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BSHF-101
2016-17

DCQ: Answer any two in about 500 words each.

1. Compare and contrast the industrial and the post-industrial society.

Ans: In sociology, industrial society refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass
production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Such a structure
developed in the west in the period of time following the Industrial Revolution, and replaced the agrarian
societies of the Pre-modern, Pre-industrial age. Industrial societies are generally mass societies, and may be
succeeded by an Information society. They are often contrasted to with the traditional societies. Industrial
society is characterized by the use of external energy sources, such as fossil fuels, to increase the rate and
scale of production. The production of food is shifted to large commercial farms where the products of
industry, such as combine harvesters and fossil fuel based fertilizers, are used to decrease required human
labor while increasing production. No longer needed for the production of food, excess labor is moved into
these factories where mechanization is utilized to further increase efficiency. As populations grow, and
mechanization is further refined, often to the level of automation, many workers shift to expanding service
industries.

Industrial society makes urbanization desirable, in part so that workers can be closer to centers of production,
and the service industry can provide labor to workers and those that benefit financially from them, in
exchange for a piece of production profits with which they can buy goods. This leads to the rise of very large
cities and surrounding suburban areas with a high rate of economic activity.
These urban centers require the input of external energy sources in order to overcome the diminishing returns
of agricultural consolidation, due partially to the lack of nearby arable land, associated transportation and
storage costs, and are otherwise unsustainable. This makes the reliable availability of the needed energy
resources high priority in industrial government policies.
Some theoreticiansnamely Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Manuel Castells -- argue that we are located
in the middle of a transformation or transition from industrial societies to post-modern societies. The
triggering technology for the change from an agricultural to an industrial organization was steam power,
allowing mass production and reducing the agricultural work necessary. Thus many industrial cities are built
around rivers. Identified as catalyst or trigger for the transition to post-modern or informational society is
global information technology.

If a nation becomes "post-industrial" it passes through, or dodges, a phase of society predominated by a


manufacturing-based economy and moves on to a structure of society based on the provision of information,
innovation, finance, and services. A virtual cult of 'creatives' have sprung up embodying and often describing
and defending the post-industrial ethos. They argue that businesses that create intangibles have taken a more
prominent role in the wake of manufacturing's decline and that in some countries, the production of creative
intangibles produces more exports than manufacturing alone. Actor and artistic director of the Old Vic

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Theatre, Kevin Spacey, has argued the economic case for the arts in terms of providing jobs and being of
greater importance in exports than manufacturing (as well as an educational role) in a guest column he wrote
for The Times. As the term has been used, a few common themes (not limited to those below) have begun to
emerge. The economy undergoes a transition from the production of goods to the provision of services.
Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital (e.g., the knowledge produced through the Human Genome
Project).
Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy. Through processes of globalization and automation,
the value and importance to the economy of blue-collar, unionized work, including manual labor (e.g.,
assembly-line work) decline, and those of professional workers (e.g. scientists, creative-industry
professionals, and IT professionals) grow in value and prevalence. Behavioral and information sciences and
technologies are developed and implemented. (e.g. behavioral economics, information architecture,
cybernetics, Game theory and Information theory.

2. Discuss the role of Gandhi in the national movement.

Ans: The Swadeshi Movement declined by 1907. There was also a split in the Congress in 1907 and Tilak
was imprisoned and deported in 1908. Aurobindo Ghosh and Bipin Chandra Pal retired from politics and Lala
Lajpat Rai left India for some time.
All these developments led to a decline in the nationalist movement. It remained dormant for a few years but
was revived during the First World War. Annie Besant and Tilak started the Home Rule Leagues and the two
wings of the Congress united in 1916.
The War also witnessed the Ghadar Movement started in the United States by some Indian revolutionaries
which sought to overthrow the British rule in India. However, the most important development was the arrival
of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was later popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, from South Africa.

Non-cooperation. They, on the other hand, helped Gandhi to familiarise himself with the Indian situation and
understand the strengths and weaknesses of the Indian people. They also attracted many political workers who
were to prove valuable in the future struggles.

