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Nigerian Food Journal Official Journal of Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology www.nifst.org

Nigerian Food Journal

Official Journal of Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology

www.nifst.org

NIFOJ Vol. 32 No. 2, pages 97 102, 2014

Physical, Chemical and Sensory Qualities of Roselle Water Extract- coagulated Tofu Compared with Tofu from Two Natural Coagulants

* Fasoyiro, S.B. 1

ABSTRACT

Roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa) aqueous extracts were used in coagulating soymilk at four different concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%). The physical, chemical and sensory qualities of the tofu preparations were compared with fermented maize liquor and Calotropis procera extract coagulated tofus. pH of roselle extracts was acidic in nature ( 2.01 3.74) which was attributed to the ability to coagulate soy proteins. pH, titratable acidity of the roselle coagulated tofus ranged from 5.32 6.26 and 0.16 0.43% respectively and the yield and protein content ranged from 87.3 95.9 g and 42.6 46.3 g/100 g respectively. The yield of roselle coagulated tofu increased with increase in concentration of the roselle extracts. Roselle extract when utilized at 2.5% concentration will yield tofu that is acceptable and comparable to tofu coagulated with fermented maize steep water in terms of appearance, flavour and overall acceptability at p > 0.05. Roselle extract at 5% and 10% also yielded tofus that were acceptable in terms of all of the attributes tested.

Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, aqueous extract, tofu, physical, chemical, sensory.

Introduction

Tofu serves as an inexpensive, highly digestible protein source. It has been eaten for centuries by the Orientals and has played an important role in their nutrition as source of high protein food (Liu, 1997; Evans and Rank, 2000). It is processed from soymilk, a dairy milk substitute using different types of coagulants. Basically, three types of coagulants have been reported to have the ability to coagulate proteins: these are salt, proteinases and acids (Liu, 1997). Soybean curd (tofu) has been processed from different types of coagulants such as salts like CaSO 4 , CaCl 2 , MgSO 4 and MgC1 2 (Wang and Hesseltine, 1982). Sodom apple aqueous extract containing plant proteinase has been used in coagulation of cowmilk using the

1 Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, PMB 5029, Moor-Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria. * email: subuolafasoyiro@gmail.com

traditional processing. The extract has also been used to coagulate soymilk into tofu (Aworh and Muller, 1987). Acidic coagulants that have been used in tofu processing include vinegar, lemon juice and glucono- d-lactone (Kohayama et al., 1994, Liu, 1997). Various factors such as variety of seeds, processing conditions, seed storage, stability of soybean composition, type of coagulants has been reported to affect qualities of soybean curd (Poysa and Woodrow, 2002; Shih et al., 2002; Bhardway et al. 2003; Hou and Chang, 2004; Chang et al., 2002; Prabhakaran et al., 2006). Type of coagulant was reported to affect yield and visco-elastic properties of tofu (Cheng et al., 2005; Sun and Breene, 1991). Temperature of processing and water to bean ratio have also influenced textural qualities of tofu (Obata and Matsuura, 1993; Wang et al., 2003). Based on type of coagulant and processing method, different textural characteristics of tofu such soft,

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firm, rubbery, chewy has been described (Shih et al., 1997, Noh et al., 2005). Non- availability and high cost of imported coagulants has led to the search for alternatives for household use in Nigeria. Cheap and locally available natural coagulants for tofu include alum, fermented maize liquor, Calotropis procera leave extract and lime juice (Obatolu, 2008; Omueti and Jaiyeola, 2006).

Roselle is a tropical shrub belonging to the family Malvacea which produces red, dark red and green form of calyces. The chemical composition of the red calyces revealed that they are good sources of vitamin C, flavonoids, minerals and antioxidants (Babalola et al., 2001; Wong et al., 2002). Roselle aqueous extract is acidic; it is usually processed into a sour tasting refreshing drink called Zobo in Nigeria (Fasoyiro et al., 2005). Based on the acidic nature of the roselle extract, it is worthwhile to study its utilization as an alternative natural coagulant in tofu preparation. The objective of this study is to assess the physical, chemical and sensory qualities of the roselle precipitated tofu in comparison with tofu made from two natural coagulants.

Materials and Methods

Dried dark roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa) were obtained from Kenaf and Jute Program, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan, Nigeria. Soybean seeds (variety TGX-1448-1E) and maize grains (variety DMR-ESR-Y) were obtained from the seed store of the same Institute. Fresh sodom apple (Calotropis procera) leaves were obtained from a home garden in Bodija, Oyo State, Nigeria.

