Sei sulla pagina 1di 98

3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Thisisthehtmlversionofthefilehttp://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_Wastewater_Management_Systems_
_van_Betuw.pdf.
Googleautomaticallygenerateshtmlversionsofdocumentsaswecrawltheweb.

Page1

EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewater
ManagementSystems(SSWMS)

AresearchintotheperformanceofSourceSeparatingWMSinthe

NetherlandsandSweden,andthedriversandbarriersthatwerecrucialfor
theirimplementation.

Supervisors:Dr.ir.Adriaan.MelsandDr.OkkeBraadbaart
WageningenUniversity,UrbanEnvironmentalManagementGroup

Author:WoutervanBetuw
WageningenUniversity
December2005

Page2
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 1/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

PREFACE

AspartofthemastersEnvironmentalTechnologyIperformathesisonDecentralisedSanitation

AndReuse(DESAR)fortheUrbanEnvironmentalManagement(UAM)groupofthe

WageningenUniversity.Thethesisispartofalargestudyontheevaluationofseveralaspectson

theSSWMS.Ihopethatmystudycancontributetothefurtheroptimisationofthecomparisonof
SSWMSwiththeconventionalWMS.AndthatmoreSSWMSareimplementedovertheworld.

Inthisresearchmanyactorswereopenforanswersandhelpedmeingatheringknowledge.

Withoutthesepeople,andtherearetoomanytonamethembyperson,thisresearchwasnot

possible.WithsomeofthemIhadaverypleasanttime,nicedinnersandgoodconversations.I

wouldliketothankallofyouthatcontributedtothisresearch.Ihopethatsomeofyoucan

benefitfromthisstudy.

FinallyIwouldliketothankmysupervisors,AdriaanandOkke,forthepossibilitytoperform
thisstudyandperformresearchinSwedenandfortheirassistanceinmyresearch.

Iwishyouapleasantreading,

WoutervanBetuw

Page3
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

SUMMARY
RecentlynewconceptsfordomesticWMSaredeveloped,thesocalledSourceSeparatingWMS

(SSWMS).InseveralcountriesnewneighbourhoodsaredesignedwithseveraltypesofSSWMS.

ThephilosophyofSSWMSisasourcerelatedapproach,athousehold(hh)level,byseparating

blackwater(toiletwater)andgreywater(shower,washing,andbathwater).Alsoseparationby

urinecollection,brownwater(onlyfecesandtoiletwater)andgreywaterareknown.

Thisstudyfocusesona)Performancethecomparativeperformance(technicalandfinancial)of

theSSWMSwiththereferenceWMS,andb)Technologychoicethedriversandbarriersthat
leadtoestablishmentoftheSSWMS

Ada)theperformanceincludesfourcriteria:compliancewithprimaryfunctions,subfunctions,

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 2/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
userperspectiveandenvironment.Eachcriterionhasseveralquantifiableindicators.The
indicatorsarestandardizedtofitallsanitationsituationsintheworld.

Adb)littleisknownabouttherationaleoftherealizationofthesesystems.Severalactors

involvedinthedesignofthenewneighbourhoodenforcetherealization.Theactorsaregrouped

asgovernmentalorganizations,projectdeveloper,andthefutureinhabitants.

ThestudiedsitesareintheNetherlands:HetgroenedaksituatedinUtrechtandPolderdriftin

Arnhem,andinSweden:EkoportensituatedinNorrkping,UnderstenshjdeninStockholm,

GebersinStockholm,SkogaberginGteborg.

Themainresearchquestionsare:

1)WhatistheperformanceoftheimplementedSSWMSbasedonthe

criteriaintheNetherlandsandSwedencomparedtothereference
WMS.

2)Whatarethemaindriversandbarriersfortheimplementationofa
SSWMSintheNetherlandsandSweden.

Page4
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Table1presentstheperformanceassessmentofthesitescomparedtotheconventionalWMS.

Table1

Criteria Indicator Groene Polder Eko Skoga Under Gebers


dak drift por Berg stens
ten hjden
Primary Healthprotection 0 0 0
functions
Protectionofsurface 0 + + + +
water
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement + + + + + +
Drainagemanagement + + 0 0 0 0
User Costs + +
perspective
Invisibility/comfort 0 0 + + 0
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse + + + + + +
Emissions 0 + +/ + + +

ThemaindriversandbarriersweredifferentintheNetherlandsandSweden.Onedifferenceisthe

objectiveofwaterreuse.InmostcasestheSwedishtenantswerenotinterestedinthewateruse.

Yetalargepartoftheiroperationalcostsaredefinedbythewateruse.Anotherdifferenceisthe

recyclingofnutrientsthatisactivelyaddressedbyallSwedishactorsandisimplementedinthe

newpolicyonWMS.IntheNetherlandsthenutrientsarenotveryinteresting.

Inbothcountrieshealthrisksareimportant.Somehealthrisksmayberelatedtothelackof
managementandmaintenance.Sincethepreventionofhealthrisksispartoftheprimary

functionstheyshouldbeminimized.InSwedenistheprotectionofsurfacewater,mainlythe

fragilelakes,veryimportant.Thereforealocaltreatmentplantmaybearisk(byfailure)forthis

quality.Allactorsaddressthehighcostsasanimportantbarrier.Yetthedistributionofcostsand

benefitsisverydiffuseoverseveralactors.Thediscountonthewaterboardfeeispartofthis

diffusion.ThevalueoftheSSWMSisforthewaterboardsintheNetherlandshardtodefine,

becausetheyhavenointerest/idea.InSwedeninsomecasesadiscountisgiven,yetthe

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 3/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
proportionofthediscountisnotdefinedclearly.Thelastbarriersisthatinmosturbanareas

alreadyaconventionalWMSispresent,andseveralactorsvaluethesystemonitsreliabilityand

costeffectiveness.

Page5
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

TABLEOFCONTENTS
SUMMARY 1

TABLEOFCONTENTS 3

1INTRODUCTION 5
1.1RESEARCHBACKGROUND 5
1.2RESEARCHOBJECTIVE 6
1.3M AINRESEARCHQUESTIONS 7
1.3SUBRESEARCHQUESTIONS 7
1.4INDEX 7
2WASTEWATERCHARACTERIZATIONANDLEGISLATION 8
2.1INTRODUCTION 8
2.2SOURCESOFWASTEWATER 8
2.3QUALITYOFTHEWASTEWATER 9
2.4LEGISLATIONINTHENETHERLANDS 11
2.5LEGISLATIONINSWEDEN 12
2.6LEGISLATIONINEUROPE 12

3RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY 13
3.1INTRODUCTION 13
3.2RESEARCHSITES 13
3.3PERFORMANCEASSESSMENT 14
3.4TECHNOLOGYCHOICE(DRIVERSANDBARRIERS) 15
4REFERENCEWASTEWATERMANAGEMENTSYSTEM 16
4.1INTRODUCTION 16
4.2REFERENCEWMS 16
4.3NOTIMPLEMENTEDSSWMS 21
5SOURCESEPARATEDWMSINTHENETHERLANDS 22
5.1INTRODUCTION 22
5.2HETGROENEDAK 22
5.3POLDERDRIFT 32
6SOURCESEPARATEDWMSINSWEDEN 40
6.1INTRODUCTION 40
6.2EKOPORTEN 40
6.3SKOGABERG 49
6.4UNDERSTENSHJDEN 57
6.5GEBERS 63

7DISCUSSION 70

7.1PERFORMANCEASSESSMENT 70
7.2DRIVERSANDBARRIERS 71
8CONCLUSION 72
8.1PERFORMANCEASSESSMENT 72
8.2DRIVERSANDBARRIERS 73
9RECOMMENDATIONS 74
9.1RECOMMENDATIONSPERSSWMS 74
9.2RECOMMENDATIONSFORFURTHERRESEARCH 75

Page6

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 4/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

9.3RECOMMENDATIONSFORFUTURESSWMS 75

DEFINITIONOFCONCEPTS 77

LITERATURE 78

APPENDIX1METHODOLOGY I

APPENDIX2SOURCESEPARATINGINHETGROENEDAK XVIII

APPENDIX3SOURCESEPARATINGINPOLDERDRIFT XXIV

APPENDIX4SOURCESEPARATINGINEKOPORTEN XXIX

APPENDIX5SOURCESEPARATINGINSKOGABERG XXXV

APPENDIX6SOURCESEPARATINGINUNDERSTENSHJDEN XXXIX

APPENDIX7SOURCESEPARATINGINGEBERS XLIV

Page7
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

1INTRODUCTION

1.1Researchbackground

ThedomesticwastewaterintheNetherlandsismostly,98%(Mels,2004a),treatedbefore
dischargeonsurfacewaterbyawastewatermanagementsystem(WMS).Thewastewateris

conventionallymanagedbymeansoftransportbyseweragesystemsandtreatmentina

WastewaterTreatmentPlant(WTP).ThisWMSisconsideredtobetheconventionalsystem.In

veryisolatedareasseptictanksarecommonforindividualhouseholds.

TheprimaryfunctionsofaWMSare:protectionofpublichealthbymeansofsafetransportand

treatmentofhumanwasteandprotectionofsurfacewaterandenvironmentbypreventing

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 5/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
dischargesofhazardouscompounds.Alsothedischargeofrainwaterandgroundwateris

accomplishedbythesystem.TheconventionalWMSundergoesseveralproblems(Mels,2004a):
thesewerageneedsrenovationandexpansionthatresultsinhighcosts

thereisdirectpollutionofsurfacewaterwithuntreatedwastewaterduetolowcapacityof

sewerageandWTPtotreatintensiverainfall
upcomingnewEUstandardsoneffluentqualityoftheWTP,thereforeexpensivetertiary

treatmentstepsneedtobeinstalled
thereiswasteproductionofpollutedsludge,itcontainstomuchheavymetals,thathastobe

incinerated

RecentlynewconceptsfordomesticWMSaredeveloped,thesocalledSourceSeparatingWMS

(SSWMS).InseveralcountriesnewneighbourhoodsaredesignedwithseveraltypesofSSWMS.

ThephilosophyofSSWMSisasourcerelatedapproach,athousehold(hh)level,byseparating
blackwater(toiletwater)andgreywater(shower,washing,andbathwater).Alsoseparationby
urinecollection,brownwater(onlyfecesandtoiletwater)andgreywaterareknown.Compared

totheconventionalWMStheblackwatercanbetreatedinaconcentratedform(nogreywater
dilution)thatincreasestreatmentefficiencyandmakesreuseofnutrientspossible.Thegreywater

canbetreatedbymeansofreetbedfilters,activatedsludgeorothertechnologies.Thesetreatment
methodsmakeitpossibletocleanthewastewateratlocallevelandtheconventionalWMS

becomesunnecessary.

Page8
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

ThereareseveraltypesofSSWMSrealizedintheNetherlandsandSweden.TheseWMSare

dividedinclustersbasedontheirseparation.
IntheNetherlandstheseparationisbetweengreyandblackwater.Thegreywateristreated

locallyyettheblackwaterisstilltreatedinconventionalway.
InSwedenthesystemsincludeseparationofurine,brown,andgreywater.Theurineisreused

bylocalfarmers,orinotherways.Thebrownwateriscompostedordigestedwithbiogas
production.Andthegreywateristreatedlocallyorinconventionalway.

Thisresearchisrelatedtoastocktakingresearch(STR)(Mels,2004b)oftheserealizedSSWMS.
TheSTRsobjectivewastogatherexperiencesofSSWMStoincreasetheirestablishmentinthe

Netherlands.TheSTRdescribesthetechnicalfunctions,thehistory,andtheorganizationofthe
implementationoftheWMS.Thisstudyfocusesona)Performancethecomparative

performance(technicalandfinancial)oftheSSWMSwiththereferenceWMS,andb)
TechnologychoicethedriversandbarriersthatleadtoestablishmentoftheSSWMS

Ada)theperformanceincludesfourcriteria:compliancewithprimaryfunctions,subfunctions,

userperspectiveandenvironment.Eachcriterionhasseveralquantifiableindicators.The
indicatorsarestandardizedtofitallsanitationsituationsintheworld.

Adb)littleisknownabouttherationaleoftherealizationofthesesystems.Severalactors

involvedinthedesignofthenewneighbourhoodenforcetherealization.Theactorsaregrouped
asgovernmentalorganizations,projectdeveloper,andthefutureinhabitants.Theresearchwill
includetherealisedsitesandalsosomenonrealisedsites.

1.2Researchobjective

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 6/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
TheresearchobjectiveistoassesstheperformanceofSSWMSintheNetherlandsandSwedenby
comparisonwiththeconventionalWMSintheNetherlandsanddefiningtheirdriversand
barriersindecisionmakingbyevaluatingestablishedandfailedSSWMS.

Page9
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

1.3Mainresearchquestions

1)WhatistheperformanceoftheimplementedSSWMSbasedonthecriteriain
theNetherlandsandSwedencomparedtothereferenceWMS.

2)WhatarethemaindriversandbarriersfortheimplementationofaSSWMS
intheNetherlandsandSweden.

1.3Subresearchquestions

Referencesystem:

1a.WhatistheaverageconventionalWMSintheNetherlands?

1b.WhatistheaverageperformanceoftheconventionalWMSintheNetherlands?
1c.Whichactorsareinvolvedinthedecisionmakingprocess?

1d.WhatarethedriversandbarriersoftheconventionalWMS?

SSWMSsites:
2a.WhattypesofSSWMSsitesareimplemented?

2b.Whatsitesareinterestingfortheresearchbasedontheclustering?
2c.InwhatcriteriadoestheperformanceoftheclusteredSSWMSsitessignificantlydiffersfrom

theconventionalWMSintheNetherlands?
2e.Whichactorsareinvolvedinthedecisionmakingprocess?

2f.WhatarethedriversandbarriersinthedecisionmakingprocesstoestablishtheSSWMS
system?

1.4Index

Thenextchapterpresentsthebackgroundofthisstudy,thecharacterizationofthewastewaterand

involvedlegislation.Thereaftertheresearchmethoddescribesthestrategyandmethodused.
Thenthereferencesystems,aswellastwonotimplementedSSWMSaredescribed.Chapter5
and6presenttheSSWMSintheNetherlandsandSweden.Subsequentlyinthediscussionthe

bottlenecksinthisstudyareshown.Thereafteraconclusiononthemainresearchquestionsand
severalrecommendationsaregiven.Finallyalistwiththedefinitionofconceptsisgiven.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 7/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Page10
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

2WASTEWATERCHARACTERIZATIONANDLEGISLATION

2.1Introduction

Thischapterportraysthecharacterizationofthedomesticwastewatertogaininsightinthe
fundamentsoftheWMS.Adistinctionismadebetweenthegrey,black,urine,brownand

rainwater.FromthisdistinctionnewWMScanbedeveloped.Subsequentlythelegislation

regardingwastewatertransportandtreatmentintheNetherlands,Sweden,andoftheEuropean
Unionisaddressed.Thelegislationispartofthepreconditionsofthesystems.

2.2Sourcesofwastewater

Domesticwastewaterarisesfromseveralhabitsthatarewaterconsuming.Thewaterusedfor

thesepurposesismainlydrinkwater.Thisdrinkwatercontainshighqualitystandardsbasedon
protectionofthepublichealth.Theamountofwaterusedisbasedonthreefactors:the

penetrationofwaterconsumingequipment,theactualuseofpersons,andthecapacityofthe
waterconsumingequipment.In2004isintheNetherlandstheaverageamount123.8L/p.d(Table

2).Thewaterpriceisdifferentateachwatersupplycompany,yettheaverageis1.02/m3
(Geudens,2005).InSwedenaverageamountis200L/p.dwithapriceof1.37/m3.TheSwedish

priceincludestheseweragetaxes,waterboardfeeandWTPinvestmentcosts.

Table2WaterconsumptionintheNetherlandsin2004(Kanne,2005)

Waterconsumingactivity Amountofwaterin
(L/p.d)
Bath 2.8
Shower 43.7
Washbasin 5.1
Toiletflush 35.8
Washingclothes,byhand 1.5
Washingclothes,bymachine 18.0
Thediches,byhand 3.9
Thediches,bymachine 3.0
Foodpreparation 1.8
Koffeeandthee 1.0
Waterdrinking 0.6
Otherkitchentap 6.4
Total 123.8

Duetotherunoffofhardsurfaceareasinurbanareasrainwatercannotdirectlyinfiltrateinthe

soil.Thereforeitisnormallydischargedbythesewerage.IntheNetherlands75%ofthesewerage
isdesignedasacombinedsewerage(LemmenandOomens,2001).Theamountofrainwater

differsperregionandtime.

Page11
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure1presentsthedifferenttypesofwastewater.Therelativequantityoffecesis5L/p.m,

urine50L/p.m,toiletflushwater1000L/p.m,greywater2000L/p.mandrainwater15006000
L/p.m(VanBuuren,2004).

Figure1Typesofwastewater

URINE TOILET FAECES KITCHEN BATH, STORMWATER


FLUSHING SHOWER,
LAUNDRY

YELLOW BROWN
WATER WATER

GREYWATER
BLACKWATER

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 8/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

DOMESTICSEWAGE

COMBINEDSEWAGE

2.3Qualityofthewastewater

Thequalityofthedifferenttypesisdiverseanddefinesthenecessarytreatment.Table3presents
thedailyloadstodomesticwastewater(VanBuuren,2004).Theparametersmentionedare

ChemicalOxygenDemand(COD),totalnitrogen(Ntotal),totalPhosphorus(Ptotal),andFecal
Colien(FC),respectivelytoindicatetheoxygenconsumption,eutrophicationcapacity(NandP),
andindicatingtheamountofpathogens.Thetableshowsthatgreywatercontainsonly30%

COD,10%Ntotal,lessthen50%Ptotal,and10%FCofthetotaldomesticwastewater.These
amountsaredilutedinapproximately6588litre(Kanne,2005andVanBuuren,2004)thatmakes

itnotverypolluted.Thismakessimpletreatmentpossible.

Table3Dailyloadsdischargedtodomesticwastewater

COD Ntotal Ptotal FecalColien


(g/p.d) (g/p.d) (g/p.d) (n * /p.d)
Feces 44 2 0.85 1010
Urine 36 8 1.45 0
Blackwater** 80 10 2.3 1010
Greywater 34 1 12 109
Total*** 114 11 23 1.1*1010
* nistheamountcounted** Theblackwateristhecumulativeoffecesandurine*** Thetotalvalueis

cumulativeofblackandgreywater

Page12
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Theblackwateristhecombinationoffecesandurine.Theamountisapproximately2litre

dilutedwith3235.8litreflushwater(Kanne,2005andVanBuuren,2004).Thefecescontaina
highconcentrationofpathogensandneedtobedisinfectedbeforereuse.Itcanbecompostedor

digestedinbiologicaltreatmentsteps.Thefinalsludgehasadestinationinlandfilling,
incinerationorreusebyfarmers.Thelatterisduetotheheavymetalconcentrationnotapplicable

intheNetherlands.OftheblackwatertheUrinecontainsapproximately45%COD,80%N
total,63%Ptotal,andnormally0%FC.Theamountofpathogenscanincreaseifthecapitahas

kidneyproblems,i.e.akidneyinfection.Theamountofheavymetalsislow(Palmquistand
Jnsson,2003).Theseparationoftheurineiscarriedoutatthetoilet.Afteradisinfectingstorage
timeitisreusableinagricultureasfertilizer.ForcerealstheNandPconcentrationisrespectively

90%and100%comparedtoachemicalfertilizer.Theenvironmentaleffectsofurineseparation
comparedtoaconventionalseweragesystemare:recyclingofmuchmoreplantnutrientsand

thereforelowerwateremissionsofnutrients,andenergysavingduetolessnitrogenremovalin
WTPandproductionoffertilizers.(Jnsson,2001and2002)

Therainwaterismanagedbyinfiltrationorbydischargeonthesewerage.Table4portraysthe

rainwaterquality.Beforecontactwithanysurfacethequalityissuitableforreuse.Ifitcomesin
contactwithroofsitmaybechemicallyofagoodqualitybutbiologicalunstable,i.e.itmay

containFCandpathogensduetofecesofbirds.Reusewithoutanytreatment,forinstancefor
toiletflushing,leadstohealthriskshigherthanmaximumacceptable(Senden,2003a).The

rainwatermaytakeuppollutantsoftrafficandotherhumanactivitiesthereforetreatmentbefore
dischargeisnecessary.

Table4Qualityofrainwaterwithoutcontactonanysurface(Senden,2003)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating_ 9/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

10

Page13
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

2.4LegislationintheNetherlands

IntheNetherlandsseverallegislationsareinvolvedregardingWMS.Thelegislationismadeby
theNationalgovernment.TheHousingActstatesthataccordingtheBuildingPermissioneach

houseshouldhaveahygieniccharacter.Thismeansthatthedomesticwastewaterneedstobe

collectedbymeansofsewerageinordertopreventadirtyhouse.TheEnvironmental

ManagementActstatesthattheLocalGovernmentisresponsibleforthecollectionandtransport.

ThePollutionofSurfaceWatersActestablishedin1970andstatesthatthedischargeofdomestic

wastewateronsurfacewaterisonlypermittedincaseofaGovernmentalLicense.TheWater

boardistreatingitinaWTPandhasthisGovernmentalLicense.TheActfocusesontheremoval
ofpathogens,oxygenconsumingwaste(BODandammonium)andNandP.In1991European

UnionlaunchedtheGuidelineUrbanWastewater(91/271/EEG).Table5presentstheemission

standardsforneworexistingplants.

Table5EmissionstandardsinTheNetherlandsasof2001

Parameter Unit Amount Appliesto


BOD mgO2 /l 20
NKjeldahl mgN/l 20
Suspendedsolids mgTS/l 30
Ptotal* mgP/l 2 Newplants+existingplants<100,000p.e.***
mgP/l 1 Newplants+existingplants>100,000p.e.
Ntotal* mgN/l 15 Newplants<20,000p.e.
mgN/l 10or15** Newplants>20,000p.e.
mgN/l 15 Existingplants<20,000p.e.
mgN/l 10 Existingplants>20,000p.e.
*exceedingoftheselimitsispossibleundertheconditionthatanaverage75%eliminationratehasbeen
achievedwithintheareaofawaterboard
**10mgN/lunlessphosphateisremovedbysimultaneousprecipitationinthelattercase15mgN/l
***p.e.=populationequivalent

ThesludgeoftheWTPisaccordingtheBOOMbesluittopollutedforreuseinagriculture.

Thereforeitisincineratedatacentralizedplant.Theremainingashesareusedinconstruction
activities.Thetreatmentcostsofthesludgeareapproximately40%ofthetotalwastewater

treatmentcosts.(Mels,et.al.,2004a)

IntheNetherlandsthemainwatersourceisdrinkwater.Yetalsohouseholdwaterisusedthat
maycontainalowerwaterquality.Article4,firstparagraph,oftheWaterleidingbesluitreveals

thatitmaynotcontainmicroorganism,parasitesorsubstancesinaconcentrationthatmightbe
harmfulforthepublichealth.Themaximumapplicableinfectionriskforpathogenicorganism

hasathresholdvalueofoneinfectionon10,000personsperyear.Fromthisperspectivethe
MinistryofVROMconcludesthattheuseofhouseholdwatermayberisky.(Senden,2003b)

11

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 10/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Page14
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

2.5LegislationinSweden

InSwedentheEnvironmentalActregulatesthedischargeofthewastewatereffluent.Itcontains
noeffluentdemandsforBOD,P,andSS.TheeffluentofWTPsattheseaisdefinedbyEU

legislationandconsidersforNtotalthethresholdvalueof10,and15mg/Lforrespectively
plantsof<100,000p.e.and>100,000p.e.ThesevaluesdonotcountforWTPnorthofNorrtlje.

Abovethiscitythetemperatureisingeneralsolowthatthebiologicalnitrogenremovalis
reduced.(WebsiteSwedishEPA)

ItisadvisedbytheLRF(farmersorganization)tonotreusetheWTPsludgeinagriculture.They

questiontheeffectofheavymetal,persistentorganicpollutants,hormones,andmedicines.The
qualitystandardsforthesludgethatmakesreuseforarablelandapplicablearedepictedintable6.

Thereforemostsewagesludgeislandfilledandincinerated.

