Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNCTION FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR AND METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUTER FET

Jitendra kumar gurjar M.Sc Physics Roll No-16510034 jitendra.gurjar@iitgn.ac.in

21 march 2017

OXIDE SEMICONDUTER FET Jitendra kumar gurjar M.Sc Physics Roll No-16510034 jitendra.gurjar@iitgn.ac.in 21 march 2017 1

1

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

Contents

1 ABSTRACT

 

3

2 COMPONENTS

 

3

3 INTRODUCTION

 

3

4 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

 

3

5 THEORY AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

 

5

5.1

FET

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

5.1.1 DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

6

5.1.2 conclusion .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

6

5.1.3 TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

5.1.4 conclusion .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

5.2

MOSFET

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8

5.2.1 DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

9

5.2.2 conclusion .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

9

5.2.3 TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

5.2.4 Conclusion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

6 CALCULATION

 

11

6.1

jfet

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

7 Reference

 

11

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

1 ABSTRACT

To Plot the characteristics of field effect transistor and a metal oxcide semiconductor field effect transistor.

2 COMPONENTS

Mosfet and fet box, banana wire, crocodile wires.

3 INTRODUCTION

FET is a voltage operated device. It has got 3 terminals. They are Source, Drain and Gate. When the gate is biased negative with respect to the source, the pn junctions are reverse biased and deple- tion regions are formed. The channel is more lightly doped than the p type gate, so the depletion regions penetrate deeply in to the channel. The result is that the channel is narrowed, its resistance

is increased, and ID is reduced. When the negative bias voltage is further increased, the depletion

regions meet at the center and ID is cutoff completely. MOSFETS are three terminal device having

a source, a gate and a drain. MOSFET is the abbreviation for metal oxide semiconductor field

effect transistor. It uses a thin layer of silicon dioxide or an insulator between gate and channel. MOSFETs are of two types. 1) Enhancement type MOSFET or E-MOSFET and 2) Depletion en-

hancement MOSFET or DE- MOSFET. E-MOSFET has become enormously important in digital electronics and computers. In the absence of EMOSFETs, the personal computers (PCs) that are now so wide spread would not exist. It uses a thin layer of silicon dioxide or an insulator between gate and channel.

4 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

MOSFET-in this circuit arrangement an Enhancement-mode N-channel MOSEFT is being used to switch a simple lamp on and off .The gate input voltage V g s is taken to an approprite positive voltage level to turn on the device and therefore the lamp is either fully on (v gs =+ve) or at a zero voltage level that turns the device fully off (v gs =0)

is either fully on ( v g s =+ve) or at a zero voltage level that

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

FET as a phase shift oscillator-the circut consists of a common source FET amplifire followed by a three section R-C phase shift network. the three section R-C phase shift network produces an additinol phase shift which is a function of frequency and equal 180 degree at some frequency of operation . At this frequency the total phase shift from the gate will be exactly zero. The circuit will oscillate at this paticular frequency only.

total phase shift from the gate will be exactly zero. The circuit will oscillate at this

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

5 THEORY AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

5.1

FET

JFET operation can be compared to that of a garden hose. The flow of water through a hose can be controlled by squeezing it to reduce the cross section and the flow of electric charge through a JFET is controlled by constricting the current-carrying channel. The current also depends on the electric field between source and drain (analogous to the difference in pressure on either end of the hose). Constriction of the conducting channel is accomplished using the field effect: a voltage between the gate and the source is applied to reverse bias the gate-source pn-junction, thereby widening the depletion layer of this junction (see top figure), encroaching upon the conducting channel and restricting its cross-sectional area. The depletion layer is so-called because it is depleted of mobile carriers and so is electrically non-conducting for practical purposes.[1] When the depletion layer spans the width of the conduction channel, pinch-off is achieved and drain-to-source conduction stops. Pinch-off occurs at a particular reverse bias (VGS) of the gate-source junction. The pinch- off voltage (Vp) varies considerably, even among devices of the same channel. To switch off an n-channel device requires a negative gate-source voltage (VGS). Conversely, to switch off a p- channel device requires positive VGS. In normal operation, the electric field developed by the gate blocks source-drain conduction to some extent. Some JFET devices are symmetrical with respect to the source and drain.

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

5.1.1 DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

Obs.

V GS =0V

V GS =-0.92V

V GS =-1.9V

No.

V DS (V)

I D (mA)

V DS (V)

I D (mA)

V DS (V)

I D (mA)

1

0.5

12.7

0.6

9.6

1.13

2.2

2

1.03

23.1

1.02

13.7

2.05

2.5

3

2.12

34.1

1.63

16.7

3.00

3.9

4

3.14

37.1

2.19

18.9

3.89

4.1

5

4.83

37.3

3.6

19.6

4.5

4.1

6

5.44

36.7

4.7

20.2

5.49

4.3

7

6.7

36.9

5.86

20.5

6.33

4.5

8

7.38

36.7

6.99

20.7

7.39

4.7

9

8.06

36.5

7.86

20.7

8.39

4.7

10

   

11.05

21.1

10.03

5.0

4.7 10     11.05 21.1 10.03 5.0 5.1.2 conclusion In the JFET output characteristics shown

5.1.2 conclusion

In the JFET output characteristics shown in fig, the Drain current ID shows very little change, and the curves are very nearly horizontal at voltages greater than the pinch off voltage. Almost all of the expected increase in current, due to the increase in voltage between Source and Drain (VDS), is offset by the narrowing of the conducting channel due to the growing depletion layers.

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

5.1.3 TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

Obs.

V DS =3V

V DS =4V

V DS =5V

No.

