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Boeing 777

Low Weather Operation


AWO

B777
Low Weather Operations
Manual
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation

Revision
No: 3
July 2015
PART 1

INTRODUCTION,
DGCA APPROVAL
& DEFINITIONS
PART 1

INTRODUCTION,
DGCA APPROVAL
& DEFINITIONS
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
LWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

Part 1

Index
Items Page
Contents
number Number
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 DGCA Low Weather operation approval 2
certificate
1.2 ILS Categories 3
1.2.1 Category I Operations (JAA) 3
1.2.2 Category II Operations (JAA) 3
1.2.3 Category III Operations (JAA) 5
1.2.4 ILS Category I (ICAO) 7
1.2.5 ILS Category II (ICAO) 7
1.2.6 ILS Category III (ICAO) 7
1.2.7 ILS Category I (USA) 8
1.2.8 ILS Category II (USA) 8
1.2.9 ILS Category III (USA) 8
1.3 Fail Operational Auto-flight system 10
1.3.1 Fail Operational system (JAA) 10
1.3.2 Fail Operational system (FAA) 10
1.4 Fail Passive Auto-flight system 10
1.4.1 Fail Passive system (JAA) 10
1.4.2 Fail Passive system (FAA) 10
1.5 Alert Height (JAA) 11

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Low Weather Operation
LWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

Item Contents Page


number Number
1.6 Alert Height (ICAO and USA) 11
1.7 Minimum Approach Break-Off Height (MABH) 11
1.8 Decision Height 12
1.8.1 Decision Height (JAA) 12
1.8.2 Decision Altitude / Height (DA/H) (ICAO) 12
1.8.3 Decision Height (DH) (USA) 12
1.9 Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) 13
1.10 Obstacle Clearance Limit 13
1.11 ILS Critical Area 13
1.12 ILS Sensitive Area 13
1.13 Runway Visual Range (RVR) 14
1.14 RVR Required for CAT III Approaches table 14
1.15 ILS Approach / Landing Geometry 15
1.16 Visual Segments Diagrams 16 - 20

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.0 Introduction

The objective of this manual is to provide the B777 Flight crew


members with the training materials required for a safe and
efficient operation under Low visibility environments.

The contents of this manual extracted from B777 Airplane Flight


Manual in complying with FAA Advisory Circulars 20-57A, 120-
28C, 28D & 29A, JAR-OPS 1 & JAR-AWO, B777 Flight Crew
Training Manual and B777 Operations Manuals Volume 1 & 2.

Should any discrepancies appear between the


contents of this manual and B777 AFM, then the
B777 AFM supersedes

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.1 DGCA Low Weather operation approval certificate

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.2 ILS CATEGORIES


1.2.1 Category I Operations (CAT I) (JAA)
A precision instrument approach and landing with a
decision height not lower than 200ft and with a
runway visual range of not less than 550m.

Visual Reference:
A pilot may not continue an approach below Category I
decision height, unless at least one of the following visual
references for the intended runway is distinctly visible and
identifiable to the pilot:
(I) Elements of the approach light system:
(II) The threshold;
(III) The threshold markings;
(IV) The threshold identification lights;
(V) The visual glide slope indicator;
(VI) The touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings;
(VII) The touchdown zone lights; or
(VIII) Runway edge lights.

1.2.2 Category II Operations (CAT II) (JAA)


A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision
height below 200ft but not lower than 100ft and with a
runway visual range of not less than 300m.

Visual Reference:
A pilot may not continue an approach below Category II decision
height, unless at least one of the following visual references
containing at least 3 consecutive lights being the center line
of the approach lights, or touchdown zone lights, or runway
center line lights, or runway edge lights, or combination of these
is attained and can be maintained. This visual reference must
include a lateral element of the ground pattern, e.g. an approach
lighting crossbar or the landing threshold or a barrette of the
touchdown zone lighting.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

Required RVR:
The lowest minima to be used for Category II
operations are:
Category II
Auto-coupled to below DH
Decision height RVR/Aeroplane RVR/Aeroplane
Category C Category D
100ft- 120ft 300m 350m
121ft- 140ft 400m 400m
141ft and above 450m 450m

On the above table it is suggested that if the crew elects to raise


the DH above the absolute minimum of (100ft) for some valid
reasons (e.g. fatigue after long flight). A compatible RVR on the
right hand side of the table may be considered. Some IAP charts
displays a higher RVR minimum for higher DH.

1.2.3 Category III Operations (CAT III) (JAA)


a) Category IIIA operations:
A precision instrument approach and landing with a
decision height lower than 100ft and with a
runway visual range of not less than 200m.

b) Category IIIB operations :


A precision instrument approach and landing with a
decision height lower than 50ft or with no
decision height and with a runway visual range
lower than 200m but not less than 75m.

Visual Reference:
(i) For Category IIIA operations a pilot may not continue
an approach below the decision height unless a visual
reference containing a segment of at least 3
consecutive lights being the center line of the
approach lights, or touchdown zone lights, or runway
center line lights, or runway edge lights, or a

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

combination of these is attained and can be


maintained.
(ii) For Category IIIB operations with decision height and
fail-passive flight control systems, a pilot may not
continue an approach below the decision height unless
a visual reference containing at least one runway
center line lights is attained and can be maintained.
(iii) For Category IIIB operations with no decision height
fail operational, there is no requirement for visual
contact with runway prior to touchdown.

Required RVR:
The lowest minima to be used for Category III
operations are:

Approach Decision Height Roll-out RVR


Category (ft) control/guidance (m)
system
IIIA Less than 100ft Not required 200m
IIIB Less than 50ft Fail-passive * 125m
IIIB No Decision Height Fail-operational 75m

* Note:
Roll-out Control/Guidance System Fail Operational or Fail Passive of the
Airport Equipment should not be confused with Roll-out
Control/Guidance System Fail Operational or Fail Passive of the Aircraft
Equipment.
In the case of CAT IIIB with or without DH, the aircraft roll-out system
equipment is mandatory. Where due to degradation in localizer signal
from level 4 to level 3 or lower (fail passive roll-out) causing the roll-out
control/guidance system of the aircraft to be affected. Where roll-out
can be maintained, fail passive is allowed for Cat IIIB with DH as
manual roll-out is allowed. However, it is not allowed for Cat IIIB with
no DH, as fail operational roll-out is mandatory and no manual roll-out
is allowed.
This expected degradation in the rollout (due to degraded localizer
signal) is usually known before hand and transmitted via the ATIS, i.e.
Level 4 ILS been degraded to Level 3 or lower. Therefore, the above
approach minimum can be planned.
Refer to Downgrading table Pt 5 pages 14, 15 and 16 of this manual.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.2.4 ILS Category III (ICAO)


(Special authorization required)
a. IIIA- an ILS approach procedure which provides for an
approach with either a decision height lower than
100 feet (30m) or with no decision height and
with a runway visual range of not less than 700 feet
(200m).

b. IIIB- an ILS approach procedure which provides for an


approach with either a decision height lower than 50
feet (15m) or with no decision height and with a
runway visual range of less than 700 feet (200m)
but not less than 150 feet (50m).

c. IIIC- An ILS approach procedure which provides for an


approach with no decision height and no runway
visual range limitations.

1.2.5 ILS Category I (ICAO)


An ILS approach procedure which provides an approach to
a decision height of not lower than 200 feet (60m)
and a visibility of not less than 2400 feet (800m) or a
runway visual range not less than 1800 feet (550m).

1.2.6 ILS Category II (ICAO)


(Special authorization required)
An ILS approach procedure which provides an approach to
a decision height lower than 200 feet (60m) but not
lower than 100 feet (30m) and a runway visual range
of not less than 1200 feet (350m).

1.2.7 ILS Category I (USA)


An ILS approach procedure which provides for an
approach to a height above touchdown of not less than
200 feet and with runway visual range of not less than
1800 feet (550M).

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.2.8 ILS Category II (USA)


(Special authorization required)
An ILS approach procedure which provides for an
approach to a height above touchdown of lower than
200ft but not less than 100ft and with runway visual
range of not less than 1000 feet (300M).

1.2.9 ILS Category III (USA)


(Special authorization required)
a. CAT IIIA- An ILS approach procedure which
provides for an approach with either a decision height
lower than 100 feet or with no decision height
and with a runway visual range of not less than
700 feet (200m).

b. CAT IIIB - An ILS approach procedure which


provides for an approach with either a decision height
lower than 50 feet or with no decision height
and with a runway visual range of less than 700
feet (200m) but not less than 150 feet (50m).

c. CAT IIIC - An ILS approach procedure which


provides for an approach without a decision
height minimum and without runway visual
range minimum.

Note:
CAT II
The three definitions refer to the concepts of Decision
Height (DH) and Runway Visual Range (RVR). It is worth
noting the different definitions of CAT II RVR between
ICAO, FAA and JAA.
JAA RVR is not less than 300m, ICAO RVR not less than
350m & FAA RVR not less than 1000ft (300m).
CAT IIIA
It is worth noting that the JAA considers that CAT IIIA is
always associated with a decision height, where it is
unnecessary for ICAO/FAA.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

CAT IIIB
For CAT IIIB ICAO RVR 50m / FAA (150ft), JAA
RVR 75m.

1.3 Fail operational Auto-flight system

1.3.1 Fail operational system (JAA)


A flight control system is fail operational if, in the event
of a failure below alert height, the approach, flare, and
landing, can be completed automatically. In the event
of a failure, the automatic landing system will operate
as fail-passive system.

1.3.2 Fail operational system (FAA)


A system capable of completing the specified phases of
operation following the failure of any single system
component after passing a point designated by the
applicable system analysis ( e.g. Alert Height).

1.4 Fail passive Auto-flight system

1.4.1 Fail passive system (JAA)


A flight control system is fail passive if, in the event of
a failure, there is no significant out of trim condition or
deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not
completed automatically. For a fail passive automatic
flight control system the pilot assumes control of the
airplane after a failure.

1.4.2 Fail passive system (FAA)


A system which, in event of a failure, causes no
significant deviation of aircraft flight path or attitude.

1.5 Alert Height (JAA)


The alert height is a specified radio height, based on the
characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail-operational
landing system. In operational use, if a failure occurred above
the alert height in one of the required redundant operational
systems in the aeroplane, the approach would be
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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

discontinued and go-around executed unless revision to a


higher decision height is possible. If a failure in one of the
required redundant operational systems occurred below the
alert height, it would be ignored and the approach continued.

1.6 Alert Height (ICAO) and (USA)


An Alert Height is a height above the runway, based on the
characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail-operational
automatic landing system, above which a Category III
approach would be discontinued and a missed approach
initiated if a failure occurred in one of the redundant parts of
the automatic landing system, or in the relevant ground
equipment.

The Alert height for B777


is 200 feet RA

1.7 Minimum Approach Break-Off Height (MABH)


The lowest height of the wheels above the ground such that
if a go-around is initiated without external visual references:

In normal operation, the aircraft does not touch the


ground during the procedure.
With one engine failure during go-around, it can be
demonstrated that taking account of this failure
probability, accident is extremely improbable.
The MABH for B777-200 is 10 feet. (B777 Airplane Flight
Manual, Section 3, Page 4)

1.8 Decision Height


1.8.1 Decision Height (JAA)
Decision height is the wheel height above the runway
elevation by which a go-around must be initiated
unless adequate visual reference has been established
and the aircraft position and approach path have been
visually assessed as satisfactory to continue the
approach and landing in safety.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.8.2 Decision Altitude/Height (DA/H) (ICAO)


A specified altitude or height (A/H) in the precision
approach at which a missed approach must be
initiated if the required visual reference to continue
the approach has not been established.

NOTE 1: Decision altitude (DA) is referenced to mean


sea level (MSL) and decision height (DH) is
referenced to the threshold elevation.

NOTE 2:The required visual reference means that section


of the visual aids or of the approach area which
should have been in view for sufficient time for
the pilot to have made an assessment of the
aircraft position and rate of change of position,
in relation to the desired flight path.

1.8.3 Decision Height (DH) (USA)


With respect to the operation of aircraft, means the
height at which a decision must be made, during an
ILS or PAR instrument approach, to either continue
the approach or to execute a missed approach.

1.9 Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ)


A volume of airspace extending upwards and outwards from
an inner portion of the runway strip to specified upper limits
which is kept clear of all obstacles except for minor specified
items.

1.10 Obstacle Clearance Limit


The lowest height above the elevation of the relevant
runway threshold used in establishing compliance with
appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. Not specified for CAT
III.

1.11 ILS Critical Area


Areas of defined dimensions about the localizer transmitter
antenna and glide-path transmitter antenna in which
environmental changes including the presence of vehicles
and aircraft will cause disturbances to the signals which will
probably

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

be unacceptable to an aircraft using the signal during the


approach.

1.12 ILS Sensitive Area


An area extending beyond the critical area where parking
and / or movement of vehicles and aircraft will affect ILS
signal and may be unacceptable to aircraft using the signal
for automatic landing or roll-out guidance.

1.13 Runway Visual Range (RVR)


The distance, as assessed by either instrument or human
observation over which the runway lights or surface
markings may be seen in the direction of take-off or
landing. Applying an appropriate factor to the reported
meteorological visibility may derive RVR values.

1.14 RVR Required For Cat III Approaches Table

Flight Controls
Fail Operational AFDS

*Without Rollout System


CAT DH Fail Passive *Without
AFDS Rollout Fail Passive
Fail
System (Due to down
Operatio
graded LOC
nal
signal)
Less than
IIIA 200M 200M 200M 200M
100
Less than Not Not
125M 75M
50 authorized authorized
IIIB
Not Not Not
NO DH 75M
authorized authorized authorized

* See Note on page 6 of this part and


Down Grading Table in part 5 pages 14, 15 & 16 for clarification.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.15 ILS Approach / Landing Geometry


The following diagrams are based on these conditions:
Data is based on typical landing weight.
Airplane body attitudes are based on Flaps 30, VREF 30
+ 5 and should be reduced by 1 degree for each 5 knots
above this speed.
Pilot eye height measured at point when main gear
crosses threshold.

Airplane ILS antenna crosses threshold at 50 feet.

Model Glide Airplane Main Gear Threshold to


Path Body (feet) Main Gear
(deg.) Attitude Touchdown Point
(deg.) No Flare
(feet)
2.5 2.4 30 681
777-200
3.0 1.9 30 567

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

1.16 Visual Segments' Diagrams

AH CONCEPT IN CAT IIIB WITH FAIL OPERATIONAL AFDS

GO-AROUND:
ABOVE "AH" IF NO LAND 3
BELOW AH:
MASTER WARNING
OR
MASTER CAUTION
OR
NO AUTOLAND
OR
NO VISUAL CUES

DIAGRAM 1

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

DH CONCEPT IN CAT II / IIIA WITH FAIL PASSIVE AFDS

GO-AROUND IF:
MASTER WARNING

OR
MASTER CAUTION

OR
NO AUTOLAND

OR
NO VISUAL CUES

DIAGRAM 2

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

CAT II
THEROETICAL VISUAL SEGMENT IN CAT II CONDITIONS AT
DH 100 FT / RVR 300 METERS

DIAGRAM 3

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

CAT IIIA
THEORETICAL VISUAL SEGMENT IN CAT IIIA CONDITIONS
AT DH 50 FT / RVR 200 METERS

Diagram 4

A visual segment of 200m at DH is not required in CAT IIIA


because in CAT IIIA, auto-approach and autoland is mandatory
and therefore the ground visual segment is confined only to
about 140m.

