Purdue University
1992
Application of the Economic Elasticity Concept to Compressor Performance Parameters
K. W. Yun
United Technologies Carrier Corporation
Follow this and additional works at: http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec
Yun, K. W., "Application of the Economic Elasticity Concept to Compressor Performance Parameters" (1992). International Compressor Engineering Conference. Paper 926.
http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec/926
This document has been made available through Purdue ePubs, a service of the Purdue University Libraries. Please contact epubs@purdue.edu for additional information. Complete proceedings may be acquired in print and on CDROM directly from the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories at https://engineering.purdue.edu/ Herrick/Events/orderlit.html
APPLICATION OF THE ECONOMIC ELASTICITY CONCEPT TO COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
K.W. Yun United Technologies Carrier Corp. Syracuse, New York
ABSTRACf
Introducing the economic concept of elasticity, elasticity coefficients involving performance variables of compressors can be defined. Such a coefficient compares the percentage change in one variable with the percentage change in another. Using the published performance of three types of similar capacity compressors a total of twenty elasticity coefficients is computed. The computed coefficients are then classified into three general groups. Two specific coefficients, capacity elasticity of power and power elasticity of EER, are selected for further analysis. Also discussed is the former coefficient as a function of compression ratio. Finally, compressor run time, type of compressor, operating condition and compression ratio are cited as factors affecting elasticity values.
INTRODUCfiON
Performance variables or parameters of a compressor include capacity, input power, energy efficiency ratio. And design, manufacturing and quality factors determine their values. Knowing qualitative interrelationship among these variables is not good enough in checking compressor performance. Given a set of performance values, a quantitative analysis of the interrelationship among the parameters is a prerequisite for performance improvements. In this effort, an analytical technique in economics is introduced. Also shown are results of applying the economic concept to various types of compressor and operating conditions.
THE ECONOMIC CONCEPT OF ELASTICITY
In economic studies, demand or supply curves which relate price to quantity demand or supplied are of a significant importance. Relatet! to these curves, the economic concept of elasticity is widely used to express the responsiveness of quantity demand to price changes. Price elasticity coefficient of demand (supply) expresses the responsiveness. The coefficient compares the percentage change in quantity demanded with the percentage change in price.
Numerically, a typical demand curve
passes through all three ranges,
I E
I
<
I,
I E
I
I E I > I. Elastic (inelastic) demand means that over a given portion of the demand
curve, a lower price would result in a proportionately larger (smaller) increase in quantity and increased (decreased) revenue. Unit elasticity means that a change in price would result in proportionate change in quantity with no change in revenue or total e~penditure.
=
0,
MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION OF THE ELASTICITY CONCEPT
Mathematically, the concept bases the idea on the ratio of the percentage change in one
variable to the percentage change in another.
is percentage change in X divided by percentage change in Y.
The general definition of Y elasticity of X, Ey,
1315
X:
_{T}_{o} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{,}
Percent
change
we start with _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}
of percentage change in
in x
~
Amount
changed in
Average
of x,
and
X_
X
2
.6.X _{_} _{X}_{,} X,
X 0
^{}
X
1 +x,
2
variable
( 1)
where
and
calculating _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e}_{.}
X,
X,_
represents the
Note the
X
before the change,
of using
X,
after _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{,}
and
X.
being
range
convention
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{i}_{d}_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}
average of
X,
as
_{a} _{b}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{r}
Likewise,
using the _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{a}_{s}
above:
Percentage
change
in
Y Amount
Average
Changed in
of Y
1
and
Y
Y
2
_
.6.Y _
y;
Y,Y,
Y +Y
1
2
2~
{2)
The Y Elasticity of X is then:
E 
Percentage 
change 
in 
X 
_J.ll 

Y 
Percentage 
change 
in 
_{Y} 
_{(}_{2} 
l 
.6.x
X
0
_
_!I
Yo
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{v}_{e} formula is an arc elasticity.
As _{A}_{Y} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{e}_{s} to 0,
point elasticity.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of point elasticity _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{s}_{:}
AX
Y
0
A
Y X
0
(3)
the arc elasticity becomes
(4)
where
[AX/ A Y]
transforms
to
[dX/dY]
as
A Y approaches
to
0 in the limit.
