Calculus Cheat Sheet
Limits
Definitions
( Precise Definition : We say lim f x 
) 
= L 
if 

x 
Æ 
a 

for every e > _{0} 
there is a d > 0 such that 

whenever 0 < 
x 
 
a 
< 
d 
then 
f (x) 
 L 
< 
e 
. 
Limit at Infinity : We say lim f
x Æ•
(
x
)
=
L
if we
can make f _{(}_{x}_{)} as close to L as we want by
taking x large enough and positive.
(
“Working” Definition : We say lim f x
x
Æ a
)
= L
if we can make f _{(}_{x}_{)} as close to L as we want
by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a .
Right hand limit : lim f
x
Æ
a
+
(
x
)
=
L
. This has
the same definition as the limit except it requires x > a .
Left hand limit : lim f
x
Æ
a

(
x
)
=
L
. This has the
same definition as the limit except it requires x < a .
f
except we require x large and negative.
There is a similar definition for
lim
x Æ •
(
x
)
= L
(
Infinite Limit : We say lim f x
x
Æ a
)
= • if we
can make f _{(} x) arbitrarily large (and positive)
by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a .
There is a similar definition for lim f
x
Æ a
(
x
)
= •
except we make f _{(} x) arbitrarily large and negative.
lim f
x
Æ a
(
x
)
=
L
Relationship between the limit and onesided limits
ﬁ
lim f
x Æ
a
+
=
lim f
x
Æ
a
+
( x
)
lim
x
Æ
(
x
)
a

(
f
x
lim
)
x
Æ
a

=
f
L
(
x
)
lim f
x
Æ
a
(
+
)
ﬁ lim f
x
Æ a
x
( x
)
= lim
x
Æ
a

f
( x
)
Does Not Exist
=
L
ﬁ lim f
x
Æ a
(
x
)
= L
Assume lim f
1. lim È Î
x
Æ a
x
Æ
a
cf
(
x
)
(
)
x
˘ ˚ =
2. lim È Î
x
Æ
a
f
(
x
)
±
g
and lim g
c
lim
x
Æ
a
x
Æ a
f
(
x
)
(
x
)
˘ ˚ =
lim
x
Æ
a
3. lim È Î
x
Æ
a
f
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
˘ ˚ = lim
x
Æ
a
f
( x
)
f
(
x
(
x
)
Properties
both exist and c is any number then,
)
± lim
x
Æ
a
lim
x
Æ
a
g
(
g
x
(
)
x
)
x
)
0
Basic Limit Evaluations at ± •
Note : sgn _{(}_{a}_{)} =1 if a > 0
1.
2.
and sgn _{(}_{a}_{)} = 1 if a < 0 .
xÆ _{•} ^{e}
&
b
r
x
^{=}
x Æ 0
0
+
lim
= 0
lim ln
x
(
x
)
= •
lim
_{x}_{Æ}_{•} ^{e}
lim
x Æ•
^{x} = •
ln ( )
x
&
= •
n even :
6.
7.
8.
9. lim
5.
lim
n
x
x Æ± •
= •
n odd :
lim x
x
Æ•
n
= •
n even :
n odd :
n odd :
a x
x Æ± •
lim
x
Æ•
n
a x
a x
x Æ•
lim
n
&
lim
x
+
c
x Æ •
b x
+
n
= •
=
sgn
3.
If r > 0 then lim
x Æ•
+L+
+L+
n +L+
b x
c x
+
c
=
d
sgn
a
= 
(
a
sgn
(
)
•
a
(
)
r
4. r > 0 and x is real for negative x
If
then lim
x Æ •
b
r
x
= 0
•
)
•
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Evaluation Techniques L’Hospital’s Rule
f
(
x
)
=
0
lim
x
Æ
a
If lim
x
Æ
a
g
x
(
f x
x
Æ
a
(
g x
)
lim
=
(
)
)
0
f
¢
(
x
x
Æ
)
a
g
¢
(
x
)
or
lim
f
(
x
)
±
=
g
(
x
)
±
Continuous Functions 

If f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous at 
a then lim f 
( 
x 
) 

x 
Æ 
a 
= f
(
a
)
Continuous Functions and Composition
f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous at b and lim g
x
Æ
a
lim
x
Æ
a
f
(
g
(
x
))
=
f
(
lim
x
Æ
a
g
(
x
)
)
=
f
(
b
(
)
Factor and Cancel
lim
x
Æ 2
x
2 +
4
x