DIAGRAM 4

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

CAT IIIB
THEORETICAL VISUAL SEGMENT IN CAT IIIB CONDITONS AT
DH 15 FT / RVR 125 METERS

CAT IIIB With DH

Diagram 5
At lower DHs the ground visual segment becomes even less
significant, and in CAT IIIB the DH is well below the Alert Height
(AH) where the AFDS operation and reliability is confirmed and
the possibility of AFDS failure or loss of back-up system before
the end of the approach is very remote, therefore, an RVR of
only 125m for fail passive roll out or 75m for fail operational roll
out are required for control of the aircraft to the touch down
zone and roll out.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Introduction, DGCA Approval and Definitions

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PART 2

AERODROME &
FACILITIES
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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

Part 2
Index

Item number Contents Page Number


1
2.0 Introduction
2.1 3
ICAO Recommended Airport Signs
and Runway Markings
2.1.1 Mandatory Signs (ICAO) 3
2.1.2 Taxiway Runway Holdings And 3
Associated Runway Intersection
Signs (ICAO)
2.1.3 Holding Position Markings (ICAO) 4
2.1.4 Taxiway Intersection Marking 6
(ICAO)
2.1.5 Runway Intersection Signs (ICAO) 6
2.1.6 Typical Signs At Taxi-Holding 8
Positions Associated Taxi
Markings Also Shown (ICAO)
2.1.7 Information Signs (Location & 9
Information) (ICAO)
2.1.8 Destination Signs 9
2.1.9 Information Signs (ICAO) 10
2.1.10 ICAO Recommended Runway 11
Markings (ICAO)
2.1.11 Threshold Markings (ICAO) 11
2.1.12 Runway Designation Marking 11
(ICAO)
Runway Center line Marking
2.1.13 11
(ICAO)
Runway Touchdown Zone
2.1.14 Markings and Fixed Distance 12
Markings (ICAO)

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

Item number Contents Page Number


2.1.15 Side Stripe Markings (ICAO) 14
Displaced Threshold Markings
2.1.16 14
(ICAO)
Closed Runways And Taxiways
2.1.17 14
Or Parts Thereof (ICAO)
Pre-Threshold Area Marking
2.1.18 15
(CHEVRON MARKING) (ICAO)
US Airport Signs Systems & US
2.2 16
Instrument Runway Markings
2.2.1 MANDATORY SIGNS (USA) 16
Taxiway/Runway and
2.2.2 16
Runway/Runway Holding (USA)
2.2.3 ILS Critical Area Holding (USA) 17
Runway Approach Area Holding
2.2.4 17
(USA)
2.2.5 No Entry (USA) 18
2.2.6 Location Signs (USA) 18
2.2.7 Direction Signs (USA) 20
2.2.8 Destination Signs (USA) 21
2.2.9 Information Signs (USA) 22
Runway Distance Remaining
2.2.10 23
Signs (USA)
Application Examples For
2.2.11 24
Holding Position Signs (USA)
Taxiway Entrance At
2.2.12 Intersection Of Two Runway 25
Ends (USA)
Taxiway Entrance At
2.2.13 Intersection of Two Runways 25
(USA)
Holding Position Signs at
2.2.14 26
Runway Intersections (USA)
2.2.15 Standard 4-Way Taxiway 26

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
Intersection (USA)
Straight Ahead Taxiway has
2.2.16 Direction change greater than 27
25 (USA)
Signing Examples for a complex
2.2.17 28
Airport (USA)
United States Instrument
2.2.18 29
Runway Markings (USA)
2.2.19 Threshold Marking (USA) 29
Runway Centerline Markings
2.2.20 29
(USA)
Runway Touchdown Zone
2.2.21 Markings and Fixed Distance 30
Markings (USA)
2.2.22 Side Stripe Marking (USA) 31
2.2.23 Displaced Threshold Markings 31
and Markings for Blast Pads and
Stop ways (USA)
2.2.24 Precision Instrument Runway 32
(USA)
2.2.25 Approach Chart - Lighting 33
Systems
3.0 Standard Runway Lights Table 39
4.0 Abbreviation and Full Text 40
Table

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

INTENTIONALLY
LEFT
BLANK

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.0 Introduction
Airports runways approved for appropriate category of
operation for KAC B777 are listed in the Aerodrome
Operating Minima Section KU-71 of the Route Manual.

On the approach stage, the expression Low Visibility


Operations in Progress/or In Force CAT II, CAT IIIA or
CAT IIIB, either on the ATIS or as communicated by ATC,
without a qualifying statement, would mean that all the
requirements are being satisfied.

The main objectives of the services rendered by these


aerodromes are highlighted here under:
Highly qualified ATC services to direct traffic safely and
expeditiously in the air as well as on the ground.
Well trained fire fighting services to perform their duties
in low visibility conditions.
High quality information services for gathering and
disseminating important NOTAM and weather information to
meet low visibility operation.
ILS specifications must meet the order of LVP enforced,
level 2 ILS meets CAT II requirements to DH, level 3 meets CAT
IIIA requirements to touchdown, and level 4 meets CAT IIIB
requirements to touchdown and rollout.
Sophisticated visual aids these constitute the approach
lights, runway lights and taxi lights to assist flight crew for
transition from instrument to visual flight condition on the
approach, flare, roll-out, and taxi phase of the flight.
Stand-by power supply is required at all times, and
switch-over time is triggered in space of 10 seconds in CAT I ILS
to instantaneous selection in CAT II / III ILS.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
The terrain profile on the approach end of the runway should
be free of excessive up/or down-slope and discontinues, since
the radio altimeter provides an input signal to the auto-pilot
for gain programming during a coupled approach from 1000ft
and for pitch control during flare from about 50ft. Before a
runway is approved for CAT II or III operations the terrain
profile, as well as the runway, are investigated for its
suitability in accordance with established criteria. Similarly the
runway profile itself must be within specified limits.

Localizer and glide-path antennae must be isolated within the


defined area in order to prevent electro-magnetic interference
of ILS signal transmissions. The associated critical and
sensitive areas must be protected from incursions by taxing
aircraft and vehicles when any automatic landing operation is
in progress.

Preparation and protections of the airfield for low visibility


operation takes place well ahead of the operation when poor
visibility and/or low cloud ceiling are forecasted.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1 ICAO Recommended Airport Signs and Runway
Markings

2.1.1 Mandatory Signs (ICAO)


Mandatory signs are red, with white-letter writing. They
denote an entrance to a runway or critical area. At controlled
airports, a pilot is required to hold unless cleared by ATC. At
uncontrolled airports, use appropriate precautions prior to
proceeding. The signs are located wherever physically
practicable on each side of a taxiway (left-hand side only in
some cases).

2.1.2 Taxiway Runway Holdings And Associated


Runway Intersection Signs (ICAO)
A taxiway holding position marking is always supplemented
with a taxiway/runway intersection sign. More than one
holding position marking may be displayed when operations
on the runway are conducted in different visibility conditions.
Taxiway markings are yellow.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.3 Holding Position Markings (ICAO)
A. Where a taxiway intersects a non-instrument, non-
precision approach, precision approach, Category I or
take-off runway; or where a single taxi-holding position is
provided at an intersection of a taxiway and a cat II/III
runway.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

B. Category II or III taxi-holding position marking where a closer


taxi-holding position to the runway is available.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.4 Taxiway Intersection Marking (ICAO)
A taxiway intersection marking is displayed at the
intersection of two paved taxiways.

2.1.5 Runway Intersection Signs (ICAO)

15-33
Taxiway intersects runway 15-33. Runway 15 threshold is
to the left, runway 33 threshold is to the right.
Arrangement of the numbers indicates direction to the
corresponding runway threshold.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

33
Taxiway intersects the beginning of the take-off runway 33. (The sign
at each take-off end contains only the runway number for the take-off
runway while all others contain both runway numbers).

CAT II
Indicates a category II taxi-holding position.

CAT III
Indicates a category III taxi-holding position.

CAT II/III
Indicates a joint category II/III taxi-holding position.

NO ENTRY
Indicates that entrance to an area is prohibited.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.6 Typical Signs at Taxi-Holding Positions Associated
Taxi Markings also shown (ICAO)

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.7 Information Signs (Location & Information)
(ICAO)
Information signs are yellow with black-letter writing. Used
to indicate a specific location or specific routing
information.
Location/information signs are black with yellow-letter
writing. Used to identify the location of the taxiway and
are located wherever practical on the left hand side. At
intersections of two taxiways the sign is located prior to
the intersection.
Destination signs are located on the same side of a
taxiway (left or right) as the direction to the location to be
indicated.
The inscriptions include an arrow indicating the direction
to be followed and a number, word or abbreviation that
identifies the destination. At an intersection the destination
sign is normally placed before the intersection.

2.1.8 Destination Signs

10 CARGO
Indicates the direction to runway 10 as well as to cargo area.

May 2004 Part 2 - Page 9 of 40


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

Indicate how to proceed


to taxiways 3, 4 and 8

2.1.9 Information Signs (ICAO)

Serves as both a destination and a location sign. It indicates that


runway 10 and Cargo area are straight ahead and that entry to the
taxiway on the right is prohibited.

18 (2000m)
It indicated that runway 18 is to the right and 2000m of the
runway length is available for take-off.

Note: Generally, signs should be lighted if the runway or


taxiway on which they are installed is lighted.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.10 ICAO Recommended Runway Markings (ICAO)
Runway markings are white.

2.1.11 Threshold Markings (ICAO)


Threshold markings consist of longitudinal stripes of
uniform dimensions disposed symmetrically about the
centerline of a runway. The number of stripes shall be in
accordance with the runway width as follows:

RUNWAY WIDTH NUMBER OF STRIPES


18m 4
23m
30m

45m 12
60m

Where a runway designator is placed within a threshold


marking, there shall be a minimum of three stripes on
each side of the runway centerline. Stripes are at least
30m long.

2.1.12 Runway Designation Marking (ICAO)


A runway designation marking consists of a two-digit
number located at the threshold. On parallel runways
each runway designation number is supplemented by a
letter, to indicate Left to Right runway.

2.1.13 Runway Centerline Marking (ICAO)


A runway centerline consists of a line of uniformly spaced
stripes and gaps located along the centerline of the
runway. Stripes are normally 30m long, gaps 20m long.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.14 Runway Touchdown Zone Markings and
Fixed Distance Markings (ICAO)
A touchdown zone marking is provided in the touchdown
zone of a precision approach runway, except where the
appropriate authority considers such marking
unnecessary, after taking into account typical weather
conditions and the air traffic using the aerodrome.

A touchdown zone marking consists of pairs of


rectangular markings symmetrically disposed about the
runway centerline. The numbers of pairs are related to
the length of runway as follows:

RUNWAY LENGTH PAIR(S) OF MARKINGS

less than 900m 1

less than 1200m but


not less than 900m 2

less than 1500m but


not less than 1200m 3

less than 2100m but


not less than 1500m 4

2100m or more 6

Touchdown zone marking is always provided at longitudinal spacing


of 150m beginning from the threshold, with a fixed distance marking
(rectangular markings 45m to 60m in length) at 300m from threshold
symmetrically disposed on each side of the runway centerline. For
non-precision approach runways, touchdown markings are not
provided.
Fixed distance markings are provided on runways 1800m and
over.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

2.1.15 Side Stripe Markings (ICAO)

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.15 Side Stripe Markings (ICAO)
Runway edges are highlighted by continuous stripes
located along each side between the thresholds of a
paved runway. Side stripe markings are normally
provided only on precision approach runway and those
non-precision runways where there is a lack of contrast
between the runway edges and the shoulders of the
surrounding terrain.
Side stripes are located no more than 30m from the
runway centerline regardless of runway width.

2.1.16 Displaced Threshold Markings (ICAO)

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.1.17 Closed Runways and Taxiways or Parts thereof
(ICAO)
A closed marking of the form of a cross (yellow or white)
displayed on a runway or taxiway or portion thereof,
which is permanently closed to the use of all aircraft.

2.1.18 Pre-Threshold Area Marking (Chevron Marking)


(ICAO)
When the paved surface before a threshold exceeds 60m
in length and is not suitable for use by aircraft, the entire
length is marked with a chevron marking (preferably
yellow) pointing in the direction of the runway threshold.

The boundary between load-bearing surfaces and no-


load-bearing surfaces, such as shoulders for taxiways,
holding bays, aprons, and other no-load-bearing surfaces
which, if used, might result in damage to the aircraft, are
indicated by a taxi side stripe. This marking consists of a
pair of solid lines the same color as the taxiway centerline
marking.

May 2004 Part 2 - Page 15 of 40


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

2.2 US Airport Signs Systems & US Instrument Runway


Markings

2.2.1 Mandatory Signs (USA)


Mandatory signs have a red background with white-
letter writing. They are used to denote an entrance to a
runway or critical area and areas where an aircraft is
prohibited from entering.

2.2.2 Taxiway/Runway And Runway/Runway Holding


(USA)

15-33
This sign is located at the holding position on taxiways that
intersect a runway or on runways that intersect other runways.
The inscription on the sign contains the designation of the
intersecting runway. The runway numbers on the sign are
arranged to correspond to the respective runway threshold. For
example, "15-33" indicates that the threshold for Runway 15 is
to the left and the threshold for Runway 33 is to the right. A
runway holding position sign on a taxiway will be installed
adjacent to holding position markings on the taxiway pavement.
On runways, holding position markings will be located only on
the runway pavement adjacent to the sign, if the runway is
normally used by air traffic control for "Land, Hold Short"
operations or as a taxiway.

33
On taxiways that intersect the beginning of the takeoff runway,
only the designation of the takeoff runway may appear on the
sign, while all other signs will have the designation of both
runway directions.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

When a sign is located on a taxiway that intersects the


intersection of two runways, the designations for both
runways will be shown on the sign along with arrows
showing the approximate alignment of each runway. In
addition to showing the approximate runway alignment,
the arrow indicates the direction to the threshold of the
runway whose designation is immediately next to the
arrow.

2.2.3 ILS Critical Area Holding (USA)

At some airports, when the instrument landing system is


being used, it is necessary to hold an aircraft on a
taxiway at a location other than the normal holding
position. In these situations the holding position sign for
these operations will have the inscription "ILS" and be
located adjacent to the holding position marking on the
taxiway.

2.2.4 Runway Approach Area Holding (USA)

At some airports, it is necessary to hold an aircraft on a


taxiway located in the approach or departure area for a
runway so that the aircraft does not interfere with
operations on that runway. In these situations, a sign
with the designation of the approach end of the runway

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
Followed by a dash (-) and letters APCH will be
located at the holding position on the taxiway. In this
example, the sign may protect the approach to Runway
15 and/or the departure for Runway 33.

2.2.5 No Entry (USA)

Prohibits aircraft from entering an area. Typically, this


sign would be located on a taxiway intended to be used
in only one direction or at the intersection of vehicle
roadways, taxiways or aprons where the roadway may
be mistaken as a taxiway or other aircraft movement
surface.

2.2.6 Location Signs (USA)


Location signs are used to identify either a taxiway or
runway on which the aircraft is located. Other location
signs provide a visual cue to pilots to assist them in
determining when they have exited an area. The various
location signs are described below.

Taxiway Location Signs have a black background with


yellow letter writing and a yellow border. The inscription
is the designation of the taxiway on which the aircraft is
located. These signs are installed along taxiways either
by themselves or in conjunction with direction signs or
runway holding position signs.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

Runway Location Signs have a black background with a


yellow inscription and yellow border. The inscription is
the designation of the runway on which the aircraft is
located. These signs are intended to complement the
information available to pilots through their magnetic
compass and typically are installed where the proximity
of two or more runways to one another could cause
pilots to be confused as to which runway they are on.

Runway Boundary signs have a yellow background with


a black inscription with a graphic depicting the pavement
holding position marking. This sign, which faces the
runway and is visible to the pilot exiting the runway, is
located adjacent to the holding position marking the
pavement. The sign is intended to provide pilots with
another visual cue which they can use as a guide in
deciding when they are "clear of the runway."

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

ILS Critical Area Boundary Signs have a yellow


background with a black inscription and a graphic
depicting the ILS pavement holding position marking.
This sign is located adjacent to the ILS holding position
marking on the pavement and can be seen by pilots
leaving the critical area. The sign is intended to provide
pilots with another visual cue which they can use as a
guide in deciding when they are "clear of the ILS critical
area."

2.2.7 Direction Signs (USA)


Direction signs have a yellow background with a black
inscription. The inscription identifies the designation(s)
of the intersecting taxiway(s) leading out of the
intersection that a pilot would normally be expected to
turn onto or hold short of. Each designation is
accompanied by an arrow indicating the direction of the
turn.
When more than one taxiway designation is shown on
the sign each designation and its associated arrow is
separated from the other taxiway designations by either
a vertical message divider or a taxiway location sign.