CHARACfERISTICS
OF THE ELASTICITY
There are several _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{s}
to npte in the elasticity formula;
(i)
(ii)
Elasticity is a relative measure,
infinity.
and _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s} _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} minus infinity
to plus
Though it is customary in economic analysis _{t}_{o} _{d}_{r}_{o}_{p} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{,}
± _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{c}_{a}_{r}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{n} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t}
in _{o}_{u}_{r} _{e}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{s} we shall not do so as the
significance.
A
positively
[negatively)
sloped
_{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e} _{y}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d}_{s} _{a}
_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{[}_{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{)} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}
for
ela~ticity.
(iii) The formula (3) for _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{s}
slope AX/
.6.
_{Y} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} position;
is _{b}_{e}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{n}_{.}
of two parts  _{o}_{n}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}
the point (Y,IX,)at which the measurement
_{i}_{t}_{s} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{a}_{t} _{a}
This is because both the slope and
Thus one cannot look at a curve and determine
to Y and X axes.
given _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{t} referring
position of a curve determine
elasticity _{a}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{y} given point on _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{.}
THE IMPORTANCE OF ELASTICITY
_{I}_{f} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} demand curves concept is not
is
nothing more
_{i}_{t} _{w}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d}
not
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} way
attention.
of describing _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} position of
important
The importance of
deserve much
What
makes
elasticity
an
much _{i}_{t}_{s} _{d}_{e}_{s}_{c}_{r}_{i}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} usefulness as _{i}_{t}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{y}_{t}_{i}_{c} usefulness.
~
1316
elasticity comes from
three factors:
magnitude,
direction
(±
sign)
of elasticity value,
and
magnitude
of the resultant
from the
parameter
product
of the
two variables.
The
sections
following discuss
significance of e.ach of these three factors.
CALCULATION
OF ELASTICITY
COEFFICIENTS
We shall apply the concept
of elasticity to compressor performance
to different types of
compressor's  rotarytype compressor of one manufacturer,
and reciprocating as well as
scroll
of the
type
other
manufacture.
data
Published
from
three
of compressors,
types
with an
approximate capacity of 24,000 btuh (6,050 kcal/hr) are used to calculate elasticity coeftlc"ients.
Computation
of
different
elasticity
coefficients
total
of
five
performance
uses
a
Selected performance variables are EER in addition to capacity,
parameters.
input power, mass
flow rate and amperage which compressor manufacturers publish.
Out
of 20 different possible
elasticities,
half of them
are just inverse of another.
one
Funhermore,
close intraparameter
relationship (such as capacity
and
mass flow
rate) result in basically
same values
of elamcity.
The following table summarizes classification
of coefficients
in three arbitrary ranges:
Y ELASTICITY OF X
\X
X=Capacity
Power
EER
Mass
Flow
Amperage
Y\
Y=Capacity
 I
u u
I
Power
s
 s
s u
EER
u
I
 u
I
Mass
Flow
u
I u
 I
Rate
Amper<tge
s u
s s

where I:
Insensitive
(Inelastic)
0 0.5
IE I
U:
Unitary
""
0.5
IE I
 1.5
S:
Elastic
(Sensitive)
I 00.5
IE
Among the above elasticity, analysis.
we shall examine the following two
elasticity coefficients for further
CAPACITY ELASTICITY
OF POWER INPUT
When
we wish
to
a relationship between two
express
variables,
such
as compressor
capacity and power input, functionally we
can show how one variable changes with
movements
in
the other.
How sensitively
power changes
as compressor capacity
changes
is one
of our
interests
it relates
to
as
compressor energy efficiency
ratio.
Thus,
interested
in the
we are
characteristics of the capacity elasticity of power input.
We define the elasticity as the percentage change
in power input as a result
of percentage
change
in
compressor capacity.
Denoting capacity elasticity
of power as Ec:
where
W and
C stand
for input JX!Wer and compressor
capacity respectively.
Input power is
elastic when
the
percentage change
in input power
is
than
the percentage
greater
change
in
1317
Aw
(S)
s:_
= AW
input=
W
in. power
change
Ec Percentage
A c
11 c
w
capacity
change
Percentage
~n
c
in elastic when A W /W is _{l}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{1}_{1}_{C}_{/}_{C}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d}
11 W/W is greater than AC/C,
capacity i.e., when
equal
AC/C.