During the First World War, the prices of various commodities rose, the conditions of the people worsened
and the government extracted many dues from the people in the name of war efforts. This gave rise to
resentment among the Indian people and there were several agitations against the government.
Mahatma Gandhi was the fore front eminent political and ideological leader during the Indian independence
movement. He pioneered satyagraha, resistance to tyranny through mass civil resistance. His philosophy was
firmly founded upon truth and ahimsa (nonviolence). His philosophy and leadership helped India gain
independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. He inspired many
prominent Leaders across the World, who applied his principles in their own countries, in fight against
tyranny and for gaining Independence. Gandhiji is referred to as Mahatma or "Great Soul" (magnanimous), an
honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore). In India, he is also called Bapu and officially honored
in India as the Father of the Nation. His birthday, 2 October, is commemorated as Gandhi Jayanti, a national
holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence.

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Gandhi first employed civil disobedience while working as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa. He fought
for the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organised
protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After
assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease
poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic
self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination.
At one lime Jawaharlal Nehru remarked that he doubled the clarity of the Mahatma and also his own
association with him. Explaining this paradox Nehru writes thus: "Personality is as' indefinable tiling, a
strange force that has power over the soul man and he possesses this in a remarkable measure..... He attracted
people..... They did not agree with his philosophy of life or even with' many of his ideals... and we went with
him although we did not accept his philosophy." What gave this enormous spell to the personality of
Gandhiji? He epitomized the traditions of India. His emphasis was always on action, reminding one of the
Karma Yoga in the Gita which has been the most pi scripture of the Hindus since the sixth century A.D.
Although he was simple in and saintly in thinking, he permitted himself to be involved neck-deep in the
struggle of the country. And all his actions were translated in the Hindu id "Defiance of law and order was
non-cooperation with evil; hartal was 11 protest; Satyagraha was the technique for the realization of truth that
is God. Secondly, he openly asserted that the concept of Truth (God) is l unattainable, each one is endowed
with a fraction of Truth, has almost the meaning as the cardinal principle of the Upanishads that salvation lies
in them of the individual's soul with the universal soul. Thirdly, his stress on simple living and abstemious
habits of dietary in cast a spell on the masses of India. Indeed, he did skip over two stages of traditional
ashrams known for two millennia in India. He became the apple off of the common man because sainthood
has always had a profound appeal to the masses reminding them of the various charkas like Sankara and
Madhavaan saint-singers of the Bhakti movement. Although the middle class did not like hi knobbing with the
Harijans, they could not but admire him, for deep down in their they knew that they were in the wrong, not the
Mahatma.

MCQ: Answer any four questions in about 250 words each.

6. What do you understand by the term 'renaissance'?

Ans.: The Renaissance, from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be
reborn") was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century,
beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though availability of
paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the
changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. As a cultural movement, it
encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century
resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch, the development
of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but
widespread educational reform.
In politics, the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy, and in science an
increased reliance on observation. Historians often argue this intellectual transformation was a bridge between

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the Middle Ages and Modern history. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits,
as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the
contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance
man". There is a consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence, Italy, in the 14th century. Various theories
have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the
social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant
family, the Medici; and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople
at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and in line with
general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the
19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men",
questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation. The art historian Erwin
Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of Renaissance:
The Renaissance is a period in the history of Europe beginning in about 1400, and following the Medieval
period. "Renaissance" is a French word meaning "rebirth". The period is called by this name because at that
time, people started taking an interest in the learning of ancient times, in particular the learning of Ancient
Greece and Rome. The Renaissance was seen as a "rebirth" of that learning. The Renaissance is often said to
be the start of the "modern age. During the Renaissance, there were many famous artists, many writers and
many philosophers. Many people studied mathematics and different sciences. A person who is clever at a
great number of things is sometimes called a "Renaissance man". Leonardo Da Vinci, who was a painter, a
scientist, a musician and a philosopher, is the most famous Renaissance Man.

7. Is globalisation affecting the Indian economy? Comment.

Ans: It means to open the Trade and Economy for the international players. In other words, every
manufacturer or producer of goods can compete for sale of their products without restrictions or without any
imposed control.
For example, think of a small village market or meal where all are free to come and sell their products at their
desired price, irrespective of places from where they come. There are no restrictions on control on their
products or the prices. This is the globalised trade. Any country can participate to set up, acquire, merge
industries, invest in equity and shares, sell their products and services in India.
Therefore, globalisation should not be considered in isolation, but should be considered in totality with
liberalisation of the industrial policy towards lifting of trade control and restrictions, influence of trade block
and simultaneous privatisation.
Global market treats the world as a single market. With the advent of information technology and its strategic
application, the world is focussed as a global village and all traders are therefore globalised.