Table6MetalcontentinDMsludgeforarablelandaccordingtheSNFS1994:2(WebsiteSwedish
EPA)

Metal AmountinDM
sludge(mg/kg)
Pb 40
Cd 0.4
Cu 40
Cr 60
Hg 0.3
Ni 30
Zn 100

2.6LegislationinEurope

In2006/2007theeffluentqualitystandardswillbechangedaccordingtheEUWaterFramework
Directive.In2015allWTPhavetofulfillthesenewstandards.Thestandardsaredependingon

function(s)ofthesurfacewateratwhichtheWTPdischargeson.Theexactstandardsstillhaveto
bedefined.ForsomeWTPthestandardswillequaltheMTR(maximumtolerablerisks)values

forNtotal<2.2mg/L,Ptotal<0.15mg/L,Copper3.8g/L,andZinc40g/L.FinallyanEU
regulationstatethathumanurinemaynotbeusedinecologicalagriculture,yetinconventional

agriculture(Jnsson,2001).

12

Page15
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

3RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY

3.1Introduction

Inthischaptertheresearchmethodologyisexplained.Firsttheresearchsitesareclustered.
Subsequentlytheperformanceassessmentispresented.Andfinallythetechnologychoice
(driversandbarriersassessment)isdescribed.InAppendix1thepracticalinstrumentsofthis

strategyaregiven.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 11/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
3.2Researchsites

ThemainfocusofthisresearchisnotonallnationalWMSbutonurbanareaswherea
conventionalWMSisnormallyapplied.Thewatersupplysystemisnottakenintoaccount,

althoughinsomesitesthiswaspartoftheproject.Thereasonforthesepreconditionsisthatthe
researchwouldnotfitintheavailableresearchtime.Itisadvisabletoassessthosesystemsin

furtherresearchaswell.

TheSSWMSinvolvedinthisresearchareselectedfromtheSTR.Togainanoverviewofthe
sitesandtheirusedtechnologytheyfirstarenumberedandinsertedinadatabase(thedatabase

hastheextensionResearchsites.xls).Alsothecontactinformationoftheactorsofeachsiteis
insertedtooutlineandstoretheinformation.Thedatabaseisdesignedtofitinmoresitesinthe

future.Thedatabasemakesiteasytoclusterthesitesinthefollowingconcepts:
0.Noseparationofwastewater(referenceWMS)
1.PartlyseparationofUrineandtherest(brown,grey,andrainwater)

2.Fullseparationofwater:
2a.Black,grey,andrainwater

2b.Urine,brown,grey,andrainwater

Ad.0)ThereferencesystemistheconventionalWMSthatcontainsnoseparationandisbasedon
transportationbyseweragetotheWTP.Therainwaterisalsodischargedwiththissystem.The

sludgeofthisprocessistreatedandfinallyincinerated,orlandfilled.Theaverageofthe
conventionalsystemintheNetherlandsisrepresentativetoallconventionalWMSinthe

NetherlandsandSweden.

13

Page16
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Ad.1&2)Therainwaterandsludgetransportandtreatmentarealsotakenintoaccount.The

selectedSSWMSsitesarebasedonresearchtime,traveldistance,andcluster.
IntheNetherlandsthesitesareallincluster2a.Thesitesselectedare:

(1)HetgroenedaksituatedinUtrecht
(3)PolderdriftsituatedinArnhem.

InSwedenthefourselectedsitesare:
(11)EkoportensituatedinNorrkpingthatisincluster2b

(12)Understenshjdenincluster1andsituatedinStockholm
(13)Gebersincluster2bandsituatedinStockholm
(16)Skogaberg,Gteborgincluster2aandsituatedinGteborg.

3.3PerformanceAssessment

Theassessmentoftheperformancecontainsafulldescriptionandevaluationoftheimplemented
system.Firstthehistoryandimplementedtechnologyaredescribed,andthentheperformanceby
answeringthequestionsinAppendix1paragraph1.5.Subsequentlytheindicatorsofasystemare

insertedinthedatabase.ThedatabaseisstandardizedtocompareallWMSaroundtheworld.
Aspectsofthedatabaseare:sortSSWMS,sortindicatorcompliancewiththecriteria

primaryfunctions
subfunctions

userperspective(costs,invisibility,androbustness),and
environment(resourceuseandemissions).

Theenvironmentalcriterionisdividedinresourceconsumptionandemissions.Theextrauseof

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 12/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
materialisnotincluded.Theindicatorsareallcalculatedfora2personshousehold.Thetotal
costsconsistofinvestmentandoperationalcosts.Theannuityoftheinvestmentcostsis
calculatedwithaninterestof2.5%andalifetimeof25years.Theuserperspectiveisanaverage
oftheanswersofthetenants.ThesystemsindicatorsarecomparedwiththereferenceWMSto

assesstheperformance.

Theinformationisgatheredbyliteratureresearchandinterviewswithactorsandtenants(5
households).TheletterandsurveyforthehouseholdsandactorsarepresentedinAppendix1.

Thehouseholdsareselectedwiththemethodofrandomsampling.Thisamountcannotgivea
generalizationtothewhole(SSWMSsites)population,yetlogicalinferencetothepopulationis

stillpossible.

14

Page17
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

3.4Technologychoice(DriversandBarriers)

Togaininsightinthedecisionmakingofthedesignandimplementationphaseofthesystem

severalactors(stakeholders)involvedareinterviewed(figure2).Firstanoverviewoftheactors

andtheirroleandresponsibilityispresented.Subsequentlyanoverviewismadeoftheirdrivers
andbarriersindesign,currentandfuturesituation.Thetimeperspectiveisimportanttoget

insightinthedevelopmentoftheirarguments.Alsosomeexpertsareinterviewedtogain
knowledgeonthebarriersinnotestablishedSSWMSsitesthatfailedduringtheirdecision

making.

Figure2Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

TENANTS

WATER
ARCHITECT BOARD

ACTORSINVOLVEDIN
DESIGNANDDECISION
MAKING

MUNICI HOUSING
PALITY COMPANY

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 13/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

15

Page18
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

4REFERENCEWASTEWATERMANAGEMENTSYSTEM

4.1Introduction

ThischapterpresentsthereferenceWMSsystemsintheNetherlands.Sincethereferencesystem
inSwedenisquitesimilarinurbanareasthesystemdescriptionmaybeusedtocompareallthe
SSWMS.

4.2ReferenceWMS

Sincethe1920stheauthoritiesintheNetherlandsarebuildingseweragesystems.Theobjective

wastoremoveallwastewaterfromthehousesandprotectthepublichealthbypreventingwater
basedepidemics(Melset.al.,2004a).Toprotectthesurfacewateranddrinkwatersourcesthe

sewageneededtreatmentinawastewatertreatmentplant(WTP).Themainobjectivewasto
removeoxygenconsumingorganicmatter,nutrients(NandP),andpathogens.In2001

15,732,214inhabitantsareconnectedtothecentralizedWMS(Rioned,2002).Therefore
approximately7,866,107households(2p/hh).

4.2.1ImplementedTechnology
Rainwater

Therainwatermaybecollectedseparatelywitharainwatersewerageorcombinedwiththe
domesticsewage.Themainproblemofcombinedseweragesystemsarethesewageoverflowsby

intensiverainfall,andthedilutionofthewastewaterbyrainwater.Theseparatecollection
preventsoverflowsofthedomesticsewerage.Inmostcasesdischargestherainwatersewerage

directlyonsurfacewater.Thereforepollutantsofroadsandroofsendupinthesurfacewater.Yet
improvedseparatedsewerageswerebuildtodischargethe(mostpolluted)firstfractiontothe
domesticsewagesystem.Thecombinedseweragesystemisusedasreferencesystem.

Domesticsewage

Thereare27WaterboardsintheNetherlandsgoverning393WTPstreating1,997millionm3
wastewaterintheyear20022003(StichtingRioned,2002).Figure3presentsaschemeofa

conventionalWTPintheNetherlands.InmostWMSthecombinedsewageistreatedbyseveral
steps:screening,sedimentation,biologicaltreatment,sedimentation,andsludgetreatment.

16

Page19
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure3ConventionalWTP(VanBuuren,2004)

Bar Sand Sedim. Sedim.


screen trap Tank Tank

Biological
treatment
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 14/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
INFLUENT EFFLUENT

Sludge
treatment Thickeners

Sludge
digestion

Theeffluentwaterisdischargedonsurfacewater.In2002wastheaverageremovalefficiencyof
allWTPfor(StichtingRioned,2002):

BOD 97%
Ptotal 79%

Ntotal 68%

Susp.Solids94%

Thesludgeisincinerated,landfilled,orreusedincompost.In2002theyearlysludgeproduction
is350millionkilodrymatter(VROM2004).

Evaluationcurrentsystem

Thecurrentsystemfulfilsthefunctionsofprotectionofthepublichealthandsurfacewater
quality.Howeverthesystemisnotsustainable:itgeneratesanenormouswastestream(sludge),

doesnotrecyclenutrients,andcanoverflow.Otherdrawbacksarethatmanypartsofsewerage
needrenovationandtheeffluentqualitiesdonotfulfillfuturequalitystandards.Theamountof

overflowsin2001was15,198,ofwhich443formariskfordrinkingcattle,and267formarisk
forpublichealth(StichtingRioned,2002).

17

Page20
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

5.2.2Performancereferencesystem
Primaryfunctions

Thechanceforhouseholdstogetincontactwiththewastewaterispresent,yetlow.Thecontact
momentsarethesewerageoverflows.Thechanceforinhabitantstogetaccesstotheequipmentis

notpresent.TheseweragesystemandWTParesecured.Thechangeofacalamitywiththe
overflowsis15,198timesperyear.TheWMSprotectssurfacewaterqualityandtheenvironment

bymeansofpreventionofdischargesofoxygendemandingcompoundsandnutrients.The
removalefficiencyisdescribedinthepreviousparagraph.

Subfunctions
TheWMSincludesmeasuresforrainwatermanagementbymeansofcollectionandtreatmentin

theWTP.Themaximumrainwaterintensitythesystemcanstoreisunknown.TheWMSinclude
measuresforremovalofgroundwaterordrainagewaterduetoseweragesystem.

Userperspective

Theuserperspectiveisdividedincosts,invisibilityandcomfort,androbustness.Thetotalcosts
oftheconventionalWMSare572/y(table7).

Table7InvestmentandoperationalcostsconventionalWMS(Rioned,2002)

Aspect Cost(/household)Expectedlifetime(year)Costs(/y)
seweragesystem* 3500 25 237.5**
WTP* 875 25

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 15/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
seweragetaxes 104***
waterboardfee 139***
watersupply 92
TotalCosts 572
*(Melset.al.,2004a)**Annuityconsideringaninterestof2.5%***2p/hh

Theinvisibilityandcomfortisassumedbygivingascorebetween0(verynegative)and4(very

positive).Thetoiletisanormalflushtoilet.TheSSWMSmakesthemnotatall(0)feel
environmentalconcerned/friendly.Theywillrecommendthesystemtootherhouseholdsin
otherneighbourhoodswithoutimprovement(3).TheythinkthatthevisiblepartoftheWMS

equipmentinornearthehousesisnotdisturbing(2).TheWMSproducesnotatall(4)annoying
noiselevels.TheWMSproducesnotatall(4)unpleasantodours.TheWMSdoesnotattract

verminatall(4).

Thetenantsdonothavetoperformmaintenance.Themaintenanceontheseweragesystemis
carriedoutbythemunicipalityandoftheWTPbythewaterboard.Theamountofmaintenance

18

Page21
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

hoursperhouseholdandyearisunknown.Thetenantsfacerestrictionsonproductsforflushing

troughthetoiletyetdonothavealistofproducts.Therobustnessofthesystemishigh.The
generalsystemfailureis15,198/7,866,107=0.0019/hh.y.Theindoorvolumeofthesystemis0

m3(toiletnotincluded).TheoutdoorsurfaceisthesummationofthepumpstationandWTP.The
averageareaperhouseholdisunknown.

Environmental

TheamountofenergyusedbytheWMSisunknown.Theamountofchemicalsusedisalso
unknown.Theamountofwaterconsumptionisingeneral93m3/hh.InSwedenthisismuch

higherapproximately167.9m3(Kranz,2005).TheamountofsludgeproducedbytheWMSis45

kg/hh.y.HoweverthisincludesthesludgefromindustrialwastewaterconnectedtotheWMS.The
volumeofreusablewateris0m3/hh.y.Theamountofnutrientsrecycledisnil.Thewaterquality

oftheWMSfulfilledtheeffluentstandardsof2001.Theextendofcomplianceofthefinalwater
qualitywithfuturisticEUqualitystandards(WaterFrameworkDirective)isunknown.

5.2.3Actors
Theactorsandtheirroleinthedesignanddecisionmakingarepresentedintable8.The

municipalityandwaterboardaredirectlyinvolvedinthedesignofanewneighbourhood.They
havetopermitallthewatermanagementplans.Theexperienceisthatmostmunicipalitiesand

waterboardsdesiretheconventionalsystem.Thearchitect,housingcompany,andproject
developeroftheneighbourhoodaretheactorsthatshouldaddresswhatkindofWMStheydesire.

Table8Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

Description Role
1Municipality Initiativeandsteeringroleindemandsand
designwateraspect
2Waterboard TreatmentwastewaterinWTP
3Architect BuildingDesign
4Housingcompany Projectmanagerrentalhouses
5Projectdeveloper Projectmanagerowneroccupiedhousesand
andconstructor constructor

Responsibilities

IntheNetherlandsseveralgovernmentalorganizationsareresponsiblefortheWMS.These
organizationsaretheNationalgovernment,LocalgovernmentandtheWaterboard.Thenational

governmentdesignslegislationandpolicyandfinancestheWMS.Thelocalgovernmentis
responsiblefordesign,installationandmaintenanceoftheseweragesystem.Thewaterboardhas

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 16/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
theresponsibilityofthetreatment.Thetenantsareresponsiblefortheinhouseequipment(toilet,

pipes,etc.).

19

Page22
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

InSwedenwaterboardsdonotexist,andthetreatmentiscarriedoutbythemunicipality.

SometimesthemunicipalityhasdividedtheWMSinseveraldepartmentsorpartlyboardoutthe
services.Thereforeallknowledgeonwaterquality,transportandtreatmentareintegratedinone

actor.

5.2.3Driversandbarriers
EnvironmentalDriversandBarriers

Themainenvironmentaldriversarepreventionofpublichealthrisks,rainwaterfloodings,high
groundwaterlevels,andsewerageoverflows(Mels,2004a).Anotherdriveristoprotectthe

surfacewaterbycosteffectivetreatmentaccordingtheeffluentstandards(Matsson,pers.com.).
InSwedentheprotectionoflakesisveryimportantbecausetheyareisolatedandfragilefor
pollution.ThereforemanyWTPdischargetheeffluentonthesea.Anotherdriveristodisconnect

therainwaterasmuchaspossiblebyrainwatersewerage(Warnshuis,pers.com.).The
environmentalbarriersarehealthrisksbysewerageoverflows,productionofsludgewaste,no

nutrientsrecyclingthereforeenrichmentofsurfacewater,anddischargeofpathogenicorganisms
insurfacewater.Anotherbarrieristhehighwateruseanddilutionofthewastefractions.Finally

theuptake/infiltrationoff/inthegroundwaterisanenvironmentalbarrier,whichcouldleadto
groundwaterpollutionanddryingoutofthesoil.(Mels,2004a)

EconomicalDriversandBarriers

Themaineconomicaldriverislowcostsforthehouseholdsasaresultofacentralizedsystem.
Thisreferstothescaleofthesystem,bycentralizingtheWMStheamountoftreatmentplants,

monitoringandmaintenanceactivities,energyuse,andcalamitiesarereduced(Matsson,pers.
com.).Theseweragesystemisduetoitssimplicity,gravityflowsandpumpingstation,reliable
thereforemaintenanceactivitiesandrelatedcostsarelow(Bokesj,pers.com.).Themain

economicalbarriersarehighwateruse,nutrientsdepletionanddiffusecosts.Thehouseholdsdo
notreallycareandtakethepaymentofseweragetaxesandwaterboardfeeasforgranted(Hort,

pers.com.).

SocialDriversandBarriers
Thesocialdriversarethesimplicityandreliabilityofthetechnology,nohouseholddisturbances

(flushandforgetprinciple),andisbasedonmanyexperiences(Bokesj,pers.com.).Another
driveristhetrustofthehouseholdsinthegovernmentalorganizationthattheytakecareofthe

transportandtreatmentinaprofessionalway.Thesocialbarrieristhealienationofthe
householdswiththeirwastewaterandrelatedproblems.

20

Page23
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

4.3NotimplementedSSWMS

IntwoneighborhoodsintheNetherlandsSSWMSwereplanned.Yetduetothebarriersin
decisionmakingaconventionalWMSwasimplemented.InSwedenthemainimplementation

barriersare:

protectionoftheinlandlakesthereforeminimizetherisksofpollutionbysmalltreatmentplants

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 17/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
(Matsson,pers.com.)
backupconnectiontocentralizedtreatmentsystemincaseofsystemfailure.Andthiswill

furtherincreaseonemainbarrier:highinstallationcosts.(Franzen,pers.com.)
transportoftherecyclingproducts(deBlois,,pers.com.)

4.3.1Stroomdal

TheneighborhoodStroomdalissituatedinEmmen.Theneighborhoodconsistsofapproximately
200privateownedhouses.Theneighborhoodwasnewlybuilt,althoughtheseweragewas

alreadyinplace.TheSSWMSproposalcontainedablackandgreywaterseparation.Theblack

waterwouldbecollectedbyvacuumtoiletsandsewerage,andfinallydigested.Thegreywater
wouldbetreatedintheconventionalWMS.Theobjectivewastoresearchthesystems

characteristicsandnutrientrecyclingpotential.(ZeemanandHeffer,pers.com.)Inthedesignand
decisionmakingmanyactors,exceptthetenants,wereinvolved.Manyactorshadopposite

thoughtsandstruggledwiththedriversandbarriers.Themainbarrierwasthehighinvestment
costsofthesystem.AnotherbarrierwasthatintheNetherlandsnoagriculturalwishofrecycling

nutrientsexists.(ZeemanandHeffer,pers.com.)

4.3.2Rustenburg
TheneighborhoodRustenburgissituatedinWageningen.TheimplementationofaSSWMSwas
plannedinaflatof20apartments.Theneighborhoodwasnewlybuilt.TheSSWMSproposal

containedablackandgreywaterseparation.Theblackwaterwouldbecollectedbyvacuum
toiletsandsewerage,andfinallydigested.Thegreywaterwouldbetreatedintheconventional

WMS.Alsointhiscasethemainbarrierwasthehighinvestmentcostsofthesystem.Another
barrier,forthearchitect,wasthatthevacuumtoiletswereonlyproducedinawhitecolor.The

suggestionwasthatthetenantsshouldhavethepossibilitytochoosethekindofcolor.(Zeeman,

pers.com.)

21

Page24
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

5SOURCESEPARATEDWMSINTHENETHERLANDS

5.1Introduction

ThischapterpresentstheSSWMSinTheNetherlands.TwoneighborhoodsnamedHetGroene
DakandPolderdriftinthecitiesUtrechtandArnhem,respectively,wereinvestigated.The
sourceseparationincludesgrey,black,andrainwater.Theseareeightertreatedlocally,in

conventionalway,infiltratedorstored.

5.2HetGroeneDak

In1989thetenantsassociationHetGroeneDakinitiatedthedesignofanecological

neighborhoodwithalowenvironmentalimpact.Theneighborhoodwasrealizedin1993in

cooperationwithseveralactors.Theareaconsistsof66houses,withtwospecialclustersoffive
houses.Varioussustainablebuildingaspectswereused,intheseclustersaSSWWS.Thetwo

clustersaresubjectofthisstudy.(website,GroeneDak)

5.2.1ImplementedTechnology
TheSSWMSincludesseparationofgrey,black,andrainwater.Thetechnicalschemeandabove
viewoftheareaareshowninappendix2.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 18/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Rainwater

Therainwaterisdisconnectedinthewholeareaandreused,infiltratedintheground,orstoredin
aretentionpond.Thisistopreventthedryingoutofthesoilandoverflowsofthesewerage.Pipes

collecttherainwateroftheroofsintheneighborhoodtotheretentionpond(about50m2)inthe
centralsquare.Thecentralsquareiscoveredwithinfiltrationmaterial.Theoverflowofthepond
isconnectedtotheconventionalWMS.Eachyeararetheplantsinthepondremovedbythe

tenants(seefigure15inappendix2).Oncethesurroundingfieldfloodedbycloggingofthe
overflowpipe.Infourclustersof22houses(includingthetwospecialclusters)reuseisarranged.

Thewateriscollectedbytheroof(265m2)andstorestanksof5m3intwobasements.Inthetanks
largeparticlesfromroofdepositssettle.Thetankiscleanedonceintenyears(Post,pers.com.).

Indryperiodssuppletionofdrinkwaterisnecessarytofulfillthedemand.Thewaterwasusedin
fourcollectivewashingmachineshowevertwoaredisconnectedduetoproblemswith

smelly/dirtyclothes(Reinboud,pers.com.).Itisalsousedinninetoilets.Thedrinkwatersaving
isapproximately25L/p.d.(websitegroenedak)

22

Page25
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Theenergyconsumptionofthisrecyclinginstallationis0.5kWh/m3higherthantheproduction

andtransportationenergyofthewatersupplycompany,mainlyduetoplacementofthewashing
machinesontheattic(websitegroenedak).Thereusefortoiletflushingandwashingmachine

resultsinriskshigherthanthemaximumacceptableinfectionrisksbybiologicalpathogens

(Senden,2003a).

Greywater

Thegreywatertreatmentsdesign,managementandmaintenancearebasedontheIBA
regulationsof1991(Witteveen+Bos,1993).HoweverthemaintenanceperformedbyMichlPost
isbasedonexperiences.Greywaterofthetwoclustersitiscollectedandpretreatedinthe

basement.Thepretreatmentconsistsof(seefigure13inappendix2):
largeparticlefilter(35mm)topreventcloggingofthepump,pipesandfiltrationbed.The

sludgeisremovedeveryhalfyearandcomposted.Itisinspectedeachhalfyearyettheadviceis

eachthreemonths(Witteveen+Bos,1993).

AerobicfilterwithabiofilmoncarriermaterialtodecreaseBOD,COD,SS,Ntotal,andP
total.Theaerationconsistsofnaturalventilationbyunderpressure.Theaerobicfilterisinspected

eachhalfyearyettheadviceisoncepermonth(Witteveen+Bos,1993).
Belowtheaerobicfilterisabuffer/sedimentationtanktosettlebiomassandrecirculatedthe

wateroverthefilter.Itisinspectedeachhalfyearyettheadviceisonceperthreemonths
(Witteveen+Bos,1993).Thesludge(40L/y)isremovedonceperyearandcompostedorflushed

troughthetoilet.Thefinaltreatmentofoneclusteriscarriedoutbyaverticalinfiltratingreedbed

of75m2(12.5m2/p).Thereedbedandbiologicalactivityinthegroundtakeupthenutrients.
Afterinfiltrationthewateristransportedtotheretentionpond.Thefinaltreatmentoftheother

clusterisdonebyaverticalinfiltratinggreenhouseof22m2(1.8m2/p).Theplantsandbiological
activityinthegroundtakeupthenutrients.Afterinfiltrationthewateristransportedtothe

retentionpond.

In1996thewaterqualityismeasuredbytheAmsterdamUniversity(MatthijsandBalke,1997)
andpresentedintable29inappendix2.Botheffluentqualitiesofthegreenhouseandreedbedare

fulfillingtheDutchqualitystandardIBAclassIIIforlocaltreatment.Thetableshowsmonthly

averagesduringtheperiodofMarchtillMayin1996.TheeffluentconcentrationofE.Coli

fulfillsthedischargeamountof<1000.Thismeansthatthegreywatertreatmentsystemcan

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 19/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
operatewellingoodconditions.

23

Page26
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Evaluationcurrentsystem

Nowadaysthereedsurfacedecreasedtoapproximately10m2visualizedinfigure4.Thetenants
thought,byusingverylittlewater,thefiltercandecreaseinsize.Thesoilisneverreplacedor

cleaned,whichmayleadtophosphorusaccumulation.Alsonowateristransportedtothe
retentionpondanymore,probablyduetoaleakinthewatertightEthylenePropyleneRubber

layer.Thecurrentperformanceisassumedinsufficient.(Post,pers.com.).Thegroundinthe
greenhouseisreplacedwithsoilwithalowinfiltrationcapacitybyanunqualifiedfirm.Also

fewerplantsaregrowingonthesoil(figure15inappendix2).Thereforeawaterlayerisformed
overthegroundduringoperation.Thecurrentperformanceisassumedinsufficient.Thetenants
considershuttingdownthesystem(Post,pers.com.).