12
2
x 
2
x
= lim
x
Æ
2
(
x

2
)(
x
+
6
)
x
(
x

2
)
=
lim
x Æ 2
x + 6
8
=
x
2
=
4
x
)
=
b
then
Rationalize Numerator/Denominator
Combine Rational Expressions
x
1
Ê
Á
Ë
1
1
ˆ
˜
¯
1
Ê x
Á
Ë
Á

(
+
h
)
ˆ
˜ ˜ ¯
lim
h
Æ
0

h
x
+
h
x
=
lim
h
Æ
0
1
Ê
Á
Á
Ë
=
lim

h
h
Æ
0
h
ˆ
˜ ˜ ¯
x
(
x
+
lim
h
)

1
1
h
x
(
x
+
h
)
=
h
Æ
0
= 
x
(
x
+
h
)
2
x
• • then,
a is a number, • or •
Polynomials at Infinity p _{(}_{x}_{)} and q _{(}_{x}_{)} are polynomials. To compute
lim
x Æ± •
p (
x
)
q
(
x
)
factor largest power of x in q _{(}_{x}_{)} out
of both p _{(} x) and q _{(}_{x}_{)} then compute limit.
lim
x
Æ•
3
2
x

4
5
x

2
2
x
=
lim
x
Æ•
2
x
(
3 
4
x
2
)
2
x
(
5
x
 2
)
=
Piecewise Function
lim g
x Æ 2
( x
)
where
g
(
x
)
Ï x
1
Ó
= Ì
2 + 5
 3
x
lim
x
Æ •
3 
4
x
2
3
= 
5
x
 2
2
if
if
x
x
< 

2
2
Compute two one sided limits,
x
x
lim
Æ 2 
lim
Æ 2 +
g (
(
g
x
x
)
)
= lim
=
2

x
2 +
3

5
=
=
9
7
x
Æ 
lim 1
x
Æ 
2
+
x
One sided limits are different so
doesn’t exist. If the two one sided limits had
been equal then
and had the same value.
lim g
x Æ 2
(
x
)
lim g
x Æ 2
(
x
)
would have existed
Some Continuous Functions
Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous.
1. Polynomials for all x.
2. Rational function, except for x’s that give division by zero.
for all x.
7. cos _{(}_{x}_{)}
8. tan _{(}_{x}_{)}
and sin _{(} x)
and sec _{(}_{x}_{)}
provided
x L
,

3
p
2
,

p
2
,
p
2
,
3
p
2
,
L
9. cot _{(}_{x}_{)} and csc(x) provided
x L,2p,p,0,p,2p,L
Intermediate Value Theorem
Suppose that f _{(} x) is continuous on [a, b] and let M be any number between f _{(}_{a}_{)} and f _{(}_{b}_{)} .
Then there exists a number c such that a < c < b and f _{(}_{c}_{)} = M .
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Derivatives
Definition and Notation
If y = f _{(} x) then the derivative is defined to be f
¢ (
x
)
=
lim
h Æ 0
f
(
x
+
h
)

f
(
x
)
h
.
If y = f _{(}_{x}_{)} then all of the following are
equivalent notations for the derivative.
f
¢ (
x
)
=
y
¢ =
df dy
=
dx dx
=
d
dx
( f
(
x
))
=
Df
(
x
)
If y = f _{(}_{x}_{)} all of the following are equivalent
notations for derivative evaluated at x = a .
f
¢ (
a
)
=
y ¢
x
=
a
=
=
= Df
(
a
)
Interpretation of the Derivative
If y = f _{(}_{x}_{)} then,
m
1.
=
f ¢
(a)
is the slope of the tangent
line to
equation of the tangent line at x = a is
given by y
y = f _{(}_{x}_{)} at
=
f
(a)
x = a and
+ f ¢
(a)(x
the

a)
.
2.
3.
f ¢
(a) is the instantaneous rate of
change of f _{(}_{x}_{)} at x =
If f _{(}_{x}_{)} is the position of an object at
time x then f ¢
the object at x = a .
a .
(a)
is the velocity of
Basic Properties and Formulas If f _{(}_{x}_{)} and g _{(}_{x}_{)} are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers,
1.
(c f ) ^{¢} = c f ¢
(x)
5.
d
dx
(
c
)
= 0
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Chain Rule Variants The chain rule applied to some specific functions.
1.
d
dx
d
(
Î È
f
(
x
)
˚ ˘
n
=
n
È Î
f
( )
x
˘ ˚
n