The Earlier (pre 1990s) concept:


Before 1990s India followed a patch of restricted trade. Such restrictions were that certain products would not
be allowed to be imported as they were manufactured in India. For example, General Engineering goods,
Food items, toiletries, Agricultural products etc. were in the banned list of import.

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Some other kinds of products which were produced in restricted quantity in the country or are expensive and
categorised as luxuries were subjected to heavy import duty to make them costlier in order to dissuade flow of
foreign exchange and give protection to local producers. For example, VCR, Music sets, Air-conditioners,
Computers etc., these items were subject to 150% import duty.

Globalisation in India:
In the 1990s due to change in world economic order and due to heavy pressures from rich countries like USA,
Japan, European countries dominating the WTO (World Trade Organisation having 135 members, established
in 1995) and IMF (International Monetary Fund) and World Bank engaged in development financing
activities, the developing and the poor countries all over the world were forced to open their trade and market
and allow foreigners to share their major chunk of a business. Thus, India first started the process of
globalisation and liberalisation in 1991 under the Union Finance Minister, Shri Manmohan Singh.
The first 5 years in globalisation did not yield appreciable results. The coming of Multinational cold drinks
manufacturers like Coke, Pepsi, and others like Mc. Donald, KFC, Boomer Chewing gums, Uncle Chips,
Cornflakes only dominated the show. Due to further liberalization of trade and the privatization, the late
1990s showed the effect to globalisation by the coming of giant car manufacturers like Daewoo Motors, Ford,
Honda, Hyundai which resulted in availability of varieties of cars and reduction of domestic car prices.
Electronic giants like IBM and world leaders in the telecommunication sector like Ericsson, Nokia, Aiwa etc.,
delivered wide range of quality products at affordable prices and brought a major revolution in Indian
electronic industries. In the power sector Enron, AES-CESCO are dominating the show. The resultant effects
were tremendous boost to industrial sector economy. The price level came down due to cut throat competition
and Indian consumers are so far happy.
Recently in May 2001, the Indian Government also opened the defence sector towards globalisation and
privatisation.

Globalisation, but for whose benefit?


Due to globalisation and liberalisation, the Indian market is flooded with quality foreign products, affecting
the Indian industries adversely. This has also resulted in the loss of jobs to many poor workers. Toys, bicycles
and motor bikes from China, soaps and toiletries from Indonesia and Malaysia, cheese and fruits from
Australia and many more await the Indian consumers with the lifting of trade restrictions.
Globalisation has turned out to be a bonanza for consumers but a grave for Indian producers, especially small-
scale sectors, because of their age-old technology and financial bottlenecks to update their machines and
technology. The import of edible oils, grains at lower prices have affected the Indian farmers heavily.
Now farming is no more profitable because of marginal remuneration. Indian manufacturers are no longer
able to compete with their global counterparts. The closing of industries and manpower lay off have become
very common.

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The sector wise effects:


(1) Effect of Globalisation on Students and Education Sectors:
Due to globalisation, the availability of study books and information on the internet or the World Wide Web
(www) have increased tremendously. However, the exorbitant cost factors have made higher and specialised
education beyond the reach of poor and middle class students.
Hundreds of foreign universities have started collaborating with Indian universities and study institutions.
This has affected the course fees. For Engineering, Medical and Management studies, the course fees are
hovering around Rs.20 to Rs.50 lakhs. Intelligent students from middle and poor class may have to settle for
daily wages earning in future as they cannot afford for the same.

(2) Effect on Health Sectors:


It is unbelievable that in India, poor people have to spend a minimum of Rs.200 for a mere seasonal cold or
minor stomach ailments, thanks to the multinationals pharmaceutical companies engaged in sky rocketing cost
of common medicines under their brand names.
The private sector hospitals like Apollo, Medicare will be only too happy to prepare a bill of Rs.5 lakh to
Rs.10 lakh for heart or Kidney operation. The monitoring of health electronically through the internet will
worsen the situation further in the years to come. Death will be the easiest option for poor following the effect
of globalisation in health sector.

