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Cornell Notes Topic/Objective: How did Mendel help us to study Name:

genetics through hybrid crosses?


Class/Period:
Date:
Essential Question:

Questions: Notes:

Gregor Mendel- father of genetics, experimented with pea plants


L1- Who was Gregor and saw patterns
Mendel? Phenotype- physical appearance
` Genotype- genetic makeup
L2- can you explain
Mendels first conclusion- biological inheritance is determined by
how mendels
factors that are passed from one gen to the next. These are called
discoveries
genes and different forms of genes are called alleles
affected our
knowledge of
Second conclusion, Principle of Dominance- some alleles are
genetics?
dominant and some are recessive. An organism with dominant
allele will always show that form of the trait. Recessive only shown
if it has two copies of trait, one from mother one from father

Third Conclusion- each organism has two copies of each gene, one
from each parent.

Fourth Conclusion, Law of Independent Assortment- alleles from


L4- draw each trait segregated from each other during the formation of
conclusions to gametes. This allows for different combinations of dominant and
explain how recessive alleles to come together during fertilization
mendel figured all
of this out. Law of Dominance- if 2 alleles at locus differ then one determines
organisms appearance and the other has no effect. Dominant over
recessive.

Simple dominance- crosses with both recessive and dominant traits

Incomplete Dominance-neither dominant trait is more dominant,


two traits blend
Example: human skin tones

Codominance- both alleles contribute equally to phenotype


Example: spotted flowers
Summary:

Questions: Notes:

Monohybrid Crosses: when one trait is looked at such as height


L3- how are
monohybrid Dihybrid Crosses- when two traits are looked at such as eye color
crosses related to and height combinations
dihybrid crosses?
Steps to making Dihybrid crosses:
Step 1: find genotypes of parents EX: P1- round eyes, blue body Rr,
yy P2- pure bred round eyes, yellow body RR, Yy
L3- what Step 2: find alleles by foiling P1- Ry, Ry, ry, ry P2- RY, Ry, RY, Ry
conclusions can Step 3: complete Cross
you draw about Step 4: Find genotypes
larger crosses? Step 5: Determine possible phenotypes
Step 6: find phenotypic ratio

There are more types of crosses that scientists use to determine all
possible traits for an organism. These are done on a very large
scale but are made easy due to modern technology

Monohybrid Cross:
D d
D DD Dd
d Dd dd
3:1 75% dominant 25% recessive
Dihybrid Cross:
Ry Ry ry ry
RY RRYy RRYy RrYy RrYy
Ry RRyy RRyy Rryy Rryy
RY RRYy RRYy RrYy RrYy
Ry RRyy RRyy Rryy Rryy
1:1 50% dominant 50% recessive

Just as reference, there is no way for me to circle or draw


connections because I can no longer find the drawing tools on
word. I updated my computer and now I cant find them.
Summary: Gregor Mendel is known as the founder of genetics due to his discoveries while experimenting on pea
plants. He is the reason we have monohybrid and dihybrid crosses for finding out possible traits in an organism.
He came up with the Law of Dominance and the law of segregation. Both laws state something different about
genes and alleles. Monohybrid crosses are for finding the possibilities of a single trait whereas dihybrid crosses
and bigger crosses find the possibilities of multiple traits. Thanks to the discoveries made by mendel and modern
technology we can find the possibilities of an array of traits in an organism.