f
¢
(
x
)
)
1
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
5.
6.
7.
8.
2.
3.
4.
(
f
(
x
)
)
¢
(
)
f (x)
= f
e
x
e
dx
d
dx
d
dx
( ln È Î
f
(sin
( x
)
˘ ˚
) =
f
¢ (
x
)
Î È
f
(
x
)
˚ ˘
) =
f
(
f
¢
x
)
( x
)cos
Î È
f
(
x
)
˚ ˘
(cos
(
(
(
tan
sec
tan
)
( )sin
f
x
f x
[
f (x)
 1
Î È
f
])
( x
È
Î
(
(
)
)
˚ ˘
= 
=
f
¢
¢
(
x
)
f
¢
x
f
(
x
sec
2
È
Î
f
(
x
[
]
f ( x) tan
)
[
= f (x) sec
)
˘ ˚
) =
f
¢ (
x
)
1 + È Î
f
(
x
)
˘ ˚
2
˚ ˘
f ( x)
È
Î
˘ ˚
)
)
È
Î
˘
˚
]
The Second Derivative is denoted as
Higher Order Derivatives The n ^{t}^{h} Derivative is denoted as
f
f
¢¢
¢¢
(
(
x
x
)
)
=
=
f
(
2
)
(
f
¢
(
(
x
)
x
))
=
¢
d
2
f
dx
2
and i s d e f i n e d a s
, i.e. the derivative of the
first derivative, f ¢
(x)
.
f
f
(
(
n
n
)
)
(
(
x
x
)
)
n
d
f
= and is defined as
=
n
dx
f
(
(
n

1
)
(
x
))
¢
, i.e. the derivative of
the (n1) ^{s}^{t} derivative, f
(
n

1
)
(
x
)
.
Implicit Differentiation
Find
will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The “trick” is to
differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y¢ (from the chain rule).
After differentiating solve for y¢ .
y¢ if e

2
x
9
y
+
3
2
x y
=
sin
(
y
)
+
11
x
. Remember y = y _{(} x) here, so products/quotients of x and
y
e
2
2
x

9
y
e
2
x

9
( 2
3
x
y
(
y
2



9
y
x

9
2
x
y

9

9
9 y ¢
e
2
¢
e
)
+
2
3
y
y
+ 3
x
x
2
cos
( y
2
+
y
))
2
2
3
y y
2
x
+
y
¢ =
3
x
11
¢ =
y y

cos
¢ =
2
e
2
x
(
)
y
cos

9
y
y ¢ + 11
(
y

3
)
y
2
x
¢ +
y
2
11
ﬁ
y
¢ =
11 
2
e 2
x
 9
y

3 x
2
y
2
2
x
3
y

9
e 2
x
 9
y

cos
(
y
)
Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave Down
Critical Points
x = c is a critical point of f _{(}_{x}_{)} provided either
1.
f ¢(c) = 0 or 2.
f ¢
(c)
doesn’t exist.
Increasing/Decreasing
1. If f ¢( x) > 0 for all x in an interval I then
f _{(}_{x}_{)} is increasing on the interval I.
2. If f ¢( x) < 0 for all x in an interval I then
f _{(}_{x}_{)} is decreasing on the interval I.
3. If f ¢( x) = 0 for all x in an interval I then
f _{(}_{x}_{)} is constant on the interval I.
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
Concave Up/Concave Down
1. If f ¢¢ _{(} x _{)} > 0 f o r a ll x i n an i n t e r v a l I t he n
f _{(} x) is concave up on the interval I.
2. If f ¢¢ _{(} x _{)} < 0 f o r a ll x i n an i n t e r v a l I t he n
f _{(} x) is concave down on the interval I.
Inflection Points x = c is a inflection point of f _{(}_{x}_{)} if the
concavity changes at x = c .
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Absolute Extrema
1. x
= c is an absolute maximum of f _{(} x)
if f _{(}_{c}_{)} f _{(}_{x}_{)}_{f}_{o}_{r} all x in the domain.
2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f _{(} x)
if f _{(}_{c}_{)} £ f _{(}_{x}_{)}_{f}_{o}_{r} all x in the domain.
Extrema Relative (local) Extrema
1. = c is a relative (or local) maximum of
x
f
_{(} x) if f _{(}_{c}_{)} f _{(}_{x}_{)} for all x near c.
2. = c is a relative (or local) minimum of
x
f
_{(} x) if f _{(}_{c}_{)} £ f _{(}_{x}_{)} for all x near c.
Fermat’s Theorem If f _{(}_{x}_{)} has a relative (or local) extrema at
x = c , then
x = c is a critical point of
f _{(}_{x}_{)} .
Extreme Value Theorem If f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous on the closed interval
_{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]} then there exist numbers c and d so that,
1. a £ c, d £ b , 2. f _{(}_{c}_{)} is the abs. max. in
_{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]}_{,} 3. f _{(}_{d} _{)} is the abs. min. in _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]}_{.}
Finding Absolute Extrema To find the absolute extrema of the continuous function f _{(}_{x}_{)} on the interval _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]} use the
following process.
1. Find all critical
2. Evaluate f _{(} x) at all points found in Step 1.
3. Evaluate f _{(}_{a}_{)} and f _{(}_{b}_{)} .
4. Identify the abs. max. (largest function value) and the abs. min.(smallest function value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3.
points of f _{(} x) in _{[}_{a}_{,} b] .
1 ^{s}^{t} Derivative Test
If 
x = c is a critical point of f _{(}_{x}_{)} then 
x = c is 