Direction signs are normally located on the left prior to


the intersection. When used on a runway to indicate an
exit, the sign is located on the same side of the runway
as the exit.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

Taxiway Director sign or Runway Exit Sign

When the intersection is comprised of only one crossing


taxiway, it will have two arrows associated with the
crossing taxiway.

2.2.8 Destination Signs (USA)


Destination signs also have a yellow background with a
black inscription indicating a destination on the airport.
These signs always have an arrow showing the direction
of the taxi route to that destination. When the arrow on
the destination sign indicates a turn, the sign is located
prior to the intersection. Destinations commonly shown
on these types of signs include runways, aprons,
terminals, military areas, civil aviation areas, cargo
areas, international areas, and fixed base operators. An
abbreviation may be used as the inscription on the sign
for some of these destinations.

Outbound Destination Sign

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

Outbound Destination Sign to Different Runways. More


than one runway, separated by a dot, is shown where the
taxiing route is common to both runways.

Inbound Destination Sign

2.2.9 Information Signs (USA)


Information signs have a yellow background with a black
inscription. They are used to provide the pilot with
information on such things as areas that cannot be seen
from the control tower, applicable radio frequencies, and
noise abatement procedures. The airport operator
determines the need, size, and location for these signs.

May 2004 Part 2 - Page 22 of 40


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.10 Runway Distance Remaining Signs (USA)

Runway Distance Remaining Signs are used to


provide distance remaining information to pilots
during take-off and landing operations. The signs
are located along one or both sides of the runway,
and the inscription consists of a white numeral on a
black background. The signs indicate the distance
remaining in thousands of feet.

The distance remaining may be 50ft less than


shown on the sign. There is a 50ft tolerance in
the sign placement. Some signs may be omitted
because they can not meet this tolerance.

When runway length is not an even multiple of


1000ft, half the "additional distance" is added to
the first and last sign placement. The example
below is for a 6900ft runway.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.11 Application Examples For Holding Position Signs
(USA)
NOTE: Generally, signs will be lighted if the runway or
taxiway on which they are installed is lighted. Holding
position signs and any collocated location signs will be
lighted if the runway for which they are installed is
lighted even if the taxiway on which they are installed is
unlighted.

1. Taxiway Location Sign


2. Holding Position Sign
3. ILS Critical Area Boundary Sign
4. ILS Holding Position Sign
5. Runway Safety Area/OFZ and Runway Approach
Area Boundary Sign
6. Taxiway Location Sign - optional, depending on
operational need
7. Holding Position Sign for Approach Areas

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.12 Taxiway Entrance at Intersection of two Runway
Ends (USA)

2.2.13 Taxiway Entrance at Intersection of two Runways


(USA)

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.14 Holding Position Signs At Runway Intersections
(USA)

(Above) Runway 27 used for land and hold short


operations or used as a taxiway. Note holdline markings
across runway for either of these two cases.

2.2.15 Standard 4-Way Taxiway Intersection

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.16 Straight Ahead Taxiway has Direction
Change Greater than 25 (USA)

(Above) NOTE: Orientation of signs are from left


to right in a clockwise manner. Left turn signs are
on the left side of the location sign and right turn
signs are on the right side of the location sign.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.17 Signing Examples for a Complex Airport
(USA)

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.18 United States Instrument Runway Markings
(USA)
Runway markings are white. Markings, excluding hold
lines and the runway designator marking (the runway
number) are described below

2.2.19 Threshold Marking (USA)


Eight longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions
arranged symmetrically about the runway centerline.
They are always 150ft long.

2.2.20 Runway Centerline Markings (USA)


A line of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps located on
the centerline of the runway. Stripes are 120ft long,
gaps 80ft long.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.21 Runway Touchdown Zone Markings and Fixed
Distance Markings (USA)

Left column denotes distance from approach end of


runway to beginning of the markings

500ft Touchdown Zone. Three bars 75ft long on each


side of the centerline. They are the beginning of the
fixed distance markers. Fixed distance markers are
positioned 500ft apart.

1000ft Thousand Foot Fixed Distance Marker. One


"heavy" bar on each side of the centerline, 150ft long
and 30ft wide.

1500ft Two bars, 75ft long, on each side of the


centerline.

2000ft Two bars, 75ft long, on each side of the


centerline.

2500ft One bar, 75ft long, on each side of the


centerline.

3000ft One bar, 75ft long, on each side of the


centerline.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.22 Side Stripe Marking (USA)

Continuous stripes located along each side of the


runway to provide contrast with the surrounding terrain
and/or to define the full strength runway pavement
areas. Maximum distance between the stripes is 200ft.
Side stripe markings are normally provided only on
precision instrument runways.

2.2.23 Displaced Threshold Markings and Markings


for Blast Pads and Stopways (USA)

May 2004 Part 2 - Page 31 of 40


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.24 Precision Instrument Runway (USA)

For non-precision instrument runways: TDZ markers are not


provided. Fixed distance markers are provided only on
runways 4000ft or longer used by jet aircraft.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
2.2.25 Approach Chart - Lighting Systems
SHOWN IN AIRPORT PLANVIEW
Approach lights are symbolized in recognizable form,
and at the same scale as the airport chart. Typical
examples:

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities

May 2004 Part 2 - Page 38 of 40


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
3.0 Standard Runway Lights Table

LIGHT COLOUR SPACING FUNCTION


High intensity approach White 30m Reference to assess lateral
lights system (HALS) position, cross track velocity
3000ft from app. end of and roll out.
the runway
Supplementary approach Red 30m Alert the pilot of approaching
lights (Barrette) on the runway, but not yet over the
final 1000ft runway.
Threshold Green 3m Marking the beginning of the
RWY and provide Roll out
reference.
Touch Down Zone Lights White 30 or 60m Vertical and longitudinal
(TDZ) reference. Covers first 3000ft
of the RWY or one third
whichever is less.
High Intensity Runway White 30/15/7m Red & White between 3000ft
Centreline Lights (CL) & 1000ft from RWY end and
red lights for the last 1000ft.
High Intensity Runway White Max 60m Amber on the last 2000 ft or
Edge Lights (HIRL) half of the RWY length
whichever is less.
RWY Stop End Lights Red 3m Alert the pilot to runway end.
Taxi Center Line Lights Green 30/15/7m 15m at high speed exists
7m at curves.
Taxi Edge Lights Blue 30/15/7m Lateral limits of taxiway.
Stop Bars Red 3m Indicate non-entry areas, e.g.
RWY OFZ or ILS critical or
sensitive areas.
RWY Exit Lights Green/Ye 15m Facilitate RWY exit.
llow
Holding Bar Lights Red To prohibit aircraft movement
beyond it without ATC
clearance.
CAT II/III Holding Points Amber One on Alternating
each side

May 2004 Part 2 - Page 39 of 40


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Aerodrome & Facilities
4.0 Abbreviation and Full Text Table

Abbr. Full Text


ALSF-I Approach Light System with Sequenced Flashing Lights.
ALSF-II Approach Light System with Sequenced Flashing Lights and
Red Side Row Lights the last 1000ft. May be operated as
SSALR during favorable weather conditions.
CL Standard Centerline lights configuration white lights then
alternating red & white lights between 3000ft and 1000ft from
runway end and red lights for the last 1000ft.
HIRL High Intensity Runway edge lights.
HST-H High Speed Taxiway turn-off with green centerline lights, H
indicates taxiway identification.
LDIN Sequenced Flashing Lead-in Lights.
MALS Medium Intensity Approach Light System.
MALSF Medium Intensity Approach Light System with Sequenced
Flashing Lights.
MALSR Medium Intensity Approach Light System with Runway
Alignment Indicator Lights.
ODALS Omni-Directional approach Light system.
RAIL Runway Alignment Indicator Lights (Sequenced Flashing Lights
which are installed only in combination with other light
systems.
REIL Runway End Identifier lights (threshold strobes).
RL Low Intensity Runway lights or intensity not specified.
SALS Short Approach Light System.
SSALF Simplified Short Approach Light System with Sequenced
Flashing Lights.
SSALR Simplified Short Approach Light System with Runway
Alignment Indicator Lights.
SFL Sequenced Flashing Lights.
TDZ Touch Down Zone lights.

May 2004 Part 2 - Page 40 of 40


Part 3

B777 Auto flight


System (AFDS)
Part 3

B777 Auto flight


System (AFDS)
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Part 3
Index
Item Contents Page
number Number
3.0 Introduction 1
3.1 AFDS Limitations & Policies 1
3.2 CAT II Operations 6
Category II Autoland Approach
3.3 6
requirements
3.4 Category III Operations 7
3.4.1 Category IIIA / Autoland 7
Category IIIB / Autoland Autothrottle /
3.4.2 8
Fail Operational AFDS & Rollout
Category IIIB / Autoland Authrottle / Fail
3.4.3 9
Operational AFDS / Fail Passive Rollout
3.5 Graphics generators 10
3.6 Normal AFDS sequence during approach 12
3.7 AFDS Status 21
3.8 NO LAND 3 21
3.9 NO Autoland 24
3.10 Landing Inhibits 27
3.11 Go-Around 29
3.12 Automatic Flight Go-Around Profile 31
CAT II / III Minimum Equipment
3.13 32
Approach Authorization Table

May 2004 Part 3 Index - Page 1 of 2


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Intentionally
Left
Blank

May 2004 Part 3 Index - Page 2 of 2


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.0 Introduction
The B777 is designed to meet the criteria for operations to CAT
II and CAT III minima when all required equipment is available.

Compliance with the airworthiness standards for the Autopilot


and Flight Director only does not constitute approval to conduct
CAT II / III operations in Low Weather Minimums without the
approval of:
The Flight Crew
The Aircraft
The Airfield Runway

3.1 AFDS Limitations & Policies


All Low Visibility Take-Off (LVTO) and CAT II/III
approaches and autoland are to be carried out with Captain
as PF and First Officers as PM. These roles are irreversible.
Flight crews are trained & certified. PIC must have at least
100 PIC hours on type or previous similar type.
Takeoff Alternate (at airports other than USA):
2 hours distance (ETOPS Approved flight),
1 hours distance (Non ETOPS Approved flight).
Takeoff Alternate (at USA airports):
1 hours distance.
LVP in force.
HIRL spaced at 60m.
HICL spaced at 15m or less.
60m visual segment available from cockpit at start of
takeoff run
Reqd RVR values are at/above minima at all relevant
points.
Heading and Attitude are displayed, with ADIRU & SARU
serviceable (No ADIRU status messages permitted).
Maximum taxing speed 10 Kts.
The Lowest Authorized RVR for Takeoff is 125m (150M for
USA airports) TDZ, MID & Rollout.
AFDS system test may be carried out on ground before
departure to check the integrity of the systems. The test is

July 2015 Part 3 - Page 1 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

performed using the MAT (Maintenance Access Terminal) by


Ground Engineer.
Aircraft to be certified by Ground Engineer as CAT II / III
airworthy (in the autoland certificate sheet in aircraft Tech.
Log Part 2).
The autopilot must not be engaged below 200ft radio
altitude after takeoff.
ILS specifications must meet the order of LVP enforced i.e.
Level 2 ILS meets CAT II requirements which means the
glide slope and the localizer beam quality are certified down
to CAT II minimum. Level 3 meets CAT IIIA requirements to
touch down which means that the glide slope and the
localizer beam quality are certified to flare, CAT IIIA
minimum and touchdown. Level 4 meets CAT IIIB
requirements to touch down and roll out, which means the
glide slope and the localizer beam quality are certified down
to flare CAT IIIB minimum when applicable and roll out.
All category approaches are to be carried out with autopilot
engaged.
The aircraft should be stabilized in landing configuration and
approach speed not later than outer marker or equivalent
distance. Recommended stabilized height is 2000ft AGL.
Minimum approach speed VREF + 5 Kts.
VREF plus wind correction (max. 20 kts) when manual
thrust.
Maximum allowable wind speeds when landing weather
minima are predicted on autoland operations:
Headwind 25 knots
Tailwind 15 knots
Crosswind 25 knots
Crosswind 15 knots (FAA requirement for airports in USA)
(KAC OPM Section 3.3.4.3/d page 3.3.17)
Autopilot must be disengaged before the airplane descends
more than 50 feet below the MDA unless it is coupled to an
ILS glideslope and localizer or in the Go-Around mode.
The maximum glideslope angle is 3.25 degrees.
The minimum glideslope angle is 2.5 degrees.

July 2015 Part 3 - Page 2 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

During an actual weather condition, CAT II approaches are


permitted to CAT II minimum on CAT II glide slope and
localizer beam quality and to touch down on CAT III quality
ILS beams.
Cat II approach chart is to be used for Cat III landing where
"Cat II & III" is not mentioned in the chart.
CAT III approaches are permitted only on CAT III quality ILS
beams during actual weather conditions.
Automatic landing practices are permitted on CAT II or CAT
III ILS beam quality.
Autoland practice should not be carried out below the
following condition:
Cloud Base: 1500ft / Visibility: 3000m
Runway is not approved for CAT II/III Operations.
Roll-out is certified on, clear and dry or clear and not dry, for
grooved or Porous Friction Coarse (PFC) runways.
Aircraft Equipment Roll-out system is mandatory for CAT IIIB
with and without DH (Land 3).
Airport Equipment Roll-out system Fail Operational is
mandatory for CAT IIIB with no DH, and Fail Passive for CAT
IIIB with DH
Autothrottle is mandatory for CAT IIIB with or without DH,
and recommended for all other category approaches.
Autobrake 3 or 4 setting recommended to be used for wet or
slippery runways or when landing roll out is limited.
CAT II or III operation can be undertaken, when the
following conditions are met:
(a) All minimum equipment required for the relevant category
as shown on CAT II/III Minimum Equipment Approach
Authorization Table at the end of this section.
(b) Autoland status displays LAND 2 or LAND 3.

*Ref DGCA Letter (15-345/ops/41 Dated 02/07/2015)

July 2015 Part 3 - Page 3 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

CAT IIIB non-availability is indicated well in advance on EICAS


displaying NO LAND 3.
No automatic landing should be attempted with no autoland
status annunciation on both PFDs or no autoland message on
the upper or lower EICAS or when the following EICAS
messages are displayed:
SGL source display OR
SGL source RAD ALT OR
SGL source ILS
Autoland is not certified for overweight landings.
For CAT IIIB without decision height, set RA bug to CAT IIIA
with DH 50ft and blank the display so as there will be no need
to adjust the minimum setting during autoland status
downgrade and RVR improvement to CAT IIIA.
Whenever a deterioration in RVR values are expected during
CAT I or CAT II approaches, the DH and its associated callouts
shall be planned to the lowest authorized for that runway,
crew and aircraft irrespective of weather conditions at that
time so as there will be no need to adjust the minimum setting
as the weather deteriorates down to or above that minimum.
The controlling RVRs are the one received at or before the OM
or FAF. RVR readings received after OM or FAF are advisory
only. Deterioration in the RVRs after OM or FAF do not mean
an immediate go-around, the approach may be continued to
DH. Descent below DH is solely dependent on obtaining the
required visual reference appropriate to the type of approach.
The down grading procedures/instructions are applicable
for both, pre-flight and in-flight situations. It is not expected that
the commander consult these instructions after passing the OM or
equivalent position (from where the approach may need to be
abandoned). If a failure of ground equipment, other than the
primary approach aid in use, occurs at such a late stage, the
approach may be continued at the commanders discretion. If the
failure is known before this stage, the effect on the approach
must be considered by using the above table, which means,
minimums must be increased and/or relevant procedures must be
used

July 2015 Part 3 - Page 4 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

For down grading of Aircraft and/or Ground equipment, and its


effect on approach minimums, refer to the Down Grading Table
on pages 14 thru 17 of Part 5 Non-Normal Procedures of this
manual.
No manual approach or landing is authorized below CAT I
minimum except below CAT II DH or during flare or rollout after
touch down on CAT II, CAT IIIA and CAT IIIB with DH when
autopilot is disengaged and the required visual reference is
established.
Note: No Manual approach and landing is authorized on
CAT IIIB with no DH.
Master Warning / Caution light and aural beeper are inhibited
during approach below 200 ft AGL except:
Autopilot
No autoland
Speed brake extended
Autothrottle disc.
A Master Warning / Caution light and aural beeper below AFDS
alert height (200 ft Radio Altimeter), while in IMC conditions,
require a manual go-around, except below CATII DH or during
flare or rollout after touch down on CAT II, CAT IIIA and CAT IIIB
with DH when autopilot is disengaged and after the required
visual reference is established.
When above 1000ft, all EICAS messages are dealt with according
to QRH procedures.
If the non-normal checklist has not been accomplished by 1000ft
AGL boundary, go-around must be executed.
When below 1000ft, all EICAS messages are dealt with after
landing at the appropriate time.
Automatic landings can be made using Flaps 20 or 30, with both
engines operative (or one Engine Operative down to CATIIIA
regardless of TAC ON or OFF
(Ref: 09-204/OPS/41 dated 05-04-2009).

