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Purdue University

1992

Application of the Economic Elasticity Concept to Compressor Performance Parameters

K. W. Yun

United Technologies Carrier Corporation

Follow this and additional works at: http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec

Yun, K. W., "Application of the Economic Elasticity Concept to Compressor Performance Parameters" (1992). International Compressor Engineering Conference. Paper 926.

http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/icec/926

This document has been made available through Purdue e-Pubs, a service of the Purdue University Libraries. Please contact epubs@purdue.edu for additional information. Complete proceedings may be acquired in print and on CD-ROM directly from the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories at https://engineering.purdue.edu/ Herrick/Events/orderlit.html

APPLICATION OF THE ECONOMIC ELASTICITY CONCEPT TO COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS

K.W. Yun United Technologies Carrier Corp. Syracuse, New York

ABSTRACf

Introducing the economic concept of elasticity, elasticity coefficients involving performance variables of compressors can be defined. Such a coefficient compares the percentage change in one variable with the percentage change in another. Using the published performance of three types of similar capacity compressors a total of twenty elasticity coefficients is computed. The computed coefficients are then classified into three general groups. Two specific coefficients, capacity elasticity of power and power elasticity of EER, are selected for further analysis. Also discussed is the former coefficient as a function of compression ratio. Finally, compressor run time, type of compressor, operating condition and compression ratio are cited as factors affecting elasticity values.

INTRODUCfiON

Performance variables or parameters of a compressor include capacity, input power, energy efficiency ratio. And design, manufacturing and quality factors determine their values. Knowing qualitative interrelationship among these variables is not good enough in checking compressor performance. Given a set of performance values, a quantitative analysis of the interrelationship among the parameters is a prerequisite for performance improvements. In this effort, an analytical technique in economics is introduced. Also shown are results of applying the economic concept to various types of compressor and operating conditions.

THE ECONOMIC CONCEPT OF ELASTICITY

In economic studies, demand or supply curves which relate price to quantity demand or supplied are of a significant importance. Relatet! to these curves, the economic concept of elasticity is widely used to express the responsiveness of quantity demand to price changes. Price elasticity coefficient of demand (supply) expresses the responsiveness. The coefficient compares the percentage change in quantity demanded with the percentage change in price.

Numerically, a typical demand curve

passes through all three ranges,

I E

I

<

I,

I E

I

I E I > I. Elastic (inelastic) demand means that over a given portion of the demand

curve, a lower price would result in a proportionately larger (smaller) increase in quantity and increased (decreased) revenue. Unit elasticity means that a change in price would result in proportionate change in quantity with no change in revenue or total e~penditure.

=

0,

MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION OF THE ELASTICITY CONCEPT

Mathematically, the concept bases the idea on the ratio of the percentage change in one

variable to the percentage change in another.

is percentage change in X divided by percentage change in Y.

The general definition of Y elasticity of X, Ey,

1315

X:

To express the elasticity,

Percent

change

we start with the expression

of percentage change in

in x

~

Amount

changed in

Average

of x,

and

X_

X

2

.6.X _ X, -X,

X 0

-

X

1 +x,

2

variable

( 1)

where

and

calculating the percentage.

X,

X,_

represents the

Note the

X

before the change,

of using

X,

after the change,

and

X.

being

range

convention

the midpoint

of the variable

average of

X,

as

a basis for

Likewise,

using the same convention as

above:

Percentage

change

in

Y- Amount

Average

Changed in

of Y

1

and

Y

Y

2

_

.6.Y _

--y;--

Y,-Y,

Y +Y

1

2

-2~

{2)

The Y Elasticity of X is then:

E

Percentage

change

in

X

_J.ll

Y

Percentage

change

in

Y

(2

l

.6.x

X

0

_

_!I

Yo

The above formula is an arc elasticity.

As AY approaches to 0,

point elasticity.

The definition of point elasticity then becomes:

AX

Y

0

A

Y X

0

(3)

the arc elasticity becomes

(4)

where

[AX/ A Y]

transforms

to

[dX/dY]

as

A Y approaches

to

0 in the limit.

CHARACfERISTICS

OF THE ELASTICITY

There are several important characteristics

to npte in the elasticity formula;

(i)

(ii)

Elasticity is a relative measure,

infinity.

and the values range from minus infinity

to plus

Though it is customary in economic analysis to drop the negative sign,

± sign carries an important

in our engineering analysis we shall not do so as the

significance.

A

positively

[negatively)

sloped

curve yields a

positive [negative) value

for

ela~ticity.

(iii) The formula (3) for computing elasticity consists

slope AX/

.6.

Y and the other position;

is being taken.

of two parts - one representing

the point (Y,IX,)at which the measurement

its elasticity at a

This is because both the slope and

Thus one cannot look at a curve and determine

to Y and X axes.

given point without referring

position of a curve determine

elasticity at any given point on the curve.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ELASTICITY

If elasticity demand curves concept is not

is

nothing more

it would

not

than another way

attention.

of describing the shape and position of

important

The importance of

deserve much

What

makes

elasticity

an

much its descriptive usefulness as its analytic usefulness.