500 ml for 10 min respectively. The extracts were filtered through Whatman paper No.1 and the residue was discarded.

Fermented maize liquor was prepared using the method of Omueti and Jaiyeola (2006) with slight modification. Two hundred grams of the maize grains were soaked in 500 ml of water and allowed to ferment for 72 h. During the time of soaking the water was changed twice. The fermented maize grains were milled in a blender (Nakai Model 462, Japan) with 600 ml of water into slurry. The slurry was sieved using a muslin cloth and the residue was discarded. The filtrate was removed and filtered again through a Whatman paper No. 1 to obtain the coagulant (SCMLF).

One hundred grams of Calotropis procera leaves were washed and blended with 500 ml of tap water. The filtrate used as coagulant was obtained by filtering through Whatman paper No. 1 to obtain the coagulant (SCP).

Preparation of tofu

Soybean seeds (400 g) were sorted to remove extraneous materials and were soaked in 2,500 ml of tap water and stored under refrigerator (4 5 o C) for 8 h. The soybean seeds were ground in batches with 3000 ml of water with a blender (Nakai Model 462, Japan) to obtain the slurry. Each batch was blended for 5 min at high speed. The slurry was sieved using a muslin cloth to obtain the soymilk and the residue was discarded. The soluble solid content of the soymilk was measured using hand held refractometer ATAGO Model MASTER-α (Cat. No 2351).

Preparation of coagulants

The soymilk obtained was boiled at 100 o C for 5 min

Red roselle calyces (300 g) were washed thoroughly with tap water and used in preparation of four concentrations of roselle extract (2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%). The different concentrations were prepared by soaking roselle calyces 12.5 g in 500

to reduce anti-nutritional factors and later cooled to 40 o C. Soymilk (500 ml) at initial temperature of about 35 o C was heated on an electric plate and roselle extract was gradually added at 40 o C with gentle stirring until soymilk precipitation was

ml

of tap water for 10 min (SHSWA), 25 g in 500

completed at 80 o 90 o C for 10 min. Complete

ml

of tap water for 10 min (SHSWB), 50 g in 500

precipitation is noted by total separation of the curd

ml

of tapwater for 10 min (SHSWC) and 100 g in

from the whey. Different amount of roselle

Physical, Chemical and Sensory Qualities of Roselle Water Extract-coagualated Tofu Fasoyiro 99

extracts were used in complete precipitation of soymilk (500 ml) as follows: 300 ml of SHSWA, 250 ml of SHSWB, 200 ml of SHSWC and 100 ml of SHSWD respectively. These were used to obtain roselle coagulated tofus SCHWSA, SCHWSB and SCHWSC and SCHWSD respectively. The curds were allowed to stand for 30 min and were later molded in small cheese hoops (50 ml size) lined with one layer muslin cloth to allow for freely draining of water for 4 hours.

The same procedure was repeated in preparing tofu from fermented maize liquor. Soymilk (500 ml) was precipitated with 300 ml of SCFML. Soymilk was coagulated with Calotropis procera extract (SCP) using the method of Aworh and Muller (1987).

extract (SCP) using the method of Aworh and Muller (1987). Fig. 1: Different tofu from natural

Fig. 1: Different tofu from natural coagulants

Analysis of samples pH and titratable acidity

Coagulant (10 ml) was mixed with distilled water (90 ml) and soybean curd (10 g) was homogenized with 90 ml of distilled water. The mixture was allowed to stand for 30 min before filtering with Whatman paper No. 14. The pH of the filtrate was measured with EDT pH meter Model (GP353) calibrated with buffer solutions standards 4 and

7. Ten millilitre aliquots were pipetted with 0.1

M NaOH to phenolphthalein end point. The

acidity was calculated as g lactic acid/100 g and expressed as percentage.

Yield Yield of soybean curd was expressed as fresh weight of tofu in grams obtained from the 500

ml of soymilk.

Chemical composition

Protein content of the soy cheese was determined by Kjeldah method, protein conversion factor was 6.25. Fat content was by Soxhlet extraction. Protein, fat and ash were all determined using AOAC (2000). The analyses were determined as triplicates.

Sensory evaluation

Fresh tofu samples were randomly coded and presented to twenty semi-trained panel members who were familiar with tofu. The taste panelists were presented with tofu samples (2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) size on a plate. They were asked to assess the curds for appearance, colour, flavour, firmness and overall acceptability. The panelists were presented also with water for mouth rinsing in between tasting of each sample. Attributes tested were rated on nine- point hedonic scale where one represented the lowest point and five represented the mid-point.

Statistical analysis Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated by Duncan multiple range test using statistical analytical systems (2003).