Aug 2014 Part 3 - Page 5 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

The Autopilot Flight Director System (AFDS) autoland status


annunciation must display LAND 2 or LAND 3.
Although engine failure doesnt affect the LAND 3 or LAND 2
autoland display, but it is a KAC policy in low weather operation
with one engine failed is to downgrade the approach to CAT IIIA
regardless TAC-ON or OFF. (Ref: 09-204/OPS/41 dated 05-04-2009).
Below 1000ft AGL For ALL FIRES (Master Warning) All
associated checklist actions to be ignored. Continue with checklist
items as soon as possible after landing at appropriate time.

3.2 CAT II Operations


CAT II approaches normally is conducted using the Autopilot, on two
engines with LAND 3 or LAND 2 annunciated to approach minima of
DH 100 feet RA* / RVR 300 m (JAA & FAA). TDZ is
controlling, MID & Roll out are advisory. CAT II approach on
one engine can be conducted with Autopilot engaged and
LAND 3 or LAND 2 annunciated to the above minima with
TAC inoperative.
* The lowest radio altimeter setting is 100ft, even
though the chartered height is less than this figure.

3.3 Category II Autoland Approach requirements


In addition to the requirement specified in table at the end of this
chapter, the following equipment must be operative for an
autopilot approach in CAT II conditions:

Autopilot engaged with LAND 3 or LAND 2 annunciated.


2 PFD display supplied by separate graphics generators.
The graphics generators must have separate sources for
attitude, radio altitude, ILS deviation, DH indication and
AFDS status.
The following EICAS messages are not displayed:
SGL source display OR
SGL source RAD ALT OR
SGL source ILS

Aug 2014 Part 3 - Page 6 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.4 Category III Operations


Category III primary mode of operation is an approach to touch
down using the automatic landing systems not requiring pilot
intervention. However, pilot intervention should be anticipated in
the event inadequate airplane performance is suspected, or when
an automatic landing cannot be safely accomplished in the
touchdown zone.

3.4.1 Category IIIA / Autoland


CAT IIIA normally conducted using the autopilot with two engines
with LAND 3 or LAND 2 annunciated to approach minimum of DH
50 feet RA / RVR 200 meter. TDZ and MID are controlling
and Roll out is advisory. CAT IIIA approach can be conducted
on one engine with autopilot engaged and LAND 3 or LAND 2
annunciated to the above minima with TAC-ON or OFF
(Ref: DGCA 09-204/OPS/41 dated 05-04-2009)
In addition to the requirements in the table at the end of this
chapter, the following equipment must be operative:

Autopilot engaged.
2 PFD display supplied by separate graphics generators.
The graphics generators must have separate sources for
attitude, radio altitude, ILS deviation, DH or AH indication,
and AFDS status.

The following EICAS messages are not displayed:


SGL source display OR
SGL source RAD ALT OR
SGL source ILS

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 7 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.4.2 Category IIIB with DH / Autoland / Autothrottle /


Fail Operational AFDS / * Fail Passive Rollout

CAT IIIB operations is certified to minimum of less than 50ft DH


RA, but not less than 15ft RA and RVR 125 m.
In addition to the requirements specified in the table at the end
of the section, the following equipment must be operative and
LAND 3 annunciated.
Autopilot engaged
2 autoland status annunciators
2 PFD displays supplied by separate graphics
generators. The graphics generators must have
separate sources for attitude, radio altitude, ILS
deviation, AH or DH and AFDS status
Left and Right Autothrottle
The following EICAS messages are not displayed:
o SGL source display OR
o SGL source RAD AT OR
o Single source ILS

* Note:
Roll-out Control/Guidance System Fail Operational or Fail Passive of the
Airport Equipment should not be confused with Roll-out Control/Guidance
System Fail Operational or Fail Passive of the Aircraft Equipment.
In the case of CAT IIIB with or without DH, the aircraft roll-out system
equipment is mandatory. Where due to degradation in localizer signal from
level 4 to level 3 or lower (fail passive roll-out) causing the roll-out
control/guidance system of the aircraft to be affected. Where roll-out can be
maintained, fail passive is allowed for Cat IIIB with DH as manual roll-out is
allowed. However, it is not allowed for Cat IIIB with no DH, as fail operational
roll-out is mandatory and no manual roll-out is allowed.
This expected degradation in the rollout (due to degraded localizer
signal) is usually known before hand and transmitted via the ATIS, i.e.
Level 4 ILS been degraded to Level 3 or lower. Therefore, the above
approach minimum can be planned.
Refer to Downgrading Table Pt 5 pages 14, 15 and 16 of this manual.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 8 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.4.3 Category IIIB with no DH / Autoland / Autothrottle


/ Fail Operational AFDS & Rollout

CAT IIIB operations, visual reference is not normally a specific


requirement for continuation of the approach to touch down.
The airplane is certified for Category IIIB operations to
minimums of 0ft DH RA and RVR 75m JAA (RVR 175m FAA) if
the runway is clear and dry or clear and not dry for grooved or
porous friction coarse (PFC) runways.

CAT IIIB must be conducted utilizing the full aircraft automation.

In addition to the requirements specified in the table at the end


of the chapter, the following equipment must be operative and
LAND 3 annunciated.

Autopilot engaged
2 autoland status annunciators
2 PFD displays supplied by separate graphics generators.
The graphics generators must have separate sources for
attitude, radio altitude, ILS deviation, AH or DH and
AFDS status.
Left and Right Autothrottle
The following EICAS messages are not displayed:
SGL source display OR
SGL source RAD AT OR
Single source ILS

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 9 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.5 Graphics Generators


There are four graphics generators which generate all the
graphics symbols that appear on the display units. Each graphics
generator can be thought of as display channel.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 10 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Normal system operation is with three channels, each driving two


display units. The remaining channel acts as backup.

Any one channel can provide information to the display units,


although in degraded mode.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 11 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.6 Normal AFDS sequence during approach


The FMC automatically sets the frequency and front course for
the selected ILS approach. When the frequency has been
identified, the ILS identifier replaces the ILS frequency on the
PFD.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 12 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Arming Approach Mode.


When approach mode is engaged it will automatically arm the
localizer and glide slope and will be annunciated on the FMA.

LOC and G/S annunciate on the FMA

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 13 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

The localizer will capture if the track is within 120 degrees of the
localizer course.

On localizer capture, the inbound heading automatically sets on


the MCP.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 14 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Once the glide slope is captured, the missed approach altitude


can be set.

Once both the localizer and glide slope are captured, the
approach mode can only be disengaged by either:\
Pushing a TO/GA switch, or
Disengaging the autopilot and turning off both flight
directors, or
If above 1500 feet radio altitude, pushing the approach
switch a second time

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 15 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

At 1500 feet RA, the autoflight system goes through a pre-


autoland test.

After satisfactory completing the test, LAND 3, ROLLOUT and


FLARE annunciate indicating all three autopilots are engaged and
operating normally for an automatic landing

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 16 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

If cross wind present, runway alignment occurs between 500 feet


and 200 feet Radio altitude

Runway alignment is when the airplane changes from crap to slip.


There is no annunciation when the airplane aligns with the runway.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 17 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Between 60 feet and 40 feet radio altitude FLARE engages

At 25 feet radio altitude, the autothrottle begins retarding the


thrust to IDLE

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 18 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

At 2 feet radio altitude, ROLLOUT engages and the autopilot


controls the rudder and the nose steering to keep the airplane on
localizer 19pprox.19ne.

Selecting reverse thrust disconnects the autothrottle.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 19 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

When the autothrottle disconnects during reverse, the EICAS message


does not display and the caution light does not illuminate.

Finally, before turning off the runway, disconnect the autopilot with the
disconnect switch on the control wheel and cancel the warning with a
second push.

3.7 AFDS Status


There are three AFDS status as follows:
LAND 3
LAND 2
NO AUTOLAND

To understand more about those messages lets have a look at


how they will affect AFDS

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 20 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.7 AFDS Status


There are three AFDS status as follows:

LAND 3
LAND 2
NO AUTOLAND

To understand more about those messages lets have a look at


how they will affect AFDS

3.8 NO LAND 3

There are 2 EICAS messages which can display when a degrading


of the autoland system is detected.
Both messages are NO LAND 3. One advisory, the other is
cautionary

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 21 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Both messages indicate that the autoland system does not have
the redundancy required for triple channel autoland.

The NO LAND 3 advisory displays when the system fails prior to


the LAND 3 or LAND 2 status annunciation.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 22 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

The NO LAND 3 caution displays when the degradation occurs after LAND 3 is
annunciated.

In either case, the autoland system is now fail passive

In either case, the AFDS is now down to CAT 3 A capability

With either message displayed, another failure affecting the autoland


system renders the autoland system inoperative

Conclusion for NO LAND 3


Degradation of autoland system detected.
System does not have triple channel autoland redundancy.
Autoland system fail passive
System inoperative if another failure occurs.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 23 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.9 NO Autoland

There are also 2 EICAS messages associated with the failure of


the autoland system.

Both messages are NO AUTOLAND. One message is an advisory,


and the other is cautionary.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 24 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

The NO AUTOLAND advisory displays when the system fails prior to


LAND 3 or LAND 2 status annunciation.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 25 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

The NO AUTOLAND caution message displays when the system fails


after LAND 3 or LAND 2 annunciation.

Both messages indicate that a system failure prevents an


autoland from being performed.

In either case, the AFDS is now down to CAT 1


capability only.

Note: For more details, refer to No Autoland Advisory/Cautionary


or Status Message Table, Part 5 Non-Normal Procedures, page 17.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 26 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.10 Landing Inhibits

For full EICAS alert inhibits during landing, refer to B777 Flight
Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) Chapter 15. Warning Systems.

Alerts Inhibited During Landing

Alert Inhibited For Message Inhibit Begins Inhibit Ends


Alerts are 2,300 feet radio 1,200 feet radio
All PWS alerts
inhibited altitude altitude
Approximately Go-around at
TCAS INCREASE Alerts are
1,500 feet radio 27pprox.. 1,500 feet
DESCENT Ras inhibited
altitude radio altitude
Go-around at
Approximately
TCAS descend Alerts are approximately
1,100 feet radio
Ras inhibited 1,100 feet radio
altitude
altitude

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 27 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

Alert Inhibited For Message Inhibit Begins Inhibit Ends


TCAS Ras Alerts are inhibited. Approximately Go-around at
When RA selected on 1,000 feet radio approximately
panel, TCAS switches altitude 1,000 feet radio
automatically to TA altitude
only mode and TCAS
message TA ONLY is
displayed on ND
All EICAS
communication
messages, Messages are inhibited
800 feet radio 75 knots
except: CABIN
altitude airspeed
ALERT
All EICAS status
STATUS cue
messages
Approximately Go-around at
TCAS voice
TCAS Tas 500 feet radio approximately 500
alerts
altitude feet radio altitude
EICAS alert
400 feet radio 80 knots
message Message is inhibited
altitude airspeed
WINDSHEAR SYS
New PWS
Alerts are inhibited
caution alerts
Master All EICAS caution LAND 2 or 75 knots
CAUTION lights messages, except: LAND 3 airspeed, or 40
Beeper AUTHPILOT Displayed on seconds elapse,
AUTOTHROTTLE DISC PFD, and 200 or 800 feet radio
NO AUTOLAND feet radio altitude
SPEEDBRAKE altitude
EXTENDED
New PWS Alerts are inhibited 50 feet radio 100 knots
warning alerts altitude airspeed

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 28 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.11 Go-Around
Go-around is engaged by pushing either TO/GA switch. The mode
remains engaged even if the airplane touches down while
executing the go-around. TO/GA is armed when flaps are not up
or the glideslope is captured.

If the Flight Director switches are not on, the Flight Director bars
are automatically displayed if either TO/GA switch is pushed.

The TO/GA switches are inhibited when on the ground and


enabled again when in the air for a go-around or touch and go.

With the first push of either TO/GA switch:


The PFDs displays roll guidance to fly the ground track.
The autothrottle engages in thrust (THR) mode for a 2,000
FPM climb.
The AFDS increases pitch to hold the selected speed as
thrust increases.
If the current airspeed remains above the target speed for
5 seconds, the target airspeed is reset to current airspeed
(to a maximum of the IAS/MACH window speed plus 25
knots).

With the second push of either TO/GA switch:


The autothrottle engages in the thrust reference (THR
REF) mode for full go-around thrust.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 29 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

TO/GA level-off:
At the selected altitude, the AFDS pitch mode changes to
altitude hold (ALT).
If the altitude is captured, or if V/S or FPA is engaged, MCP
speed is automatically set to:
The flap placard speed minus 5 knots
250 knots if flaps are up, or
The speed value entered in the IAS/MACH window after
TO/GA was pushed.
Go-around remains the engaged roll mode until another mode is
selected.

TO/GA mode termination:


Below 400ft radio altitude, the AFDS remains in the go-around
mode unless the autopilot is disconnected and both Flight
Directors are turned off.
Above 400ft radio altitude, selecting a different MCP pitch or roll
mode will terminate the go-around mode.

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 30 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.12 Automatic Flight Go-Around Profile

SPD LNAV ALT Verify tracking route and


A/P altitude capture: after
take-off check list.

After flap retraction,


THR REF LNAV FLCH
select FLCH or VNAV
A/P as required

At flap retraction
THR LNAV TO/GA
altitude, set speed to
A/P VREF 30+80 knots

Above 400 feet AGL,


THR LNAV TO/GA select roll mode.
A/P

THR LNAV TO/GA Push TO/GA


A/P switches

May 2004 Part 3 - Page 31 of 32


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO B777 Auto Flight System

3.13 CAT II/III MINIMUM EQUIPMENT APPROACH AUTHORIZATION TABLE

EQUIPMENT CATEGORY REMARKS


II IIIA IIIB
Autoland Status LAND2 LAND2 LAND3
AFDC 2 2 3
MCP 1 1 1 Including all switches and indications
Control wheel A/P 1* 1* 2 *For CAT II/IIIA switch must be
disengage SW serviceable on Capt. Side
TO/GA switches 1 1 2
ADIRU 1 1 1
SAARU 0 0 1
ILS RCVR 2 2 3
LRRA 2 2 3
EFIS Control Panel 1* 2 2 * Provided back-up features
verified on FMC CDU
DH Indicator 1 2 2 For CAT II, indicator must be
available on First Officers side.
GPWS 0 1 1 Note: First Officer to monitor altitude
and call out during CAT II autoland with
inoperative auto callout.