~

1316

elasticity comes from

three factors:

magnitude,

direction

(±

sign)

of elasticity value,

and

magnitude

of the resultant

from the

parameter

product

of the

two variables.

The

sections

following discuss

significance of e.ach of these three factors.

CALCULATION

OF ELASTICITY

COEFFICIENTS

We shall apply the concept

of elasticity to compressor performance

to different types of

compressor's - rotary-type compressor of one manufacturer,

and reciprocating as well as

scroll-

of the

type

other

manufacture.

data

Published

from

three

of compressors,

types

with an

approximate capacity of 24,000 btuh (6,050 kcal/hr) are used to calculate elasticity coeftlc"ients.

Computation

of

different

elasticity

coefficients

total

of

five

performance

uses

a

Selected performance variables are EER in addition to capacity,

parameters.

input power, mass

flow rate and amperage which compressor manufacturers publish.

Out

of 20 different possible

elasticities,

half of them

are just inverse of another.

one

Funhermore,

close intra-parameter

relationship (such as capacity

and

mass flow

rate) result in basically

same values

of elamcity.

The following table summarizes classification

of coefficients

in three arbitrary ranges:

Y ELASTICITY OF X

\X

X=Capacity

Power

EER

Mass

Flow

Amperage

Y\

Y=Capacity

- I

u u

I

Power

s

- s

s u

EER

u

I

- u

I

Mass

Flow

u

I u

- I

Rate

Amper<tge

s u

s s

-

where I:

Insensitive

(Inelastic)

0- 0.5

IE I

U:

Unitary

""

0.5

IE I

- 1.5

S:

Elastic

(Sensitive)

I 0-0.5

IE

Among the above elasticity, analysis.

we shall examine the following two

elasticity coefficients for further

CAPACITY ELASTICITY

OF POWER INPUT

When

we wish

to

a relationship between two

express

variables,

such

as compressor

capacity and power input, functionally we

can show how one variable changes with

movements

in

the other.

How sensitively

power changes

as compressor capacity

changes

is one

of our

interests

it relates

to

as

compressor energy efficiency

ratio.

Thus,

interested

in the

we are

characteristics of the capacity elasticity of power input.

We define the elasticity as the percentage change

in power input as a result

of percentage

change

in

compressor capacity.

Denoting capacity elasticity

of power as Ec:

where

W and

C stand

for input JX!Wer and compressor

capacity respectively.

Input power is

elastic when

the

percentage change

in input power

is

than

the percentage

greater

change

in

1317

Aw

(S)

s:_

= AW

input=

W

in. power

change

Ec- Percentage

A c

11 c

w

capacity

change

Percentage

~n

c

in elastic when A W /W is less than 11C/C, and

11 W/W is greater than AC/C,

capacity i.e., when

equal

AC/C.

11WIW is

to

unitary when

a given

For

might suspect.

condition

with operating

as one

varies

elasticity

The

I) over the compressor

(Fig

are plotted

of Ec

values

of compressor,

(reciprocating) type

operating range.

The

wide operating range.

the

inelastic

of input power is

over

elasticity

Capacity

temperature (Te) and approaches to zero at near

elasticity decreases with increasing evaporating

This observation for certain compressorn relates to the decreasing slope of input.

SO"F (IO"C).

a certain value (0.4 in this·

to

As Te decreases the coefficient converges

power curves with Te.

the

one must compute

obvious from data or performance

curves;

This observation is not

case).

of characteristic.

coefficient to find this type

Power

Input

of

(Ec)

Elasticity

Capacity

Fig.l

.6r-------------------------------------~

• 4

•2

u 0.0

w

-.2

90 F'

-.4

-.6

60 7il

50

3il

2il

til

-til

F

in

Temperature

Evaporating

Despite

differences.

compared, there

are

of compressors

are

When the different types

of the

sign

plus/minus

However, the

are still all inelastic.

among them, they

differences

the

from capacity

opposite direction

in the

that input power varies

it says

values is significant as

change.

RATIO

EFFICIENCY

OF ENERGY

POWER ELASTICITY

of

EER as a result

change in

the

percentage

of EER

elasticity

as

define power

we

Denoting elasticity of efficiency as Ew:

percentage change in input power.

1318

E

"'

,

Pexcent:a.ge

change

in EER _

Percentage

change

in

W

!::t.R

R

t::

w

w

=

!::t.R

}'!

AW R

(6)

where R and W stand for EER and input power respectively.

Efficiency is elastic when the percentage change in EER is greater than the percentage

change in input power- i.e. when t::

.0.

W/W, and

unirary when

t::

RIR

is

RIR

is greater than

equal

to

.0.

W/W.

!J.:W/W, inelastic when ARIR is less than

elasticity

provides

EER,

position of the curve.

so that capacity increases (decreases)

Unlike

the

a more

capacity

of input power (Ec), the

Capacity being

calculated

as

on capacity,

power elasticity

the

of EER (Ew)

by

useful analysis.

power input multiplied

a change in power can have one of three effects

depending on the shape and

(same) percentage than power input, as the power decreases, EER is said

If EER changes by a larger (smaller)

(remains unchanged)

to

be

elastic

(inelastic)

(unit elastic).