V GS (V)

I D (mA)

V GS (V)

I D (mA)

V GS (V)

I D (mA)

 

1 -0.00

37.0

-0.00

37.1

-0.00

38.1

 

2 -0.5

26.9

-0.49

26.5

-0.5

27.0

 

3 -1.02

17.1

-1.01

17.2

-1.00

17.8

 

4 -1.5

9.4

-1.5

9.5

-1.5

9.8

 

5 -2.0

3.2

-1.99

3.4

-2.0

3.5

 

6 -2.5

0.1

-2.5

0.2

-2.5

0.2

3.5   6 -2.5 0.1 -2.5 0.2 -2.5 0.2 5.1.4 conclusion The transfer characteristic for a

5.1.4 conclusion

The transfer characteristic for a JFET, which shows the change in Drain current (ID) for a given change in GateSource voltage (VGS), is shown in Fig . Because the JFET input (the Gate) is voltage operated, the gain of the transistor cannot be called current gain, as with bipolar transistors. The drain current is controlled by the GateSource voltage, so the graph shows milliamperes per volt (mA / V), and as I / V is CONDUCTANCE (the inverse of resistance V / I) the slope of this graph (the gain of the device) is called the FORWARD or MUTUAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE, which has the symbol gm. Therefore the higher the value of gm the greater the amplification.

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

5.2

MOSFET

The traditional metaloxidesemiconductor (MOS) structure is obtained by growing a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on top of a silicon substrate and depositing a layer of metal or polycrystalline silicon (the latter is commonly used). As the silicon dioxide is a dielectric material, its structure is equiva- lent to a planar capacitor, with one of the electrodes replaced by a semiconductor. When a voltage is applied across a MOS structure, it modifies the distribution of charges in the semiconductor. If we consider a p-type semiconductor . If v gs is high enough, a high concentration of negative charge carriers forms in an inversion layer located in a thin layer next to the interface between the semiconductor and the insulator. Unlike the MOSFET, where the inversion layer electrons are supplied rapidly from the source/drain electrodes, in the MOS capacitor they are produced much more slowly by thermal generation through carrier generation and recombination centers in the depletion region. Conventionally, the gate voltage at which the volume density of electrons in the inversion layer is the same as the volume density of holes in the body is called the threshold voltage. When the voltage between transistor gate and source (VGS) exceeds the threshold voltage (Vth), it is known as overdrive voltage. This structure with p-type body is the basis of the n-type MOSFET, which requires the addition of n-type source and drain regions.

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

5.2.1 DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

Obs.

V GS =4V

V GS =5V

V GS =6V

No.

V DS (V)

I D (mA)

V DS (V)

I D (mA)

V DS (V)

I D (mA)

1

0.20

1.1

0.21

1.1

0.21

1.1

2

0.54

2.8

0.51

2.7

0.54

2.8

3

0.70

3.7

0.97

5.1

1.13

6.0

4

1.02

5.1

1.34

7.2

1.98

10.5

5

1.60

5.3

1.99

10.6

2.69

14.3

6

2.1

5.3

3.17

14.8

3.32

17.6

7

4.5

5.4

4.85

14.9

4.16

22.1

8

12.5

5.4

8.02

15.0

4.84

24.9

9

19.0

5.6

12.6

15.1

9.30

25.1

10

       

14.53

25.4

11

       

31.5

25.9

25.4 11         31.5 25.9 5.2.2 conclusion Drain characteristics of an N-channel

5.2.2 conclusion

Drain characteristics of an N-channel E-MOSFET are shown in figure. The lowest curve is the VGST curve. When VGS is lesser than VGST, ID is approximately zero. When VGS is greater than VGST, the device turns- on and the drain current ID is controlled by the gate voltage. The characteristic curves have almost vertical and almost horizontal parts. The almost vertical compo- nents of the curves correspond to the ohmic region, and the horizontal components correspond to the constant current region.

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

5.2.3 TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

Obs.

V DS =10V

V DS =20V

V DS =28V

No.

V GS (V)

I D (mA)

V GS (V)

I D (mA)

V GS (V)

I D (mA)

1

1.00

0

2.3

0

3.0

0.1

2

2.00

0

2.6

0.002

3.2

0.5

3

2.65

0.001

3.0

0.04

3.3

1.1

4

3.08

0.093

3.5

1.407

3.5

2.1

5

3.52

1.565

4.0

5.3

4.0

6.0

6

4.02

5.7

4.5

10.3

4.5

10.6

7

4.51

10.4

5.0

15.6

5.0

15.6

8

5.07

16.1

6.0

25.5

6.0

25.4

9

5.54

20.9

7.0

35.9

7.0

36.0

10

6.06

26.3

       

11

7.46

36.2

       
  11 7.46 36.2         5.2.4 Conclusion Figure shows a typical transconductance

5.2.4 Conclusion

Figure shows a typical transconductance curve. The current IDSS at VGS ¡=0 is very small, being of the order of a few nano-amperes. When the VGS is made positive, the drain current ID increases slowly at first, and then much more rapidly with an increase in VGS.

Physics Lab Report

IIT GANDHINAGAR

6 CALCULATION

6.1

jfet

Drain resistence , R D = V I DS D

I D

T ransconductance ,

V GS Amplif ication f actor , µ = R D g m

(R D ) V GS =0V = 117.27Ω , (R D ) V GS =0.92V = 203.3Ω , (R D ) V GS =1.91V = 678.5Ω

(g m ) V DS =3V = 0.018Ω 1 , V DS = 4V = 0.015Ω 1 , V DS = 6V = 0.016Ω 1

(µ) = 5.42

pinchoffvoltage = 3.00 volt

I dss = 37.4, volt

g m =

7 Reference

1.wikipidia

2.lab manual l 3.http : //www.electronics tutorials.ws/transistor/tran 5 .html 4.https : //www.elprocus.com