1. 
a 
rel. max. of f _{(} x) if f ¢(x) > 0 to the left 

of 
x = c and f ¢(x) < 0 to the right of 
x = c . 

2. 
a rel. min. of f _{(} x) if f ¢(x) < 0 to the left 

of 
x = c and f ¢(x) > 0 to the right of x = c . 

3. 
not 
a relative extrema of f _{(} _{x}_{)} ¢ if f _{(} _{x}_{)} 
is 
the same sign on both sides of x = c .
2 ^{n}^{d} Derivative Test If x = c is a critical point of f _{(}_{x}_{)} such that
f ¢(c) = 0 then
1. i s a r e la ti v e m a x im u m of f _{(} x _{)} if f ¢¢ _{(} c _{)} <
2. i s a r e la ti v e mi n im u m of f _{(} x _{)} if f ¢¢ _{(} c _{)} > 0 .
3. may be a relative maximum, relative
x = c
0 .
mi n im u m , o r n e it h e r i f f ¢¢ _{(} c _{)} = 0 .
Finding Relative Extrema and/or Classify Critical Points
1. Find all critical points of f _{(} x) .
2. Use the 1 ^{s}^{t} derivative test or the 2 ^{n}^{d} derivative test on each critical point.
Mean Value Theorem If f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous on the closed interval _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]} and differentiable on the open interval _{(}_{a}_{,} b)
then there is a number a < c < b such that f
¢
(
c
)
=
f (b) f (a)

b

a
.
If x
n
Newton’s Method
is the n ^{t}^{h} guess for the root/solution of f _{(}_{x}_{)} = 0 then (n+1) ^{s}^{t} guess is
provided
f ¢
(
x
n
)
exists.
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
x
n
+
1
=
x
n
^{}
f
(
x
n
)
f
¢
(
x
n
)
© 2005 Paul Dawkins
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Related Rates Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Write down equation relating quantities and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time you differentiate a function of t). Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity.
Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one starts walking north. The angleq changes at 0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance between them changing when q = 0.5 rad?
We have q ¢ = 0.01 rad/min. and want to find x¢ . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,
sec 
q 
= 
x 
ﬁ 
sec 
q 
tan 
q q 
¢ = 
x ¢ 
50 
50 
We knowq = 0.5 so plug in q ¢ and solve.
sec(0.5)tan(0.5)(0.01) =
¢
x
50
x ¢ = 0.3112 ft/sec Remember to have calculator in radians!
Optimization Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint for one of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of variables and verify that they are min/max as needed.
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
Calculus Cheat Sheet
Integrals
Definitions
Definite Integral: Suppose f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous
on _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]}_{.} Divide _{[}_{a}_{,}_{b}_{]} into n subintervals of
width D x and choose
*
x
i
from each interval.
Then
Ú
b
a
f
(
x
)
dx
=
lim
n
Æ•
•
Â
i
=
1
f
(
*
i
x
)
D
x .
AntiDerivative : An antiderivative of f _{(} _{x}_{)}
is a function, F _{(}_{x}_{)} , such that F ¢
Indefinite Integral :
where F _{(} x) is an antiderivative of f _{(} x) .
.
(x)
=
f
(x)
Ú
f
(x)dx = F (x) + c
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Part I : If f _{(}_{x}_{)} is continuous on _{[}_{a}_{,} b] then
g
(
x
and
)
g
=
¢
(
Ú
x
a
x
)
f
=
( )
t
d
dx
dt
Ú
x
a
is also continuous on _{[}_{a}_{,} _{b}_{]}
f
( )
t
dt
=
f
(
x
)
.
Part II :
an antiderivative of f _{(} x) (i.e. F _{(} x) =
f _{(} x) is
continuous on[a, b], F _{(} x) is
Ú f _{(} x) dx )
then
Ú
b
_{a}
f
(
x
)
dx = F
(
b
)
 F
(
a
)
.
Variants of Part I :
d
dx
d
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