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114 consider a 150-W incandescent lamp. The filament of the lamp is 5 cm long and has a
diameter of 0.5 mm. The diameter of the glass bulb of the lamp is 8 cm. Determine the heat
flux, in W/m2, (a) on the surface of the filament and (b) on the surface of the glass bulb, and
(c) calculate how much it will cost per year to keep that lamp on for eight hours a day every
day if the unit cost of electricity is $0.08/kWh

116 A 15-cm 20-cm circuit board houses on its surface 120 closely spaced logic chips, each
dissipating 0.12 W. If the heat transfer from the back surface of the board is negligible,
determine (a) the amount of heat this circuit board dissipates during a 10-hour period, in
kWh, and (b) the heat flux on the surface of the circuit board, in W/m2.

127E A rigid tank contains 20 lbm of air at 50 psia and 80F. The air is now heated until
its pressure is doubled. Determine (a) the volume of the tank and (b) the amount of heat

140 A hair dryer is basically a duct in which a few layers of electric resistors are placed. A
small fan pulls the air in and forces it to flow over the resistors where it is heated. Air
enters a 1200-W hair dryer at 100 kPa and 22C, and leaves at 47C. The cross-sectional
area of the hair dryer at the exit is 60 cm2 Neglecting the power consumed by the fan and
the heat losses through the walls of the hair dryer, determine (a) the volume flow rate of air
at the inlet and (b) the velocity of the air at the exit.

143 Water is heated in an insulated, constant diameter tube by a 7-kW electric resistance
heater. If the water enters the heater steadily at 15C and leaves at 70C, determine the
mass flow rate of water.
162 The inner and outer surfaces of a 5-m6-m brick wall of thickness 30 cm and thermal
conductivity 0.69 W/m C are maintained at temperatures of 20C and 5C, respectively.
Determine the rate of heat transfer through the wall, in W.

166E The north wall of an electrically heated home is 20 ft long, 10 ft high, and 1 ft thick,
and is made of brick whose thermal conductivity is k0.42 Btu/h ft F. On a certain winter
night, the temperatures of the inner and the outer surfaces of the wall are measured to be
at about 62F and 25F, respectively, for a period of 8 hours. Determine (a) the rate of heat
loss through the wall that night and (b) the cost of that heat loss to the home owner if the
cost of electricity is $0.07/kWh.

193 consider a sealed 20-cm-high electronic box whose base dimensions are 40 cm 40 cm
placed in a vacuum chamber. The emissivity of the outer surface of the box is 0.95. If the
electronic components in the box dissipate a total of 100 W of power and the outer surface
temperature of the box is not to exceed 55C, determine the temperature at which the
surrounding surfaces must be kept if this box is to be cooled by radiation alone. Assume the
heat transfer from the bottom surface of the box to the stand to be negligible
1109E Consider a flat plate solar collector placed horizontally on the flat roof of a house.
The collector is 5 ft wide and 15 ft long, and the average temperature of the exposed surface
of the collector is 100F. The emissivity of the exposed surface of the collector is 0.9.
Determine the rate of heat loss from the collector by convection and radiation during a calm
day when the ambient air temperature is 70F and the effective sky temperature for
radiation exchange is 50F. Take the convection heat transfer coefficient on the exposed
surface to be 2.5 Btu/h ft 2 F.

1121 2.5 kg of liquid water initially at 18C is to be heated to 96C in a teapot equipped
with a 1200-W electric heating element inside. The teapot is 0.8 kg and has an average
specific heat of 0.6 kJ/kg C. Taking the specific heat of water to be 4.18 kJ/kg C and
disregarding any heat loss from the teapot, determine how long it will take for the water to
be heated.

1126 A passive solar house that is losing heat to the outdoors at an average rate of 50,000
kJ/h is maintained at 22C at all times during a winter night for 10 hours. The house is to
be heated by 50 glass containers each containing 20 L of water heated to 80C during the
day by absorbing solar energy. A thermostat-controlled 15-kW back-up electric resistance
heater turns on whenever necessary to keep the house at 22C. (a) How long did the electric
heating system run that night? (b) How long would the electric heater have run that night if
the house incorporated no solar heating?

1138 The rate of heat loss through a unit surface area of a window per unit temperature
difference between the indoors and the outdoors is called the U-factor. The value of the U-
factor ranges from about 1.25 W/m2C (or 0.22 Btu/h ft 2 F) for low-coated, argon-filled,
quadruple-pane windows to 6.25 W/m2 C (or 1.1 Btu/h ft2 F) for a single pane window
with aluminum frames. Determine the range for the rate of heat loss through a 1.2-m1.8-
m window of a house that is maintained at 20C when the outdoor air temperature is 8C.