A/P Disengage Bar Switch 2 2 3

PFC 3 3 3
AOA Vane 1 2 2
Engine Driven Generator 1 2 2 APU may replace one engine generator
system
Windshield Wiper 2* 2* 2* For CAT II operation, either low or high
may be serviceable (*CHECK MEL)
Forward Window Heat 2 2 2

Auto brake 0 0 0 Recommended for all Approaches.*


Autothrottle 0 0 L&R It is mandatory for CATIIIB DH \ NO DH
Roll Axis PCU 20 20 22
Rudder PCU 2 2 3
Elevator PCU 3 3 4
Back drive Actuator 5 5 6
ADM 5 5 6
Engine 1 1 2 For CAT IIIB below AH, if one engine
fails, continue approach
TAC Not Not Reqd For CAT IIIB below AH, continue
Reqd Reqd approach
Flaps 20 or 30 Reqd Reqd Reqd
*Ref DGCA Letter (15-345/ops/41 Dated 02/07/2015)
Table 1

July 2015 Part 3 - Page 32 of 32


Part 4

Normal
Procedures
Part 4

Normal
Procedures
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Part 4
Index
Item number Contents Page
Number
4.0 Introduction 1
4.1 Flight Preparation 2
4.1.1 Flight Planning 2
4.1.2 At the Aircraft 4
4.1.3 Prior to Taxi 6
4.1.4 During Taxi and Prior to entering 7
Runway for take-off
4.1.5 Take-off 8
4.1.6 En-route 9
4.1.7 Well before Top of Descent and 10
before commencing an approach
4.2 Use of landing lights 11
4.3 Crew coordination during 12
CATII/III approach
4.4 Standard call-out 14
4.5 Flight Parameters deviation calls 22
4.6 CAT II/III Briefing 23
4.7 Summary of B777 LVP Departure 27
/ Arrival Briefing
4.8 CAT II/III Briefing Checklist 28
29
4.9 Take-off Minima Table
4.10 Landing Minima Table 30

May 2004 Part 4 Index - Page 1 of 2


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Intentionally
Blank

May 2004 Part 4 Index - Page 2 of 2


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.0 Introduction
This part deals with the normal procedures required during low
weather operations from pre-flight, push back, engine start, taxi,
take-off, enroute, arrival before top-of-descent, approach to land
and after landing till allocated position.
There are three elements interacting with each other in every phase
of the procedure as follows:

Crew Captain and F/O Qualifications &


Licences & validity.

Aircraft Status, Tech. Log, Instruments,


indication, Auto flight System and
certifications.
Airport Departure, Destination, Alternates,
Weather, LVP in force, Airport
equipment, Runway lightings &
markings, ILS category, certifications
and approval.

LVP

Crew Aircraft Airport

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 1 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.1 Flight Preparation


In addition to the normal flight preparation, the following
planning and preparation must be performed when Low
Visibility Take-Off (LVTO), CAT II or CAT III approaches
are expected:-

4.1.1 Flight Planning at dispatch


Take-off RVR less than 400m or LVP in
force at Departure or destination

Crew To Check
The flight crewmembers must be qualified &
valid. PIC must have at least 100 PIC hours
on type or previous similar type.
Check the lowest authorized take-off RVR
minima.
Check all RVR readings at or above the
lowest authorized take-off minimum. (Refer
to KAC OPM, Aerodrome Operating Minima
3.3.4 or Take-Off Minima Table 4.9 page 29
of this part).
Takeoff alternate at or above landing
minimum one hour before and after ETA. In
case of departure weather below landing
minimum, Takeoff alternate, (at single engine
speed) is within:
1. USA Airports - one hour from departure
airport,
2. Non USA Airport one hour, (two hours if
ETOPS approved.) from departure airport.
Check destination, enroute & alternate
weather at or above landing minimum one
hour before and after ETA.
Check NOTAM.
Check computerized Flight Plan.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 2 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Uplift extra fuel. Potential CAT II/III may


be lost if an early diversion is enforced
due to insufficient holding fuel.
Aircraft ------ Crew to check
Crew to coordinate with the Line Maintenance at
Dispatch if any defect affecting AFDS or other MEL items.
Crew to check aircraft location.

Airport -------- Crew to check


LVP in force
Runways, taxiways, airport equipment and all
lighting & markings against NOTAM for any
degradation, and if applicable to consult with
down grading table on pages 14 thru 16, Part 5
Non-Normal Procedures of this manual
Category of approach enforced
Approval in AOM (Aerodrome Operating
Minimum) KU-71 Jeppeen Manual and company
authorized minimum.

LVP

Crew Aircraft Airport

Successful
Flight
Planning
May 2004 Part 4 - Page 3 of 30
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.1.2 At the Aircraft


Crew (Capt. PF / FO. PM) To Check
Check DGCA Low Weather Operation approval
certificate.
Check the lowest authorized take-off minimum
from Jeppesen chart and Take-Off Minima
Table 4.9 on page 29 of this part.
Check all RVR readings at or above minimum.
Study aircraft position in relation to the take-off
runway, taxi routing, taxi lighting, holding
points, active runways, full runway lighting &
markings and sensitive areas.
Manually tune ILS on NAV RAD page.
Verify display of runway sample, rudder yaw
bar and the localizer index on both PFDs
relative to runway and aircraft position.
Review departure field approach procedure if
return is possible.
Capt. to make full LVTO briefing.

Aircraft-Crew to Check
Certified Tech. log (Autoland Sheet) appropriate
to the approach category.
No display of NO AUTOLAND, NO LAND3 status
message.
ADIRU and SARU are serviceable (NO ADIRU
status messages).
Runway sample, Rudder yaw bar and localizer
index displayed on PFD.
No other defects which affect approach
capability as listed in the MEL.
Check extra fuel is uplifted.
Select full take-off power thrust setting to
minimise take-off run.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 4 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Airport--Crew to check
LVP in enforce from ATIS or ATC.
Full runway lighting and marking are
available.
HIRL spaced at 60m or less.
HICL spaced at 15m or less.
Minimum RVR for start up, if applicable.
Visual segment of 60m or more is
available.

LVP

Crew Aircraft Airport

Ready for
Engine
Start

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 5 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.1.3 Prior to taxi

Crew ----To check


Capt. (PF), F/O (PM) Navigator rally style:
PF
Before Taxi checklist completed.
Before take-off checklist completed.
Cabin ready received (time permitting)

PM know all airport taxi route charts related to


aeroplane position, CAT II/III holding points,
sensitive & critical areas and other traffic
position, latest RVR reading and keep Capt.
updated all time.

Aircraft ----Crew to check


All ground equipment are removed, pin
sighted and all clear signal is received.
Use strobe light for easy identification.
Use taxi, landing Lights as needed.

Airport --Crew to check


Obtain and follow ATC taxi instruction.
Monitor RVR readings at or above minima.

LVP

Crew Aircraft Airport

Ready
for Taxi

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 6 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.1.4 During Taxi and Prior to entering Runway for


take-off

Crewto check
Capt. (PF), F/O (PM) Navigator rally style:
F/O Use airport chart, ND, MAP information to
monitor aircraft position during taxi & line up.
Capt. to verify cleared runway ILS frequency/course
are tuned and display of runway sample, rudder yaw
bar and the localizer index on both PFD. F/O to verify.
Observe stop bars.
Observe CAT II/III holding area.
Capt. line up with runway center line using runway
marking and ILS localizer index.

AircraftCrew to check
Complete before Take-off procedure.
Use taxi, landing Lights as required for take-off.
Confirm the aircraft is lined up with the runway
center line and not with the runway edge lights,
utilizing the ILS localizer index.

Airport Crew to check


Monitor RVR values.
Obtain ATC clearance to line up and take-off.
Check the number of visible center line lights is
consistent with the required RVR visual segment.

LVP

Crew Aircraft Airport

Ready for
Take off

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 7 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.1.5 Take off


Crew---To check
Captain (PF), F/O (PM)
F/O head down, Monitor FMA, Engine indications &
EICAS, Standard call-outs & call-out if any deviation.
Capt. head up. Be prepared for possible RTO &
appropriate action.

Aircraft--Crew to check
Capt. Lines up aircraft on runway axis by means of
external visual reference and verifies the runway
sample, rudder yaw bar and the localizer diamond
index is filled, and all are lined up with the runway
axis. F/O to verify.
Capt. maintains aircraft on runway center line axis
and carries out take-off procedures. Be prepared
for possible RTO and the appropriate action. In
case of visual reference loss, ensure that runway
sample, rudder yaw bar and localizer index are in
line.
Note: At take-off, the primary means of guidance is the
external visual references. The runway sample, rudder
yaw bar and the localizer index are back-up means in
case of external visual reference loss during take-off role.
F/O to monitor FMA, Engine indication, ILS
localizer index and carry out the Standard call
outs and highlight any deviations

Airport----Crew to check
Remember last 3,000ft remaining of the runway center
line lightings first 2,000ft alternating Red and white and
the last 1,000ft continuous Red.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 8 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

LVP

Crew Aircraft Airport

Successful
Take off

4.1.6 En-route
Monitor the trends in visibility at destination and
alternates or RVR values.

Check NOTAMs and Jeppesen route manual for


runways and type of the approach category
authorized.

Again consider the same three elements throughout


ALL Low Visibility Procedures

LVP

Crew Aircraft Airport

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 9 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.1.7 Well before top of Descent & before commencing Approach

Crew--- to check
Captain (PF), F/O (PM)
Captain to check Crew qualification (if not already
checked).
Obtain latest destination & alternate weather and RVR
values.
Captain to carry out Low Visibility briefing minimum
approach and go-around for the intended category of
approach, review crew coordination during CAT II/III
approach and CAT II/III standard call-out.
Non-normal procedures.
Down grading procedures.
Set CAT I minimum on baro and CAT II or CAT III on
Radio Altimeter.

Aircraft---Crew to check
Check Tech. Log Autoland Sheet (if not already
checked)
Check Tech. Log for any defect affecting the AFDS and
if any, refer to CAT II/III Minimum Equipment Approach
Authorization table and Down Grading table (part 5
pages 14 thru 16) of this manual as applicable.
Check Aircraft status, by pressing RECALL/CANCL, that
no EICAS message display of:
--- NO LAND 3 or a NO AUTOLAND
If a NO LAND 3 message is displayed then the
applicable minimum approach category is CAT
IIIA.
If a NO AUTOLAND message is displayed then the
applicable minimum approach category is CAT I
ONLY or Non-ILS approach.
Left and Right Autothrottle must be engaged for CAT
IIIB and recommended for CAT II and CAT IIIA.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 10 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Set autobrake to Level 2 or higher. Autobrake is


recommended for all approaches.*
*Ref DGCA Letter (15-345/ops/41 Dated 02/07/2015)

Airport--->Crew to check
Check the ATIS or ATC that Low Visibility
Procedures are in progress or in force.
Check ATIS RVR values.
Check approved runways and type of approach
category authorized minima from KU-71 AOM.
Check NOTAMS.
Check all lighting and markings system, and
effect on RVR values, if any, from Downgrading
table, part 5 pages 14, 15 & 16 of this manual.
RVR reading controlling till OM or FAF. After this
point, RVR readings are advisory only.
Advice ATC about your intention.
Request EAT (Expected Approach Time).
Observe diversion fuel and holding time.

4.2 Use of landing lights

At night in low visibility conditions, landing lights may


impair the visual reference required for the approach.
Reflected light from water droplets or snow can actually
reduce visibility.
Landing lights would therefore not be recommended for
CAT II or CAT III approach weather conditions.

July 2015 Part 4 - Page 11 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.3 Crew coordination during CAT II/III Approach

It is assumed that any time if there is no response from other crew


member during the approach, that crew incapacitation exists and
other crew member will take over the control of the aircraft continue
approach and declare emergency, and take the necessary action.

Phase Captain First Officer


All CAT II/III
operations Have his hand on the Head-down
flight control and the throughout
throttle throughout approach, go-
approach, landing and around or landing
Go-Around. until rollout is
Sets speed and ALT on completed.
MCP. Monitors FMA &
Takes manual control flight instruments.
in the event of Call-out any
autopilot deviation or
disengagement. advisory, caution,
Monitor flight path and warning alert
flight instruments. messages.
Standard Call-out
height as required,
and monitors
automatic call-out.
Approaching Starts to look for Call-out one
Decision visual reference hundred above.
Height progressively
(DH+100) increasing external
scanning as DH is
approached.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 12 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Crew coordination during CAT II/III approach (continue)

Phase Captain First Officer


At or before DH
(if decision is Calls Landing At DH, if decision not
to continue) Scans mostly head-up to yet announced by
monitors the path and Captain, calls
flare (CAT II/IIIA) or the Minimum.
track (CAT IIIB) by visual If no response from
reference, (the DH is the Captain, takes over the
latest point by which a control of the aircraft
decision to continue and continues approach
should be made). to land.

At or below DH
(if decision is Simultaneously triggers Calls TOGA GREEN.
to TOGA switch and calls Selects go-around flaps
Go-around) Go-Around flap. and calls positive climb.
Monitors throttle Monitors throttle
advance. With manual movements and engine
thrust, advances thrust instruments, sets
lever to GA thrust, and thrust as necessary,
initiates GA attitude. monitors rotation on
Monitors rotation by PFD.
PFD, cross-checks Checks positive climb
standby attitude. (VSI and Radio
Checks positive climb Altimeter).
(VSI and Radio Selects configuration
Altimeter). changes.
Commands Monitors flight path
configuration changes.
Monitors flight path.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 13 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.4 Standard Call out

CAT II
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) & F/O (PM)
Callout or Response
Condition By
Action by
Localizer
Approach Mode
and PM PF Checked
engaged
Glide Slope Arm
On first movement
Localizer Alive
of Localizer or Glide PM PF Checked
Glide Slope Alive
Slope
FMA capture e.g.

LOC Localizer Green


Or PM PF Checked
Glide Slope Green
G/S

At 1500 ft
After AFDS goes LAND 3 or LAND 2 PF Minimum
PM
through a pre- Rollout/Flare Arm Checked
autoland test
Altimeter feet PF Checked
OM or FAF check. PM
Start Stop Watch Start Stop Watch
Radio Altimeter
One thousand feet PM PF Checked
1000 ft
Auto
matic PF Speed check
500 ft RA Five hundred Monit
PM Speed check
ored
by PM
DH + 100ft RA One hundred above PM PF Checked

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 14 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Standard Call out (Continue )

CAT II
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) & F/O (PM)
Condition Callout or By Response by
Action
Automatic PF If visual contact
Decision height
Minimum Monitored Landing or
(DH)
by PM Go around flap
Between 60 to 40 ft
RA and
Flare green PM PF Checked
FLARE
At 25 ft RA and
Idle green PM PF Checked
IDLE
At 2 ft RA and
Rollout green PM PF Checked
ROLLOUT
Speed brake
speed brakes up PM PF Checked
deployment
PM
Reverse Reverse PF
Reverses Normal
60 knots Sixty Knots PM PF Checked
PF
Cancel Reverse 60 kts PM
Canceling Reverse
Before clearing PM PF
A/P Disengaged
runway Head-up A/P Disengaged
Automatic PF
DH. No visual ref. Minimum Monitored GO-AROUND
established by PM

TO/GA GREEN PM PUSH TO/GA SW


Selecting GA flaps GO-AROUND FLAP
G/A FLAPS PM
Positive climb PM
RA increasing POSITIVE
PM GEAR UP
Selecting gear up CLIMB
GEAR UP

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 15 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Standard Call out (Continue )


CAT IIIA
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) & F/O (PM)
Callout or
Condition By Response by
Action
Localizer
Approach Mode
and PM PF Checked
engaged
Glide Slope Arm
On first
Localizer Alive
movement of
PM PF Checked
Localizer or Glide
Glide Slope Alive
Slope
FMA capture e.g.
LOC Localizer Green
Glide Slope PM PF Checked
or
Green
G/S
At 1500 ft
LAND 3 or LAND 2
After AFDS goes PF
Rollout/Flare PM
through a pre- Minimum Checked
Arm
autolanad test
Altimeter feet
PF Checked
OM or FAF Check PM
Start Stop Watch
Start Stop Watch
Radio Altimeter One thousand
PM PF Checked
1000 ft feet
Automatic
PF Speed Check
500 ft RA Five hundred Monitored
PM Speed Check
by PM
Alert Height
Alert Height PM PF Checked
200ft RA
DH + 100ft RA Hundred above PM PF Checked

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 16 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Standard Call out (Continue )


CAT IIIA
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) &F/O (PM)
Callout or
Condition By Response By
Action
Between 60 to 40 ft
RA and
Flare green PM PF Checked
FLARE

At 25 ft RA
and
Idle green PM PF Checked
IDLE
PF
Decision Height) If visual contact
Minimum Automatic
(DH) Landing or
Go around flap
At 2 ft RA
And
Rollout green PM PF Checked
ROLLOUT

Speed brake
Speed brakes up PM PF Checked
deployment
Reverse Reverse PM PM Reverse Norml
60 knots Sixty Knots PM PF Checked
Cancel Reverse PF
60 kts PM
Canceling Reverse
Before clearing PM PF
A/P Disengaged
runway Head-up A/P Disengaged

Automatic
DH. No visual ref. Minimum GO-AROUND
established Monitored
by PM
Selecting GA flaps TO/GA GREEN PM PUSH TO /GA SW
Positive climb G/A FLAPS PM GO-AROUND FLAP
RA increasing POSITIVE CLIMB PM GEAR UP
Selecting gear up GEAR UP PM

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 17 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Standard Call (Continue.)