Thecurrentstatusandinsufficientmaintenancereducestreatmentefficiencythatmayleadto

contaminationofthepondandsurroundingsoilandgroundwater(infiltration).Thismayalso
increasehealthrisksduringcontactmomentswiththeeffluentwater,forinstanceduringthe

emptyingofthepond.Thesystemisonlymonitoredonesthereforethecurrentstatusisunknown.
Anotherproblemisthattheintendedenvironmentalbenefitsofsourceseparationarenotreally

realized.BecausetheretentionpondhasanoverflowontheconventionalWMSthesystemisnot
entirelydisconnected.Onlyinfiltration(inthegroundunderthepond)andevaporationresultsin

lesstransporttotheconventionalWMS.Abettersourceseparatingsolutionisthedischargeof
theoverflowtorainwatersewerageorsurfacewater.

Blackwater
TheblackwaterwasfirstcompostedlocallyhowevertreatedinaconventionalWMSaftermany

problemswithsmell,verminandwrongcompostingprocesses.Currentlythesystemconsistsof
Gustavbergtoiletswithanaverageflushof4.5litres.Theconnectiontothesewerageisdonebya

flowincreaserfor45housescombined.Thisreducedtheconnectioncoststothelocalsewer
(samepriceperconnectionof45housesasusualforonehouse).Thebenefitsofthesemi

disconnectionofthegreywatertothereduceddischargeofwastewaterarenotmeasured.The
tenantsdonotgetadiscountonthewaterboardfee.(websiteGroeneDak)

24

Page27
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure4Currentstatusofreedbedfilter(visit22032005)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 20/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

5.2.2PerformanceSSWMS
Primaryfunctions

Thechancethattenantshavecontactwiththewastewaterispresent.Themaintenanceofthe
retentionpondresultsindirectcontact.Therecycledrainwaterleadsalsotocontactbytoilet
flushinganduseofwashingmachine.Therisksforpublichealtharehigherthenmaximum

acceptableinfectionrisksbybiologicalpathogensduetotherecyclingofrainwaterfortoilet
flushingandwashingmachineuse(Senden,2003a).Thechancethattenantshaveaccesstothe

equipmentispresent.Thebasementwiththegreywaterpretreatmentandrainwaterstorageare
notlocked.Thetenantshavefreeaccesstothereedbedandgreenhouse.

Thechanceofcalamitiesisdefinedbythetenantsexperiences.Thechangeofacalamitywith

thepretreatmentisoncein15years(Post,pers.com.).Thisoccursifapumpisnotfunctioning
thatleadstofloodingofthebasement.Therearenoexpectedcalamitiesfromthereedbed.The

chanceofacalamitywiththegreenhouseisoncein10years(Graaf,pers.com.).Thisoccursif
thesoilissaturatedandthewaterisfloodinginthegarden.

In1996theWMSprotectedsurfacewaterqualityandtheenvironmentbymeansofpreventionof
dischargesofoxygendemandingcompoundsandnutrients.Thecurrentstatusisunknownand

mayleadtosoilandgroundwatercontamination.

25

Page28
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

ThetreatmentefficiencycannotbecomparedwiththeconventionalWMSbecausethesystemis

stillusingthelatter.Howeveritisexpectedtobebetterthanconventionalduetolessdilutionof
theblackwaterwithrainandgreywater.

Subfunctions

TheWMSincludesmeasuresforrainwatermanagementbyreuse,infiltrationandstorage.The
maximumrainwaterintensitythetankscanstoreis5m3perelevenhouseholdsinthetwo

clusters.Theamountwaterthepondcanstoreisunknown.TheWMSincludesmeasuresfor
removalofgroundwaterordrainagewaterbytherainwatercollectionsystemandtheoverflowto
theconventionalWMS.

Userperspective

Table9presentsthetotalcostsperyear,628.Theinvestmentcostsofthegreyandrainwater
systemsarepartlyfinancedbythecityUtrecht,watersupplycompany,andthenational

government.

Table9Investmentandoperationalcosts

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 21/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Aspect Amount Cost() Cost Expected Costs(/y)
ofhh (/hh) lifetime***(y)
Greywaterinstallation 10 22,690* 2,269 30 278 #
pump 300 15
Rainwaterrecycling 22 30,630* 1,393 50
pump 300 15
Innergardenandpond 66 53,775* 815 50
ground+pipes 40,387
work 7,261
other 6,126
Gustavberg system 1 650** 650 50
connection
WTP 875 47 #
Maintenance 50
Seweragetaxes 39.5
Waterboardfee 139
Watersupply 74.3
Totalcost 628
*(Websitehetgroenedak)**(HetGroeneDak,1992)***(Post,pers.com.)#consideringaninterestof

2.5%andlifetimeof25years

Theinvisibilityandcomfortismeasuredbyaskingthreetenantsofthereedbedclusterandfiveof
thegreenhousecluster.Theycouldgiveascorebetween0(verynegative)and4(verypositive).

Theaverageopinionofthehouseholdstotheperspectivequestionsisrepresentativeforthewhole

population.Thetoiletisalowflush(4.5L)Gustavbergtoilet.TheSSWMSmakesthemvery

26

Page29
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

often(3)feelenvironmentalconcerned/friendly.Theycannotrecommendthesystemtoother

householdsinotherneighbourhoodswithoutimprovement(2).

TheythinkthatthevisiblepartoftheWMSequipmentinornearthehousesisnice(3).The

WMSproducesnotatall(4)annoyingnoiselevels.TheWMSproducesalittlebit(3)unpleasant

odours.TheWMSdoesnotattractverminatall(4).Thetenantsdonothavetoperform

maintenance.Onlyonepersontakescare(8h/year)oftheplantsinthegreenhouseandthinksitis
nicetodo(3)(Graaf,pers.com.).Theyallfacerestrictionsonproductsformaintenanceor

flushingtroughthetoiletandhavealistofproducts.

Thetechnicalmaintenance(16h/y)isperformedbyanexternalperson(MichlPost),hiredby

Portaal.Hehastocheckandmaintaintheinstallations,andremovethesludge.Howeverevery

yearthetenantsofthePlantandGardeningGroupneedtoremovetheplantsintheretention

pond(figure15appendix2.1).Thisisexpectedtotake16hoursperyear.Thegreenhouseneeds

newplantsandcleaningofthewindowseveryyear(Graaf,pers.com.).

Theindoorvolumeofthesystemistheareaoftherainwaterstoragetankandthepretreatment

installation.Thevolume,10m3,issituatedinthebasementandhasnodirectinfluenceonthe

livingspaceofthetenants(Reinboud,andPost,pers.com.)Theoutdoorsurfaceisthesummation

ofthereedbed(75m2),greenhouse(22m2)andretentionpond(50m2)dividedbytenhouseholds
is14.7m2/hh.HowevertheareaoftheconventionalWMSisnotincluded.

Therobustnessofthesystemisalsoanaverageopinionofthetenants.Theproblemsthey

experiencedaredescribedbelow:Thetoilethasoncein5yearsproblemswithflushingduetoa

biofilmonthetoiletpipes.Cleaningandreplacementofthepipesbyaplumbersolvethis.Inthe
rainwaterstoragetankthefloatmaygiveproblemsandisreplacedevery5years.Sometimesthe

reedbedproducessmellsduringcloggingofthedrainagepipes.Oncein10yearsthedrainage

pipesinthegreenhousearecloggedleadingtosmellandflooding.Flushingwithhighpressure

andhotwatersolvesthis.Thegroundofthegreenhouselosesthefiltrationcapacityandneedsto
bereplacedoncein10years.Theaveragesystemfailureis3timesin5year(Post,andGraaf,

pers.com.).

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 22/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Environmental

Theamountofenergyusedbythegreyandrainwatersystemisassumedtobe8kWh/hh.y(Post,

pers.com.).TheenergyuseoftheconventionalWMSisunknown.Therearenochemicalsused
bythegreyandrainwatersystem.Theamountofwaterconsumptioninthereedbedclusteris32

27

Page30
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

m3/hh.Theamountofsludgeproducedbythegreyandrainwatersystemis8kg/hh.y.The

amountoftheconventionalWMSisunknown.Thevolumeofreusablewateris18.25m3/hh.y.
Theamountofnutrientsrecycledisnil.Thewaterqualityofthegreywatertreatmentfulfilledthe

standardsofIBAclassIIIin1996,howeverthecurrentstatusisunknown.Theresultingeffluent

qualityoftheconventionalWMSisunknown.

ThefinalcomparisonwiththeconventionalWMSisvisualizedinthetablebelow.Foreach

indicatora+,a0,andaisgivenforrespectivelythebetter,thesame,andworsethaninthe
conventionalsystem.

Table10PerformancecomparisonwithconventionalWMSbasedoncriteria

Criteria Indicator Comparison


Primaryfunctions Healthprotection
Protectionofsurfacewater 0
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement +
Drainagemanagement +
Userperspective Costs
Invisibility/comfort 0
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse +
Emissions 0

5.2.3Actors
Table11presentstheactorsandtheirroleinthedesignanddecisionmaking.Theyhadameeting
approximatelyonetimeamonth.Thearchitectmentionedinthefeasibilitystudythedifferent

optionsforthesourceseparatingtechnology,howeverhisinvolvementinthedecisionmaking

wasnil.ThetenantsassociationhadaspecialWaterGroupthatdevelopedthesourceseparating
concept.Thefinaldecisionswheremadebythetwoprojectmanagers:WoningstichtingJuliana

isresponsiblefortherentalhousesandGeelenBouwprojectenfortheowneroccupiedhouses.

WoningstichtingJulianaistakenoverbyPortaalthelatterwasnotcooperativeinthis

research.(Post,Smeijer,andReijinga,pers.com.)

ThemunicipalityUtrechtgavepermissionforthegreywatersystemandtheconnectionofthe
flowincreasersystemtothesewerage.Theychargedthetenantslessconnectionfeetothe

sewerage.YetUtrechthadnodirectpartinthedecisionmaking.Theinvolveddepartmentsare:

DienstVolkshuisvestingtofinancethefeasibilitystudyandexpertsadvice,CityBuildingand

Trafficwasresponsibletodisposetheareaandsewerageconnection,andEnvironmentgave

someadviceandfinancedthegreywatersystem.(SEVU,1992)

28

Page31
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Alsosomeactorsfinancedseveralaspects,duetointensivelobbyingofthetenantsassociation.

ThewatersupplycompanyWaterleidingmaatschappijMiddenNederlandandministryVROM

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 23/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
financedapartoftherainwatersystem.(SEVU,1992)

Table11Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

Description Name Role


1TenantsassociationHetGroeneDak Initiativeandsteeringroleindemandsand
designwateraspect
2Architect BEARArchitecten FeasibilitystudyandBuildingDesign
3Housingcompany WoningstichtingJuliana Projectmanagerrentalhouses
4Projectdeveloper* GeelenBouwprojekten Projectmanagerowneroccupiedhousesand
andconstructor B.V. constructor
*Thisactorwasnotavailabletocooperatewiththeresearch

Responsibilities

Thetenantsareresponsiblefortheinhouseequipment(toilet,pipes,etc.).Portaalisresponsible
forthetreatmentandmaintenanceofthegreyandrainwatersystem.Themunicipalityhasthe

responsibilityoftheconventionalseweragesystemaftertheflowincreaser.TheWaterboard

Vallei&Eemisresponsibleforthetreatmentoftheblackandpondoverflowwater.Thetenants
didnothavetopayanyfeewhentheyhadthecompostingtoiletshowevertheWaterboard

currentlychargesthetenantsthesameasinaconventionalWMS.(Post,andSmeijer,pers.com.)

5.2.3Driversandbarriers
Thedriversandbarriersaredividedinenvironmental,economical,andsocialaspectsandare

evaluatedforthedesign,current,andfuturesituationofthegreyandrainwatersystem.Theyare

addressedintable30inappendix2.2withcorrespondingnumberstotheactors.

EnvironmentalDriversandBarriers

Themainenvironmentaldriversofthetenantsassociationarethereductionofwateruseand

wastewaterdischargestothesewerage.Theywanttoreducethedryingoutofsoilintheir
neighbourhoodandintheareaofthewatersupplypumpingstation.Theywanttoprevent

sewerageoverflowsanddischargesofnutrientsonsurfacewaterbytheconventionalWMS.The
wateruseisreducedbyapproximately40%(Websitegroenedak).Theyalsothinkthereedbed,

greenhouseandpondareelementspartofaniceneighbourhoodtolivein.Thesystemincreases

theenvironmentalbehaviourofthetenants.Theenergyuseofthepumpsintherainwatersystem
ishigherthentheproductionandtransportationenergyinthewatersupply.Thereforethecurrent

andfutureenvironmentaldriversarelesstheninthedesignphase.Themainenvironmental

driversofWoningstichtingJulianaarethesameasofthetenants.

29

Page32
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

WoningstichtingJulianawasconvincedbytheadviceoftheWaterGroupandhadthesame

objectives.Howevertheydidnotmentiontheprotectionofsurfacewater.(PostandSmeijer,

pers.com.)

Inthedesignphasethetenantsassociationhadonlyoneenvironmentalbarrier,thehighmaterial

consumption.Inthecurrentandfuturesituationthebarriersarediverse.Theyconsiderhealth
risksduetoreuseofrainwater,flooding,anddirectcontactinthegreenhouse,howevernobodyis

reportedill.Alsofloodingrisksofthebasementandretentionbasinisabarrier.Alsomaintenance

problemsoccurduetonewtechnology.Andhighenergyandmaterialconsumptiondueto
respectivelypumpsandinstallationandextrapipematerialsareassumedtobebarriers.

WoningstichtingJulianahadasbarriersmaintenance,smellandodourproblems.Theyhadthe

responsibilitytomaintaintheinstallationandfacetherisksofchangesinrentalpeople.(Post,and

Smeijer,pers.com.)

EconomicalDriversandBarriers

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 24/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Themaineconomicaldriversofthetenantsassociationinthedesignphasearelowcostsofwater
andenergyconsumption,seweragetaxes,andwaterboardfee.Anotherdriveristhedevelopment

ofanewtechnologythatmightresultinfuturebenefits.Thesubsidisationofdifferentactorsin

thetechnologymadetherealizationpossible.Inthecurrentandprobablyfuturesituationonlythe
savingsinwaterconsumptionandseweragetaxesarerealized.Thesavingsarelowerthanthe

increasedoperationalcosts(duetomaintenanceandenergyuse).WoningstichtingJuliana

expectedthesameeconomicalbenefitsexceptforthedecreaseinwaterboardfee.(Post,Smeijer,
pers.com.)

Themaineconomicalbarriersareforbothactorstheveryhighinstallationanddesigncosts

comparedtotheconventionalWMS.Thehighercostsaremadeduetomorepipes,pumps,

greenhouseandreedbed,andconsultants.Bothactorsexpectedhighoperationalcostsdueto

replacementofinstallationparts,andmaintenance.Inthecurrentsituationtheenergycostsare
high.Allhighercostsarearrangedintherentsofthetenants.WoningstichtingJulianadoesnot

implementthesysteminotherneighbourhoodsduetothehighinstallationcosts.Forthem

anotherbarrieristheriskthatnootherpeoplewanttorentit.(Post,Smeijer,pers.com.)

30

Page33
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

SocialDriversandBarriers

Thesocialdriversinthedesignphaseareforbothactorsanintensivecontactbetweenthe
neighbours,environmentalfriendlybehaviourandaniceneighbourhood.Thesearerespectively

becauseofthejointmanagementanddesign,existingideasandphilosophy,andthecreationofan

areawithpond,reedbed,andgreenhouse.Inthecurrentandfuturesituationtheinstallationdoes

notincreasetheenvironmentalbehaviourofthetenants.(Post,Smeijer,pers.com.)

Thetenantsassociationassumedthatasocialbarrierwasthemanagementanduseofthesystem.

Theyconsideritasadifficulttechnologyindesign,currentandalsofuturephase.

WoningstichtingJulianathoughtaswellthatthemanagementofthesystemisabarrier.They

hadtohireanexperttomanageit.(Post,Smeijer,pers.com.)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 25/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

31

Page34
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

5.3Polderdrift

In1991theHousingSocietyGelderland(WoningbouwverenigingGelderland)organized
differentinformationeventsfornewbuildingprojects.Aconceptwasdevelopedinwhichnew

tenantscouldparticipateintheurbanandarchitecturaldesignandotheraspectsoftheirfuture
neighborhood.About60newtenantsparticipatedandcameupwithaplanforecologicaland

efficient(opmaat)living.In1994theAlgemeneWoningbouwverenigingArnhem(AWBA)

tookovertheproject.

Theobjectivewastouselowerqualitiesthandrinkwaterfortoiletflushing,washingmachine,

washingthecar,andsprayingthegarden.ThearchitectcompanyopMAATappliedthenational

policygoalsintheVierdeNotaRuimtelijkeOrdeninginthedesign.Theneighborhood,with40

houses,wasrealizedin1997.TheAWBAistakenoverbythecompanyPortaalnowadays.(Stein

andLuising,2002)(Ruiven,pers.com.)

5.3.1ImplementedTechnology
TheSSWMSinthePolderdriftisbasedonseparatecollectionofgrey,black,andrainwater.The

technicalschemeandarialviewofthesystemareshowninappendix3.Thedesignisbasedon

differentgradations:fromprivatetopublicareas,arelieffromlowtillhighandwetanddry.
(Bleuz,1995)

Rainwater

Therainwaterisdisconnectedinthewholeareaitisdirectlyinfiltratedordischargedina

retentionareaandpond(Bleuz,1995).Therainwateroftheroofsiscollectedintwo

sedimentationtanks(2x35m3)underthetechnicalbuilding.Theaverageamountofrainwateris
17L/p.dthatfulfillsthedemandofwashingmachinesof14L/p.d(Bleuz,1995).Ifthereisless

drinkwaterissupplied,andtoomuchitwilloverflowtotheretentionpond.Twotimesayeara

specializedcompanyremovestherainwatersludge(Engelen,pers.com.).Lastyearno
maintenanceactivitieswereperformed(Ruiven,pers.com.).

Thecentralsquareiscoveredwithpermeablematerialandhasaninfiltrationareaandpond.The

purposeistohaveaseparatedseweragesystemtopreventoverflowsofthesewerage.Eachyear

thetenantsremoveplantsfromthepond.(Ruiven,pers.com.)

32

Page35
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 26/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
ThepreconditionsoftherainwaterreuseareformedbasedonaresearchinHamburg.Thewater
shouldnotcausehealthriskson,becolorless,andcontainnosolidsthatmaydamagethepumps

andmovingpartsofthewashingmachine.Thewaterhasalowmetalandlimeconcentrationthat

candecreasetheamountofwashingpowder.(Bleuz,1995)

Greywater

Thegreywateramountisduetowatersavingaspectsapproximately72L/p.d(Bleuz,1995).

Thelocaltreatmentconsistsof:fatremoval,sedimentation,followedbyareedbed.The

sedimentationtankhasfourcompartments:threesettlingchambersof3m3andapumpshaftof1
m3(Soons,2003).ThewaterqualityaftersedimentationismeasuredbytheWageningen

University(table32inappendix3.1)(Soons,2003).

Fourtimesperdaythewaterflowsinaverticalinfiltratingreedbed(2.88m2/p).Thereedand
biologicalactivityinthegroundtakeupthenutrients.Theexpectedeffluentqualityisgivenin

table31intheappendix3.1(BahloandWach,1992).Afterinfiltrationthewaterisfilteredbya

largeparticlefilterandtransportedtothecleanwaterdistributiontankandreusedfortoilet

flushing.Theassumedamountis20L/p.dthatfulfillsthedemandoftoiletflushing(Bleuz,

1995).Theoverflowofthereedbedanddistributiontankisconnectedwiththepond.Thepond

hasanoverflowtosurfacewater.(Bleuz,1995)

Thetenantsmaintenanceconsistsofcuttingthereedandflushingthedrainagepipesonceayear.

Themanholesneedregularinspections.ProblemsarereportedtoPortaal.Twotimesayeara
specializedcompanyremovesthesettledsludge(Engelen,pers.com.).Thesludgequalityis

unknown(Engelen,pers.com.).Thetenantspayayearlyadvancefeeof141toPortaalforthe

maintenance(Koopmans,pers.com.).Dependingonthemaintenanceactivitiestheyreceive

restitution.

Evaluationcurrentsystem
Thereuseofrainandgreywaterresultsin57%lesswaterconsumption(PtzandBleuz,1998).

85%ofthedomesticwastewaterdischargeisreduced(PtzandBleuz,1998).Thewaterreuse

hasriskshigherthanmaximumacceptable(Senden,2003).Recentresearchshowsthatthewater

quality(table33appendix3.1)meetsthehouseholdwaterstandards(Cmark,2004).Yetthe

researchdidnotincludepathogensasEnterovirusesandCampylobacter.Theanalysisofthese

pathogensshouldbecarriedout3times/yandcostsaround5,000peranalysis(Medema,pers.
com.).Yetthereisnogovernmentallegislationontheseanalyses.

33

Page36
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Thecurrentstatusisnotgoodthesedimentationtankswasnotcleanedlastyear,thewaterflows

inthereedbedeveryhour(toomuch),andbyoversaturationwaterfloodsthereedbed(Ruiven,
pers.com.).Thisincreasessmellandhealthrisksduetoexposureofinhabitantstountreatedgrey

water.Aftereightyearsthereedbedstillhasthesamesoil.ThismayleadtoPsaturationand

reducedremovalefficiency.Thegreywatertreatmentefficiencyisunknown.

Blackwater

TheblackwaterisdischargedontheconventionalWMSofWaterboardRivierenland.The

effectoflocaltreatmentontheinfluentloadsoftheWTPisunknown.Intheperiod19972001
thetenantsreceivedadiscountonthewaterboardfeeof60/y.Howeversince2002this

discountdoesnotlongerexist,althoughthetenantsarestilltryingtoreceiveit(Derksen,pers.
com.).

5.3.2PerformanceSSWMS
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 27/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Primaryfunctions

Thechancethattenantshavecontactwiththewastewaterispresentifthereedbedisfloodedand

overflowstothepond.Themaintenanceactivityonthereedbedresultstodirectcontact.Alsothe
waterreuseresultsincontactbywashingofclothesandtoiletflushing.ThereportofCmark

concludedonthecurrentmeasurementsthatnohealthrisksarepresent.Howeverthisreportis

justaonemomentconclusionandriskscanoccurinthefuture.Thepublichealthrisksarehigher

thanthemaximumacceptableinfectionrisksbybiologicalpathogens(RIVM,1997andSenden,

2003).

Thechancethattenantshaveaccesstotheequipmentispresent.Thetechnicalbuildingislocked,

althoughthetenantshavefreeaccesstothereedbed,pondandmanholesoftherainandgrey

waterstoragetanks.Thechanceofcalamitiesisdefinedbythetenantsexperiences.One
calamityoccurredin8.5years(TheunissenandRuiven,pers.com.).Duetocloggeddrainsofthe

reedbedgreywaterfloodedthesurroundingground.Nowadaystheycleanthedrainseachyear

andnocalamitiesareexpectedinthefuture.

An85%reductionofdischargesofdomesticwastewaterisrealized.TheWMSprotectssurface

waterandenvironmentbymeansofpreventionofdischargesofBODandnutrients.Thecurrent
statusofoperationisunknown.BecausetheSSWMSisstillconnectedthetreatmentefficiency

cannotbecomparedwiththeconventionalWMS.Howeverahigherefficiencyisexpectedbythe

reductionofwastewateranditsdilution.

34

Page37
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Subfunctions

TheWMSincludesmeasuresforrainwatermanagementbyrainwaterstorageandreuse.The
maximumrainwaterstoragecapacityis70m3per40houses.Theamountthesystemcantreat

withthepondandinfiltrationareaisenoughtopreventflooding(Ruiven,pers.com.).TheWMS

includesmeasuresforremovalofgroundordrainagewaterbytherainwatercollectionsystem.

Userperspective

Table12depictstheinvestmentandoperationalcostsoftheSSWMS,1011/y.Thepumpsare
replacedin2002(expectedoncein10years)withatotalcostof10,000(Engelen,pers.com.).