11WIW is
to
unitary when
_{a} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}
For
_{m}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{s}_{u}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{.}
condition
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}
_{a}_{s} _{o}_{n}_{e}
varies
elasticity
The
I) _{o}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{r}
(Fig
_{a}_{r}_{e} _{p}_{l}_{o}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{d}
of Ec
values
of compressor,
(reciprocating) type
operating range.
The
_{w}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{.}
the
inelastic
of input power is
over
elasticity
Capacity
temperature (Te) and approaches to zero _{a}_{t} _{n}_{e}_{a}_{r}
elasticity decreases with _{i}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{v}_{a}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{o}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{c}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{r}_{n} relates _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} decreasing slope of input.
_{S}_{O}_{"}_{F} _{(}_{I}_{O}_{"}_{C}_{)}_{.}
_{a} _{c}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} (0.4 in this·
to
As Te decreases the coefficient converges
_{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} Te.
the
_{o}_{n}_{e} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{t}_{e}
obvious from data or performance
curves;
This observation _{i}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t}
case).
of characteristic.
coefficient _{t}_{o} _{f}_{i}_{n}_{d} this type
Power
Input
of
(Ec)
Elasticity
Capacity
Fig.l
.6r~
• 4
•2
u 0.0
w
.2
90 F'
.4
.6
60 7il
50
3il
2il
til
til
F
in
Temperature
Evaporating
Despite
differences.
compared, there
are
of compressors
are
When _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{t}_{y}_{p}_{e}_{s}
of the
sign
plus/minus
_{H}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{a}_{r}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{i}_{n}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{.}
among them, they
differences
the
_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{c}_{a}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}
_{o}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{n}_{p}_{u}_{t} power varies
_{i}_{t} _{s}_{a}_{y}_{s}
values _{i}_{s} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{i}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{a}_{s}
change.
RATIO
EFFICIENCY
OF ENERGY
POWER ELASTICITY
of
_{E}_{E}_{R} _{a}_{s} _{a} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t}
change in
the
percentage
of EER
elasticity
as
define power
we
_{D}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} of efficiency as Ew:
percentage change in _{i}_{n}_{p}_{u}_{t} _{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r}_{.}
1318
E
"'
,
Pexcent:a.ge
change
in EER _
Percentage
change
in
W
!::t.R
R
t::
w
w
=
!::t.R
}'!
AW R
(6)
where R and W stand for EER and input power respectively.
Efficiency is elastic when the percentage change in EER is greater than the percentage
change in input power i.e. when t::
.0.
W/W, and
unirary when
t::
RIR
is
RIR
is greater than
equal
to
.0.
W/W.
!J.:W/W, inelastic when ARIR is less than
elasticity
provides
EER,
position of the curve.
so that capacity increases (decreases)
Unlike
the
a more
capacity
of input power (Ec), the
Capacity being
calculated
as
on capacity,
power elasticity
the
of EER (Ew)
by
useful analysis.
power input multiplied
a change in power can have one of three effects
depending on the shape and
(same) percentage than power input, as the power decreases, EER is said
If EER changes by a larger (smaller)
(remains unchanged)
to
be
elastic
(inelastic)
(unit elastic).
The fact that capacity is the product of power and EER explains
a
power
to
power changes.
Which way the product of these two,
if EER (demand)
is
mo~1
(figured as a percentage).
relatively
inelastic, higher EER
for
why capacity responds that is, capacity, goes
Compressor will lose capacity
It tells
elastic
or decreasing
in such a fashion
depends upon which changes the
by
lower capacity.
something about capacity.
or inelastic is very important because resultant power hinges on the elasticity.
Whether power elasticity of EER for a specific compressor is
net capacity change of increasing
The power elasticity of EER is quite elastic as shown in
This means
Fig 2 for given
(reciprocating)
condensing temperature
type of compressor.
(Tc).
It becomes even more elastic at high Te and low
that EER becomes very responsive (elastic) under high mass flow condition.
On
the other hand,
the
coefficients approach
to
a certain
value (1.52
in
regardless
ratio at low Te.
of Tc.