CAT IIIB with DH
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) &F/O (PM)

Callout or
Condition By Response By
Action
Approach Mode localizer and Glide
PM PF Checked
Engage Slope Arm

On first movement
Localizer Alive
of Localizer or PM PF Checked
Glide Slope Alive
Glide Slope

FMA capture
Flare green
LOC
PM PF Checked
Or
Glide Slope Green
G/S

At 1500 ft
LAND 3 or LAND2
After AFDS goes
PF Minimum
through a pre- PM
Rollout/Flare Checked
autoland test
Arm

PF
If visual contact
OM or FAF Altimeter Automatic
Landing or
Go around flap
Radio Altimeter One thousand
PM PF Checked
1000 ft feet
Automatic
500 ft RA Five Hundred Monitored PF Checked
by PM
Alert Height 200ft
Alert Height PM PF Checked
RA
DH + 100ft RA Hundred above PM PF Checked

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 18 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Standard Call (Continue.)


CAT IIIB with DH
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) &F/O (PM)

Callout or
Condition By Response By
Action
Between 60 to 40 ft
RA and
Flare green PM PF Checked
FLARE

At 25 ft RA
and
Idle green PM PF Checked
IDLE
PF
Decision Height) If visual contact
Minimum Automatic
(DH) Landing or
Go around flap
At 2 ft RA
And
Rollout green PM PF Checked
ROLLOUT

Speed brake
Speed brakes up PM PF Checked
deployment
Reverse Reverse PM PM Reverse Norml
60 knots Sixty Knots PM PF Checked
Cancel Reverse PF
60 kts PM
Canceling Reverse
Before clearing PM PF
A/P Disengaged
runway Head-up A/P Disengaged

Automatic
DH. No visual ref. Minimum GO-AROUND
established Monitored
by PM
Selecting GA flaps TO/GA GREEN PM PUSH TO /GA SW
Positive climb G/A FLAPS PM GO-AROUND FLAP
RA increasing POSITIVE CLIMB PM GEAR UP
Selecting gear up GEAR UP PM

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 19 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Standard Call (Continue.)


CAT IIIB with DH
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) &F/O (PM)

Callout or
Condition By Response By
Action
Approach Mode localizer and Glide
PM PF Checked
Engage Slope Arm

On first movement
Localizer Alive
of Localizer or PM PF Checked
Glide Slope Alive
Glide Slope

FMA capture
Flare green
LOC
PM PF Checked
Or
Glide Slope Green
G/S

At 1500 ft
LAND 3 or LAND2
Afte AFDS goes
PF Minimum
through a pre- PM
Rollout/Flare Checked
autoland test
Arm

PF
OM or FAF Altimeter PM Checked
Start stop watch

Radio Altimeter One thousand


PM PF Checked
1000 ft feet
Automatic
PF Speed Checked
500 ft RA Five Hundred Monitored
PM Speed Checked
by PM

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 20 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Standard Call (Continue.)


CAT IIIB with DH
FINAL APPROACH
Captain (PF) &F/O (PM)

Callout or
Condition By Response By
Action
Alert Height 200ft PF
Alert Height PM
RA Landing or GA

Between 60 to 40 ft
RA and
Flare green PM PF Checked
FLARE

At 25 ft RA
and
Idle green PM PF Checked
IDLE

At 2 ft RA
And
Rollout green PM PF Checked
ROLLOUT

Speed brake
Speed brakes up PM PF Checked
deployment
Reverse Reverse PF PM Reverse Norml
60 knots Sixty Knots PM PF Checked
Cancel Reverse PF
60 kts PM
Canceling Reverse
Before clearing PM PF
A/P Disengaged
runway Head-up A/P Disengaged

DH. No visual ref. Automatic


Minimum GO-AROUND
established Monitored
by PM
Selecting GA flaps TO/GA GREEN PM PUSH TO /GA SW
Positive climb G/A FLAPS PM GO-AROUND FLAP
RA increasing POSITIVE CLIMB PM GEAR UP
Selecting gear up GEAR UP PM

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 21 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.5 Flight parameters deviation calls

Parameter Deviation exceedance Call Out


IAS +10 to or -5 Kts SPEED
Rate of decent 1000 ft/min SINK RATE
Pitch attitude 10 deg nose up or 0 deg PITCH
Bank angle 7 BANK
Localizer EXCESS 0.3 DOT LOCALISER
Glideslope DEVIATION GLIDESLOPE
1 DOT
WARNING

In all types of approaches and not limited to LVP approaches, these


call would normally be made by the (PM) and acknowledge by the
(PF) however, any crew member who observe a deviation outside the
above limits should make the appropriate call out.

If any of these limits are exceeded approaching DH, a go-around


MUST BE considered.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 22 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.6 CAT II/III Briefing

1. DESTINATION & ALTERNATE WX & NOTAMS


Check Destination and Alternate Weather
Destination and Suitable Alternate weather should
not be lower than authorized minimum weather.

2. CREW QUALIFICATION
Both Captain and First officer should qualify for Low
visibility procedures and both licenses should be valid.

3. AIRCRAFT SYSTEM STATUS


Aircraft status:
Check on status page that no message is
displayed of NO LAND 3 or NO AUTOLAND

If a NO LAND 3 message is displayed then the


applicable minimum approach category is
CAT IIIA.
If a NO AUTOLAND message is displayed then
the applicable minimum approach category is
CAT I only.
Refer to Approach Authorization table for other
status messages.
Autothrottle
Must be engaged for CAT IIIB with DH or
with no DH.
Recommended for CAT II and CAT IIIA.
Autobrake
Recommended for all approaches.*
*Ref DGCA Letter (15-345/ops/41 Dated 02/07/2015)

July 2015 Part 4 - Page 23 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4. MINIMA, APPROACH, GO-AROUND


Review Jeppesen chart for minima, approach and Go-
around

5. ALS, RWY & TAXI LIGHTS


Review Jeppesen Chart for ALS runway and Taxi lights. For
typical approach lights symbol in recognizable form, refer to
Part 2, page 33 to 38 of this manual.

6. TAXI-WAY EXITS, STOP-BAR AND GATE LOCATION.


Review the taxi and apron chart for taxi-way exits, stop
bar & gate location.

7. CREW CO-ORDINATION ON FINAL APPROACH


Review Standard call-out, and Crew coordination during
CAT II/III approach procedures. Refer to pages 12 thru 21
of this part.

8. NON-NORMAL PROCEDURES
Review Non-normal procedures in Part 5 of this manual

9. DOWN-GRADING PROCEDURES * See note on following


page

RVR readings.
At or before approach ban (outer marker or FAF
RVR controlling)
After approach ban (outer marker or FAF RVR
readings are advisory only)
AFDS Status

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 24 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

LAND 3 CAT IIIB


LAND 2 CAT IIIA or CAT II
NO AUTOLAND CAT I

*For full description of failed or downgrade equipment, refer


to Down Grading Table Part 5 non-Normal Procedures, page
14 thru 17 of this manual.

10. CAT I/II/III MINIMUM


Set the bug to the following:
In all CAT II/III approaches, set the baro bug to CAT
I minima
CAT II set Radio altimeter bug to CAT II minima.
CAT II A set Radio altimeter bug to CAT IIIA minim.
CAT IIIB with DH set Radio altimeter bug to CAT IIIB
applicable minima.
CAT IIIB with no DH, set Radio Altimeter bug to CAT
IIIA applicable minima and blank the display.

11. ATC
Inform ATC of your Authorized category approach in order
to get an earlier Expected Approach Time (EAT). Observe
diversion fuel and holding time.

12. APU START


Although APU can be started any time, but for fuel
conservation start APU at 10,000 ft above ground level.

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 25 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

13. COCKPIT LIGHTS


Dim as much instrument light inside the cockpit in order
to obtain better outside visual reference without having
difficulty in reading the instruments.

14. SEAT/SHOULDER HARNESS


The correct seat adjustment is essential in order to take
full advantage of visibility over the nose. (see below)

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 26 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.7 SUMMARY OF B777 LVP DEPARTURE/ARRIVAL BRIEFING

AT DISPATCH

TAKE-OFF RVR LESS THAN 400M OR LVP IN FORCE AT DEPARTURE OR DESTINATION


1. CHECK CREW QUALIFICATIONS.
2. CHECK TAKE-OFF RVR MIN.
3. CHECK ALL RVR READINGS AVAILABLE AT OR ABOVE MIN.(lowest take-off minimum RVR 125m).
4. LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS IN PROGRESS.
5. TAKEOFF ALTERNATE (as per USA / Non USA Airport, ETOPS/Non ETOPS distance requirements
AT OR ABOVE LANDING MIN, ONE HOUR BEFORE AND ONE HOUR AFTER ETA.
6. CHECK DEST, EN-ROUTE & ALT WX AT OR ABOVE MIN, 1 HR BEFORE AND ONE HOUR FTER ETA
7. CHECK NOTAMS.
8. CHECK AIRFIELD SERVICEABLE FOR INTENDED LVP.
9. CHECK A/C SERVICEABLE FOR INTENDED LVP (Tech. Log & Status Page) AND AUTOLAND
CERTIFICATIONS.
10. UP LIFT EXTRA HOLDING FUEL
11. TAKE-OFF BY CAPTAIN.
12. FULL THRUST
13. STUDY TAXI ROUTE CAREFULLY
14. SELECT ILS OF THE DEPARTURE RW
15. COMPLETE BEFORE TAKE-OFF CHECKLIST BEFORE TAXING
16. OBTAIN CABIN READY CLEARANCE (TIME PERMITTING) BEFORE TAXYING.
17. STROBE LIGHT ON.
18. RALLY NAVIGATION STYLE TAXING.
19. MAX. TAXI SPEED 10 KTS.
20. REVIEW DEP FIELD APP. PROCEFURE, IF RETURN IS POSSIBLE.
21. VERIFY A/C ON RUNWAY CENTERLINE (LOC CENTERED)
22. F/O HAE DOWN ALL THE WAY TO LIFT OFF.

ARRIVAL BEFORE TOD RVR LESS THAN CAT I MINIMUM

1. DESTINATION AND ALT. WX. CHECK


2. CHECK CREW QUALIFICATIONS.
3. CHECK NOTAMS
4. CHECK A/C (Tech. Log & Status Page) AND AUTOLAND CERTIFICATIONS
5. CHECK RW IN PAGE KU-71 OF THE SCHEDULE ROUTE MANUAL
6. ALTERNATE ON FMC, CHECK RTE 2 FOR ALT.
7. NORMAL APP. VREFING.
8. REVIEW RUNWAY LIGHTS & APPROACH LIGHTS Refer to part 2 pages 33 to 39 of this manual
9. REVIEW EXIST TAXI WAY, CRITICAL AND SENSITIVE AREAS.
10. CREW CD COORDINATION ON FIANL APPROACH Refer to part 4 pages 12 & 13 of this manual.
11. REVIEW NON NORMAL PROCEDURES Refer to part 5 pages 8 to 13 of this manual.
12. REVIEW DOWN GRADING POSSIBILITY if higher RVR exist refer to part 5 pages 14 to 16
13. ADVICE ATC.
14. DIVERSION FUEL AND HOLDING TIME
15. REQUEST ESTIMATED APP. TIME
16. REVIEW MINIMUM EQUIPMENT APPROACH AUTHORIZATION TABLE Refer to part 3 page 31
17. REVIEW STANDARD CALLOUTS Refer to part 4 pages 14 to 21
18. REVIEW FLIGHT PARAMETER DEVIATINO CALL TABLE Refer to part 4 page 22 of this manual
19. COMPLETE CAT II/III BRIEFING CHECKLIST ON NEXT PAGE

AT 10, 000 FEET

APU ON
AUTO BRAKES 2 AND HIGHER
SEAT POSITION ADJUST
LANDING LIGHTS OFF/AS REQUESTED

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 27 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.8 CAT II / III Briefing Checklist

CAT II/III BRIEFING CHECK-LIST


01 DESTINATION & ALTERNATE WX & NOTAMS CHECKED
02 CREW QUALIFICATION CHECKED
03 AIRCRAFT SYSTEM STATUS CHECKED
04 MINIMA, APPROACH, GO-AROUND REVIEWED
05 ALS, RWY & TAXI LIGHTS REVIEWED
06 TAXI-WAY EXITS, STOP-BAR LOCATION REVIEWED
07 CREW CO-ORDINATION ON FINAL APPROACH REVIEWED
08 STANDARD CALL-OUTS ON FINAL APPROACH REVIEWED
09 NON-NORMA L PROCEDURES REVIEWED
10 DOWN-GRADING PROCEDURES REVIEWED
11 CAT I/II/III MINIMUM SET
12 ATC INFORM
13 APU FL 100 START
14 COCKPIT LIGHTS DIMMED
15 SEAT/ SHOULDER HARNESS ADJUST

LVP

Crew Aircraf Airpor


t t

Successful
Briefing

May 2004 Part 4 - Page 28 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.9 Take-off Minima Table


Non USA Airports
Visual Aids &
Authorized Take-
RVR Reports Required
off Minima
Available
(RVR/VIS)
Required Governing Status
RL, RCLM,
> 500m NIL - NIL
REIL (Night)
200m 250m TWO TDZ & MID or Roll-Out RL & CL
150m - 200m THREE TDZ- Mid - Roll-Out RL & CL
125m 150m THREE TDZ - Mid - Roll-Out RL & CL
VIS RVR 75m NOT AUTHORIZED
USA Airports
RVR Reports Visual Aids &
Authorized Take-off
Minima
Required
Required Governing Status
Available
VIS/RV>500m ONE TDZ if Available. RL Required R
RVR 1600 (500m) TWO TDZ and MID- controlling if Available HIRL, or CL, or
RCLM or adequate
Visual Reference
TDZ RVR 1200 (350m) MID- TWO TDZ & Roll-Out Controlling. Day: RCLM or
RVR 1200(350M) if installed (Mid, can substitute TDZ or Roll-Out) HIRL or CL
Roll-Out - RVR 1000ft (300m) Night: HIRL or CL
TDZ RVR 500ft (150m) TWO TDZ, Roll-Out Controlling.
MID RVR 500ft (150m) THREE TDZ Mid, Roll-Out
CL & HIRL
Roll-Out RVR 500 ft (150m) All controlling (if one U/S, remaining
controlling
RVR 400ft (125m) NOT AUTHORIZED
RRV 200ft (75m) NOT AUTHORIZED

USA Conversion Table


Feet 500 600 700 1000 1200 1300 1600 1800 2000
Meters 150 175 200 300 350 400 500 550 600
Statute