Thetenantsreceivedduring19972001areductiononwaterboardfeeof60/hh.Howeverthis

reductionisnotoperativesince2002

Table12Investmentandoperationalcosts

Aspect Cost(/hh) Expectedlifetime**(y) cost(/y)


Greywaterinstallation 4,333* 20 353 #
pumps 10
Rainwaterrecycling 2,170* 50
pumps 10
pipes 20
retentionarea
Sewerageconnection3500 25 238 #
ConventionalWTP 875 25
Maintenance and 141***
energy
Seweragetaxes 104
Waterboardfee 139
Watersupply 36
TotalCost 1011
*(PtzandBleuz,1998)**(Engelen,pers.com)***(Koopmans,pers.com.)#consideringaninterestof

2.5%andlifetimeof25years

Theinvisibilityandcomfortismeasuredbyaskingfivetenants.Thetoiletisaconventionalflush

toilet.TheSSWMSmakesthemsometimes(2)feelenvironmentalconcerned/friendly.They

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 28/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
willrecommendthesystemtootherhouseholdsinotherneighbourhoods(3).Theythinkthatthe
visiblepartoftheWMSequipmentinornearthehousesisnice(3).TheWMSproducesnotatall

(4)annoyingnoiselevels.TheWMSproducesalittlebit(3)unpleasantodours.TheWMSdoes

notattractverminatall(4).Theyhavetoperformthemaintenanceactivitiesmentionedbeforeby
themselvesapproximately8h/yearandtheythinkitisnicetodo(3).Theyallfacerestrictionson

productsformaintenanceorflushingtroughthetoiletandhavealistofproducts.Thetechnical
maintenance(8h/year)isperformedbyanexternalcompany.Theyremovethesludgeofthe

greaseseparatorandsedimentationtanks.

35

Page38
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Theindoorvolumeofthesystemisnotmorethanconventional.Theoutdoorsurfaceisthe

summationofthereetbed(230m2),infiltrationretentionareaapproximately100m2andapond

approximately100m2andareaoftechnicalbuildingandundergroundtanksofapproximately

100m2(Bleuz,1995)dividedby40householdsresultingin13.25m2/hh.Howevertheareaof
theconventionalWMSisnotincluded.

TherobustnessofthesystemisalsoanaverageopinionofthetenantsandPortaal.During8.5

yearsfourofthefivetenantsexperiencedproblemswiththeWMSandthesearedescribedbelow:

Thetoiletwaspollutedbybrownprecipitationofthegreywateronce.Thecausewasheavyrain
onthereedbedthattookuplargeparticlesandoversaturatedthefinalfilters.Cleaningand

replacementofthelargeparticlefiltersolvedit.Therainwaterwasnottransportedtwotimesdue

toconnectionproblems.ThiswassolvedbyreplacementofthepipesbyPortaal.Theblackwater

sewercloggedfourtimes,Portaalsolvedthis.Theexternalcompanydriedoutandbrokethegrey
waterpumps.Portaalreplacedthepumpsyetontheinitiativeofthetenants.Thereedbed

producessmellsduringalldaysinintervalsonseveralmonths.Thisoccursduetothewrong

pumpfrequencyofthegreywaterpumpstothereedbed.StillPortaaldoesnotsolvethis.The

totalsystemfailureisapproximatelyseventimesin8.5years.Amoregeneralproblemisthe

languidmanagementofPortaal,duringproblems.(Ruiven,pers.com.).

Environmental

Theamountofenergyusedbythegreyandrainwatersystemisunknownbutexpectedtobe

higherthanconventional.Therearenochemicalsusedbythegreyandrainwatersystem.The
waterconsumptionisapproximately50m3/hh(Bleuz,1995).Theamountofsludgeproducedby

thegreyandrainwatersystemisassessedtobe12.5kg/hh.y(Ruiven,pers.com.).Theamountof

theconventionalWMSisunknown.Thevolumeofreusablewateris25m3/hh.y(Bleuz,1995).

Theamountofnutrientsrecycledisnil.Thewaterqualityofthegreywatertreatmentfulfilledthe

standardsofreusehoweverthecurrentstatusisunknown.Theresultingeffluentqualityofthe

conventionalWMSisunknown.

36

Page39

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 29/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

ThefinalcomparisonwiththeconventionalWMSisvisualizedinthetablebelow.Foreach

indicatora+,a0,andaisgivenforrespectivelythebetter,thesame,andworsethaninthe

conventionalsystem.

Table13ComparisonwithconventionalWMSbasedoncriteria

Criteria Indicator Comparison


Primaryfunctions Healthprotection
Protectionofsurfacewater +
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement +
Drainagemanagement +
Userperspective Costs
Invisibility/comfort 0
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse +
Emissions +

5.3.3Actors
Theactorsandtheirroleinthedesignanddecisionmakingarepresentedintable14.Theyhada
meetingapproximatelyonetimeamonth.ThefinaldecisionswheremadebyPortaaltheowner.

(RuivenandEngelen,pers.com.)ThemunicipalityArnhempermittedtothelocalgreywater

treatmentandtheblackwaterconnectiontotheconventionalWMS.Therainwaterisnotallowed

tobedischargedontheconventionalWMS(Brouwer,1996).HoweverArnhemhadnodirectpart
inthedecisionmaking,theyonlysetthedemandsandpreconditionsthatarebasedonpermits.

Table14Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

Description Name Role


1TenantrespondentAdvanRuiven Participativeroleindesignwateraspect
2Architect opMAAT BuildingDesign
3Housingcompany*Portaal Currentmanager/ownerhouses
4Municipality GemeenteArnhem Preconditionsanddemands
5Housing AWBA Projectmanagerhouses
company**
*Thisactorwasnotinvolvedinthedesignphase.
**ThisactordoesnolongerexistthereforethecurrenthousingcompanyPortaalwasinterviewed.

Responsibility

Portaalisresponsibleforthetreatmentofthegreyandrainwatersystem(Engelen,pers.com.).

Thetenantsareresponsiblefortheinhouseequipment(toilet,pipes,etc.),thereedbedandpond

maintenance,inspectionoftherainandgreywatertanks,andalerttechnicalproblems(Ruiven,
pers.com.).ThemunicipalityArnhemhastheresponsibilityovertheconventionalsewerage

systemafteracertainconnection/inspectionpoint(Warnshuis,pers.com.).TheWaterboard

Rivierenlandisresponsibleforthetreatmentoftheblackwater.

37

Page40
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

5.3.4Driversandbarriers
Thedriversandbarriersaredividedinenvironmental,economical,andsocialaspectsandare

evaluatedforthedesign,current,andfuturesituationofthegreywaterandrainwaterseparation.
Theyareaddressedintable34inappendix3.2withcorrespondingnumberstotheactors.

EnvironmentalDriversandBarriers

Duringthedesignphasethemainenvironmentaldriversofthetenantswerereductionofwater

useandreductionofwastewaterdischargestotheconventionalWMS.Theobtainedreduction

amount57%and85%,respectively(PtzandBleuz,1998).Oneaimpreventionofrainwater
overflows,althoughtheprotectionofsurfaceandgroundwaterwerenodrivers.Theyalso

considerthereedbedandpondaselementsthatcontributetoaniceneighbourhoodtolivein.The

tenantsgivethesameargumentsinthecurrentandfuturesituationasduringthedesignphase.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 30/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

(Ruiven,pers.com.)

Thedriversofthetenantsmunicipalityarepartiallythesameasthoseofthe.Theyalso

consideredtheprotectionofsurfaceandgroundwaterasimportant.Forthecurrentandfuture

situationtheyconsiderwatersavingandpreventionofdryingoutofsoilasenvironmentaldrivers

(Warnshuis,pers.com.).ThemainenvironmentaldriversforPortaalarethesameasofthe
tenants.Theyalsohavedriversastheprotectionofsurfaceandgroundwater,andamicrobiotope

createdbymeansofthepond,infiltrationareaandreedbed.(Engelen,pers.com.)

Duringthedesignphasethetenantshadnoenvironmentalbarriers.Inthecurrentandfuture

situationbarriersarise.Theyexperiencehealthrisksbyreuseofrainandgreywater,however
nobodyisreportedill.Alsofloodingoftoilet(occurredbycloggingandbreakingofpipes),

maintenanceproblems,highenergyuse(duetopumps),andsmellandodourproblems(fromthe

reedbed)arebarriers.(Ruiven,pers.com.)Themunicipalityhasinthethreephasesthesame

barriers:floodingrisks,useofchemicals(morecleaningchemicals),andmaintenanceproblems
(Warnshuis,pers.com.).ForthecurrentandfuturesituationPortaalhasasbarriers:healthrisks

forthetenants(Portaalisresponsible),useofextrachemicals(duetocleaning),maintenance

problems,andahigherenergyuse(duetopumps).Portaaldoesnotimplementthesystemin

otherneighbourhoodsduetothepotentialhealthrisks.(Engelen,pers.com.).

38

Page41
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

EconomicalDriversandBarriers

Themaineconomicaldriversofthetenantsinthedesignphasearelowdesigncostsandlow

waterboardfee.Anotherdriveristhedevelopmentofanewtechnologythatmightresultin

futurebenefits.Inthecurrentandprobablyinthefuturesituationthesavingsinwater
consumptionisrealized.However,thedesigncostswerehighandthewaterboardfeereduction

isnotgivensince2002.(Ruiven,pers.com.)Themunicipalityhasthereductionofwater

consumptioncostsanddevelopmentofanewtechnologyasdriversinallphases(Warnshuis,

pers.com.).Portaalexpectedthesameeconomicalbenefitsexceptasthemunicipalityinall
phases(Engelen,pers.com.).

Themaineconomicalbarriersforallactorsaretheveryhighinstallationanddesigncosts

comparedtotheconventionalWMS.Thehighercostsaremadeduetomorepipes,pumps,

reedbed,andconsultants.Alsotheyallexpectedhighoperationalcostsduetoreplacementof
installationparts,andmaintenanceactivitiesoftenantsandPortaal.Alsotheenergycostsare

expectedtobehighbythetenants.Thehigheroperationalcostsarearrangedinaspecialrentfor

thetenants.Portaaldoesnotimplementthesysteminotherneighbourhoodsduetothehigh

installationandoperationalcosts.

SocialDriversandBarriers
Thesocialdriversinthedesignphaseareforallactorsanintensivecontactwiththeneighbours,

environmentalfriendlybehaviourandaniceneighbourhood.Thesearerespectivelybecauseof

thejointmanagementanddesign,existingideasandphilosophy,andthecreationofanareawith
pond,infiltrationarea,andreedbed.Inthecurrentandfuturesituationtheintensivecontactofthe

tenantshasdeclined.(Ruiven,Warnshuis,andEngelen,pers.com.)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 31/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Inthedesignphasethetenantshadnosocialbarrier,currentlythesmellandodourproblemsof
thereedbedareabarrier.Indesign,current,andfuturephasethemunicipalityhashealthrisks,

acceptationofnewtenants,andrisksforhousingequipment,andadifficulttechnologyofthe
systemasbarriers.IncurrentandfuturephasePortaalthinksthathealthrisksandacceptationof

newtenantsofthesystemisabarrier.(Ruiven,Warnshuis,andEngelen,pers.com.)

39

Page42
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

6SOURCESEPARATEDWMSINSWEDEN

6.1Introduction

ThischapterdescribesthestudiedSSWMSinSweden.Ofeachcasetheimplementedtechnology,

performance,actors,anddriversandbarriersaredescribed.

6.2Ekoporten

In1967thelocalgovernmentofNorrkpingconstructedtheapartmentscomplexesinthe

neighborhoodHageby.Duringthelateeightiestheneighborhoodexperiencedsocialproblems

andthequalityofthecomplexesbecamephysicallypoor.Thegovernmentalhousingcompany
HyresbostderINorrkpingABreconstructedtheapartmentsin1995.Thelastbuildingto

renovate(1996)wastheEkoportenhouseconsistingof18apartments.Thehousingcompany

rebuildthehouseaccordingthelatestenvironmentalfriendlytechnology.Theimplemented

technologyisbasedonthethemesenergy,indoorclimate,ventilation,andwater&wastewater.

Thelatterisdiscussedinthisstudy.Thecompanysobjectivewastogainexperiencesforfuture

reconstructions,anenvironmentalmarketingsimage,andapositivesymbolforthe
neighbourhood.In2004thehousingcompanyMarkarydsbostdertookoverthebuilding.

Currentlyapproximately35tenantsliveinEkoporten.TheyareproudtoliveintheEkoporten

houseandareenvironmentallyeducated.

6.2.1ImplementedTechnology
TheSSWMSinEkoportenisbasedonseparatecollectionofurine(yellow),grey,brown,and

rainwater.Thewaterconsumptioninthehouseholdsisin(19961997)approximately44%lower
thannormal(Bokstrm,2002).Thequalityofthewaterstreamsisdepictedintable35in

appendix4.1.Thetechnicalschemeandariaviewofthesystemareshowninappendix4.1.The

designisbasedonresourcesavingandrecyclingliving.

Rainwater

Therainwaterispartlyusedinafountainandinfiltratedintheground,andpartlydischargedon

theconventionalsewerage.Itisinfiltratedintheareaswherenohardsurfaceispresent.However

rainwaterisnotapriorityinthisbuilding.(Jonzon,pers.com.)

40

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 32/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Page43

UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Greywater

Originallythegreywaterandfecesflushwateraretreatedlocally.Thefecesflushwateris
gatheredfromtheblackwaterbyanAquatroncentrifugalsolids/liquidseparator.Theamountof

greywaterisapproximately104L/p.d.Duetowatersavingaspects(tapsandshower)thisis30

%lessthantheSwedishnorm(150L/p.d).Theamountoffecesflushwaterisapproximately29

L/p.d.(Vinners,2001)

Thetreatmentisperformedbymeansofathreechambersedimentationtank,UVfilter,
segmentationtank,andthereafterahorizontallyinfiltrationreedbed.In1999aretheUVfilterand

horizontallyinfiltrationreedbedreplacedbyaverticallyinfiltrationreedbed(InFiltra).Thereason

wasapoorfunctioningUVfilter(becausethewaterhadahighsuspendedsolidsconcentration)
andthereforehighamountsofbacteriaindicatororganismintheeffluent.Alsothepossibledirect

contactwiththegreywaterinthehorizontallyinfiltrationreedbedwasariskforexposedpeople.

(Gustafsson,2005)Thethreechambersedimentationtankhasatotalvolumeof11m3,witha

retentiontimeofapproximately2.3days.Inthistankparticlessettleandasludgewasteis

created.Theamountofsludgeisapproximately980kg/y.Twotimesperyearthissludgeis

removedandtreatedbytheWTPSlottshagens(Norrkping).(Karlsson,2002)

Fromthesedimentationtanksthewaterpassesasegmentationtankfromwhichitispumpedover

thetwoparallelsegmentedreedbeds(figure5).Thetotalreedbedareais270m2approximately

7.7m2/p.Theplantsandbacteriainthesandcarryoutthebiologicalconversionoforganicmatter
(BOD),NandP.Thesandalsofilterssuspendedsolidsandhasadisinfectingpropertyfor

pathogens.Theremovalefficiencyofthereedbedisshownintable36appendix4.1itdepictsno

significantdifferenceinwinterandsummer.Subsequentlytheeffluentisdischargedintothe

smallcreekLjura.

Themaintenanceconsistsofcuttingthereedandflushingthedrainagepipestwiceayear.Thisis

carriedoutbytheinstallationmanagerPeterJonzon.Healsoinspectsthetotalsystemonedaya

week.Thesoilofthereedbedneedstobereplacedafter10years.(Jonzon,pers.com.)

41

Page44
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure5InFiltrakompaktfilter(Gustafsson,2005)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 33/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Urine
TheinstalledDublettentoiletmakesseparationofurineandfecespossible(figure6).Thetoilet

consistsoftwocompartments,andtwoflushpossibilitiesforfecesandurine.Theurineneedsa

flushof0.2litresandthefeces4litres.Withthesameamountofflushesthetoiletsaves25%

watercomparedtoaconventionalSwedishtoilet(Vinners,2001).Thequalityoftheurineis
depictedintable35.Theurineandflushwatermixturesamountisapproximately1.3L/p.d

(Vinners,2001).Thepercentagesofnutrientscomparedtothecompletewastewaterstream
presentintheurineareforN62%,P62%,andK87%(Jnsson,2001).

Figure6DublettentoiletatEkoporten(VisitEkoporten,2005)

Theurinepipesareofcopperandcontainanglesof90.The

mixtureiscollectedintwo15m3tanksandone30m3tank
storedundertheground.If85%ofone15m3tankisfilled

analarmwillsound.Thenthemanagerhastoconnectthe
newurinetotheother15m3.Inthe30m3allthecollected

urineofthefulltankscanbestored.Theurinehastobe

storedforatleast6monthsfordisinfectionofpathogens.

Before2002theurinewastransportedtotheWTP

Slottshagen.Since2002theurineistransportedtotwo

localfarmersanddischargedontheirland.Thetransportis

paidbythehousingcompany.

42

Page45
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Onefarmer(TillkeKarlsson)isinterviewedonhisperceptionhoweverhehasnotyetreceived

theurine.Thefarmerwouldliketocontributetotheenvironment,andisinformedaboutthe

recyclingadvantages.Thefarmerwillmixthehumanurinewithcowurine,andsprayiton

grasslandonwhichcowsareliving.Hewillreceive15m3/yandcanfertilizeonetime3hectare
(hehas28hectareofland).Thefarmerwillsave1800kgoffertilizerandtherefore

approximately950.Thefarmerhasnoideaabouttheurinequalityandisskepticalonthe
hormoneandmedicineconcentrations.Heexpectsalowrisksforthecows,andevenlowerfor

hiscustomers.Heeventhinksthathewillgetmorecustomersduetotheenvironmentalfriendly

image.(T.Karlsson,pers.com.)

Brownwater

Thebrownwaterundergoesacentrifugalliquid/solidseparationintheAquatron.Theamountof

separatedsolidsvariedbetween1.4and6L/p.d.Thesolidswerecombinedwiththeorganic

householdwaste(vegetablesetc.)andanadditionofwoodenpellets.Theamountofpelletsadded

isapproximately1000kg/y(Jonzon,pers.com.).Thesolidsaregrindedinarotorandstoredina
shedtocompostforsixmonths.Thereafteritisusedinthetenantsgardenandsurroundingfield.

Theamountofcompostis0.23kg/p.d(Vinners,2001),approximately6m3/y.Theamountof

indicatorbacteriainthecompostisduring19971999verylow.Thecontactwiththecomposthas
nohigherrisksthancontactwithnormalsoil(Karlsson,2002).TheamountofN,P,andKinthe

compostisshownintable37inappendix4.1.

Evaluationcurrentsystem

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 34/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Thecurrentstatusofthegreywatertreatmentsystemisok.Howevertheremovalefficiencyis
decreasingduetosaturationofthesoil.In2002thereedbeddischargesadailyaverageof15.3g

Ptotaland76gNtotalontheLjura.WhenthegreywaterwastreatedinthecentralWTP

Slottshagenthedischargewasapproximately1gPtotaland40gNtotal.Thereforeitisadvised

byMiljinvesttoconnectthegreywatertothecentralWMS.(Karlsson,2003)

Thecurrentstatusoftheurinesystemisok.Theurinesystemexperiencedsomesmallproblems.

Themainproblemiscloggingofthecollectionpipe.Thecloggingemergesbymagnesiumand

calciumphosphatesprecipitationespeciallyinthehorizontalpartsofthepipeandintheanglesof

90.Becausethediameterofthepipeislowcompletestoppagesemerge.Thetenantsflushthe

toiletmoreoftentoremovethesediments.Theyalsocleanflushthetoiletwithsoda.Theother

problemwasthattill2002nofarmerwasfoundthatreusedtheurine.

43

Page46
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Thisaddressestheuncertaintyofthereusabilityoftheurine.Thecurrentstatusofthebrown

water/compostingsystemisok

6.2.2PerformanceSSWMS
Primaryfunctions

Thechancethattenantshavecontactwiththewastewaterisnotpresent.Therisksofrecyclingthe

compost(Karlsson,2002)orurine(Hglund,2001)arealsolow.Thechancethattenantshave

accesstothemechanicalequipmentispresent.Thetechnicalbuildingislocked,althoughthe

tenantshavefreeaccesstothereedbed.

Thechanceofcalamitiesisdefinedbythetenantsexperiences.Onlyonceinnineyearstwo

tenantsexperiencedacalamitywiththeurinesystem(KindstrandandAberg,pers.com.).Dueto
cloggeddrainstheycouldnotflushtheurineaway.Nowadaystheycleanthedrainsandflush

moreoftenandnocalamitiesareexpectedfromthepipesanymore.

TheWMSprotectssurfacewaterqualityandtheenvironmentbymeansofpreventionof

dischargesofoxygendemandingcompoundsandnutrients.Thecurrentstatusshowsthatthe

amount(ingramperday)ofNandPdischargedbythereedbedarehighertheninthecentralised
WTP.TheamountofdischargedPwillincreaseinthefuturebecausethesoilbecomessaturated.

Thereuseofurineandcompostreducestheamountofnutrientsandorganicmatterdischarged.

Subfunctions
TheWMSincludesmeasuresforrainwatermanagementbyrainwateruseandinfiltration.The

maximumrainwaterstoragecapacityisunknown.TheWMSdoesnotincludemeasuresfor

removalofgroundordrainagewaterbecausethatisunnecessary.

Userperspective
Table15depictstheinvestmentandoperationalcostsoftheSSWMS.Theinvestmentcostsofthe

systemaretwiceashighasforaconventionalsystem(Bokstrm,2002)andwerefinancedbythe

Swedishnationalgovernment.Thereedbedisreplacedin1999withatotalcostof15,000

(Jonzon,pers.com.).Theyearlyoperationalcostsareincludedintherent,yetthetenantsdonot
payahigherrentthannormal.Thetenantsdonotreceiveadiscountonthewatersupplyprice

44

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 35/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Page47
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Table15Investmentandoperationalcosts

Aspect Cost() Cost(/hh)Expectedlifetime Cost(/y)


(y)
Completeinstallation 320000 17.800 50 966 #
reedbed 15000 10
composting 10000 10
device
urine 50
watersupply& 112
treatment
Monitoring and 7700 428
maintenance
Totalcost 1506
#consideringaninterestof2.5%andlifetimeof25years

Theinvisibilityandcomfortismeasuredbyaskingfivetenants.ThetoiletisaDublettenflush

toilet.TheSSWMSmakesthemalways(4)feelenvironmentalconcerned/friendly.Theywill

recommendthesystemtootherhouseholdsinotherneighbourhoods(3).Theythinkthatthe
visiblepartoftheWMSequipmentinornearthehousesisnotdisturbing(2).TheWMS

producesnotatall(4)annoyingnoiselevels.TheWMSproducesalittlebit(3)unpleasant

odours.TheWMSdoesnotattractverminatall(4).Theydonothavetoperformmaintenance

activities.ThisisdonebyPeterJonzonapproximately1day/weekandhefindsitisnicetodo(3).
Theyallfacerestrictionsonproductsformaintenanceorflushingtroughthetoiletandhavealist

ofproducts.

Theindoorvolumeofthecompostroomis2.7m3/hh.Theoutdoorsurfaceisthesummationof

thereedbedandurinetanks18m2/hh.Therobustnessofthesystemisalsoanaverageopinionof

thetenantsandPeterJonzon.Twotenantsexperiencedproblemswithcloggedurinepipes1time
peryear.Jonzonreportsthatduetoheavyrainsintheautumnthereedbedfloods2times/y,the

Aquatroniscloggedoncein5years,andthedrumisfloodingoncein2years.Thetotalsystem

failureisapproximately3.7times/y.Howevertheseproblemsaresolvedbythetenantsand
Jonzon.Amoregeneralproblemissmelloftheurinetoiletthatalltenantsexperience.

Environmental

Theamountofenergyusedbythegreyandrainwatersystemisunknown.Therearenochemicals

usedbythegreyandrainwatersystem.Thewaterconsumptionisapproximately82m3/hh.The

amountofsludgeproducedbythegreywatersystemisapproximately28kg/hh.y,theamountof
compostis333kg/y,andtheamountofurineis833kg/y(Vinners,2001).

45

Page48
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

TheamountofnutrientsrecycledisforN,P,andKrespectively61500,7900,23300kg

(Vinners,2001).TheeffluentwaterqualityislowerthanofconventionalWMS.