(3) Effect on Agricultural sector:


The globalisation of trade in the agricultural sector is perhaps proving to be a big blunder. The farmers will
have to pay a very heavy price, for better variety of imported seeds having resistance to diseases, because of
the patent rights imposed by WTO.
Over and above, the Indian farmer cannot export their products to rich countries because of inferior
technology and stringent quality parameters imposed by foreign consumers. The large scale suicide by Indian
farmers in Karnataka, Punjab and Haryana under the burden of heavy loans is directly attributed to this.
The Indian agriculture is almost on its deathbed. The minimum cost of eatable rice is Rs.12 per kg and apples
from Australia at Rs. 100 to Rs.150 per kg cannot be afforded by poor.

(4) Effect on Employment sector:


The employment scenario in India is probably the worst in recent years due to globalisation. The restrictions
of use of child labour and fair pay to workers have a badly affected the traditional industries like cottage,
handloom, artisans and carving, carpet, jewellery, ceramic, and glassware etc., where the specialised skills
inherited for generations were passed on to the next generation from the early age of 6 to 7 years. The
globalisation and trade restrictions under the influence of WTO have virtually killed business in these sectors.

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Conclusion: (Positive aspects):


Though globalisation and liberalisation of trade have resulted in the availability of large number of quality
products at reasonable price, the overall economic benefits are negated due to the slow death of small scale
and traditional goods producing sectors employing a large population.
The rising cost of basic sustenance products like garments, footwear, cereals, edible oils, petrol and kerosene,
medicines and health care items, decrease in farm output, decrease in purchasing power of poor are some of
the alarming issues that have given rise to serious doubts about the benefits of globalisation.
The increasing wide gap between the poor and the rich is a major cause of concern as will attribute to the
increase in crime rates, lawlessness, anti-national activities, terrorism, abduction, black mailing etc. The
globalisation process, that enables investment of foreign money, may turn out to be a serious debt rap in
future as was experienced in Indonesia, Brazil, Korea and some other countries.
Moreover, for a common man, the globalisation is of no meaning. He wants a secured source in terms of
earning money, maintains his livelihood, has reasonable savings and appreciates a trouble free life. Therefore,
globalisation may only add to the Indias woes.

Conclusion: (Positive aspects):


The biggest contribution of globalisation is in the field of quality and development of products with various
features to suit the Indians. There are varieties of semi-processed food products to suit every taste in the
market which has helped us to save time. Globalisation has contributed tremendously to have access to
important information towards quality education Due to globalisation; the communication sector has got a
tremendous boost.
We have now cell phones; internet and the availability of latest drugs are helping to save valuable lives along
with good doctors sitting across the Web to advice. Due to globalisation, the car manufacturer like Maruti is
not able to take us as for ride.
Now, wide choices are available to select electronic goods. Life is more comfortable with cheaper air
conditioners. Most importantly, the unscrupulous Indian manufacturers are not able to take us for a ride.
Thanks to globalisation, we are able to dream to send a man to the moon due to a better economy and
technological competence.

9. What are the main environmental challenges we are facing today? Discuss.

Ans: Some of the most important environmental challenges faced by India are as follows:
It is essential to make the public aware of the formidable consequences of the Environmental Degradation, if
not retorted and reformative measures undertaken would result in the extinction of life.
We are facing various environmental challenges. It is essential to get the country acquainted with these
challenges so that their acts may be eco-friendly. Some of these challenges are as under:

1. Growing Population:
A population of over thousands of millions is growing at 2.11 per cent every year. It puts considerable
pressure on its natural resources and reduces the gains of development. Hence, the greatest challenge before

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us is to limit the population growth. Although population control does automatically lead to development, yet
the development leads to a decrease in population growth rates.

2. Poverty:
India has often been described a rich land with poor people. The poverty and environmental degradation have
a nexus between them. The vast majority of our people are directly dependent on the nature resources of the
country for their basic needs of food, fuel shelter and fodder. About 40% of our people are still below the
poverty line.
Environment degradation has adversely affected the poor who depend upon the resources of their immediate
surroundings. Thus, the challenge of poverty and the challenge environment degradation are two facts of the
same challenge. The population growth is essentially a function of poverty. Because, to the very poor, every
child is an earner and helper and global concerns have little relevance for him.

3. Agricultural Growth:
The people must be acquainted with the methods to sustain and increase agricultural growth with damaging
the environment. High yielding varieties have caused soil salinity and damage to physical structure of soil.