Feet 2600 3200 3600 5300 6000 7900 10600 16000


Meters 800 1000 1200 1600 1800 2400 3200 4800
Statute 1 1 2 3

RVR Reported VIS


lighting
Day Night
HIAL & RL 1.5 2.0
Other lighting 1.0 1.5
No lighting 1.0 ---

July 2015 Part 4 - Page 29 of 30


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

4.10 Landing Minima Table


NON-USA AIRPORTS
Visual Aids &
Operating RVR Reports
Available
Reqd
Approach RWY lighting &
Minima & Governing Status
Category marking
Avail
DH 200 ft RL (Night) THR,
VIS: 550 M NIL NIL REIL, ALS, as
I available
DH: 200 ft RL, THR, REIL, ALS
ONE TDZ Controlling
RVR: 550 Min > 720m TDZ, CL.
DH: 100 RL, THR,REIL, ALS
TDZ Controlling
II RVR: 300 M TWO Min > 210m
Mid or Roll-Out Advisory
TDZ, CL
DH: 50 ft TDZ Controlling
RL, THR, REIL,
RVR: 200 M Mid Controlling
IIIA TWO ALS Min > 210m
Roll-Out Not Controlling
TDZ, CL
Not reqrd
DH: <50 ft or No
TDZ Controlling, RL, THR,REIL, ALS
DH
IIIB THREE MID Controlling, Min > 210m
RVR:
Roll-Out Controlling TDZ, CL
125m/100m/75m
TDZ can be assessed by Human Observation

USA Airports
Visual Aids
Operating Minima RVR Report Required &
Available
Approach Reqd RWY lighting &
Minima Governing Status
Category & Avail marking
TDZ if available RL
VIS: 1500M ONE
TDZ if available Simple ALS
VIS: 1200M ONE
I TDZ if available Simple ALS or ALSFI
VIS: 720M ONE
TDZ Controlling Simple ALS or ALSFI
RVR: 550M TWO
Mid or Roll Out - Advisory TDZ, CL
TDZ-Controlling
DH 100 ft Roll-Out Advisory (Mid- ALSF-I or II HIRL,
II TWO
RVR 300m Advisory if available and can TDZ, CL
substitute Roll-Out)
TDZ,MID & Rollout TDZ &
DH 50ft ALSF-1 or ALSF-2
IIIA THREE MID-Controlling Rollout
RVR 700/200m HIRL, TDZ, CL
Advisory
TDZ RVR 175m
(R6 or 600) RL, THR, REIL, ALS
TDZ & MID Controlling
MID RVR 175m THREE MIN > 210M
Rollout - Advisory
IIIB Rollout RVR THR, CL
operative
RVR: 125M NOT AUTHORIZED
RVR: 75M NOT AUTHORIZED

July 2015 Part 4 - Page 30 of 30


Part 5

Non-Normal
procedures
Part 5

Non-Normal
procedures
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Part 5
Index

Item number Contents Page Number

5.0 Introduction 1

5.1 Action for Non-Normal events 1

5.2 AFDS Non-Normal Operations 1


Pilot Response to approach,
5.3 8
landing, and Go-Around Alerts
5.4 RVR Deterioration 11

5.5 Ground Equipment Failure 12

5.6 Crew Incapacitation 12

5.7 Engine Failure 13

5.8 ILS deviation 13

5.9 Down Graded Table 14


EICAS Advisory / Cautionary or
5.10 17
Status Message

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

5.0 Introduction
This part deals with the significant Non-Normal events that could occur
during an automatic approach and autoland, and their impact on
aeroplane performance and crew procedures.

5.1 Action for Non-Normal events


In general, there are three possible responses to the failure of any
system, instrument or element during the approach:
CONTINUE the approach to the planned minima.
REVERT to higher minima and proceed to a new DH.
GO-AROUND and reassess the capability.

The nature of the failure and the point of its occurrence will determine
which response is appropriate.

5.2 AFDS Non-Normal Operations


Faults leading to non-normal operations are divided into three
categories:
Those occurring above 1000 ft AGL.
Those occurring between 1000 ft AGL and AH.
Those occurring below AH.

Within these categories many non-normal situations or scenarios are


possible. The flight deck is designed so that a quick analysis and
decision can be made for virtually all non-normal or fault situations
using EICAS and autoland Status.

If the flight crew are aware of the airplane and ground equipment
requirements for the approach (as mentioned in CAT II/III Minimum
Equipment Approach Authorization Table - Part 3 page 31, the Pilots
Response to Approach, Landing & Go-Around Table - page 8 to 13 of
this part and the Downgrading Table - page 14 to 17 of this part), the
following can be used for any non-normal indication.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Above 1000ft AGL


Attempt to restore the failed system or function.
Determine the auto land status and the equipment required
NO LAND 3 means down to CAT IIIA.
NO AUTOLAND means CAT I only.
If affected aircraft and/or ground equipment is required, refer
to Down Grading table at the end of this part. (See note
below).
Revert to the minima appropriate for the remaining autoland status
and/or affected aircraft/ground equipment.
If actual RVR is satisfied, continue approach.
If actual RVR is not satisfied, Go-Around.
Autopilot (Warning)
Attempt to Re-engage A/P, if not possible:-
Execute Manual Go-Around.
Autopilot (Caution)
Attempt to restore degraded roll/pitch mode, or
Check envelope protection, if unable to restore;
Execute Go-Around.
Autothrottle Disc (Caution)
Attempt to re-engage A/T, if not possible:-
Continue approach with manual throttle control.
If CAT IIIB, Execute Go-Around.
Autobrake
Attempt to re-engage
Continue approach with manual brake*
*Ref DGCA Letter (15-345/ops/41 Dated 02/07/2015)

Note: It is not expected that the Commander consult the


Downgrading Table after passing the OM or its equivalent position
(from where the approach may need to be abandoned). If a failure of
ground equipment, other than the primary approach aid in use, occurs
at such a late stage, the approach maybe continued at the

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Commanders discretion. If the failure is known before this stage, the


effect on the approach must be considered by using the Downgrading
table (page 14 to 17 of this part), and minimums must be increased
and/or relevant procedures used.
Engine FAIL L, R (Caution) - (see Note 1 below)

Engine Thrust L, R (Caution)


Accomplish EICAS non-normal checklist
Continue approach to CAT IIIA minimum with TAC-ON or
TAC-OFF

If non-normal checklist is not completed by


1000ft AGL. - (see Note 2 below)
Execute Go-Around

Speed Brake extended (Caution)


Retract speed brakes.
No LAND 3 or LAND 2
Continue approach,
If CAT IIIB, Execute Go-Around.
No Autoland
Revert to CAT I if appropriate, if not
Execute Go-Around

Note 1:
Although engine failure does not affect the LAND 3 or LAND 2
Autoland status display, but it is a KAC policy in low weather
operation with one engine failed is to down grade the
approach to CAT IIIA minimum with TAC-ON orTAC-OFF.
(Ref: DGCA 09-204/OPS/41 dated 05-04-2009)

Note 2:
If the non-normal checklist has not been accomplished by
1000ft AGL boundary, a Go-Around must be executed.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Between 1000ft AGL and AH (Alert Height)

Check Autoland Status


If NO change and/or affected aircraft/ground equipment is not
required:
Continue the approach.
If changed and/or affected aircraft/ground equipment is
required:
Revert to the minima appropriate for the remaining
autoland status.
If actual RVR satisfied continue approach.
If actual RVR not satisfied, Go-Around.

Autopilot disconnect (Warning)


Execute manual Go-Around

Autopilot (Caution)
Attempt to Re-engage A/P;
If not possible; Execute Go-Around

Autothrottle (Caution)
Attempt to re-engage A/T:- if not possible;
Continue with manual throttle control.
If CAT IIIB, Execute Go-Around.

Autobrake
Continue with manual brake.*
*Ref DGCA Letter (15-345/ops/41 Dated 02/07/2015)

Speed brake extended (Caution)


Retract speed brakes.

Engine fail L, R (Caution) - (see Note 1 below)


Engine thrust L, R (Caution)
Continue approach to CAT IIIA, with TAC-ON or TAC-OFF.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

LAND 2 / NO LAND 3
Continue approach,
if CAT IIIB; Execute Go-Around

No Autoland
Revert to CAT I minima,
if not appropriate; Execute Go-Around.

ILS Deviation Alert


If Loc or G/S scales on PFD changing colour to amber and
flashing of the pointer, and a suitable visual reference is not
established;
Execute Go-Around

Note 1:
Below 1000ft AGL For ALL FIRES (Master Warning) All
associated checklist actions to be ignored. Continue with
checklist items as soon as possible after landing at
appropriate time.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Below AH (Alert Height)

Continue approach if suitable visual reference established and aircraft


is in a stable position to execute a safe landing.
Go-Around if no suitable reference established.

Autopilot disconnect (Warning).


Execute manual go-around.
If suitable visual reference is established, execute manual
landing.

Autopilot (Caution)
Execute Go-Around
If suitable visual reference is established, land.

Autothrottle disconnect (Caution)


Execute Go-Around.
If suitable visual reference is established, execute manual
landing (see Note 1 on page 10 of this part).

Engine fail L, R (Caution)


-OR
Engine thrust L, R (Caution)
Continue approach on all category approaches

Speed brake extended (Caution)


Execute Go-Around
If suitable visual reference is established, land.

ILS deviation alert


Execute an Immediate Go-Around

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

During Roll-out
Autopilot disc (Warning)
Execute manual roll-out

Autopilot (Caution)
Disengage autopilot and execute a manual roll-out.

Engine Fail L, R (Caution)

Engine Thrust L, R (Caution)


Continue roll-out.

Autobrake
Execute manual brake

During Go-Around
Autopilot disc (Warning)
Execute manual Go-Around.

Autopilot (Caution)
Disengage autopilot and execute a manual Go-Around.
Autothrottle disconnect (Caution)
Continue with manual throttle control

Autobrake
Continue Go-Around

Engine Fail L, R (Caution)


- OR -
Engine Thrust L, R (Caution)
Continue Go-Around

Speed brake extended (Caution)


Retract speed brakes, continue Go-Around

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

5.3 Pilot Response to Approach, Landing, Roll-out and Go-


Around Alerts
Master Warning/Caution Lights with EICAS Messages (see note below)
Between During
Above Below AH During
Alert 1000 ft and Go-
1000 ft AGL 200 ft RA Rollout
AH Around
AUTOPILO Re-engage Execute *Execute Execute Execute
TDISC A/P, if not manual manual manual manual
(Warming) possible Go-Around Go-Around. roll-out Go-
execute Around
manual
Go-Around
AUTOPILOT Restore Execute *Execute Disenga Disengage
(Caution) Degraded Go-Around Go-Around ge auto- autopilot
Pitch / Roll pilot & & execute
mode or execute manual
check manual Go-
envelope rollout Around
protection, if
unable to
restore -
Go-Around
AUTO- Attempt to Continue *Execute N/A Continue
THROTTLE re-engage, with manual with
DISC cont. appch manual Go-Around. manual
(Caution) with manual throttle If visual throttle
throttle control (if reference control
control (If CAT IIIB established
CAT IIIB Go-Around) Execute
Go-Around) manual
landing.
AUTO- Attempt to Cont. with N/A Execute Continue
BRAKES re-engage. manual manual with
Cont. brake brake manual
appch,* brakes.
*Ref DGCA Letter (15-345/ops/41 Dated 02/07/2015)

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Pilot Response to Approach, Landing, Roll-out and Go-Around Alerts


(contd)
Between
Above Below AH During During Go-
Alert 1000 ft and
1000 ft AGL 200 ft RA Rollout Around
AH
ENGINE Accomplish CAT IIIA **Continue Continue Continue
FAIL L/R EICAS non- approach approach. roll-out Go-Around
ENGINE normal can be
THRUST check-list conducted
L/R cont. appch on one
(Caution) to CAT IIIA engine with
TAC-ON or autopilot
TAC-OFF* engaged
if RVR okay. and LAND 3
If RVR not or LAND 2
okay by OM annunciated
or FAF, regardless
Go-Around. If TAC ON or
Checklist not TAC OFF.
completed by *
1000ft AGL,
Go-Around
SPPED- Retract Retract *Execute N/A Retract
BRAKES Speed Speed Go-Around Speed
EXTENDED Brakes Brakes Brakes
(Caution)
LAND 2/ Continue Continue N/A N/A N/A
NO LAND 3 approach. approach. (message
If CAT IIIB If CAT IIIB inhibited)
Go-Around Go-Around
NO Revert to Execute *Execute N/A N/A
AUTOLAND CAT I min. Go-Around Go-Around
if
appropriate
, if not
Go-Around
*(Ref: DGCA 09-204/OPS/41 dated 05-04-2009)

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

Pilot Response to Approach, Landing, Roll-out and Go-Around Alerts (contd)

Flashing G/S or LOC indicators

Above During
Between 1000 Below AH During
Alert 1000ft Go-
ft and AH 200 ft RA Rollout
AGL Around
ILS
Execute *Execute
Deviation N/A N/A N/A
Go-Around Go-Around
Alert

* No manual approach or landing below CAT I minimum except


below CAT II DH or during flare or rollout after touch down on
CAT II, CAT IIIA and CAT IIIB with DH only after the required
visual reference is established.
Note: No manual approach and landing is authorized on CAT IIIB
with no DH.

** Master Warning / Caution light and aural beeper are inhibited


during approach below 200 ft AGL except
Autopilot
No autoland
Speed brake extended
Autothrottle disc

Note: 1. A Master Warning / Caution light and aural beeper below


AFDS alert height (200 ft Radio Altimeter), while in IMC
conditions, require a manual go-around, except below
CATII DH or during flare or rollout after touch down on
CATII, CAT IIIA and CAT IIIB with DH when autopilot is
disengaged and after the required visual reference is
established.
2. When above 1000ft, all EICAS messages are dealt with
according to ECL or paper checklist procedures.
3. When below 1000ft, all EICAS messages are dealt with
after landing at the appropriate time.
4. If the non-normal checklist has not been accomplished by
1000ft AGL boundary, go-around must be executed.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

5 Below 1000ft AGL For ALL FIRE WARNINGS (Master


Warning). All associated checklist actions to be
ignored. Continue with checklist items as soon as
possible after landing at appropriate time.

5.4 RVR deterioration

The controlling RVRs are the one received at or before the OM or


FAF. RVR readings received after OM or FAF are advisory only.
Deterioration in the RVRs after the OM or FAF do not mean an
immediate Go-Around, the approach may be continued to DH.
Descent below DH is solely dependent on obtaining the required
visual reference appropriate to the type of approach.

5.5 Ground equipment failure

If an ILS ground station failure occurs after LAND 3 and while still
above 200ft RA, the affected mode (Localiser or Glideslope) will
operate in inertial mode. After a persistence of approximately ten
seconds, an AUTOPILOT CAUTION will be displayed on the EICAS
display followed by an aural tone. In addition, the PFD will display a
mode fail for that mode (ROLL MODE FAIL for LOC or PITCH MODE
FAIL for Glideslope). If the F/Ds are on, the affected pitch or roll bar
will be removed. If the failure occurs below 200ft RA, the required
persistence is approximately four seconds before the same flight
deck annunciations as above occur. There is no effect on autoland
status annunciation and a PFD flag will not occur. However, the ILS
deviation indications on the PFD will blank. When an AUTOPILOT
CAUTION occurs, the pilot needs to assess the situation and respond
accordingly.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

5.6 Crew Incapacitation

If crew incapacitation takes place during CAT II/III approach, it is KAC


policy to continue the approach for landing.
Fly the airplane.
Declare emergency.
Take care of incapacitated crew.

Note: Incapacitation should be considered if a crew member:


does not respond appropriately to two verbal communications
or,
does not respond to any verbal communications associated with
a significant deviation from a standard profile.

5.7 Engine Failure

Although engine failure doesnt affect the LAND 3 or LAND 2


autoland display, CAT IIIA approach can be conducted on one
engine with autopilot engaged and LAND3 or LAND 2
annunciated to the above minima regardless of TAC ON or
OFF. (Ref: DGCA 09-204/OPS/41 dated 05-04-2009)

Engine Fail with TAC-OFF


If the engine fails above 1500ft RA, the pilot must provide rudder
inputs to contract the asymmetric condition. Below 1500ft RA, the
autopilot will contain any deviation from the localizer to an acceptable
limit and maintain the approach path.
Go-Around one engine failure with TAC-OFF
Be prepared to immediately apply rudder input when selecting another
roll-mode, pitch mode, or when altitude is captured during Go-Around.