ThefinalcomparisonwiththeconventionalWMSisvisualizedinthetablebelow.Foreach
indicatora+,a0,andaisgivenforrespectivelythebetter,thesame,andworsethaninthe

conventionalsystem.

Table16ComparisonwithconventionalWMSbasedoncriteria

Criteria Indicator Comparison

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 36/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Primaryfunctions Healthprotection 0
Protectionofsurfacewater
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement +
Drainagemanagement 0
Userperspective Costs
Invisibility/comfort +
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse +
Emissions +/

6.2.3Actors
Theactorsandtheirroleinthedesignanddecisionmakingarepresentedintable17.Thedesign

iscarriedoutbythehousingcompanyHyresbostderhowevertheydidnotwanttocooperate
inthisresearch.Thefinaldecisionswheremadebythehousingcompany.Thenewowneris

Markarydsbostderthatgivesacurrentandfutureperspective.Thelocalgovernment

NorrkpingKommundemandedacontrolprogramtomonitorthedifferentstreams4timesper

year,andthataspecialmanagerisappointedtomaintainthesystem.Theyalsodemandthata
connectiontothecentralizedseweragewasnecessaryincaseproblemsoccurred.However

NorrkpingKommunhadnodirectpartinthedecisionmaking,theyonlysetthedemandsand

preconditionsbasedonpermits.

Table17Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

Description Name Role


1Tenantrespondent*Lind Noparticipativerole
2Consultant* Miljinvest Analysingwatersystem
3Housingcompany*MarkarydsbostderAB Currentmanager/ownerhouses
4Municipality* NorrkpingKommun Preconditionsanddemands
5Housing HyresbostderINRAB Projectmanagerdesignhouses
company**
*Theseactorswerenotinvolvedinthedesignphase.
**Thisactorisnolongerinvolvedinthecurrentsituation.

46

Page49
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Responsibility

MarkarydsbostderisresponsibleforthecompleteSSWMS(Kkel,pers.com.).Thetenantsare
responsiblefortheinhouseequipment(toilet,pipes,etc.).

6.2.4Driversandbarriers
Thedriversandbarriersaredividedinenvironmental,economical,andsocialaspectsandare

evaluatedforthedesign,current,andfuturesituationoftheurine,brown,grey,andrainwater
separation.Theyareaddressedintable38inappendix4.2withcorrespondingnumberstothe

actors.Themunicipality,consultant,tenantandhousingcompanydidnottakepartinthedesign
phase.

EnvironmentalDriversandBarriers
Inthecurrentandfuturephasethemainenvironmentaldriversofthetenantswerereductionof

wateruse,recyclingofnutrients,andaniceneighbourhood.Especiallythereuseofurineand

compostisimportantforthetenants(Lind,pers.com.)Thedriversofthemunicipalityare

recyclingofnutrients,andrelatedreductionofwateremissionswithhighnutrientsconcentration.
Theyalsoconsideredtheprotectionofsurfaceandgroundwaterasimportant.(Franzen,pers.

com.).ThemainenvironmentaldriversforMarkarydsbostderarethesameasofthetenants.
Theyalsohavedriversastheprotectionofsurfacewaterandaniceenvironmentalbehaviour

feeling(Kkel,pers.com.).Thehousingcompanycanalsoreceiveanenvironmentalfriendly

imagewiththebuilding.Thedriversoftheconsultantarerecyclingofnutrients,andnice

neighbourhoodandenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling(Karlsson,pers.com.).

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 37/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Theenvironmentalbarriersofthetenantsareonlythemaintenanceproblems.Themunicipality

hasasbarriers:healthrisksandmaintenanceproblems(Franzen,pers.com.).Forthecurrentand

futuresituationMarkarydsbostderhasasbarriers:healthrisksforthetenantsandmaintenance

problems(Kkel,pers.com.).Howeverthehealthrisksarenegligible.Forthecurrentsituation
Miljinvesthasasbarriers:maintenanceproblems,higherenergyuse,andhigheremissions

(Karlsson,pers.com.).Inthefutureheexpectsthatwhenthegreywaterisconnectedtothe

centralseweragetheemissionsaresignificantlylower.

47

Page50
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

EconomicalDriversandBarriers

Themaineconomicaldriversofthetenantsinthecurrentandfuturephasearelowwatersupply
costsandthedevelopmentofanewtechnologythatmightresultinfuturebenefits.The

municipalityhasnointerestinthecosts.Markarydsbostderconsiderstheeconomicalbenefitsto
belowertaxesforwasteandthedevelopmentofanewtechnology.Theconsultantconsidersa

lowwaterboardfeeandthedevelopmentofanewtechnologyaseconomicaldrivers.Themain

economicalbarriersforallactors(exceptmunicipality)aretheveryhighinstallationand

maintenancecosts.

SocialDriversandBarriers

Thesocialdriversinthecurrentandfuturephaseareforallactorsenvironmentalfriendly
behaviourandaniceneighbourhood.Thesearerespectivelybecauseoftherecycling,andthe

creationofanicehouseandreedbed.Thetenants,housingcompany,andconsultantalsoconsider
ahigherintensivecontactbetweentheneighbours.Thisbecausethediscussionandlearningof

thesystemandreuseofthecompost.Theyareallveryproudtoliveinthebuilding!

Inthecurrentandfuturephasethetenantsandconsultanthadnosocialbarrierthesmelland
odourproblemsoftheurineareabarrieryetaccepted.Incurrentandfuturephasethe

municipalityandhousingcompanyhavehealthrisksandadifficulttechnologyofthesystemas

barriers.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 38/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

48

Page51
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

6.3Skogaberg

In2001thesocialhousingcompanyEgnahemsbolagetandtheconstruction/architectcompany

SwecoFNNSaddressedtheintegrationofablackwatersystemintheplannedneighborhood

Skogaberg.ThelocalgovernmentalDepartmentofSustainableWaterandWasteManagement
wasfoundtobetheresponsibleactorforthesystem,sincetheytakecareoftheconventional

WMSofGteborgcity.Thebuildingoftheneighborhoodstartedin2002andwillconsistof17

apartments(inflats),6specialapartments,and110housestherefore133households(deBlois,

2004).

Themainreasonfortheblackwatersystemisclosingtheecocycleofplantnutrients.Sincethe
FederationofSwedishFarmers(LRF)stronglyaddressedtheirapprehensioninreuseofsewage

sludgeinagriculture,therecyclingofplantnutrientsdischargedbyhouseholdsalmostended.The

mainobstaclesforreusearetheheavymetalcontentandrisksofnoteasilydegradableorganic
compoundspresentinthesewagesludge.InSwedenthereforemostsewagesludgeisdigested

andcomposted.(Karlsson,2005)
Figure7SchematicsymbolprojectSkogaberg

Yetthephosphorousresourceinartificial

fertilizersisfinite,thereforetheLRFs

perspectiveistoreusethenutrients
excretedbyhouseholdsinthefuture.The

desiredsewagesludgeisnutrientrichand

containslowconcentrationsofheavy

metalsandorganiccompounds.Toobtain
thissludgetheexperimentinSkogaberg

wasstarted.(Karlsson,2005)

6.3.1ImplementedTechnology
TheSSWMSinSkogabergisbasedon

separatecollectionofblack,grey,andrainwater.Thecollectionandtreatmentoforganickitchen
wasteisalsointegratedintheblackwatersystem.Thedesignisbasedontherecyclingof

nutrients.Toavoidtheaccumulationofcopperinthesludgethewatersupplypipesinthe

neighborhoodarefreeofcopper.Theblackwatertreatmentisstillinapilotphaseinwhich

severaltechnologyistested(Aarsrud,pers.com.).

49

Page52
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Rainwater

Therainwaterisdisconnectedfromthecentralseweragesystem.Thewaterrunsoffbygravity
andfinallyinfiltratesintheground.Arainwaterseweragewasunnecessarybecauseofthe

inclinationconditionsandinfiltrationarea.Thedisconnectionaimstominimizetheamountof

waterdischargedtothecentralizedWMSRya.Howeverrainwaterisnotapriorityinthis

neighborhood.(Aarsrud,pers.com)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 39/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Greywater

Thegreywateriscollectedseparatelyanddischargedtotheconventionalsewerage.Thesewage
transportintheneighborhoodisbasedongravity.ThetreatmentisdonebythecentralizedWMS

Rya.ThewatereffluentfromRyaisdischargedintheGtalvandfinallyendsupinthe
sea.Thesewagesludgeismostlycompostedandfinallyincinerated.(Aarsrud,pers.com)

Blackwater

Theblackwateriscollectedtogetherwiththeorganickitchenwaste.Thetoiletusesa3or6Litre
flush(Torjusen,2002).Theblackwaterisseparatedbecauseofitsnutrientcontent.Inthekitchen

aretwosinkspresent.Theorganickitchenwasteisgrindedbyadisposer(figure8)belowone

sink,andthegreywateriscollectedbytheothersink.Thegrindedorganicwasteistransported

byvacuumtotheblackwaterpipe.This
Figure8Disposar
pipetransportsthewastebygravityto

thelocalblackwatertreatmentplant.
(Karlsson,2005)

Thenormalamountoftheblackwater

mixturewouldbeapproximately16

m3/d(deBlois,2004).Themeasured

qualityisdepictedintable39in

appendix5.1.Twotreatmentsystems

willbetested:1)drumscreening,dosingantiscalant,andreversedosmosis,and2)sedimentation
enhancedwithchemicalprecipitation.Theobjectiveofthesesystemsistoconcentratethe

nutrientsinadrysubstancethatmakestransportenergy/costslow(Karlsson,pers.com.).

50

Page53
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Subsequentlythedrymatteristransportedtoanexternalbiogasfacilityatwhichalsotheorganic

kitchenwasteofGteborgsrestaurantswillbedigested.Thedigestionplantiscentralizedto
minimizeriskswithgasandsmell.Thereafteritmaybeusedinagricultureasfertilizer.The

remainingwateroftheblackwatertreatmentsystemmightbeusedforirrigationofthenearby

golfcourt.(Karlsson,2005)Yetthetreatmentisstillinpilotphaseandthewaterandwasteare

dischargedtothecentralizedsewerage.Currently(April2005)arethedrumscreeningand

reversedosmosisintested.Therearenowrittenresultsyet.Thecentralizedbiogasfacilitydoes

notexistyet.(AarsrudandKarlsson,pers.com.)

6.3.2PerformanceSSWMS
Primaryfunctions

Thechancethattenantshavecontactwiththewastewaterisnotpresent.Therisksareequal

comparedtoaconventionalWMS.Thesystemisdesignedtominimizehealthrisksandproblems

byusingordinarypipesystems.Thechancethattenantshaveaccesstothemechanicalequipment
isnotpresent.Thechanceofcalamitiesisdefinedbythetenantsexperiences.Therewereno

calamitiesreportedbythetenants.

TheWMSprotectssurfacewaterqualityandtheenvironmentbymeansofpreventionof
dischargesofoxygendemandingcompoundsandnutrients.Theobjectiveistoreusethenutrients

by80%.Thiswillreducetheamountofnutrientsdischargedonsurfacewater.Howeveritisstill

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 40/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
unknownwhatresultswillbeobtained.

Subfunctions
TheWMSincludesmeasuresforrainwatermanagementbyrainwaterinfiltration.Themaximum

rainwaterstoragecapacityisunknown.TheWMSdoesnotincludemeasuresforremovalof

groundwaterordrainagewaterbecausethatisunnecessary.

Userperspective

Table18depictstheinvestmentandoperationalcostsoftheSSWMS,710/y.Theinvestment

costsofthetreatmentplant,conventionalseweragesystem,andtheresearchwerepaidbythe

localgovernmentDepartmentofSustainableWaterandWasteManagement(96%),andthe

constructioncompany(4%)(Karlsson,pers.com.).Thecostsofthesedimentationwith

precipitationtechnologyareunknown.Thecostsofthecentralizeddigestionplantandtransport
costsareunknown.Thecostbenefitsinagricultureareunknown.

51

Page54
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Thetenantsdonotpayahigherrentortaxesthannormal.Theyonlypaid1900(includedinthe

houseprice)morethaninaconventionalsystem.Thetenantsdonotreceiveadiscountonthe

watersupplyprice.

Table18Investmentandoperationalcosts

Aspect Cost() Cost(/hh) Expected Cost(/y)


lifetime(y)
Disposarand 254000 1900 25 510 #
doublesewerage 50
Treatmentplant 570000 4300 25
membranes 106000 5
Conventional 211000 1600 50
seweragesystem
Research and 211000 1600
sampling
Watersupply 200
Totalcost 710
#consideringaninterestof2.5%andlifetimeof25years

Theinvisibilityandcomfortismeasuredbyaskingfivetenants.Thetoiletisanormalflushtoilet.

TheSSWMSmakesthemveryoften(3)feelenvironmentalconcerned/friendly.Theyseparate

theorganickitchenwastenowcompletely,whiletheyexperiencedsomeobstaclestoseparatein

theconventionalbinsystem.Theywillrecommendthesystemtootherhouseholdsinother

neighbourhoods(3).Theyconsiderthedisposerasluxuryequipment,becausetheydonothaveto
takethegarbageout,cleantheolddirtybin,andhavemuchlesssmellandfliesproblems.They

thinkthatthevisiblepartoftheWMSequipmentinornearthehousesisnotdisturbing(2).

TheWMSproducesnotatall(4)annoyingnoiselevels.Thedisposermakesasoundwhenitis
used,yetthisisalreadyconsideredasnormal.TheWMSproducesnotatall(4)unpleasant

odours.Thetenantscomparedthesmellofthedisposerwiththeconventionalseparationofthe

organickitchenwasteasextraordinarybetter.TheWMSdoesnotattractverminatall(4).One

tenantexperiencedavisitoffliesinthedisposerseveraltimesinthesummer.Yetthetenant

relatedthistolowcleaningactivities.Mosttenantsexperiencedmanyverminproblemswiththe
conventionalorganickitchenwastesystem.

Theydonothavetoperformmaintenanceactivitiesonlyaddsomeoildropsinthedisposerwhen

itisunusedforsometime.Themaintenanceactivitiesontheblackwatersystem,includingthe
treatmentsystem,willbecarriedoutbyonemanfor40hoursaweek(Karlsson.pers.com.).

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 41/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

52

Page55
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

ThefirsttwoyearstheWaterandSewersWorkwillinspecttheseweragepipesinthe

neighbourhood(Karlsson.pers.com.).Thetenantsfacerestrictionsonproductsformaintenance

orflushingtroughthetoiletandhavealistofproducts.

Theindoorvolumeofthesystemis0.2m3/hhforthedisposer.Howevertheconventional

separationbinwouldalsotakesomeplace.Theoutdoorsurfaceistheareaofthelocaltreatment
plantandis0.75m2/hh.

Therobustnessofthesystemisalsoanaverageopinionofthetenants.Fouroutoffivetenants
experiencedproblemswiththedisposer.Twotenantshadacloggeddisposerbypotatopeels,fish

bonesorlimeshelves.Thisoccurredtwotimesperyearhowevertheycleanedthedisposerwith

flushwater.Onetenantexperiencedleakageofthedisposertwotimesayear,whichisstillnot

solved.Onetenanthasadysfunctionaldisposer.Onetimeinthefirstyeartwooutoffivetenants

experiencedaproblemwiththeseweragesystem.Theseweragepipewasclogged,andtheycould

notusethetoiletforawhile.HoweverthecloggedpipewascleanedbytheWaterandSewers
Work.

Environmental

Theamountofenergyusedbythegreyandrainwatersystemisunknown.Therearechemicals
(antiscalants)usedintheblackwatersystem.Theamountofchemicalsisstillunknown.The

waterconsumptionisapproximately145m3/hh.Theobjectiveistominimizetheuseofartificial
fertilizers,thereforeprotectionofthephosphorusresources.Theamountofsludgeproducedby

theblackwatersystemisunknown.Theamountofnutrientsrecycledisunknown.Thewater

qualityofthedischargedeffluentishighercomparedtoaconventionalWMS.

53

Page56
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

ThefinalcomparisonwiththeconventionalWMSisvisualizedinthetablebelow..Foreach

indicatora+,a0,andaisgivenforrespectivelythebetter,thesame,andworsethaninthe

conventionalsystem.

Table19ComparisonwithconventionalWMSbasedoncriteria

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 42/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Criteria
Primaryfunctions Indicator
Healthprotection Comparison
0
Protectionofsurfacewater +
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement +
Drainagemanagement 0
Userperspective Costs
Invisibility/comfort +
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse +
Emissions +

6.3.3Actors
Theactorsandtheirroleinthedesignanddecisionmakingarepresentedintable20.Thedesign
iscarriedoutbythehousingcompanyEgnahemsbolagetandconstructioncompany/architect

SwecoFNNS.ThelatterwastakenoverbytheGteborgmunicipalityDepartmentof
SustainableWaterandWasteManagement(KretsloppDepartment).Thefinaldecisionswhere

madebythehousingcompanyandtheKretsloppDepartment.Thehousesareownedbythe
tenantsandhousingcompany.Thenewownerofthefullscaletreatmentplantandsewerage

systemwillbetheWaterandSewersWork(VAVerket).

Table20Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

Description Name Role


1Consultant H2OLAND Analysingandprocessdesignblack
watersystem
2Housingcompany Egnahemsbolaget Currentmanagerhouses
3Architect* SwecoFNNS Designneighborhood
4DepartmentofSustainable Kretsloppdepartment Projectmanagerandinvestor
WaterandWasteManagement
(municipality)
5WaterandSewersWork VaVerket Buildingseweragesystemand2yearsof
(municipality) inspection
6Sewerageandtreatment Gryaab Adviseontechnology,andpermission
department(municipality) fororganickitchenwasteinsewerage
*Thearchitectisnotlongerworkingattheconstructioncompany.Thisactorisnolongerinvolvedinthe
currentsituation.

Responsibility
Thehousingcompany(Gustavsson,pers.com.)andtheDepartmentofSustainableWaterand

WasteManagement(AarsrudandKarlsson,pers.com.)areresponsibleforthefinaldecisionsin
thedesign.

54

Page57
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

TheDepartmentofSustainableWaterandWasteManagementisresponsibleforthecomplete

SSWMS(Karlsson,pers.com.).WhentheinstallationoperatesinfullscalemodetheWaterand
SewersWorkwillberesponsible(Bokesj,pers.com.).Thetenantsareresponsibleforthein

houseequipment(toilet,pipes,etc.).TheWaterandSewersWorkisresponsibleforthesewerage
pipesystem.

6.3.4Driversandbarriers
Thedriversandbarriersaredividedinenvironmental,economical,andsocialaspectsandare
evaluatedforthedesign,current,andfuturesituationoftheblackwatersystem.Theyare

addressedintable40inappendix5.2withcorrespondingnumberstotheactors.Thetenantsdid

nottakepartinthedecisionmaking.

EnvironmentalDriversandBarriers
Allactorsaddresstherecyclingofnutrientsasmainenvironmentaldriverinallthephases.The

projectisbasedonthisenvironmentaldriver.Theconsultant(deBlois,pers.com.),housing

company(Gustavsson,pers.com.),DepartmentofSustainableWaterandWasteManagement

(AarsrudandKarlsson,pers.com.),andarchitect(Aleby,pers.com.)alsoaddressanice
neighborhoodasenvironmentaldriverinallphases.Thearchitectalsoincludedtheuseof

environmentalfriendlymaterialsandminimizingthedemolitionofthesurroundingareaas

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 43/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

environmentaldriverinallphases.Thearchitectandhousingcompanyhaveaniceenvironmental

behaviourfeelingasdriverinallphases.TheVAVerket(Bokesj,pers.com.)andGryaab
(Mattsson,pers.com.)addressthereductionofwastewateremissionsandoverflowsas

environmentaldriver.

Theconsultanthasasenvironmentalbarriers:healthrisks,floodingrisks,useofchemicals,

maintenanceproblems,highenergyuseandcalamityriskduetoaciddosesinalmostallphases.
Thehousingcompanyhasasenvironmentalbarriers:maintenanceproblemsindesignphase,and

higherwaterconsumptioninallphases.Thearchitecthasasenvironmentalbarriers:maintenance

problemsindesignphase,andrisksofrecyclingthesludgeinagricultureinallphases.The

KretsloppDepartmenthasasenvironmentalbarriers:chemicaluse,higherenergyuse,and

maintenanceproblemsinalmostallphases.VAVerkethasasenvironmentalbarriers:health

risks,floodingrisks,useofchemicals,maintenanceproblems,risksofmedicineandhormonesin
agriculture,highenergyuse,nospaceingroundfortwoseweragesystems,andresourcesusein

allphases.Gryaabhasasenvironmentalbarriers:floodingrisks,useofchemicals,maintenance
problems,andhighenergyuseinallphases.

55

Page58
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

EconomicalDriversandBarriers

Themaineconomicaldriverofallactorsinallphasesisthedevelopmentofanewtechnology
thatmightresultinfuturebenefits.Theconsultanthasaseconomicaldriveralowwaterboardfee

andlowseweragetaxesinthefuture.Gryaabhasaseconomicaldriveralowergarbagecostsin
allphases.

Themaineconomicalbarriersforallactorsaretheveryhighinstallationandmaintenancecosts.

VAVerketalsohasthehighenergycostsandnotpossibleupscalingofthesystemaseconomical
barrierinallphases.Gryaabhasthehighenergycosts,highseweragetaxes,highwaterboard

fee,useofgroundspace,andnotpossibleupscalingofthesystemaseconomicalbarrierinall

phases

SocialDriversandBarriers
Theconsultanthasassocialdrivers:ahigherintensivecontactbetweentheneighbours,

environmentalfriendlybehaviour,andaniceneighbourhoodinallphases.Thehousingcompany
hasassocialdrivers:ahigherintensivecontactbetweentheneighbours,environmentalfriendly

behaviour,aniceneighbourhood,andagoodcontributionforthewholecommunityinallphases.
Thearchitecthasassocialdrivers:environmentalfriendlybehaviourandaniceneighbourhoodin

allphases.TheKretsloppdepartmenthasassocialdrivers:environmentalfriendlybehaviour,a

niceneighbourhood,andsamesystemasinconventionalinallphases.VAVerkethasassocial

drivertheluxuryofthedisposerinallphases.Gryaabhasassocialdrivers:ahigherintensive

contactbetweentheneighbours,theluxuryofthedisposer,andaniceneighbourhoodinall
phases

Theconsultantandhousingcompanyhaveassocialbarriertherisksforhousingequipment.The

architecthasassocialbarrierthenotvisibleenvironmentalbehaviour.TheKretsloppDepartment
hasassocialbarriertheconventionalthinkingofseveralactors.VAVerkethasassocialbarriers

thedifficultyofthetechnologyandhealthrisks.Gryaabhasassocialbarriersthedifficultyofthe
technologyandsewerageblockage.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 44/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

56

Page59
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

6.4Understenshjden

In1990thetenantsassociationEBBA(EcologicalDevelopmentinBjrkhagen)wasformedto
initiateaprojectonecologicalliving.TheycooperatewiththehousingcompaniesHSB(the

NationalAssociationofTenants'SavingsandBuildingSocieties)andSMA(Smfretagarnas
Arbetslshetskassa)thatarefamiliarwithindividualhousebuildingproject.HSBandSMAare

theprojectdevelopers.Thetenantsinitiatedseveralecologicalthemesofwhichonewasa

completelydisconnectedSSWMS.Toensurethatprospectivehomeownersplayedanactiverole

intheprojectaninnovativeplanwasdesigned.Themembershadtoworktenhourseachmonth

inthedesignorbuildingofthevillageorpay32instead(websiteFujitaresearch).They

combinedtheselfbuildingconceptwithuserparticipationinthedesignprocessandtheuseof
environmentallyfriendlymaterialsandtechnology.IntheareaBjrkhageninStockholm44

houseswereconstructed.In1995thetenants(160)ownedthehousesandcouldmovein.(HSB,
1997)

6.4.1ImplementedTechnology
TheSSWMSinUnderstenshjdenisinitiallybasedonseparatecollectionofurine(yellow),grey,
brown,andrainwater.Thelocaltreatmentofthegreyandbrownwaterisafteracontrolprogram

closed.CurrentlythesestreamsaretransportedtothecentralizedWMSHendriksdalsin
Stockholm.Thewatersavingutilitiesconsistsofthetapsandtoilet.Thewatersavingcapacityof

theurineseparationtoiletisdependingononeshabitsapproximately540L/p.d(Johanssonand
Nykvist,2001).Thesystemsschemeandaboveariaviewareshowninappendix6.1.Thedesign

isbasedonresourcesavingandrecycling(nutrients)living.

