 240 300 360

- [deg]

6 Lafs

- [%]

b)

Lafn

/d- [H/ s]

0.2

4

afv

Lafsn 0.1

L

2

0

ar(3)

0 dLar(3) /d

3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

dL

-0.1

harmonics dLar(3)s /d

b) -0.2

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

8 - [deg]

dLaf/d c)

dL /d - [%]

6 0.2

/d- [H/ s]

dLafs/d

4 dLafn/d 0.1

afv

dLafsn/d

2 0

ar(3)

dLar(3)n /d

-0.1

dL

0 dLar(3)sn /d

3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

harmonics -0.2

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

c) - [deg]

8

dL /d - [%]

6

dLafs/d mutual distributions of a) inductances for damping

4 dLafn/d

bars Lar(1) - Lar(5) (Lar(6) - Lar(10)), b), c) the product of

afv

dLafsn/d

2 Lar(3)/ for linear and Lar(3)n/ for nonlinear

0

43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75

model with and without the rotor skew, respectively

harmonics

Fig. 4. Comparison of harmonic contents for Figure 5 shows the values of the skewing factor

linear and nonlinear model of the stator (phase kq(v) for the -th harmonic of the examined

a) to field winding mutual distributions of a) synchronous generator (q = 15 - equal to the

inductance from 3rd to the 29th ones, b), c) stator slot pitch and pb = 1). Figures 4 and 5

derivative from 3rd to the 29th and 43rd to the show that the skew of the rotor (or stator)

75th ones, respectively

Zeszyty Problemowe Maszyny Elektryczne Nr 4/2014 (104) 121

causes a significant reduction in higher From expressions (6) and (7) results that ua, ub

harmonic order. Lower-order harmonics caused and uc depend on the field current and currents

by e.g. the saturation of the magnetic circuit in damping bars. The field current (7) depends

due to the rotor skew are only slightly reduced. on the method of powering the field winding

Figure 6 shows the comparison of the stator to [3] and on the self- and mutual inductances LfD.

damping bars Lar(1) - Lar(5) (Lar(6) - Lar(10))

distribution of mutual inductances and the a)

5

product of Lar(3)/ for the linear- and

L - [H]

Lf

Lar(3)n/ for the nonlinear salient pole 4.9 Lfs

f

synchronous generator. Lfn

4.8

The distributed stator to damping bar mutual Lfsn

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

similar to the linear ones and therefore not - [deg]

300

dL/d - [ H/s ]

visible after the calculation of the derivatives, 200

100

the comparison of which, due to Fourier 0

dL /d

f

dL /d

analysis (in relation to the fundamental fs

f

-100

component of Lar(3)), is shown in Figure 7. -200

-300

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

- [deg]

a) c)

100

300

- [ %]

Lar(1)

80

dL /d- [ H/s ]

200

Lar(1)s

60 100

Lar(1)n

ar(1)

dLfn/d

40 Lar(1)sn 0

L

dLfsn/d

fn

20 -100

-200

1 3 5 7 9 11 13

harmonics -300

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

b) - [deg]

100

Lar(3) d)

- [ %]

80 Lar(3)s 70

60

d L /d - [ % ]

60 Lar(3)n dLf/d

50

ar(3)

40 dLfs/d

Lar(3)sn 40

L

30 dLfn/d

20

f

20 dLfsn/d

0 10

1 3 5 7 9 11 13

harmonics 0

24 48 72 harmonics

c)

100

Fig. 8. Comparison of the a) field winding self

/d - [ %]

dLar(1) /d

80

60

dLar(1)s /d inductance distributions for linear and

dLar(1)n /d

40 nonlinear model with and without the rotor

ar(1)

dLar(1)sn /d

20 skew, b), c) products of (Lfs/), (Lf/)

dL

0

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

harmonics

and (Lfsn/), (Lfn/), d) detailed

d) harmonic contents of self inductance

100

dLar(3) /d

derivatives for 24th, 48th and 72nd order

/d - [ %]

80

dLar(3)s /d

60

dLar(3)n /d Figure 8 shows the distributions of the field

40

winding self inductance, the product of

ar(3)

dLar(3)sn /d

20

dL

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

harmonics relation to the constant component of Lf.

Fig. 7. Harmonic contents of the stator to

damping bars of a), b) mutual inductances Lar(1)

and Lar(3), c), d) derivatives Lar(1)/ and

Lar(3)/ for linear and nonlinear model with

and without the rotor skew

122 Zeszyty Problemowe Maszyny Elektryczne Nr 4/2014 (104)

a)

-3

(Lafn/)ifn, (Lbfn/)ifn, (Lcfn/)ifn

2 x 10 (product of and derivatives of mutual

Lfr(1)

- [H]

0 Lfr(3) field winding current),

fr(k)

Lfr(4)

(Lfn/)ifn, (product of and derivatives

L

-1

Lfr(5)

-2 of self inductances of field winding and field

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

- [deg] winding current).

b) Magnetic saturation has a very small influence

0.6

/d - [ H/s ]

0.4

dL

fr(1)sn

/d mutual inductance of field winding to damping

0.2

bars Lfr(1)n/ - Lfr(5)n/ (Lfr(6)n/ -

fr(1)n

0 Lfr(10)n/).

d L

-0.2

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

The greatest reduction of the harmonic content

- [deg] in the self- and mutual inductance distributions

c) is achieved by using the skew of the rotor.

4

4 x 10 x 10

/d - [%]

dLfr(1) /d

3 5. Bibliography

dLfr(1)s /d

2

dLfr(1)n/d [1]. S. Keller, M. Tu Xuan, J.-J. Simond:

fr(1)

dL

0

24 48 72 73

laminated salient-pole synchronous generators.

harmonics IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.