Results and Discussion Table 1 the pH and titratable acidity of the different coagulants. pH of roselle extracts ranged from 2.01 3.74, which indicates acidic nature while the titratable acidity of the extracts was within 0.36 1.12%. Concentration of acidity in the roselle extracts followed the order SHSWD>SHSWC>SHSWB = SHSWA. While comparing the roselle extracts with fermented

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Table 1: pH and titratable acidity of roselle extracts in comparison with two natural coagulants

Sample

Concentration

pH

Titratable

(%)

acidity (%)

SHWSA

2.5

3.74 ±

0.01

b

0.36 ± 0.03 c 0.46 ± 0.02 c 0.74 ± 0.01 b 1.12 ± 0.02 a 1.03 ± 0.01 a

SHWSB

5

3.02 ±

0.02

c

SHWSC

10

2.53 ±

0.02

d

SHWSD

20

2.01 ±

0.02

e

SCMLF

10

3.45 ±

0.03

b

SCP

20

6.43 ±

0.02

a

0.02 ± 0.01 d

Means with the same superscript within column are not significantly different (p > 0.05)

SHWSA = 2.5% roselle extract, SHWSB = 5% roselle extract, SHWSC = 10% roselle extract , SHWSD = 20% roselle extract, SCMLF fermented maize liquor, SCP = Calotropis procera extract

maize liquor and Calotropis procera extract, the decreasing order of acidity was SHSWD = SCFML>SHSWC>SHSWB = SHSWA>SCP. pH values of the fermented maize liquor was acidic while sodom apple aqueous extract was neutral. The natural colours of the roselle extracts were red while CFML was off-white and CF was leaf-green. The coagulation property of the roselle extracts could be attributed to the acidic nature of the extracts. Calotropis procera extract coagulation of soymilk has been reported to be enzymic based (Aworh and Muller, 1987).

Table 2 shows the pH and titratable acidity of different tofus. pH of roselle tofu was within 5.32

6.26.

The titratable acidity of the tofu sample coagulated with roselle extract ranged from 0.16% to 0.42%, while in tofu coagulated with fermented maize water was 0.47% and that which was coagulated with Calotropis procera was 0.01%. This indicated that the titratable acidity of tofu is dependent on the coagulant type.

Table 3 shows the yield and chemical analysis of the different tofus. Yield of roselle extract coagulated

Table 2: pH and titratable acidity of roselle extract coagulated tofu in comparison with tofus coagulated with two natural coagulants

Tofu

pH

Titratable

samples

acidity (%)

SCHWSA

tofu

6.26± 0.01 a

 

0.16 ± 0.02 b

SCHWSB

tofu

5.88±

0.03

ab

0.25 ± 0.01 c

SCHWSC

tofu

5.89± 0.02 ab

0.38 ± 0.03 d

SCHWSD

tofu

5.32±

0.01

c

0.43 ± 0.01 a

SCCMLF

tofu

6.43±

0.01

c

0.47 ± 0.01 a

SCP

tofu

6.83±

0.01

a

0.01 ± 0.01 e

Means with the same superscript within column are not significantly different (p > 0.05)

SCHWSA = 2.5% roselle extract coagulated SCHWSB = 5% roselle extract coagulated SCHWSC = 10% roselle extract coagulated SCHWSD = 20% roselle extract coagulated

SCCMLF = fermented maize liquor coagulated and SCP = Calotropis procera coagulated

tofu was within 87.3 95.9 g. Yield for SCCMLF tofu was 94.2 g and for SCP tofu was 83.2 g. The yield of the roselle coagulated curd increased with increase in concentration of the coagulant. Yield of SCHWSC tofu was similar to that of SCMLF tofu and that of SCP tofu was the lowest. This study shows that the yields of roselle coagulated tofus are generally comparable with tofus prepared from other natural coagulants used in this study.

Protein content of the roselle extract coagulated tofu ranged from 42.6 46.3 g/100 g. SCCMLF and SCP tofu were not significantly different in protein content. SCHWSA tofu and SCHWSB tofu had higher ash and moisture contents, while SCHWSC tofu and SCHWD tofu were lower in moisture and ash content.