4. Need to Ground Water:


It is essential of rationalizing the use of groundwater. Factors like community wastes, industrial effluents and
chemical fertilizers and pesticides have polluted our surface water and affected quality of the groundwater.
It is essential to restore the water quality of our rivers and other water body as lakes is an important challenge.
It so finding our suitable strategies for consecration of water, provision of safe drinking water and keeping
water bodies clean which are difficult challenges is essential.

5. Development and Forests:


Forests serve catchments for the rivers. With increasing demand of water, plan to harness the mighty river
through large irrigation projects were made. Certainly, these would submerge forests; displace local people,
damage flora and fauna.
As such, the dams on the river Narmada, Bhagirathi and elsewhere have become areas of political and
scientific debate. Forests in India have been shrinking for several centuries owing to pressures of agriculture
and other uses. Vast areas that were once green, stand today as wastelands.
These areas are to be brought back under vegetative cover. The tribal communities inhabiting forests respects
the trees and birds and animal that gives them sustenance. We must recognize the role of these people in
restoring and conserving forests.
The modern knowledge and skills of the forest dept. should be integrated with the traditional knowledge and
experience of the local communities. The strategies for the joint management of forests should be evolved in a
well planned way.

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6. Degradation of Land:
At present out of the total 329 mha of land, only 266 mha possess any potential for production. Of this, 143
mha is agricultural land nearly and 85 suffer from varying degrees of soil degradation. Of the remaining 123
mha, 40 are completely unproductive.
The remaining 83 mha is classified as forest land, of which over half is denuded to various degrees. Nearly
406 million head of livestock have to be supported on 13 mha, or less than 4 per cent of the land classified as
pasture land, most of which is overgrazed. Thus, our of 226 mha, about 175 mha or 66 per cent is degraded to
varying degrees. Water and wind erosion causes further degradation of almost 150 mha.

7. Reorientation of Institutions:
The people should be roused to orient institutions, attitudes and infrastructures, to suit conditions and needs
today. The change has to be brought in keeping in view Indias traditions for resources use managements and
education etc. Change should be brought in education, in attitudes, in administrative procedures and in
institutions. Because it affects way people view technology resources and development.
8. Reduction of Genetic Diversity:
At present most wild genetic stocks have been disappearing from nature. Wilding including the Asiatic Lion
are facing problem of loss of genetic diversity. The protected areas network like sanctuaries, national parks,
biosphere reserves are isolating populations. So, they are decreasing changes of one group breeding with
another. Remedial steps are to be taken to check decreasing genetic diversity.

9. Evil Consequences of Urbanization:


Nearly 27 per cent Indians live in urban areas. Urbanization and industrialization has given birth to a great
number of environmental problems that need urgent attention. Over 30 per cent of urban Indians live in slums.
Out of Indias 3,245 towns and cities, only 21 have partial or full sewerage and treatment facilities. Hence,
coping with rapid urbanization is a major challenge.

10. Air and Water Population:


Majority of our industrial plants are using out-dated and population technologies and makeshift facilities
devoid of any provision of treating their wastes. A great number of cities and industrial areas that have been
identified as the worst in terms of air and water pollution.
Acts are enforced in the country, but their implement is not so easy. The reason is their implementation needs
great resources, technical expertise, political and social will. Again the people are to be made aware of these
rules. Their support is indispensable to implement these rules.

12. What do you understand by the term 'Fundamental Rights' as given in our constitution?

Ans: Meaning of the Fundamental Rights : In every Democratic State, all the citizens have got some rights for
the development of life. These rights are given to them by the constitution of that State.

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They have the force of law behind them. No government can take them away. And if, any government tries to
do so, citizens can go to the court to get justice. Only such rights are called 'Fundamental Rights'. A man's
development is not possible without these rights.

Importance of the Fundamental Rights:


The fundamental rights are of great importance as stated below :
1. These rights are necessary for the development of man's life. They assure him of his physical, mental and
moral development.
2. Without these rights, we cannot make our life happy and prosperous.
3. The importance of these rights lies in the fact that they have been guaranteed by the Constitution of India. If
any government tries to snatch them away, we can go to the court to get justice.

Classification of Fundamental Rights: The citizens of India enjoy the following fundamental rights:
1. Right to Equality (Article 14 to 18): According to this right all citizens of the country are equal in eyes of
law. Everyone has the equal opportunity to get the government job. The untouchability has been abolished.
All other types of titles also have been abolished except the educational degrees.
2. Right to Freedom (Article 19 to 22): According to this right every Indian citizen enjoys the following seven
fundamental freedoms:

(i) Freedom of speech and expression.