Fig. 9. Distributions of a) the field winding to 42, no. 306/2006, pp. 681-687

damping bars mutual inductance, b) the [2]. H. May, R. Palka, P. Paplicki, S. Szkolny, W.

products (Lfr(1)sn/), (Lfr(1)n/), c) R. Canders: Modified concept of permanent magnet

excited synchronous machines with improved high-

harmonic contents of the mutual inductance

speed features. Archives of Electrical Engineering,

derivatives with and without the rotor skew vol. 60, no. 4, 2011, pp. 531-540

[3]. K. Ludwinek: Influence of DC voltage and

Figure 9 shows the comparison of the mutual current of field winding on induced stator voltages

inductance distributions of field winding to of a salient pole synchronous generator.

damping bars Lfr(1)n - Lfr(5)n (Lfr(6)n - Lfr(10)n), the International Review of Electrical Engineering, vol.

product of (Lfr(1)sn/) and (Lfr(1)n/) for 9, no. 1. 2014, pp. 62-72

nonlinear model (with and without the rotor [4]. K. Ludwinek: Representation of the mutual

skew) and the contents of harmonic magnitudes inductances in a circuital model of a salient-pole

(in relation to the constant component of Lfr(1)). synchronous machine (in Polish). Elektro.Info, no. 9,

The differences between the linear and 2013, pp. 103-111

[5]. L. Vicol, A. Banyai, I.-A. Viorel, J.-J. Simond:

nonlinear mutual inductance distributions are

On the damper cage bars currents calculation for

very small and therefore are only shown for salient pole large synchronous machines. Advances

nonlinear model in Figure 9. Moreover, the in Electrical and Electronic Engineering. vol. 7,

other components of the products (Lfr(k)s/), no. 1, 2, 2008, pp. 165-170

(Lfr(k)/) and (Lfr(k)sn/), (Lfr(k)n/) for [6]. R. Nadolski, J. Staszak, L. Harbaoui:

bars k = {2, , 5} are shifted by 2/k in Consideration of solid rotor damping circuit in

electrical degree and are very similar to the natural hunting of turbogenerator. Archives of

mutual inductance distribution of field winding Electrical Engineering, vol. 47, no. 2, 1998, pp. 233-

243

to damping bars (Lfr(1)/). [7]. K. Ludwinek, R. Nadolski, J. Staszak:

Nonsinusoidal and asymmetrical influence of

4. Conclusion electric power system on field voltages and currents

Comparing linear and nonlinear model of the waveforms of synchronous machine (in Polish). 39th

5.5-kVA salient pole synchronous generator International Symposium on Electrical Machines,

with and without the rotor skew with 10 SME'2003, 11-13 June, 2003, Gdask-Jurata, Poland

[8]. J. Moreira, T. A. Lipo: Modeling of Saturated

damping bars, it can be concluded that the

AC Machines Including Airgap Flux Harmonic

magnetic saturation reduces the harmonic Components, IEEE-IAS Conference Record, Oct. 7-

contents in voltages of: 12, 1990, Part 1, pp. 37-44

Zeszyty Problemowe Maszyny Elektryczne Nr 4/2014 (104) 123

synchronous generators accunting for saturation Engineering, vol. 46, no 1, 1997, pp. 421-434

due to the first and the third MMF harmonic, [16]. A. Demenko, W. Pietrowski, L. Nowak, J.

SME'1999, OWPW. Elektryka, no. 111, 1999, pp. Mikoajewicz: Calculation of magnetizing

42-51 inductance of a squirrel cage machine with saturated

[10]. J. Skwarczyski, K. Weinreb: Method of core using edge element method. Przegld

Analysis of Slot Harmonics in the Salient-Pole Elektrotechniczny 06/2009, pp. 13-16

Synchronous Generators. International Conference [17]. K. Ludwinek: Some aspects of representation

on Electrical Machines (ICEM), Boston MA, August of inductance distributions in dq0-axes in a salient

13-15, 1990, pp.1165-1170 pole synchronous generator. Zeszyty Problemowe

[11]. T. J. Sobczyk: Methodology of mathematical Maszyny Elektryczne no. 4/2014, published by

modeling of induction machines (in Polish) (WNT, Komel Katowice, Poland, pp. 187-194

Warsaw, 2004) [18]. K. Ludwinek: Proposed way of modeling the

[12]. J. Skwarczyski: Salient poles inner damping circuits on the rotor of a salient pole

asymmetries (in Polish). Scientific Bulletins of synchronous generator (in Polish), Zeszyty

Stanisaw Staszic Academy of Mining and Problemowe Maszyny Elektryczne no. 4/2014,

Metallurgy, Electrotechnics, Bulletin16, 1990 published by Komel Katowice, Poland, pp. 179-186

[13]. T. J. Sobczyk: On determination of inductances

for circuit models of AC machines. Archives of Authors information

Electrical Engineering vol. 62 no. 3, 2013, pp. 487- Krzysztof Ludwinek PhD,

496 k.ludwinek@tu.kielce.pl

[14]. T. J. Sobczyk: Extreme possibilities of circuital Kielce University of Technology,

models of electric machines. Electrical Power

Department of Electrical Machines and

Quality and Utilisation, vol. 7, no. 2, 2006, pp. 103-

110

Mechatronic Systems, Al. Tysiclecia PP. 7,

[15]. T. J. Sobczyk, A. Warzecha: Alternative 25314 Kielce, Poland

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