Rainwater

Therainwaterisdisconnectedfromtheseweragesystem.Itiscollectedinarainbarrelandreused
forplants,orledtoapondandditchsystemfromwhichitinfiltratesintheground.Thepondand

ditchhaveatotalareaof360m3.Theassumedinfiltrationcapacityisaccordingthepermeability

100200m3/year.(HSB,1994)

GreyandBrownwater

ThegreyandbrownwateraretransportedtothecentralizedWMSHendriksdalsinStockholm.
Thebrownwaterisflushedwith4litres.Theamountis17m3/day,respectively100110L/p.d.

(VernaEcology).

57

Page60
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Urine

Thehouseshaveaurineseparating(Dubletten)toilet(figure6).Theurinecontains
approximately70%Nand50%ofPandKofallhouseholdwasteandwastewater(Jnsson,

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 45/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
2002).Approximately82%oftheurineissourceseparated(Jnsson,2002).Theurinequalityis
depictedintable41inappendix6.1.Theamountisapproximately0.2m3/d(1.25L/p.d),

respectively160180m3/year.Itisflushedwith0.2litresofwaterandrunsbygravitytotwo
largetanksof40m3intheundergroundofthesurroundings.Theurinepipesaremadeof

Polypropyleneandhaveadiameterof110mm.Whenthefirsttankisfulltheotherisconnected.

TheurineistransportedonceayeartoafarmeratLakeBornsjn(inSalem).Thereitisstoredfor

sixmonths(todisinfectitfrompathogens)atina3x150m3tank.Inspringthefarmerfertilizes
cerealcropsfromtheurine.Thetransportover33kmrequires44MJ/p.y(Jnsson,2002).

HowevertheenergysavingsareforthecentralWMSandfertilizingproductionrespectively32

MJ/p.yand75MJ/p.y(Jnsson,2002).AccordingtoJnssontheemissionsofNandPtowater

decreasedby55%and33%,respectively(Jnsson,2002).

6.5.2PerformanceSSWMS
Primaryfunctions
Thechancethattenantshavecontactwiththewastewaterisnotpresent.Therisksofrecyclingthe

urinearelow(Hglund,2001).Thechancethattenantshaveaccesstothemechanicalequipment
isnotpresent.ThechanceofcalamitiesisaccordingtoSederlund(pers.com.)verylow.However

heworriesthechanceofchildrenfallingintheurinetank,althoughitislocked.

TheWMSprotectssurfacewaterandenvironmentbymeansofpreventionofdischargesof

oxygendemandingcompoundsandnutrients.Duetothecollectionof82%oftheurine
approximately57%N,41%P,41%K,and25%CODareseparatedandreused.

Subfunctions

TheWMSincludesmeasuresforrainwatermanagementbycollectioninrainbins,pondsand

infiltration.Themaximumrainwaterstoragecapacityis360m3.Therainwaterisreusedfor

sprayingtheplantsinthegarden.TheWMSdoesnotincludemeasuresforremovalof
groundwaterordrainagewaterbecausethatisunnecessary.

58

Page61
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Userperspective

Table21depictstheinvestmentandoperationalcostsoftheSSWMS,512/y.Theurine
transportcostsarepaidbythetenants,approximately1690.(Sederlund,pers.com.)Thetenants

getadiscountof8.3%onthewaterprice(Schultz,pers.com.).Oncein510yearsthepipesand

tanksarecleanedbyanexternalcompanyfor36/hh.

Table21Investmentandoperationalcosts

Aspect Cost() Cost(/hh) Expected Cost(/y)


lifetime(y)
Urineseparatingtoilet 33924 41.8 #
porcelain 654 30
woodenseat 126 13
Urinepipes&tanks Unknown Unknown 30 40*
Blackandgreywater4375 237.5**
Urinetransport 1690 38.5
Watersupply 147
Maintenance 7
Totalcost 512
*assumed,**Dutchpriceforconnectionandtreatment,#consideringaninterestof2.5%andlifetimeof
25years

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 46/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Theinvisibilityandcomfortismeasuredbyaskingfourtenants.ThetoiletisaDublettentoilet.
TheSSWMSmakesthemalways(4)feelenvironmentalconcerned/friendly.Theyalladdress

theimportanceofthereuseofthenutrientsinagriculture.Theywillrecommendthesystemto
otherhouseholdsinotherneighbourhoods(3).TheythinkthatthevisiblepartoftheWMS
equipmentinornearthehousesisnice(3).Howeveronetenantmentionedthattheotherpeople

shouldlearnfromtheirexperiencestoovercomethedifficulties(Sederlund,pers.com.).The
WMSproducesnotatall(4)annoyingnoiselevels.TheWMSproducessometimes(2)

unpleasantodours.Theodoursappearespeciallywhentheurinepipesareclogged(Schutz,pers.
com.).TheWMSdoesnotattractverminatall(4).
Figure9Mechanicalsnake

Thetenantsmaintenanceactivitiesconsistof

flushingthetoiletwithhotwaterandsoda,andclean
thepipeswithamechanicalsnake(figure9).The

averagetimeisapproximately32h/y.Oncein510
yearsanexternalcompanycleansthecompletepipe

systemandurinetanks(Sederlund,pers.com.).They
alldonotcaretoperformmaintenance(2)becauseit
ispartofthesystem.Allhouseholdsreportedexperienceswithcloggingoftheurinepipe

approximately2times/y.

59

Page62
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

TheAgriculturalSciencesdepartmentoftheUppsalaUniversityreportedthat76%ofthe

stoppagesmainlyconsistof(calciumandmagnesiumammoniumphosphates)precipitation,

formedonhairsandfibres.Theremaining24%consistsofprecipitationonthepipewall

(Jnsson,2001).

Thetenantsfacerestrictionsonproductsformaintenanceorflushingtroughthetoilet,although
theydonothavealistofproducts.Theindoorvolumeofthesystemisnothigherthannormal.

Theoutdoorsurfaceisareaoftheurinetanksisapproximately0.46m2/hh(thefarmersurine
tanksnotincluded).

Environmental
Theamountofenergysavedbytheurinereuseandadistancetothefarmerof33kmis35

kWh/hh.y(Jnsson,2002).Causticsodaisusedforcleaningyettheamountisunknown.The
waterconsumptionisapproximately140m3/hh.Theamountoffecessludgeproducedis

unknown.Theamountofnutrientsrecycledis1.6kgN/p.yand0.15kgP/p.y,enoughtofertilize

160m2at100kgNperhectare(10000m2)(Jnsson,2001).Thewaterqualityofthedischarged

effluentishighercomparedtoaconventionalWMS.

ThefinalcomparisonwiththeconventionalWMSisvisualizedinthetablebelow.Foreach
indicatora+,a0,andaisgivenforrespectivelythebetter,thesame,andworsethaninthe

conventionalsystem.

Table22ComparisonwithconventionalWMSbasedoncriteria

Criteria Indicator Comparison


Primaryfunctions Healthprotection 0
Protectionofsurfacewater +
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement +
Drainagemanagement 0
Userperspective Costs 0
Invisibility/comfort +
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse +
Emissions +

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 47/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
6.5.3Actors
Theactorsandtheirroleinthedesignanddecisionmakingarepresentedintable23.The

initiativeandideasarefoundedbythetenantsorganisationEBBA(Sederlund,pers.com.).The

housingcompanyHSBfinancedandmanagedtheproject(Westin,pers.com.).Thefinal

decisionswheremadebythetenantsandthehousingcompany.

60

Page63
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

ThemunicipalityStockholmpermittedtheSSWMS(Lundin,pers.com.).Thewaterboard

StockholmVattenadvisedonthetechnology(Hellstrm,pers.com.).Alsoaconsultant
companyVERNAEcology(Johansson,pers.com.)wasinvolvedinthedesignandresearchof

thecurrentstatus.

Table23Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

Description Name Role


1TenantorganizationEBBA Initiator,ideas,
2Housingcompany HSBStockholm Projectdeveloperandmanager
3Municipality Stockholmcity Preconditionsanddemands
4Waterboard StockholmVatten Advicewatersystem
5Consultant VernaEcology Adviseindesignphaseandresearchoncurrent
status

Responsibility
Thetenantsareresponsibleforovertheindividualpipesofthewatersystemandtheurine
collection.StockholmVattenisresponsibleforthebrownandgreywatertransportand

treatment.

6.5.4Driversandbarriers
Thedriversandbarriersaredividedinenvironmental,economical,andsocialaspectsandare

evaluatedforthedesign,current,andfuturesituationoftheurineandrainwaterseparation.They
areaddressedintable42inappendix6.2withcorrespondingnumberstotheactors.The

municipalitydoesnottakepartinthedesignandfuturephase(Lundin,pers.com.).

EnvironmentalDriversandBarriers

Themainenvironmentaldriverforallactorsinallphasesistherecyclingofnutrients.The

tenantsaddresswatersaving,reductionofwateremissions,recyclingofnutrients,protectionof
surfacewaterforoverflows,reductionofenergyuse,niceneighborhood,andniceenvironmental

behaviourfeelingasenvironmentaldriversinallphases.Thehousingcompanyconsideredthe

sameinthedesignphase,howeverinthecurrentandfuturephasenotthereductionofwater
emissions,protectionofsurfacewaterforoverflowsandreductionofenergyuse.Thehousing

companyrelatesthistotheconnectionofthebrownandgreywatertotheconventionalWMS.
Themunicipalityaddressedreductionofwateremissions,therecyclingofnutrients,protectionof

surfacewaterforoverflows,niceneighborhood,andniceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingas
environmentaldrivers.Thewaterboardhadreductionofwateremissions,therecyclingof

nutrients,protectionofsurfacewaterforoverflows,niceneighborhood,andniceenvironmental
behaviourfeelingasenvironmentaldrivers.

61

Page64
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Theconsultanthadwatersaving,reductionofwateremissions,therecyclingofnutrients,

protectionofsurfacewaterforoverflows,nouseofchemicals,niceneighborhood,andnice

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 48/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

environmentalbehaviourfeelingasenvironmentaldrivers

Allactorsconsidermaintenanceproblemsinallphasesasenvironmentalbarrier,howeverthe

waterboardconsidersthemonlythedesignphase.Thehousingcompanyconsidershealthrisksin

thecurrentandfuturephaseasenvironmentalbarrier.Thewaterboardconsiderschemicaluse

andsmellinalmostallphasesasenvironmentalbarrier.

EconomicalDriversandBarriers
Theeconomicaldriversofthetenant,housingcompany,andwaterboardarelowwaterboardfee,
lowseweragetaxesandthedevelopmentofanewtechnologythatmightresultinfuturebenefits

inallphases.Thehousingcompanyalsoconsidersthelowoperationalcostsasdriver.Thewater
boardalsoconsidersthelowenergycostsasdriver.Themunicipalityhadonlythedevelopment

ofanewtechnologyaseconomicaldriver.Theconsultantconsidersinthedesignphaseonlythe
developmentofanewtechnologyasdriver,howeverinthecurrentphasetheyconsiderlowwater

supplycosts,lowwaterboardfeeandlowseweragetaxesasdrivers.Themaineconomical
barrierforallactorsishighinstallationcostsinallphases.Thetenants,waterboard,and

consultantalsoconsiderthehighmaintenancecostsasbarrier.

SocialDriversandBarriers
Allactorshadassocialdrivers:environmentalfriendlybehaviourandaniceneighbourhoodinall

phases.Thetenant,housingcompanyandmunicipalityalsoincludedahigherintensivecontact

betweentheneighboursassocialdrivers.

Thesocialbarriersforthetenantarehealthrisks,risksforhousingequipmentanddifficult
technology.Thehousingcompanyhadassocialbarrierstherisksforhousingequipmentand

difficulttechnology.Thewaterboardhadassocialbarrierstherisksforhousingequipmentand
theacceptanceofagriculture.Themunicipalityhadassocialbarriersthedifficulttechnology,a

decreaseoftenantsinterest,andthepossibleunprofessionalnewtenants.Thesocialbarriersfor
theconsultantarehealthrisks,risksforhousingequipment,availabilityofauseroftheurine,and

difficulttechnology.

62

Page65
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

6.5Gebers

In1936aconvalescenthomenamedGeberswaslocatedinOrnhem.Ornhemisadistrictin
Stockholm.GebersstandsontheshoreoflakeDrevvikenandhasalivingspaceover3,500m2

andlandof3.2hectares.InJanuary1995isthetenantsorganizationEKBO(Ecological
CollectiveHousinginOrhem)founded.MembersofEKBOnoticedtheemptybuildingofGebers

andinitiatedtheideatolivethere.IncooperationwiththehousingcompanyHSB(theNational

AssociationofTenants'SavingsandBuildingSocieties)aprojectwasstartedtorenovatethe

building.HSBtookoverthefinancialpartandconstructionworkandEKBOhadallthe
initiatives,ideas,andpracticalsolutions.EKBOsmainideaswerecollectivesocialand

ecologicalliving.Thedecisionsmadewerebasedonconsensustocreateasmuchbasissupportof
alltenants.(Boverket,1998andwebsiteEkbo)In1998therenovationwasfinishedandthe

tenantsmovedin.Thehouseconsistsof32apartmentsinwhichbetween60and80peopleare
livingovertheyears.Allflatsarerental.Inthehousemanyecologicalitemswereinstalled.The
watersystemincludeswatersavingutilitiesandsourceseparationofwaterwaste.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 49/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

6.5.1ImplementedTechnology
TheSSWMSinGebersisbasedonseparatecollectionofurine(yellow),grey,brown,and

rainwater.Thewatersavingutilitiesarethetaps,shower,andtoilet.Between2001and2003the
waterconsumptionisapproximately116L/p.d,whichislowerthannormal.Thequalityofthe

waterstreamsisdepictedintable43inappendix7.1.Thesystemsschemeisdepictedinfigure
10.Anaboveariaviewofthehouseisshowninappendix7.1.Thedesignisbasedonresource

savingandrecycling(nutrients)living.

Rainwater
Therainwaterisdisconnectedandinfiltratedintheground.Howeverrainwaterisnotapriorityin

thisbuilding.(Hort,pers.com.)

Greywater
Thegreywateramountisapproximately110L/p.d(PalmquistandJnsson,2003).Originally
EKBOwantedtotreatitlocally,yetStockholmcitygavenopermit.Themunicipalitywantsto

protectthelakeDrevvikenfrompossiblepollution.Thereforeitistransportedbyapipeonthe
bottomofthelakeandtreatedincentralizedWMSHendriksdalsinStockholm(Krantz,2005).

Thepipeisalsovulnerableforleakage.(Hort,pers.com.)

63

Page66
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Urine

Thirtyofthe32householdshaveaurineseparatingtoilet(figure10).Theyaresingleflushtoilets
deliveredbythecompanyWostManEcologyAB(their"ESClassic"model).Theurineamount

isapproximately1.77L/p.dandflushedwith0.1litrebygravitytothreelargetanksof4m3inthe
basement(PalmquistandJnsson,2003).ThepipesaremadeofPolypropyleneandhavea

diameterof50mm.Theurineistransported23times/ytoafarmeratlakeBornsjn.Thereitis
storedforsixmonthsin3x150m3tanks.Inspringthefarmerfertilizesapproximately2hectares

fromGebersurine.(Hort,pers.com.)

Figure10SchematicviewoftoiletseparationsystemGebers(Krantz,2005)

Brown(water)
Thebrownwaterconsistsofdryfeces.Thefecesarecollectedbyadropholeanda200mmwide

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 50/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
pipeintoaplasticsackina140litre(orsmaller)bin(Kranz,2005).Thebinisplacedinafire
resistancesteelcupboard.Thiswasasafetydemandfromthemunicipality.Thefecesare
supposedtobedehydratedanddecomposebeforebeingcomposted.Yetthedehydrationand

decomposingarenottakingplaceinthestoragetime(Hortpers.com.).Theurineshouldnotend
upinthefecesbin,becauseitwouldattractflies,increasesthesacksweight,removalfrequency,

andslowsdownthedehydration.Thereforemenhavetositonthetoilet.Forchildrenitis
difficultbecausetheyusuallyurinateanddefecateatthesametime.(Kranz,2005)

64

Page67
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Theairandodorsfromthedehydrationreceptaclesinthebasementareventilated:airisdrawn

fromthebathroomthroughthedownpipeintothereceptacleinthebasementandfromthereup
toaventpipeontheroof(websiteEkbo).Theamountofseparatedfecesandtoiletpaperis

approximately0.22L/p.d(PalmquistandJnsson,2003).Whenthebinisfilledthehouseholds

havetocarryitoutofthebasement(isheavy)toemptyitatthecompostsite(figureX).

AccordingtoKrantz(2005)singlepersonhouseholdsemptythebinevery34months,while
largerhouseholdsemptyiteverymonth.Ifthebinisnotemptiedintimeflieswillstarttoappeal

anddisturbthetenants.ThecompostshouldbecollectedbyacompanyEstraManorthatusesit
asafertilizer.Howeverduetothelowcompostamountsitisstillnotcollected.(Hort,pers.com.)

Evaluatingcurrentsystem
TheseparationleadstoarecyclingpotentialforN,P,andKofrespectively90,70,and76%

(PalmquistandJnsson,2003).Yetapproximately30%oftheBODisnotrecycledand
dischargedbythegreywater.TheN:P:K:Srelationshipsofurinemixture,feces,greywater,and

biodegradablesolidwasteatGeberswere15:1:3:1,3:1:1:0.3,2:1:2:3and6:1:3:0.6.Exceptfor
greywaterthiscorrespondedwelltothecropuptakeofmacronutrients,whichmakethemto

potentialfertilizersfromaplantnutrientspointofview(PalmquistandJnsson,2003).

6.5.2PerformanceSSWMS
Primaryfunctions

Thechancethattenantshavecontactwiththewastewaterispresent.Theyhavetoemptythebin,

thereforemaybeexposedtothefeces.Howevernorespondentisconcernedabouthealthrisks
(Krantz,2005).Therisksofrecyclingthecompost(Karlsson,2002)orurine(Hglund,2001)are

low.Thechancethattenantshaveaccesstothemechanicalequipmentispresent.Thechanceof

calamitiesisverylow(Hortpers.com.).Acalamitycouldbeashutdownofelectricalpowerthat

isnecessarytoruntheventilators.Iftheventsdonotworkthesmellisexpectedtobehorrible

(Krantz,2005).

TheWMSprotectssurfacewaterandenvironmentbymeansofpreventionofdischargesof
oxygendemandingcompoundsandnutrients.Thereuseofurineandcompostreducestheamount

ofnutrientsandorganicmatterdischarged.

65

Page68
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 51/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Subfunctions

TheWMSincludesmeasuresforrainwatermanagementbyrainwaterinfiltration.Themaximum

rainwaterstoragecapacityisunknown.TheWMSdoesnotincludemeasuresforremovalof

groundordrainagewaterbecausethatisunnecessary.

Userperspective
Table24depictstheinvestmentandoperationalcostsoftheSSWMS,385/y.Thetotalwater

installationcostsareapproximately137,400euro(Boverket,1998).Howeverthefecescollection
pipeiscorrodingandpeopleareworriedaboutitslifetime(Kranz,2005).Theyearlycostsof
urinetransportarepaidbythetenantsandareapproximately1170.Thetenantsgetadiscount

of10%onthewatersupply(Hort,pers.com.).

Table24Investmentandoperationalcosts

Aspect Amountof Cost()Cost Expected Cost(/y)


households (/hh) lifetime**(y)
Greywaterconnection32 42260 1320 100 243.7
Urineseparatingtoilet 30 95000 3170 3050
andfecescollection
Urinetransport 37
Watersupply 105
Totalcost 386

Theinvisibilityandcomfortismeasuredbyaskingonetenant(Hort,pers.com.).Theother
resultsarereportedbyKrantz(2005)sheinterviewed26outof32households.TheSSWMS

makeshimalways(4)feelenvironmentalconcerned/friendly.Hewillrecommendthesystemto
otherhouseholdsinotherneighbourhoods(3).HethinksthatthevisiblepartoftheWMS

equipmentinornearthehousesisnice(3).TheWMSproducesnotatall(4)annoyingnoise
levels.TheWMSproducesnotatall(4)unpleasantodours.Krantzreportedthat2outof26

experiencefromtimetotimeunpleasantodours.Thosetenantsbelievethattheairpressureofthe
ventilationistolow.

TheWMSdoesattractverminveryoften(1).AccordingtoKranz(2005)all26respondents

experiencedproblemswithflies.Thefliesaresmallfruitflies.Thefliesbreedduringthewhole
year,yetpeakduringsummermonths.Measurementstoreducethefliesare:morefrequently

emptyingthebin,spraychemicalpesticideslikeRadar,closethetoiletlid,stoppingoffoodwaste
separation,andkeepingfruitinplasticbags.Duetothesesolutionsthefliesproblem

decreased.(Krantz,2005)

66

Page69
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Hehastoperformmaintenanceactivities,12hoursayearforemptyingthefecesbin.Hefindsit

notnicetodo(1),howeveracceptthesystem.Allhouseholdsexperiencedcloggingoftheurine
pipebycrystals(Krantz,2005).Thereforethepipesarecleanedregularlywithaspecialbrushand

flushingwithhotwaterandsodiumhydroxide.Theyallfacerestrictionsonproductsfor
maintenanceorflushingtroughthetoiletyetdonothavealistofproducts.Especiallyadrytoilet

changespeoplesawarenessofwhat/whatnottothrowawayinthetoilet,becausethegarbage
willallendupinthecompostingsite(Krantz,2005).Theindoorvolumeofthefecespipeis0.5

m3/hh.Theoutdoorsurfaceareaofthecompostsiteisapproximately0.3m2/hh.

Environmental
Theamountofenergyusedbythegreyandrainwatersystemisunknown.Therearenochemicals

usedbythegreyandrainwatersystem.Thewaterconsumptionisapproximately84m3/hh(Hort,

pers.com.).Theamountoffecessludgeisapproximately37.2kg/hh.y(PalmquistandJnsson,

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 52/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
2003).TheamountofnutrientsrecycledisforN,P,andKrespectively9,1,and2.2kg/hh.y
(PalmquistandJnsson,2003).TheeffluentqualityishighercomparedtoaconventionalWMS.

ThefinalcomparisonwiththeconventionalWMSisvisualizedinthetablebelow.Foreach
indicatora+,a0,andaisgivenforrespectivelythebetter,thesame,andworsethaninthe

conventionalsystem.

Table25ComparisonwithconventionalWMSbasedoncriteria

Criteria Indicator Comparison


Primaryfunctions Healthprotection
Protectionofsurfacewater +
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement +
Drainagemanagement 0
Userperspective Costs +
Invisibility/comfort
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse +
Emissions +

6.5.3Actors
Theactorsandtheirroleinthedesignanddecisionmakingarepresentedintable26.The

initiativeandideasarefoundedbythetenantsorganisationEkbo(Hort,pers.com.).Thehousing

companyHSBfinancedtheprojectandownsthebuilding(Westin,pers.com.).Thefinal

decisionswheremadebythetenantsandhousingcompany.

67

Page70
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

ThemunicipalitypermittedtheSSWMShoweveraconnectiontotheconventionalWMSwas

necessaryforthegreywater(Lundin,pers.com.).ThewaterboardStockholmVattenadvised
onthetechnology(Hellstrm,pers.com.).

Table26Actorsindesignanddecisionmaking

Description Name Role


1TenantorganizationEkbo Initiator,ideas,takecareofrennovation
2Housingcompany HSBStockholm Currentmanagerownerhous
3Municipality* Stockholmcity Preconditionsanddemands
4Waterboard StockholmVatten Advicewatersystem
*Theseactorswerenotinvolvedinthedesignphase.

Responsibility

Thetenantsareresponsiblefortheindividualpipesofthewatersystemandemptyingthefeces

bin.ThehousingcompanyisresponsibleforthecollectivepartsoftheWMS.StockholmVatten

isresponsibleforthegreywatertreatment.

6.5.4Driversandbarriers
Thedriversandbarriersaredividedinenvironmental,economical,andsocialaspectsandare

evaluatedforthedesign,current,andfuturesituationofthefeces,urine,andrainwaterseparation.