(it) Freedom of assembly peacefully and without arms.
(iii) Freedom to form associations and unions.
(iv) Freedom of movement.
(v) Freedom to reside in any part of India.
(vi) Right to buy, keep and dispose of property.
(vii) Freedom of profession.

3. Right against Exploitation (Article 23 to 24): According to this right no one can sell or purchase any man or
woman, no one can take work from others without paying the money for his labour and children below 14
years cannot be employed in a factory or mine or any other dangerous work.

4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25 to 28): India has been declared a secular State. The State itself has
no religion. According to this right, freedom of the religion has been granted to every individual. Any one can
follow, practise and preach any religion he likes and has faith in the same.

5. Cultural and Educational Right (Article 29 to 30): According to this right the people of any part of India,
whose language or culture is separate have the right to protect and develop it. Every citizen has the right to get
admission to any government aided educational institution.

6. Right to Constitutional Remedies: The right to constitutional remedies is a most important fundamental
right for the citizens of India. According to this right all the citizens have the right to move to the Supreme

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Court or to any of the High Court in India. With this right the citizens are able to protect their all the
fundamental rights. While protecting the fundamental rights these courts can issue the following writs:

(a) The Writ of Habeas Corpus.


(b) The Writ of Mandamus.
(c) The Writ of Quo Warranto.
(d) The Writ of Prohibition.
(e) The Writ of Ceritiorari.

SCQ: Write short notes on any two in about 100 words each:

13.

(i) Directive Principles

Ans.: An important feature of the constitution is the Directive Principles of State Policy. Although the
Directive Principles are asserted to be "fundamental in the governance of the country," they are not legally
enforceable. Instead, they are guidelines for creating a social order characterized by social, economic, and
political justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity as enunciated in the constitution's preamble. The Forty-second
Amendment, which came into force in January 1977, attempted to raise the status of the Directive Principles
by stating that no law implementing any of the Directive Principles could be declared unconstitutional on the
grounds that it violated any of the Fundamental Rights. The amendment simultaneously stated that laws
prohibiting "antinational activities" or the formation of "antinational associations" could not be invalidated
because they infringed on any of the Fundamental Rights. It added a new section to the constitution on
"Fundamental Duties" that enjoined citizens "to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood
among all the people of India, transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities."
However, the amendment reflected a new emphasis in governing circles on order and discipline to counteract
what some leaders had come to perceive as the excessively freewheeling style of Indian democracy. After the
March 1977 general election ended the control of the Congress (Congress (R) from 1969) over the executive
and legislature for the first time since independence in 1947, the new Janata-dominated Parliament passed the
Forty-third Amendment (1977) and Forty-fourth Amendment (1978). These amendments revoked the Forty-
second Amendment's provision that Directive Principles take precedence over Fundamental Rights and also
curbed Parliament's power to legislate against "antinational activities.

(iv) ICT and education

Ans: One of the major implications of ICT is witnessed in the field of education. Now a days, learners have
started taking courses offered on-line. This means course contents are put on the Internet and learners access
the site and study the course material on their own. The providing institution on admission gives a password
to the learner and the learner can access the site and read the content. Wherever learners face problems they

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send a mail to the counsellor who responds to the mail and provides helpful guidelines. Once the learner is
confident that she has understood the course content can opt to appear for the examination. The examination
is also at times held on-line. The evaluation is also done on-line. The certificate is despatched by the
providing institution, through surface mail and the student can then call oneself a certificate holder of that
particular institution. If you examine the process new, you will find that the providing institution has done
nothing but developing a site and everything is done automatically. ICT thus, facilitates the provision of
avenues for education.

It must be clear to you that ICT can augment quality and help provide better education, if institutions from
two different countries collaborate and use ICT to provide education. It can prove to be a great asset but if it is
not used in collaborative mode it may turn out to be a source of exploitation as well.

Providing latest content is very easy through on-line courses but making changes in print- based courses not
only requires a lot of resources but also immense efforts. ICT is very useful if updated information is to be
provided. ICT facilitates the incorporation of frequent changes to the content.

Competition leads to improvement in quality. Institutions permitting less interaction with outside world
slowly turn into degree churning bodies. ICT can make things more transparent and slowly develop a sense of
competition with the outside world. This will help institutions grow and strengthen and also help augment the
quality of education.

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