In other words, percentage changes
in
input power and
this case)
EER stay
at low Te at a fixed
Fig.2 
Power 
Elasticity 
(Ew) 
of 
Energy 
Efficiency 
Ratio 
3
w
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
10
"
j
/
r
100
F
f.onden"
t
ng
emperatur.,
_I
, !40
~~.;.120F
'"".
" ,rae
F
F
El
10
20
Evaporating
30
40
50
Temperature
in
60
F
1319
70
of compressors, rotary,
_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{a}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{e}_{e}
types
differences
illustrate
To
a function of
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{s}
Figure _{3} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s}
reciprocating, and scroll, are compared.
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{i}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{d} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{T}_{e}_{.}
_{q}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{e} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}
coefficient is
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}
Tc.
a ftxed
Te
at
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}
with
data,
curve may be an accuracy problem
Though the _{o}_{n}_{e} _{o}_{d}_{d}_{}_{l}_{o}_{o}_{k}_{i}_{n}_{g}
remains.
sign
opposite
F
100
a Fixed
(Ew>
at
Elasticity
Power
Fig.3
Condensing
Temperat~re
60~~
40
20
3
w
0
20
 ~1~e•e·~~e2•0~304~0~s~es~e~70
4
F
in
Temperature
Evaporating
A FUNCTION OF COMPRESSION RATIO
ELASTICITY AS
_{i}_{t} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{b}_{e}
performance,
_{a}_{n} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} _{f}_{o}_{r}
compressor
ratio being
Compression
4 plots
Figure
_{a} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of compression ratio.
intuitively interesting _{t}_{o} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{n} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}
as
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}
ratio_
_{a} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of compression
Ec
the calculated _{c}_{a}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{e}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{,}
as
the
other two.
from
of _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{r} _{d}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{u}_{i}_{s}_{h}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{t}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{f}
but each
type
positive slopes,
CEc> as
Elatieity
Capacity
Fig.4
Ratio
Compression
of
a Function
.s
•
•
• •
:
.J:··"'
. .·
"•
• 4
.
.
.
, .
0
•••
•f ••
. 2
aCI
a'a
••,."'
••oa
•• d
lll •• ,
.
u o s.aol!
. .
.
w e~.e
lll'
)I
~~~~Wlll'f1
~rl:c
X 0
.2
•
* Rec1prooar1ng
••
0 Rotary
.4
" Scro 11
. 61
7 8
3 s
6
2
Ratio
Compression
1320
,.x~~r:•
FACTORS AFFECTING
MAGNITUDE OF ELASTICITY
Time perspective
Time perspective influences elasticity. Consider that initial breakin
could range
run results from a few
in reduction in input power during early breakin run.
hours to weeks,
The time
span
somewhat depending on the running condition
of the compressors.
Type
of Compressor
 The
type
of compressor
does differentiate the
elasticity and direction of changes in some cases.
magnitude
of
Oper.ating Condition  The operating condition of
and rate of change in elasticity as
shown
in
Figure I.
the
compressor affects both magnitude
Comp.ession Ratio  Figure 4 illustrates the effect of compression ratio on elasticity.
CONCLUSIONS
The economic concept of elasticity can
be
applied to compressor performance variables.
20 elasticity coefficients possible from 
five performance variables capacity, 
input 

Out of the power, mass 
flow rate, 
ene.gy efficiency ratio, and 
electrical 
current, 
one balf of them are 

inverse relationship 
with 
respect 
to the other half. 
Given 
an 
elasticity 
coefficient, the value 
varies widely ove. the operating range of compressor.
values is roughly similar, coefficients.
Though the magnitude of the computed
the
typeS
of compressors show different c;baracteristic;s with elasticity
Capacity
approaches zero at an evaporating temperature
elasticity coefficient curves as a function of compression ratio
different
elasticity
type
of input power
is
inelastic over a
wide
The elasticity
The
are all positively sloped, but each
other hand, the
for the case examined.
operating
C)
On
range.
the
of near 50· F (I 0
of compressor distinguishes itself from the
other two.
·
power elasticity 
of 
EER 
becomes 
very elastic at 
high 
evaporating 
and 
low 
condensing 
temperatures. Tbat 
means 
tbat EER becomes very responsive (elastic) under high 
mass flow 
condition.
are factors which effect elasticity coefficients.
Compressor run time,
type
of compressor, operating condition, and compression
1321
ratio
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.