The fact that capacity is the product of power and EER explains

a

power

to

power changes.

Which way the product of these two,

if EER (demand)

is

mo~1

(figured as a percentage).

relatively

inelastic, higher EER

for

why capacity responds that is, capacity, goes

Compressor will lose capacity

It tells

elastic

or decreasing

in such a fashion

depends upon which changes the

by

lower capacity.

something about capacity.

or inelastic is very important because resultant power hinges on the elasticity.

Whether power elasticity of EER for a specific compressor is

net capacity change of increasing

The power elasticity of EER is quite elastic as shown in

This means

Fig 2 for given

(reciprocating)

condensing temperature

type of compressor.

(Tc).

It becomes even more elastic at high Te and low

that EER becomes very responsive (elastic) under high mass flow condition.

On

the other hand,

the

coefficients approach

to

a certain

value (1.5-2

in

regardless

ratio at low Te.

of Tc.

In other words, percentage changes

in

input power and

this case)

EER stay

at low Te at a fixed

Fig.2

Power

Elasticity

(Ew)

of

Energy

Efficiency

Ratio

3

w

25

20

15

10

5

0

-5

-10

-15

-10

"

j

/

r

100

F

f.onden"

t

ng

emperatur.,

_I

, !40

~~.;.120F

'""-.

" ,rae

F

F

El

10

20

Evaporating

30

40

50

Temperature

in

60

F

1319

70

of compressors, rotary,

in the capacity elasticity, three

types

differences

illustrate

To

a function of

the elasticity values as

Figure 3 shows

reciprocating, and scroll, are compared.

with increasing trend with Te.

quite elastic

coefficient is

The elasticity

Tc.

a ftxed

Te

at

the importance of the

with

data,

curve may be an accuracy problem

Though the one odd-looking

remains.

sign

opposite

F

100

a Fixed

(Ew>

at

Elasticity

Power

Fig.3

Condensing

Temperat~re

60~------------------------------------~

40

20

3

w

0

-20

- ~1~e----•e----·~~e----2•0----~3-0----4~0----~s~e----s~e----~70

4

F

in

Temperature

Evaporating

A FUNCTION OF COMPRESSION RATIO

ELASTICITY AS

it will be

performance,

an important factor for

compressor

ratio being

Compression

4 plots

Figure

a function of compression ratio.

intuitively interesting to examine an elasticity

as

The curves all show

ratio_

a function of compression

Ec

the calculated capacity elasticity,

as

the

other two.

from

of compressor distinguishes itself

but each

type

positive slopes,

CEc> as

Elatieity

Capacity

Fig.4

Ratio

Compression

of

a Function

.s

• •

:

.J:-··"'

.

"•

• 4

.

.

.

, .

0

•••

•f ••

. 2

aCI

a'a

••,."'

••oa

•• d

lll •• ,

.

u o s.aol!

. .

.

w e~.e

lll'

)I

~~~~Wlll'f-1

~rl:c

X 0

-.2

* Rec1prooar1ng

••

0 Rotary

-.4

" Scro 11

-. 61

7 8

3 s

6

2

Ratio

Compression

1320

,.x~~r:•

FACTORS AFFECTING

MAGNITUDE OF ELASTICITY

Time perspective-

Time perspective influences elasticity. Consider that initial break-in

could range

run results from a few

in reduction in input power during early break-in run.

hours to weeks,

The time

span

somewhat depending on the running condition

of the compressors.

Type

of Compressor

- The

type

of compressor

does differentiate the

elasticity and direction of changes in some cases.

magnitude

of

Oper.ating Condition - The operating condition of

and rate of change in elasticity as

shown

in

Figure I.

the

compressor affects both magnitude

Comp.-ession Ratio - Figure 4 illustrates the effect of compression ratio on elasticity.

CONCLUSIONS

The economic concept of elasticity can

be

applied to compressor performance variables.

20 elasticity coefficients possible

from

five performance variables

capacity,

input

Out of the power,

mass

flow

rate,

ene.-gy

efficiency ratio,

and

electrical

current,

one

balf of them are

inverse relationship

with

respect

to

the other half.

Given

an

elasticity

coefficient,

the value

varies widely ove.- the operating range of compressor.

values is roughly similar, coefficients.

Though the magnitude of the computed

the

typeS

of compressors show different c;baracteristic;s with elasticity

Capacity

approaches zero at an evaporating temperature

elasticity coefficient curves as a function of compression ratio

different

elasticity

type

of input power

is

inelastic over a

wide

The elasticity

The

are all positively sloped, but each

other hand, the

for the case examined.

operating

C)

On

range.

the

of near 50· F (I 0

of compressor distinguishes itself from the

other two.

·

power

elasticity

of

EER

becomes

very

elastic

at

high

evaporating

and

low

condensing

temperatures.

Tbat

means

tbat EER becomes

very

responsive (elastic) under high

mass flow

condition.

are factors which effect elasticity coefficients.

Compressor run time,

type

of compressor, operating condition, and compression

1321

ratio