Theyareaddressedintable44inappendix7.2withcorrespondingnumberstotheactors.The

municipalitydoesnottakepartinthedesignandfuturephase(Lundin,pers.com.).

EnvironmentalDriversandBarriers

Thetenantaddresseswatersaving,reductionofwateremissions,recyclingofnutrients,
protectionofsurfacewaterforoverflows,niceneighborhood,andniceenvironmentalbehaviour

feelingasenvironmentaldriversinallphases.Initiallythetenantandhousingcompanyhad
recyclingofwaterasdriverhoweverinthecurrentandfuturephasenorecyclinginstallationwas

installed.Thehousingcompanyaddressedwatersaving,recyclingofnutrients,nice

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 53/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
neighborhood,andniceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingasenvironmentaldriversinallphases.

Themunicipalityaddressedreductionofwateremissions,recyclingofnutrients,protectionof

surfacewaterforoverflows,niceneighborhood,andniceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingas
environmentaldrivers.Thewaterboardhadwatersaving,reductionofwateremissions,recycling

ofnutrients,protectionofsurfacewaterforoverflows,niceneighborhood,andnice

environmentalbehaviourfeelingasenvironmentaldriversinallphases.

68

Page71
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Thetenant,housingcompany,andwaterboardhadmaintenanceproblemsinonlythedesign

phaseasenvironmentalbarrier.Inthecurrentandfuturephasetheseproblemsaresolved.The
housingcompanyaddressedhealthrisksinthecurrentphaseandhighenergyuseduetotransport

ofurineinallphasesasenvironmentalbarrier.Themunicipalityhadmaintenanceproblemsas
environmentalbarrier.Thewaterboardaddressedhealthrisksinallphasesandsmellinonlythe

designphaseasenvironmentalbarriers.

EconomicalDriversandBarriers
Theeconomicaldriversofthetenantandhousingcompanyarelowoperationalcosts,lowdrink
watercosts,lowwaterboardfee,lowseweragetaxesandthedevelopmentofanewtechnology

thatmightresultinfuturebenefitsinallphases.Thewaterboardhadalmostthesamedrivers,
exceptforlowdrinkwatercosts,yetincludedlowcostsofenergyinallphases.Themunicipality

hadonlythedevelopmentofanewtechnologyaseconomicaldriver.

Themaineconomicalbarrierforthetenant,housingcompany,andwaterboardarehigh

installationcostsinallphases.Thehousingcompanyalsoexperiencedtheuseforenergyas

economicalbarrier.

SocialDriversandBarriers
Allactorshadassocialdrivers:ahigherintensivecontactbetweentheneighbours,environmental

friendlybehaviour,andaniceneighbourhoodinallphases.Thetenantalsoincludedthe
contributingefforttosocietyandtobeproudofthetechnologyassocialdrivers.Especiallyall
theresearchandvisitorstotheGebershouseresultedinasocialawareness.

Thesocialbarriersforthetenantarehealthrisks,disgustingmaintenance,risksforhousing

equipment,difficulttechnology.Onemainsocialbarrieristheuncertaintyofthecontinuous
recyclingoftheurinebythefarmer.Thehousingcompanyhadassocialbarrierstherisksfor

housingequipmentandhealthrisks.Thewaterboardhadassocialbarrierstherisksforhousing

equipment,difficulttechnology,andhealthrisks.Themunicipalityhadassocialbarriersthe

difficulttechnology,adecreaseoftenantsinterest,andthepossibleunprofessionalnewtenants.

69

Page72

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 54/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

7DISCUSSION

7.1Performanceassessment

Theperformanceassessmentoftheseveralsitesisquitecomplicated.Theassessmenttool
requiresquantitativedatathatmakesaquantitativecomparisonpossible.Howeverinmanycases

thesedataareunknown.Thereareseveralreasonsforthislackofknowledge:

FirstitisdifficulttodefinetheaverageconventionalWMS.Nostudyisdoneonaconcrete
conventionalWMS.Thereforetheaspectsdifficulttodefineare:space,calamities,maintenance,

userperspective,chemicaluse,energyconsumption,andemissionsperhousehold.

Severalindicatorsintheperformancetoolaretoowidelydefined.Theansweron,forinstance
thequestion:WhatistheestimatedusefullifetimeoftheWMSinyears?canbedifferentfor

severalpartsofthesystem.Oronthequestion:Towhatextenddoesthefinalwaterquality
complywithofficialqualitystandards?youcangiveapercentageperparameterofthewater

quality.

Someindicators,forinstanceemissions,needacompleteintegratedassessmentofmass

balancesforenergy,nutrientsandothersubstances.Howeverthisintegratedassessmentisnot
possibletomakebecausethecontentofmanystreamsareunknown.

Someaspectsforinstancethewaterandsludgequalityareunknown.Theinvolvedactorsin

mostcaseshavenointerestinthesystem.Thereforetheydonotmeasureit.Thisalsomakesit

difficulttoassessifitisbetterthaninaconventionalWMS.

Itmayalsobethatseveralwatereffluentsaredischarged.Thismakesithardtodefinewhatare

theremovalefficienciesandfinalwaterqualities.

Theansweronthequestion:Towhatextenddoesthefinalwaterqualitycomplywithfuturistic
EUqualitystandards(WaterFrameworkDirective)?alsomaygivemultipleanswers.Yet
anotherproblemisthattheseEUqualitystandardsarestillnotdefined,whichmakesanswering

veryskeptical.

70

Page73
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Andsomeindicatorsdemandadescriptiveanswer,forinstance:Whatisthechancethattenants

getincontactwiththewastewater?Especiallythedefinitionofthechancemakesithardto
answer.ThecomparisonofthisanswerwiththeconventionalWMSmaybedifficult.

Insomecasestheactorsthathavethedataaretakenoverbyotheractors.Thenewactorsdonot

preservethedata.

SomeSSWMSarestillpartlyconnectedtothecentralizedWMS.Thequalityofthestill
connectedwastestreamandtheeffectonthetreatmentefficiency,energyuse,sludgeproduction

etc.inthecentralWMSarenotpossibletodefine.

Itwasnotpossibletoreceivethetechnicaldrawingsofallsites.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 55/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Definingindicatorsisonething,subsequentlyfromtheseindicatorsavaluemustbegiventothe

criterion.Thisstepisalsoverydifficult.Thestepofcomparingthecriterionofasitewiththe
referenceWMSisalsodifficult.Toovercometheseuncertaintiestheperformanceisnotassessed

quantitativelyyetqualitatively.Theseveralaspectsarecomparedwiththereferencesystemand

valuedasworse,sameandbetterperformance.

AndfinallythemostdifficultpartistheperformanceassessmentintheMultiCriteria

Comparison.Whichvaluemaybegiventoeachcriterionorinotherwords:whichismore
important?Thejudgmentofthesevaluesissubjectiveandmaybedifferentfordifferentactors.

Thereforethiscomparisonisnotdone.

7.2DriversandBarriers

Inthedriversandbarriersassessmentitisnecessarytointerviewallactorsinvolvedinthedesign

anddecisionmaking.Howeversomeactorsdonotexistanymoreorarenotwillingtoparticipate

intheresearch.Toovercomethisotheractorsareaskedtogivetheirviewonthedriversand

barriersofthesemissingactors.

71

Page74
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

8CONCLUSION
Theconclusioniscontainsthecomparisonoftheperformanceandthedriversandbarriers.

8.1Performanceassessment

TheseveralcriteriaoftheperformanceoftheSSWMSarecomparedwiththereferenceWMSin

table27.Thetablepresentsthatsomesitesmayhavelessperformanceintheprimaryfunctions

accordingthehealthprotectionyetbetterperformanceinprotectionofthesurfacewater.Ofthe
subfunctionstherainwatermanagementisinallsitesbetterthanthereferencesystem.The

drainagemanagementisbetterinthesitesintheNetherlands,howeverthesameinSweden
comparedtothereferenceWMS.

OftheuserperspectivethecostsareexceptforUnderstenhjdenandGebersallsitesworsethan

thereferenceWMS.Theinvisibilityandcomfortareinmostcasesthesameorbetterthanthe
referencesystem,yetatGebersduetothefecesseparationandrelatedproblemsthisaspectis

worse.Therobustnessofallsitesisworsethantheconventionalsystem.Inallcasessome

problemsappearedperyear.

AtthecriteriaEnvironmentallsitesscorebetterintheuseofresources,whichcouldbewater,

nutrients,andenergy.Inalmostallsitestheemissionsarelessthaninthereferencesystem,yetat

Ekoportentheemissionsarepartlyworse.

Table27PerformanceassessmentallSSWMSwithreferenceWMS

Criteria Indicator Groene Polder Eko Skoga Under Gebers


dak drift por berg stens
ten hjden

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 56/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Primary Healthprotection 0 0 0
functions
Protectionofsurface 0 + + + +
water
Subfunctions Rainwatermanagement + + + + + +
Drainagemanagement + + 0 0 0 0
User Costs + +
perspective
Invisibility/comfort 0 0 + + 0
Robustness
Environment Resourceuse + + + + + +
Emissions 0 + +/ + + +

72

Page75
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

8.2DriversandBarriers

Table28presentsthemainDutchandSwedishdriversandbarriersfortheimplementationofa
SSWMS.AbetweentheNetherlandsandSwedenistheobjectiveofwaterreuse.Inmostcases

theSwedishtenantswerenotinterestedinthewateruse.Yetalargepartoftheiroperational

costsaredefinedbythewateruse.Anotherdifferenceistherecyclingofnutrientsthatisactively

addressedbyallSwedishactorsandisimplementedinthenewpolicyonWMS.Inthe

Netherlandsthenutrientsarenotveryinteresting.

Inbothcountrieshealthrisksareimportant.Somehealthrisksmayberelatedtothelackof

managementandmaintenance.Sincethepreventionofhealthrisksispartoftheprimary
functionstheyshouldbeminimized.InSwedenistheprotectionofsurfacewater,mainlythe

fragilelakes,veryimportant.Thereforealocaltreatmentplantmaybearisk(byfailure)forthis
quality.Allactorsaddressthehighcostsasanimportantbarrier.Yetthedistributionofcostsand
benefitsisverydiffuseoverseveralactors.Thediscountonthewaterboardfeeispartofthis

diffusion.ThevalueoftheSSWMSisforthewaterboardsintheNetherlandshardtodefine,
becausetheyhavenointerest/idea.InSwedeninsomecasesadiscountisgiven,yetthe

proportionofthediscountisnotdefinedclearly.Thelastbarriersisthatinmosturbanareas
alreadyaconventionalWMSispresent,andseveralactorsvaluethesystemonitsreliabilityand

costeffectiveness.

Table28MainDriversandBarriers

Drivers Dutch Swedish


Waterreuse Yes No
Emissionsreduction Yes Yes
Recyclingnutrients No Yes
Developmenttechnology Yes Yes
Socialacceptable Yes/no Yes
Governmentalinvolvement No Yes
Barriers
Healthrisks Yes Yes
Managementandmaintenanceproblems Yes Yes
Pollutionofsurfacewater(lakes) No Yes
Highcosts Yes Yes
Discountonwaterboardfee No Yes
Conventionalsystemisnotaproblem Yes No

73

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 57/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Page76
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

9RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1RecommendationsperSSWMS

InthisstudyseveralSSWMSareinvestigatedandtheirperformanceisassessed.Some

recommendationstothesesitesareconsidered.Forallcasesitisrecommendedtomonitorall
flowsandqualitiesofthewastewaterstreams,energyuse,andsludgeproductiontogainmore

insightinthetreatmentefficiency.

HetGroeneDak
InthecaseofHetGroeneDakitisrecommendedtominimizethereuseofrainwaterinthe

toiletsandwashingmachines.Therainwatermaybeusedinthetoiletwhentenantsflushwitha
closedlid.Thisisrecommendedtopreventthehealthrisksrelatedwiththerainwaterquality.

Subsequentlyisthecurrentstatusofthegreywatertreatment,thereedbedandgreenhouse,very
bad.Sincethehousingcompanyisresponsibletheyhavetoimprovethetreatmentsystem.To

reducethecoststhetenantsmayaddressadiscountonthewaterboardfee.

Polderdrift

InthecaseofPolderdriftitisrecommendedtominimizethereuseofgreyandrainwaterin
respectivelythetoiletsandwashingmachines.Thegreywatermaybeusedinthetoiletwhen

tenantsflushwithaclosedlid.Itmightbeinterestingforthetenantstodemandadiscountonthe
waterboardfee.

Ekoporten

InthecaseofPolderdriftitisrecommendedtoimprovethegreywatersystemorconnectitto
theconventionalWMS.Itisadvisedtoinformthefarmeronthecollectionoftheurine.Another

adviceistogetinsightinthemedicineandhormonecontentoftheurine.

Skogaberg
NotanyrecommendationsaregivenforSkogaberg,sincetheimplementationprojectisstill

developing.

Understenshjden

NotanyrecommendationsaregivenforUnderstenshjdensincethesystemsoperatesok.

74

Page77
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Gebers

Itisadvisedtoincreasethecontactwithfarmersthatmightbeinterestedintheurineandcompost
use.Itisalsorecommendedtoreducethehealthrisksasmuchaspossible.

9.2Recommendationsforfurtherresearch

AlsosomerecommendationsaregivenforfurtherresearchtotheassessmentofmoreSSWMS.

Furtheroptimizationoftheperformanceassessmenttoolisneededeachindicatormusthavea

singleanswer.Thesummationoftheindicatorvaluestoavaluepercriterionneedsfurtherstudy.

Itmightbewisetojudgethisbysomeexperts.TheMultiCriteriaComparisonmightbecarried
outifexpertsdefinethevaluesofeachcriterion.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 58/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Ifdataismissingitmaybeinterestingtotakesamples,orassumethedatabyknowledgeofother

sites.Itisalsorecommendedtointerviewmoretenantstoincreasetheknowledgeontheir
perception.Thenumberoftenantsthatareinterviewedshouldhighthatmakesstatistical
generalizationforthewholepopulationpossible.Accordingresearchtimeitisadvisedtoplansix

weekspersite.

9.3RecommendationsforfutureSSWMS

FortheimplementationofnewSSWMSsomeaspectsareadvised:
Thesystemshouldfulfilltheprimaryandsubfunctionstheseparationofrainwateriscrucial.

Toprotectthepublichealthandenvironmentthewaterreuseisnotrecommended,and
monitoringandmaintenancearenecessary.AlsoadrytoiletsystemasinGebersisaccordingthe

healthrisksnotrecommended.

Thesystemshouldhavelowinstallationcosts,sincethisisthemainbarrieroftheactors.This
maybesucceededbyacompletedisconnectionofthecentralizedWMS.Becausethatmayreduce

thewaterboardfee,seweragetaxes,andamountofsewerage.

Inthedesignabalanceshouldbemadeforwater,nutrients,andenergyofseveralseparation

options.Fromthisbalancethebesttechnologiescanbechosenandtested.

Theactiveinvolvementofthemunicipalityandwaterboardarecrucialfortheknowledgeon
treatmentandtransport,maintenance,andcostreduction.Averyniceexampleistheprojectin

Gteborgwherethemunicipalityisresponsiblefortheprojectdevelopment.

75

Page78
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Themaintenanceofthesystemshouldbedonebyanexpert,forinstancethewaterboard.The

maintenanceisnecessarytomaintainthesystemsquality.Wrongmaintenancemayleadtohealth
risks,calamities,highemissions,andhighcosts.

Inneighborhoodswhereaconventionalseweragesystemisalreadypresentitisadvisedto

installurineseparatingtoilets.SubsequentlytheconventionalWTPwillfulfillfuturequality

standards,thenutrientsmaybereused,wateruseidreduced,andtheextrainstallationcostsmay

below.

Therecyclingofnutrientsshouldbecomeamajordriverfornewsites.

Thefuturetenantsshouldbewellinformedbythemaintenanceactivitiestheyhavetoperform,

whatproblemsmayarise,andwhatobjectivethesystemhas.Thetenantsexperiencesofalready
implementedsitesshouldbeaddressed.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 59/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

76

Page79
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

DEFINITIONOFCONCEPTS

Barriers NegativecharacteristicoftheWMS

Blackwater Toiletwaterwithfecesandurine
BOD Biologicaloxygendemand

Brownwater Blackwaterwithouturine
Cd Cadmium

Cr Chromium
Cu Copper

COD Chemicaloxygendemand

DM Drymatter

Drivers PositivecharacteristicoftheWMS
FC FecalClien

Greywater Wastewaterfromwashing,bath,andkitchen

Hg mercury

Hh household

K Potassium
L/p.d Litreperpersonandyear

N Nitrogen
Ni Nickel

Ntotal Totalnitrogen
P Phosphorous

Pb Lead
Ptotal TotalPhosphorous

Performance CumulativeprocessindicatoroftheWMS

SSWMS SourceseparatingWMS
WMS Wastewatermanagementsystem

WTP Wastewatertreatmentplant

Zn Zinc

77

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 60/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Page80
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

LITERATURE
Inthisliteratureoverviewthebooksandarticlesarementionedbyname.Thewebpagesare
mentionedbytheactorofthewebsite.

BooksandArticles
Bahlo,K.andG.Wach.(1992).NaturnaheAbwasserreinigung.StaufenbeiFreiburg:kobuch
Verlag.

Bleuz,P.(1995).Mensenmilieuvriendelijkprojectvlek17Rijkerswoerd.Notitie,samengesteld
inopdrachtvandeAlgemeneWoningbouwverenigingArnhem.opMAAT.

Bokstrm,P.(2002)CaseStudy:SourceSeparatingWastewaterSysteminEkoporten,
Norrkping.WorkingGroup2,COSTActionC8Bestpracticeforsustainableurban
infrastructures(http://www.cf.ac.uk/archi/research/cost8/case/watersewerage/sweden
ekoporten.pdf)

Boverket.(1998).ByggaochbiiGebers,Varsamombyggnadfrresurshushllningoch
gemenskap.ISBN:9171475109.

Boverket.(2002).Hushllningmedkalltochvarmttappvatten.Individuellmtningoch
temperaturstyrning.Karlskrona.

Brouwer,W.(1996).BeoordelingbestekentekeningenGrijwatercircuitvlek17Rijkerswoerd.
SectorStadswerken,GemeenteArnhem.

Cmark.(2004).RapportrisicoanalyseenbeheersplanleidingwaterinstallatiesPolderdrift.C
markWatercosultants.Zwolle.

DeBlois,M.(2004).ProvtagningpsvartvattenfrnSkogaberg.H2OLAND.

Geudens,P.J.J.G.(2005).Tarievenoverzichtleidingwaterper1januari2005.VEWINNummer~
2005/47/6218

Gustafsson,K.(2005).ErfarenheterAvInFiltrakompaktfiltermellanren19932004.WRS
UppsalaAB.

HetGroeneDak.(1992)DeontwikkelingvaneenekologischewoonwijkinUtrechtVoordorp.
EvaluatierapportvanHetGroendeDak,eenverenigingvanbewoners.

Hglund,C.(2001).Evaluationofmicrobialhealthrisksassociatedwiththereuseofsource
separatedhumanurine.RoyalInstituteofTechnology(KTH)DepartmentofBiotechnology,
AppliedMicrobiologySwedishInstituteforInfectiousDiseaseControl(SMI)Departmentof
WaterandEnvironmentalMicrobiology.Stockholm

HSBStockholm.(1994)BrfUnderstenshjdeniBjrkhagen:Stockholmsfrstaekologiskt
inriktadebostadsomrde,(HomeownersassociationUnderstenshjdeninBjrkhagen:
Stockholmsfirstecologicallyorientedhousingdevelopment).

HSBStockholm.(1997).ThestoryofUnderstenshjden.StockholmSweden.

78

Page81
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Johansson,M.andM.Nykvist.(2001)Closingthenutrientcycle,Summaryfromaunique
research project in Sweden. EcoEng Newsletter 1.
http://www.iees.ch/EcoEng011/EcoEng011_F2.html

Jnsson,H.(2001).UrineseparationSwedishexperiences.EcoEngNewsletter1.

Jnsson,H.(2002).Sourceseparationofhumanurineseparationefficiencyandeffectson
wateremissions,cropyield,energyusageandreliability.SLU,SwedishUniversityof
AgriculturalSciences.Ecosanres

Jnsson,H.,A.Burstrm,andJ.Svensson.(1998)Mtningptvurinsorterandeavloppssystem
urinlsning,toalettanvndningochhemvaroienekobyochietthyrsehusomrde.Rapport228,

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 61/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Institutionenfrlantbruksteknik,SLU,Uppsala.

Kanne,P.(2005).Watergebruikthuis2004.TNSNIPOandVEWIN.

Karlsson,A.(2002).UtvrdingEkoporten19962001.MiljinvestAB.

Karlsson,A.(2003).FortsattreningavBDTavloppfrnEkoporten,Norrkping.Miljinvest
AB.

Karlsson,P.(2005).BlackwaterSystemSkogaberg,Briefprojectdescription.CityofGteborg,
Sweden.

Krants,H.(2005).MatterthatMatters,Astudyofhouseholdroutinesinaprocessofchanging
waterandsanitationarrangements.LinkpingUniversityStudiesinArtsandScienceNo.316.

Lemmen,G.B.andA.J.Oomens.(2001).Effectenvanafkoppelen,Beleidsverkenningnaar
effectenengrenzenvanhetsturenmethemelwaterinbestaandstedelijkgebied.GrontmijAdvies
&Techniekbv,MinisterieVROM.

Matthijs,H.C.P.andJ.Balke.(1997)Meetprogrammanaardekwaliteitvankleinschalige
afvalwaterzuiveringineigenbeheerbijHetGroenDak,eenecologischnieuwbouwprojectinde
UtrechtsewijkVoordorp.AmsterdamResearchInstituteforSubstancesinEcosystems(ARISE).

Medema,G.J.,(17032005)Telephoneconversation.KIWAWaterResearch.

Mels,A.,K.Kujawa,J.Wilsenach,B.Palsma,G.ZeemanandM.vanLoosdrecht.(2004a).
Inventarisatievanmogelijkhedenvoorefficinterafvalwaterketenbeheerdoorgescheiden
inzamelingenbehandelingvanstromen.Concepted.

Mels,A.,G.Zeeman,I.Bisschops.(2004b).Brongerichteinzamelingenlokalebehandelingvan
afvalwaterInventarisatievanprojecteninNederland,DuitslandenScandinavi.Lettinga
AssociatesFoundation.Concepted.

Mrling,J.(2000)Ekoporten:AnInnovativeSwedishApartmentEcoRetrofit.FFNSArkitekter
(http://www.cmhcschl.gc.ca/en/imquaf/himu/inbu/inbu_010.cfm)

PalmquistH.andJnssonH.(2003).Urine,feces,greywaterandbiodegradablesolidwasteas
potentialfertilizers.2ndInternationalSymposiumonecologicalsanitation"EcosanClosingthe
loop",Luebeck,Germany,April

79

Page82
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Ptz,H.andP.Bleuz.(1998).Zichtbaar,Tastbaar,Zinvol.Deintegratievannatuurentechniek
indevormgevingvanstedelijkwater.opMAATduurzamearchitectuurensysteemontwikkeling.
NAIUitgevers,Rotterdam.

Senden,W.(2003a).Quickscancollectieveregenwatersystemen.KiwaN.V.WaterResearch

Senden,W.(2003b).Beleidsonderbouwendemonitoringhuishoudwater.Onderzoeknaarde
kwaliteitvanhuishoudwatereneffectenvanhetgebruikophetmilieuendeklant.KiwaN.V.
WaterResearch

SEVU(1992).Hetgroenedak,eenecologischnieuwbouwprojectinutrecht.Stuurgroep
ExperimentenVolkshuisvestingUtrecht.

Soons,J.(2003).Greywater:characteristics,treatment,reuseandrecycle.Casestudy:
PolderdriftArnhem,TheNetherlands.WageningenUniversiteit,SectieMilieutechnologie.

Stein,N.AndA.Luising.(9december2002)VerslagvangesprekmetAdvanRuiven,tenantand
contactpersonPolderdrift,WageningenUniversiteit/TUDelft.

StichtingRioned.(2002),Rioolincijfers20022003.

Torjusen,G.(2002).EnvironmentalSystemsAnalysisofseweragealternativesinanurban
districtBlackwaterSystemSkogabergApilotprojectinGteborg.Environmental
ProgrammeInstitutionforThematicEducationandResearchCampusNorrkping,Linkpings
University,Sweden.