Physical, Chemical and Sensory Qualities of Roselle Water Extract-coagualated Tofu Fasoyiro 101

Taste panel evaluation of the tofu for sensory acceptability is shown in Table 4. Among the roselle precipitated tofu, SCHWSA tofu was rated highest for appearance, flavour and overall acceptability, which was not significantly different at p > 0.05 from fermented maize steep water coagulated tofu (SCCMLF) in terms of appearance, flavour and overall acceptability. SCHWSA and SCHWSB tofus were not significantly different at p > 0.05 for colour and flavour were acceptable in terms of all of the attributes tested. In comparing SCCMFL and SCP tofus with the roselle extract coagulated tofus, SCCMFL tofu had the highest scores for appearance, colour and firmness. SCHWSA and

SCHWSB tofus were acceptable in terms of flavour than SCMFL tofu. SCP tofu had the least acceptability among all the samples.

Table 3: Yield and chemical analysis of tofu coagu- lated with roselle extracts and two natural

coagulants ( a wet basis, b dry basis)

Sample

Yield a (g)

Protein a

Fat b

Ash b

 

(g/100g)

(g/100g)

(g/100g)

SCHWSA 87.3 ± 4.8 c tofu SCHWSB 90.2 ± 4.6 b tofu SCHWSC 95.5 ±3.2 a tofu SCHWSD 95.9 ± 5.2 a tofu SCCMLF 94.2 ± 3.7 a tofu

43.5 ± 1.4 ab 12.3 ± 0.7 a 5.3 ± 0.02 b

42.6 ± 2.7 bc 12.5 ± 0.6 a 5.8 ± 0.01 a

46.3 ± 1.7 a

13.1 ± 0.5 a 4.3 ± 0.03 c

45.2 ± 4.2 a

12.3 ± 0.3 a 4.1 ± 0.02 c

44.5 ± 1.2 ab 12.9 ± 0.2 a 4.4 ± 0.01 c

SCP

83.2 ± 2.1 d

44.4 ± 1.3 ab

13. 4± 0.4 a

6.1±0.02

a

tofu

Means with the same superscript within column are not significantly different (p > 0.05)

SCHWSA

=

2.5% roselle extract coagulated

SCHWSB

=

5% roselle extract coagulated

SCHWSC

=

10% roselle extract coagulated

SCHWSD

=

20% roselle extract coagulated

SCCMLF =

fermented maize liquor coagulated and

SCP

=

Calotropis procera coagulated tofu

Table 4: Mean sensory attribute of roselle coagulated tofus in comparison with two natural coagulants

coagulated tofus in comparison with two natural coagulants Sample Appearance Colour Flavour Firmness

Sample

Appearance

Colour

Flavour

Firmness

Overall acceptability

SCHWSA

7.6 ± 0.02 a

7.4 ± 0.04 b

7.2 ± 0.07 a

6.3 ± 0.03 b

7.1± 0.03 a

tofu

SCHWSB

6.6 ± 0.01 b

7.3 ± 0.03 b

7.5 ± 0.03 a

6.2 ± 0.01 b

6.9± 0.04 ab

tofu

SCHWSC

6.3 ± 0.06 b

6.7 ± 0.05 c

5.7 ± 0.02 b

6.5 ± 0.02 b

6.3± 0.03 c

tofu

SCHWSD

3.2 ± 0.02 c

3.0 ± 0.04 d

5.4 ± 0.04 b

7.4 ± 0.03 a

4.3± 0.02 d

tofu

CMLF

7.5 ± 0.05 a

8.5 ± 0.02 a

5.2 ± 0.01 b

7.6 ± 0.05 a

7.3± 0.01 a

tofu

SCP

3.4 ± 0.03 c

3.6 ± 0.04 d

2.0 ± 0.04 c

5.5 ± 0.05 c

3.7± 0.04 e

tofu

± 0.04 c 5.5 ± 0.05 c 3.7± 0.04 e tofu Means with the same superscript

Means with the same superscript within column are not significantly different (p > 0.05)

SCHWSA = 2.5% roselle extract coagulated, SCHWSB =5% roselle extract coagulated, SCHWSC = 10% roselle extract coagulated, SCHWSD = 20% roselle extract coagulated, SCCMLF = fermented maize liquor coagulated and SCP = Calotropis procera coagulated

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Conclusion

This study shows that roselle aqueous extract could be used in coagulating soymilk into tofu. Coagulating property of roselle extracts is attributed to the acidic nature of the extracts (pH 2.01 3.74). Yield of roselle coagulated tofu increased with increase in concentration of the roselle extract from 2.5% to 10%. The yield and protein contents of roselle coagulated tofus were comparable with tofus prepared from other natural coagulants used in the study. Roselle extract when utilized at 2.5% concentration will yield tofu that is acceptable and comparable to tofu coagulated with fermented maize steep water in terms of appearance, flavour and overall acceptability. Roselle extracts will serve as an alternative, cheap and natural coagulant for tofu preparation at household and commercial level.

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