Below 200ft RA if engine fails, continue approach on all approach


categories.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

5.8 ILS deviation


Excess ILS deviation is indicated at low Radio Altitudes by the localiser
or Glideslope scales on the PFD changing color to amber, and flashing
of the pointer.
If this alert occurs above 200 ft Radio Altimeter without a suitable visual
reference being established, execute a GO-Around.
If this alert occurs below 200 ft Radio Altimeter, an immediate Go-
Around must be initiated.

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

5.10 No Autoland EICAS Advisory/Cautionary or Status Message


Table

Under the following conditions, no autoland EICAS


Advisory/Cautionary or Status message will be annunciated:

Sr. Item List Failed, degrade or


No. combination of failed items
01 AFDC 2 Fails
02 PFC 3 Fails
03 ADM 3 Fails
04 ADIRS Total failure
05 Back Drive Actuator CTL Both L & R
column, CTL wheel Rudder
paddle
06 2 are degraded, with stall
AOA
protection active and at
500ft
07 MCP BAR SW L & R fail to open
08 L AFDC With Right back drive fail
09 R AFDC With Left back drive fail
10 Both AFDC L & R fail
11 Rudder PCU 3 fail
12 Elevator PCU 4 fail
13 Display Single source
14 RA ALT Single source
15 ILS Single source

(Ref. KU System Schematic Manual page 22-11-07)

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Low Weather Operation
AWO Normal Procedures

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Part 6

Crew
Qualification
, Records &
Training
Part 6

Crew
Qualification
, Records &
Training
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

Part 6
Index
Item number Contents Page
Number
1
6.0 Introduction
6.1 Initial LVTO / CAT II/IIIA/IIIB 1
Qualifications Training
6.1.1 Initial Qualifications Training and 1
endorsement
6.1.2 Revalidation 2
6.1.3 CAT II/III Recency 3
6.1.4 P1/P2 Category 4
6.1.5 Line Check 4
6.1.6 Voyage Report / Autoland Report 4
Form / Aircraft Tech. Log
6.2 Instructor Note 5
6.2.1 Ground Training 5
6.2.2 Simulator Training 6
6.3 B777 Initial Simulator CAT II/III 9
Training Program

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Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

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Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

6.0 Introduction

The following is a training program designed to qualify


Flight Crew Members for LVTO and CAT II/IIIA/IIIB in Low
Visibility operation conditions by use of Zero Flight Time
Simulators.

6.1 Initial LVTO / CAT II/IIIA/IIIB Qualifications Training


Both Captain and First Officer are required to complete the initial
subject class ground course briefing and initial Simulator Training as
detailed in the Initial Training Program of the instructors briefing
notes. Thereafter, Captain and First Officer are required to complete
5 practiced approaches and autolands on aircraft using the detailed
Low Visibility Procedures as laid down in this manual to qualify for
CAT II/III approval. See Initial Qualification Training Report
Appendix A

6.1.1 Initial Qualifications Training and Endorsement

LVTO / CAT II / IIIA / IIIB Ground Course briefing will be endorsed


by the Authorized Examiner who conducts the briefing.

Similarly, LVTO / CAT II/IIIA/IIIB Simulator training will be endorsed


by the Authorized Examiner who conducts the training, as detailed in
para 6.2.2 (page 6 of this part) and in the table on page 9 of this
part.

CAT II/IIIA/IIIB practice autolands (minimum 5) on the aircraft, one


of which will be carried out during the Line Training, under
supervision of an Authorized Examiner, which can be recorded in the
Initial Qualification Training report. Subsequently, 4 autoland
practices to be conducted after cleared on line and to be recorded
accordingly.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

Note: Autoland practice should not be carried out:


By crew members not holding certificate of LVTO /
CAT II/IIIA/IIIB Authorization on type (other than for initial
qualification),
below WX conditions of Cloud Base 1500ft/Visibility 3000m

Upon completing the 5 autoland practices, the Low Visibility


Certificate will be authorized and endorsed by the Fleet Manger or
Fleet Training Coordinator.

In addition to the above training requirements, PIC must have at


least 100 PIC hours on type or previous similar type and in
possession of endorsed Low Visibility Operations Certificate before
he commences an actual LVTO, CAT II, CAT IIIA or CATIIB weather
condition.

6.1.2 Revalidation
Revalidation is required at a frequency consistent with that required
for routine Proficiency Checks and would normally be synchronized
within these period.

Captain and First Officer are required to complete a minimum of


three autolands between two consecutive Proficiency Checks which
are to be recorded in Actual or Practice Auto-App/Landing column.

An Authorized Examiner will revalidate and endorse the certificate


during Simulator Recurrent Training in the LVTO/CAT II/IIIA/IIIB
column. A minimum of three autoland should be practiced during
Simulator Recurrent Proficiency Check and should include at least
the following exercise:
Taxi in LVTO RVR 125m from gate to RWY,
LVTO due to engine failure (RVR 125m)
CAT IIIB with No DH approach and landing (RVR 75m)
CAT IIIB with No DH approach and Go-around (RVR 75m),
due to Autoland status change from Land 3 to Land 2 above
AH.

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Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

CAT IIIB with No DH (RVR 75m) approach and landing for


taxing to location gate (RVR 75m)

If for a justifiable reason, a minimum of 3 autoland approaches


(actual or practice) which is required between Proficiency Checks are
not met,
i. One out of three actual/practice approaches can be carried out
in the simulator between Proficiency Checks.
ii. In exceptional cases, if more than one approach cannot be
carried out in the aircraft, the Chief Pilot can authorize these
approaches to be carried out in the simulator between
proficiency checks. Such exceptional cases shall be notified to
the DGCA/ASD.

In view of the above, if there is deficiency in complying with the normal


requirement, the crew concerned shall inform the Chief Pilot before the
next Proficiency Check and ascertain the manner of fulfilling the normal
requirement, in the simulator, and have the same recorded in their Low
Visibility Operations (LVO) certificate.
Crew stationed abroad and carrying out Proficiency Check outside,
can obtain such authorization by telex.

iii. In case of a pilot CAT II/III authorization has expired due to


long absence on the type, his authority could be revalidated
during type revalidation simulator training.

All cases under (ii) & (iii) above shall be reported to DGCA/ASD by
the Chief Pilot as soon as possible.

6.1.3 CAT II/III Recency

The minimum requirement for LVTO/CAT II/III recency must include


one LVTO due to engine failure ( RVR 125M), one LVTO, one
missed approach and 3 autolands and roll-out.

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Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records &
Training

6.1.4 PI/P2 Category

Training Captains, by virtue of their qualifications & P1/P2 aircraft


rating Certificate of Test are authorized to occupy the Right Hand
seat during line training for autoland practice under the following
minimum weather condition:
Cloud Base 1500ft / Visibility 3000M

If weather conditions deteriorate below CAT I minimum, Training


Captain is to occupy the Left Hand seat and a qualified & valid First
Officer to occupy the Right Hand seat. However, during line checks,
Training Captain may occupy the Right Hand seat during low
weather operations provided the Left Hand seat Captain has 100
PIC hours on type.

6.1.5 Line Check

Authorized Examiners are encouraged to include auto approach /


landing operation during Line Checks.

6.1.6 Voyage Report/Autoland Report Form/Aircraft Tech. Log

Each autoland must be recorded in the Voyage Report and in the


aircraft Autoland Report form and also in the Aircraft Tech. Log. A
pad of autoland report forms would be included as part of aircraft
library a specimen appears in Appendix C. Each report consists
of 3 copies White, Pink and Yellow. On completion, the white
copy remains in the pad. The pink and yellow copies are to be
submitted to the fleet office together with the Voyage Report. The
pink copy will be forwarded to KAC Technical Development section.
Technical Development section will compile a monthly summary of
autoland reports, copies of which will be forwarded to DGCA.

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Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records &
Training

6.2 Instructor Note


6.2.1 Ground Training

Initial ground training course for Low Visibility Operations covers:


1) The contents of this manual;
2) The characteristics and limitations of the ILS;
3) The characteristics of the visual aids;
4) The operational capabilities and limitations of the particular
airborne system;
5) The effects of precipitation, ice accretion, low level wind
shear and turbulence;
6) The effect of specific aeroplane malfunctions;
7) The use and limitation of RVR assessment systems;
8) The principle of obstacle clearance requirement;
9) Recognition of and action to be taken in event of failure of
ground equipment;
10) The procedures and precaution to be followed with regard
to surface movement during operations when the RVR is
400 m or less and any additional procedures required for
take-off in conditions below 200m;
11) The significance of decision heights based upon radio
altimeters and the effect of terrain profile in the approach
area on radio altimeter readings and on the automatic
approach /landing systems;
12) The importance and significance of Alert Height if
applicable and the action in event of any failure above and
below the Alert Height;
13) The qualification requirements for pilots to obtain and
retain approval to conduct Low Visibility Take-offs and
Category II or III operations; and
14) The importance of correct seating and eye position.

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Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records &
Training

6.2.2 Simulator Training


(1) The Simulator training for Low Visibility Operations must
includes:

(i) Checks of satisfactory functioning of equipment, both on the


ground and in flight;
(ii) Effect on minima caused by changes in the status of ground
installations;
(iii) Monitoring of automatic flight control systems and autoland
status annunciators with emphasis on the action to be
taken in the event of failure of such systems;
(iv) Actions to be taken in the event of failure such a engines,
electrical systems, hydraulics or flight control systems;
(v) The effect of known unserviceable and use of minimum
equipment lists;
(vi) Operating limitations resulting from airworthiness
certification;
(vii)Guidance on the visual cues required at decision height
together with information on maximum deviation allowed
from glide path or localiser; and
(viii) The importance and significance of Alert Height if
applicable and the action in the event of any failure above
and below the Alert Height.

(2) Each flight crew member must be trained to carry out his duties
and instructed on the coordination required with other crew
members. Maximum use should be made of Simulator.

(3) Training must be divided into phases covering normal operation


with no aeroplane or equipment failures but including all
weather conditions which may be encountered and detailed
scenarios of aeroplane and equipment failure which could affect
LVTO and Category II or III operations.

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Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records &
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(4) Incapacitation procedures appropriate to Low Visibility Take-offs


and Category II and III operations shall be practiced.

(5) Initial Category II and III training shall include at least the
following:
(i) Approach using the appropriate flight guidance, autopilots
and control systems installed in the aeroplane, to the
appropriate decision height and to include transition to
visual flight and landing;
(ii) Approach with all engines operating using the appropriate
fight guidance systems, autopilots and control systems
installed in the aeroplane down to the appropriate
decision height followed by missed approach; all without
external visual reference;
(iii) Where appropriate, approaches utilising automatic flight
systems to provide automatic flare, landing and roll-out;
(iv) Normal operation of the applicable system both with and
without acquisition of cues at decision height.

Subsequent phases of training must include at least:

(i) approaches with engine failure at various stages on the


approach;
(ii) approaches with critical equipment failures ( e.g. electrical
systems, autoflight systems, ground and/or airborne ILS
systems and status monitors);
(iii) approaches where failures of autoflight equipment at low
level require either;
(A) revision to manual flight to control flare, landing and roll
out or missed approach;
- Or -
(B) revision to manual flight or a downgraded automatic mode to
control missed approaches from, at or below decision height
including those which may result in touchdown on the runway

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Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

(iv) Failures of the systems which will result in excessive


localiser and /or glidepath deviation, both above and
below decision height, in the minimum visual conditions
authorized for the operation;
(v) Failure and procedure specific to type or variant.
The training program must provide practise in handling faults
which require a revision to higher minima.

The training program must include the handling of the


aeroplane when, during a fail passive Category III approach,
the fault causes the autopilot to disconnect at or below
decision height when the last reported RVR is 300 m or less.

Where take-offs are conducted in RVRs of 400 m and below,


(i.e. RVR of 125m) training must be established to cover
systems failures and engine failure resulting in continued
(LVTO) as well as rejected take-offs (LVRTO).

Taxing in LVTO (RVR 125m) from gate to rwy.


RTO due engine failure (RVR 125m)
CAT IIIB with No DH approach and landing (RVR 75m)
CAT IIIB with No DH approach and Go-Around (RVR 75m)
due to autoland status change from Land 3 to Land 2 above
AH.
CAT IIIB with No DH (RVR 75m) approach and landing for
taxing to location gate (RVR 75m).

JULY 2015 Part 6 Page 8 of 10


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

6.3 B777 Initial Simulator CAT II/III Training Program


Name:__________________Rank:_________LIC. N______________S/N _________
Trg. Capt._______________Sim Code__________Date______________Time________

Ex Visual scene RVR AFDS


Exercises S U
No Day/Night m capability
* Taxi strobe lights ON, ILS LOC
Night or
01 125 - displayed, rally navigation style, line-up
Dusk
and landing light effect. Check TDZ RVR
Night or Normal take-off
02 125 -
Dusk
* Freeze SIM at 200, 100, 50, 15 and
550
review visual segment ALS lights, seat
300
Day/Night or position full up / full down, landing lights
03 200 LAND 3
Dusk & runway lights effect on the visual
125
segment, landing and roll-out day &
75
night.
Night or RTO due to an engine failure, review
04 125 -
Dusk streaming effect of CL lights
RTO due to engine fail. Loss of visual
Day/Night or
05 125 LAND 3 segment. Reverse not above idle thrust.
Dusk
Use LOC index.
Night or Engine failure between V1 and V2
06 125 -
Dusk
Approach, Landing and Roll out,
07 Day 75 LAND 3
DH 0 RA
Night or Approach, Landing & Roll out at
08 75 LAND 3
Dusk DH 0 RA
Max. cross wind landing. A/T disengage
09 Day 200 LAND 3 continue manual throttle. Landing and
Roll-out - DH 50 RA
125 LAND 2 annunciation at 1500 raise
Night or
10 Improving LAND 3 minima and continue to CAT IIIA minima
Dusk to 200 to DH 50 RA & G/A.
11 Day 300 LAND 3 A/P fail at 100 Manual landing.
12 Day 200 LAND 2 Visual loss at 20 G/A
Night or Visual loss after T/D
13 75 LAND 3
Dusk continue Roll-out
ENG. Fail above 1000
14 Day 200 LAND 3
continue CAT IIIA (TAC-OFF)
Night or ENG. fail above 1000 TAC OFF
15 300 LAND 3
Dusk continue to CAT II minima
No auto-land below AH-
16 Day 200 LAND 3
Go-Around
17 Day 75 LAND 3 ENG. Fail below AH continue
Night or Pilot incapacitation at 1500 continue
18 200 LAND 3
Dusk approach
Night or CAT IIIB with No DH for taxing to
19 75 LAND 3
Dusk location gate.
*By day and night
For recurrent training, a minimum of one RTO due to engine failure (125m) one
LVTO (125m), one missed approach and 3 Autoland and Roll-out. Taxi to location
gate after landing wit RVR (75m).

JULY 2015 Part 6 Page 9 of 10


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Crew Qualification, Records & Training

Intentionally
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JULY 2015 Part 6 Page 10 of 10


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Appendixes & Summaries

SUMMARIES
&
APPENDIXES

July 2015
Intentionally
Left
Blank
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Appendixes & Summaries

Appendixes
Contents Page Number
LVTO CAT II/IIIA/IIIB LVTO Appendix A
Initial Qualification TrainingReport
LVO Ceificate Appendix B
Autoland Report Form Appendix C

Summaries
Contents Page Number
Summary of B777 CAT IIIA Page 1
Summary of B777 CAT IIIB With NO DH Page 2

Summaries and Appendices Index - Pages 1 of 2


July 2015
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Appendix A

Summaries and Appendices


July 2015 Appendix A
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Appendix B

Summaries and Appendices


July 2015 Appendix B
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Appendix C

Summaries and Appendices


July 2015 Appendix C
Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Appendixes & Summaries

July 2015 Appendixes & Summaries Page 1 of 2


Boeing 777
Low Weather Operation Appendixes & Summaries

July 2015 Appendixes & Summaries Page 2 of 2