VanBuuren,J.(2004).Waterandwastemanagementindevelopingcountries.Lecturesat
EnvironmentalTechnologygroupoftheWageningenUniversity.

VernaEcology.(unknown).ShortfactsaboutUnderstenshjden.

VinnersB.(2001).Faecalseparationandurinediversionfornutrientmanagementofhousehold

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 62/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
biodegradablewasteandwastewater.SwedishUniversityofAgriculturalSciencies,Department
ofAgriculturalEngineering.

VROMMinisterievanVolkshuisvesting,RuimtelijkeOrdeningenMilieubeheer.(2004).
Inzameling,transportenbehandelingvanafvalwaterinNederland.Situatierapport'Stedelijk
Afvalwater'exart16,Richtlijn91/271/EEG.

WRS,WaterRivivalSystemsUppsalaAE.(2001).MarketSurvey,extremelylowflustoiletsplus
urinedivertinftoiletsandurinalsforcollectionofblackwaterand/orurine.SwedEnviroreport
No2001:1.

Witteveen+Bos.(1993)OntwerpGrijswaterfilter.Witteveen+BosRaadgevendeingenieursb.v.
Deventer.

80

Page83
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Websites
Ekbo,homepage.http://www.ekbo.se/.(8122005)

Ekoby,homepage.http://www.ekoby.org/cs9.html.(9122005)

Fujitaresearch,homepage.http://www.fujitaresearch.com/reports/ecovillage.html.(9122005)

GemeenteUtrecht.homepage.http://www.utrecht.nl/.(10052005)

HetGroeneDak,homepage.http://www.groenedak.nl/.(14032005)

Hydron.Homepage.http://www.hydron.nl.(10052005)

KNMI,homepage.http://www.knmi.nl/reindex.html?/voorl/klimaat.(09032005)

LettingaAssociatesFoundation(LeAF),homepage.http://www.ftns.wau.nl/lettinga
associates/Organisatie/werkgroepen/DESAR2.htm.(100105)

MDatBBInnovation&Co.AB.,Website.http://www.dubbletten.nu/english
presentation/englishpresentation.htm.(12122005)

SwedishEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Homepagehttp://www.internat.naturvardsverket.se/.
(12122005)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 63/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

81

Page84
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

APPENDIX1METHODOLOGY

Theusedtoolstogatherinformationaregiveninthisappendix.Firstlytheletterstothe
householdsandstakeholdersarepresented.Subsequentlytheinterviewsforthehouseholdsand

thedriversandbarriersaregiven.

1.1Letterforhouseholds
March,2005

WoutervanBetuw
Rijnsteeg8BGA006
6708PPWageningen
TheNetherlands

Subject:Researchondecentralizedwastewatermanagementsystem

DearMadamorSir:

Thisletterisaddressedtoyoubecauseyourneighborhoodispartofaresearchofthe
WageningenUniversityintheNetherlands.MynameisWoutervanBetuw,master
studentatthisuniversity,andperformingresearchtonewwastewatermanagement
systemsinSwedenandintheNetherlands.Ihaveselectedyourneighborhoodbecauseit
hasanewconceptofwastewatermanagement.Thismeansthatyourwaterinthehouseis
separatedbasedonitsqualityandthepossibilitiestorecycleit.

IntheNetherlandsalsonewconceptsofthiswastewatermanagementsystemsare
installed.ThesystemsinSwedenareinterestedbecausetheyaredifferent.Iwouldliketo
comparetheSwedishandDutchsystems.Iaminterestedinhowthesystemsperformin
technicalwayandalsoinuserperspective.ThismeansthatIwouldliketoknowwhat
you,asauser,thinkof,andwhatexperiencesyouhavewiththesystem.Iamalso
interestedintheparticipationofyouinthedecisionmakingofdevelopingthesystem
fromthestart.

Iwouldliketoaskyourparticipationinthisresearchbymeansofansweringsome
questions.Iamcomingtoyourneighborhoodandwouldliketoaskyousomequestions
aboutthewastewatermanagementsystem.UnfortunatelyIdonotspeakSwedish,sothe
askedquestionswouldbeinEnglish.

Theinterviewwouldnottakeallottime,Ithinkabout30minutes.Theinterviewwillbe
holdintheweekof28030104.
Ihopethatyouwouldliketoparticipateinmyresearch.AndIamlookingforwardto
meetyou.

Page85
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Respectfully,

WoutervanBetuw
StudentEnvironmentalTechnology
WageningenUniversity(intheNetherlands)

1.2LetterforStakeholders

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 64/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

March,2005

WoutervanBetuw
Rijnsteeg8BGA006
6708PPWageningen
TheNetherlands

Subject:Researchondecentralizedwastewatermanagementsystem

DearMadamorSir:

Thisletterisaddressedtoyoubecauseyouwerestakeholderinthedecisionmakingof
implementinganewwastewatermanagementsystem.MynameisWoutervanBetuw,
masterstudentatWageningenUniversityintheNetherlands,andperformingresearch
intonewwastewatermanagementsystemsinSwedenandintheNetherlands.Ihave
selectedyourneighborhood/projectbecauseithasanewconceptofwastewater
management.Thismeansthatthewaterinthehouseisseparatedbasedonitsqualityand
thepossibilitiestorecycleit.

IntheNetherlandsalsonewconceptsofthiswastewatermanagementsystemsare
installed.ThesystemsinSwedenareinterestingbecausetheyaredifferent.Iwouldlike
tocomparetheSwedishandDutchsystems.Iaminterestedinhowthedecisionmaking
processthatledtotheimplementingofthesystemwascarriedout.Iwouldliketoknow
whatyourparticipatingrolewas,andhowmuchinfluenceyouhadinthedecision
making.Iamalsointerestedinwhatthecriteriaforyou,asparticipatingstakeholder,
weredeterminingtoimplementthesystemornot.Inotherwords:Whataspectsofthe
systemdoyoulike/dislike?Iwouldliketoaskyourparticipationinthisresearchby
meansofansweringsomequestions.Iamcomingtoyourofficeandwouldliketoask
yousomequestionsaboutthewastewatermanagementsystem.UnfortunatelyIdonot
speakSwedish,sotheaskedquestionswouldbeinEnglish.

Themeetingwouldnottakeallottime,Ithinkabout1hour.Iwouldliketoschedulea
meetingwithyouatyouroffice.Themeetingwillbeholdintheweekof28030304.
Ihopethatyouwouldliketoparticipateinmyresearch.AndIamlookingforwardto
meetyou.

II

Page86
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Respectfully,

WoutervanBetuw
StudentEnvironmentalTechnology
WageningenUniversity(intheNetherlands)

1.3Questionnaireforhouseholds

HOUSEHOLDSURVEY

(Introduceyourself)
Iam
Wearecurrentlyconductingasurveyaspartofthisprojecttofindout
Youropinionisimportanttous
Theinterviewwilltakeusonlyaroundminutes.
Alltheinformationyougivewillbestrictlyconfidentialandnotshowntoanyoneelse

QuestionnaireNo:...............Institution:.
Date:Respondentname:Age:
Address:Street..No.
District:.Ward:..

Generalquestions
1.Howmanypersonsareatleastforthe70%ofthedayspresentinthehousehold?
persons

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 65/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
2.Forhowlongdoyouliveintheneighbourhood?
.years

3.Whatisyoursourceofwaterfordrinking?
.

4.Whatisyoursourceofwaterforotheruses?

.
5.Howmuchdrinkwaterdoyouspendpermonth?

6.Howmuchdoyoupayforthewatersupplypermonth/m3?

.euros/monthoreuros/m3

Wastewatermanagementsystemquestions
7.Doyouhaveanonconventional,wastewatermanagementsysteminyourhouse?
Yes0No1

8.Whichkindoftoilet?


9.Forhowlongdoyoualreadyhavethewastewatermanagementsystem?

III

Page87
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

years/months

10.Whatelementsarepartofthewastewatermanagementsystem,whoistheownerofit?Whois

responsible?

Elements Owner Responsible


Rainwatersystemyes/no

Greywatersystemyes/no
.

Blackwatersystemyes/no

Urinecollectionyes/no
.

11.(Onlyanswerifyouknow)Howmanyyearsistheestimatedusefullifeofthewastewater

managementsystem?Whoistheowner?

Rainwatercollection..years.(owner)
Greywatersystemyears.

Blackwatersystem.years.

12.Aretherespecialelementsinthesystemwithalowerestimatedusefullifethenthegeneral
system?

Elements Years

..

..
13.Howmuchmoneydidyoupaytorealize/buildthewastewatermanagementsystemandwhatwas
includedinthisprice?

Total:euros
Elementsincluded: Cost(ifyouknowit)

.. euros

.. euros

.. euros
.. euros

14.Howmuchdoyoupaytothelocalgovernmentforseweragetaxperyear?
..euros
15.Howmuchdoyoupaytothewaterboardforwastewatertreatmentperyear?..euros

16.Howmuchwaterperyeardoyousavebecauseofthewastewatermanagementsystem?

..m3/year

17.Howmuchmoneydoyousaveongovernmentaltaxes?.euro/year

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 66/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

IV

Page88
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

18.Whichvolumeofabovegroundindoorspacedoesthewastewatermanagementsystemtakesupin

yourhouse? .m3
19.Whichvolumeoftheabovegroundoutdoorspacedoesthewastewatermanagementsystemtakes

up? .m3

20.Whatflatsurfaceareaoftheabovegroundoutdoorspacedoesthewastewatermanagement

systemtakesup? .m2

21.Whowastheowneroftheabovegroundoutdoor?Whatisthepriceperm2 ?

.
.Euro/m2

22.Whichamountofenergydoyouestimatethatyouuseforthewastewatermanagementsystem?

.........kw/hour/year

Questionsonmaintenance
23.Doyouhavetoperformmaintenancebyyourself?Yes/No(ifnogotoquestion30)

24.Whichactivitiesdoyouhavetodoforthegoodmaintenanceofthewastewatermanagementand
howmanyhoursdotheytaketoyoupermonth?

Activity Hours/month
. ................
. ...

. ...

25.Whichproductsdoyouhavetoaddtothewastewatermanagementsystemforitswell

maintenanceandoperation?Whichamountpermonthdoyouspend?Andwhatistheirpriceper
kilosorliters?

Product Amount/month(kgorl) Price(kgorl)

...
..

...

..

26.Aretheirrestrictionsonproductstouseformaintenance? YesNo
27.Doyouhavealistoftheseproduct? Yes No

28.Whichsafetymeasuresdoyoutaketodealwiththeproductsfromthesystemduringthese

operationandmaintenanceactivities?

Blackwater..
Rainwater..

Greywater..

Sludge

Page89
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

29.Whatdoyouthinkoftheoperationandmaintenanceactivitiestobedone?
Reallydisgusting0
Notnice1
Donotcare2
Nicetodo3
Verynicetodo4

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 67/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

30.Howmanytimesperyeardoesthewastewatermanagementsystemprefersgeneralmaintenance?

Bywhoisitdone?Andhowmuchdoyouhavetopayforit?
Activities: AmountActor Price

Rainwatersedimentationtankcleaning.t/year..E/y
Greywatersedimentationtankcleaningt/y.E/y
Reetbedfiltermaintenance t/y.E/y

Waterpipesystem t/y.E/y

Systeminspection t/y.E/y

Other t/y.E/y

31.Haveyousufferedsomekindofcalamity(explosion,collapse)duetothewastewater

managementsystem?Explain.

32.Didyouexperienceanyproblemwithanyofthepartsofthewastewatermanagementsystem?

Yes0 No1
33.Whichpartsofthewastewatermanagementsystemfailed/wasoutoforder?Whatwasthe

problem?Whenandhowoftendoesithappen?Howdidyousolveitandwhodidit?
When? often?
Partofthesystem Problem Solution Solved
(Date) (t/m/y)

VI

Page90
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Questionsonuserperspectives
34.Doesthewastewatermanagementsystemmakeyoufeelenvironmentalconcerned?
Always0
Veryoften1
Sometimes2
Alittlebit3
Notatall4

35.Canyourecommendthesystemtootherhouseholdsinotherneighbourhoods?
Notatall0
Notwithoutimprovement1
Donotknow2
YesIwill3
YesIwillactivelyrecommendit4

36.Whatdoyouthinkofthevisiblepartofthewastewatermanagementequipmentinornearyour

houses?

Reallyawful0
Annoying1
Notdisturbing2
Nice3
Beautiful4

37.Doesthesystemproduceannoyingnoiselevelinyouropinion?

Always0
Veryoften1

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 68/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Sometimes2
Alittlebit3
Notatall4

38.Doestheprocessproduceunpleasantodoursinyouropinion?

Always0
Veryoften1
Sometimes2
Alittlebit3
Notatall4

39.Inwhichmonthsdotheunpleasantodoursoccur?

JanFebMarchAprilMayJuneJulyAugSeptOctNovDec

40.Doesthesystemattractvermin?
Always0
Veryoften1
Sometimes2
Alittlebit3
Notatall4

41.Whatkindofbenefitsofthewastewatermanagementdoyouexperience?

VII

Page91
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

..

..
..

..

..

42.Whichamountofcompostdoyouestimateisproducedperyearinyourhouse?
kg/year
43.Whichamountofsludgedoyouestimateisproducedperyearinyourhouse?

kg/year

Theinterviewisovernow.Thankyouagainforansweringourquestions.

1.4Questionnaireforstakeholders

DriversandBarriersSURVEY

QuestionnaireNo:...............Institution:.
Date:Respondentname:Age:
Address:Street..No.
District:.Ward:..

Questionsondesign
1.Didyouparticipateinthedesignperiodoftheneighbourhood?

YesorNo

2.Whatperiodoftimedidthedesignperiodtake?
..year
3.Whichactorswhereinvolvedinthedesignperiod?Whatwastheirrole?

Actor Role
1

..

..
3

..
4

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 69/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
..
5

..

VIII

Page92
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

6
..

..

8
..

4.Onwhatwayweredecisionsmade?ConsensusorAuthority

5.Didyouagreedwiththedecisionmakingprocess?

Yes/no

6.Whichactorwasresponsibleforthefinaldecisiononthedesign?

7.Howoftenpermonth/yeardidyouhadameetingwiththeactors?

times/month

Environmentaldriversandbarriersdesignperiod
8.Whatkindofenvironmentalaspectsofthewastewatermanagementsystemwereimportantfor

youandotheractorsthatinvolvedtheimplementationpositively?Whicharerealized?Whichwill

berealized/removedintheefuture?

designcurrentfuture

Watersaving

Preventionofdryingoutofsoil

Reductionofwateremissions
Recyclingofwater

Protectionsurfacewater

Protectionofgroundwater

Recyclingofnutrients

Reductionofenergyuse

Niceneighbourhood

Niceenvironmentalbehaviour

feeling

Other
Other

Other

IX

Page93
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

9.Whatkindofenvironmentalaspectsofthewastewatermanagementsystemwereimportantfor

youandotheractorsthatinvolvedtheimplementationnegatively?Whicharerealized?Which

willberealized/removedintheefuture?

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 70/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

designcurrentfuture

Healthrisks

Floodingrisks
Useofchemicals

Maintenanceproblems

Highenergyuse

Other

Other

Other

Other

Other

Other

Economicaldriversandbarriers
10.Whatkindofeconomicalaspectsofthewastewatermanagementsystemwereimportantforyou
andotheractorsthatinvolvedtheimplementationpositively?Whicharerealized?Whichwillbe

realized/removedintheefuture?

designcurrentfuture

Lowdesigncosts

Lowoperationalcosts

Lowdrinkwatercosts

Lowenergycosts

Lowseweragetaxes

Lowwaterboardtaxes

Developmentnewtechnology

Other

Other

11.Whatkindofeconomicalaspectsofthewastewatermanagementsystemwereimportantforyou

andotheractorsthatinvolvedtheimplementationnegatively?Whicharerealized?Whichwillbe

realized/removedintheefuture?

Page94
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

designcurrentfuture

Highdesigncosts

Highoperationalcosts

Highenergycosts

Highseweragetaxes

Highwaterboardtaxes

Other
Other

Other

Socialdriversandbarriers
12.Whatkindofsocialaspectsofthewastewatermanagementsystemwereimportantforyouand

otheractorsthatinvolvedtheimplementationpositively?Whicharerealized?Whichwillbe

realized/removedintheefuture?

design current future


Intensivecontactwithneighbors

Environmentalfriendly

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 71/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Niceneighbourhoodtolive

Other

Other

Other

13.Whatkindofsocialaspectsofthewastewatermanagementsystemwereimportantforyouand
otheractorsthatinvolvedtheimplementationnegatively?Whicharerealized?Whichwillbe
realized/removedintheefuture?

designcurrent future

Difficulttechnology

Risksofhousingequipment
Healthrisks

Other

Other

Other

CurrentstatusWastewatermanagementsystem
14.Didyouparticipateintheperiodofbuildinguntilnowoftheneighbourhood?

YesorNo
15.Whatperiodoftimeisthesystemworking?..year

16.Whichactorsareinvolvedintheperiodofbuildinguntilno?Whatwastheirrole?

XI

Page95
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Actor Role
1

..

..
3

..
4
..

..

17.Howoftenpermonth/yeardid/doyouhadameetingwiththeactors?

times/month

FuturestatusWastewatermanagementsystem
18.Aretheiranychangesonthesystemequipmentthatyouthinkwillhappeninthefuture?

.
.

19.Aretheiranychangesontheinvolvementofactorsthatyouthinkwillhappeninthefuture?

.
.

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 72/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XII

Page96
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

1.5Performanceassessment

Referenc Cluster
e Cluster1 Cluster2a 2b
Understen Groene Skogaber
Units site0 s Dak Polderdrift g EkoportenGebers
Doesthewmsprotectspublic
healthbymeansofsafe
Primair transportandtreatmentof
y 1 humanwaste? yes/noyes yes no yes no yes unknown

kwalita
Whatisthechancethattenants tive by equalto
functio 1 getincontactwiththe descri sewerage not conventio not contact
ns a wastewater? ption clogging present always always nal present withfeces
kwalita
tive
1 Whatisthechancethattenants descri not not not
b haveaccesstotheequipment? ption present present always present present present present

1 Whatisthechancethattenants calamit not not


c areexposedtocalamities? y/y 15198 00.1 0.1 0 present present
Istherisksforpublichealth
higherthenmaximumacceptable
1 infectionrisksbybiological not
d pathogens? yes/nono no yes yes present no unknown
Doesthewmsprotectssurface
waterqualityandthe
environmentbymeansof
preventionofdischargesof
oxygendemanding
2 compoundsandnutrients? yes/noyes yes unknownyes yes yes yes
2 Whatisthetreatmentefficiency
a forphosphorousremoval? % 79 41unknownunknown 80 89
2 Whatisthetreatmentefficiency
b forNitrogenremoval? % 68 57,4unknownunknown 80 83

XIII

Page97
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

2 Whatisthetreatmentefficiency
c forBODremoval? % 97unknownunknownunknownunknown 98
2 Whatisthetreatmentefficiency
d forCODremoval? % 91 25unknownunknownunknown 96

Whatistheprobabilityofabatch
2 offinalproductfailingtocomply amoun
e withofficialqualitystandards? t/year 0unknownunknownunknown 2
DoestheWMSinclude
measuresforrainwater
Sub 3 management? yes/noyes yes yes yes yes yes yes
Whatisthemaximumrainwater
functio 3 intensitythesystemcan
ns a treat/transport? m3 unknown 360 5>70 unknownnotknownunknown
DoestheWMSinclude

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 73/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
measuresforremovalof
groundwaterordrainage not
4 water? yes/noyes no yes yes no no present
Isthereaneedforremovalof
4 localgroundwaterordrainage
a water? yes/noyes no yes yes no no no
User
perspec Whatarethecostsper euro/y
tive 5 householdperyear? ear 572 512 628 1011 710 1506
Whatisthecapitalinvestment
5 perhouseholdinEUROofthe
Costs a WMS? euro 4375 6845 6002 10878 9400 17800
Howmanypersonsarefor70%
5 ofthenightpresentinthe person
b household? s 2 2 2 2 2 2
5 Whatistheestimatedusefullife
c oftheWMSinyears? year 2025 1330 1550 10till50 25 105030100
Watistheannualperhousehold
5 operatingcostinEUROofthe euro/y
d wms? ear 335 192 303 420 200 540

XIV

Page98
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Isthesystemmeetingthe
Invisibil desiresofthehousholdswith
ity/ respecttocomfortand
Comfort6 (in)visibility? yes/noyes yes yes yes yes yes yes/no
Isthereamodifiedtoiletsystem
6 (i.e.no'conventional'waterflush
a toilet)? yes/nono yes yes no no yes yes
Doesthewastewater
managementsystemmakeyou
6 feelenvironmentalconcerned/ 012
b friendly? 34 0 4 3 2 3 4
Canyourecommendthesystem
6 tootherhouseholdsinother 012
c neighbourhoods? 34 3 3 2 3 3 3
Whatdoyouthinkofthevisible
partofthewastewater
6 managementequipmentinor 012
d nearyourhouses? 34 2 3 3 3 2 2
Doesthesystemproduce
6 annoyingnoiselevelinyour 012
e opinion? 34 4 4 4 4 4 4
Doestheprocessproduce
6 unpleasantodoursinyour 012
f opinion? 34 4 2 3 3 4 3
6 012
gDoesthesystemattractvermin? 34 4 4 4 4 4 4
6 Doyouhavetoperform yes(1)
h maintenancetothesystem? /no(0)no 1 0 1 1 0
Whatdoyouthinkofthe
6 maintenanceactivityofthe 012 not
i system? 34 relevant 2Not 3 1 3
Howmuchtimedoesthe
6 maintenanceactivityrequirefrom
j itsusers? h/y 0 32 2 8 0,5 0
6 Howmuchtimedoesthe
k maintenanceactivityrequirefromh/y 0 8 16 8 2100 416

XV

Page99
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 74/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
otheractors?

Aretheirrestrictionsonproducts
6 formaintenanceorflushing yes(1)
l troughthetoilet? /no(0) 1 1 1 1 1 1
6 Doyouhavealistofthese yes(1)
m products? /no(0) 0 0 1 1 1 1
Whatvolumeofaboveground
indoorspacedoesthewms
6 equipmentrequireexpressedin
n m3perhousehold? m3/hh 0 0 10 0 0,2 2,7
Whatvolumeofaboveground
outdoorspacedoesthewms
6 equipmentrequireexpressedin
o m2perhousehold? m2/hhunknown 2014.7 13.25 0,75 17
Robust Istherea(riskof)system
ness 7 failure? yes/noyes yes yes yes yes yes no
Didyouexperienceanyproblem
withanyofthepartsofthe
7 wastewatermanagement yes(1)
a system? /no(0) 0 1 1 1 1 1
7 Whatistheamountofsystem amoun
b failuresperyear? t/y 0,0019 20.2 1.2 1 3,7
Environ Whatisthequantityof severa
mental8 resourcesusedinthewms? l
Whatistheamountofenergy
Resour 8 usedbythewmsperhousehold
cesuse e peryear? kWh/yunknown 35 8unknownunknownunknownunknown
Whatistheamountofchemicals
8 usedbythewmsperhousehold
d peryear? kg/y unknownunknown 0 0unknown 0
8 Whatisthewateruseper
f householdperyear? m3/y 93 117 32 50 146 82
Whatisthequantityof
resourcesproducedinthe severa
9 wms? l

XVI

Page100
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

9 Whatisthesludgeproductionper
a household/year? kg 45unknown 812.5 unknown 28
9 Whatisthevolumeofreusable
b waterperhouseholdperyear? m3/y 0unknown18.25 25 0 0
Whatistheamountnutrients
9 recycledbythewmsper
c householdperyear? kg/y 0 3,5 0 0unknown 5152
Emissio 1 Whatisthequalityofthefinal
ns 0 products? unknown
1 Towhatextenddoesthefinal
0 waterqualitycomplywithofficial
a qualitystandards? ok ok unknownunknownunknownhigher unknown
Towhatextenddoesthefinal
1 waterqualitycomplywith
0 futuristicEUqualitystandards
b (WaterFrameworkDirective)? notyet unknownunknownunknownunknownunknownunknown

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 75/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XVII

Page101
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

APPENDIX2SOURCESEPARATINGINHETGROENEDAK

2.1Descriptionofthetechnology
Figure11Greyandrainwaterschemeinhouse(websitegroenedak)

XVIII

Page102
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure12AboveviewHetGroeneDak(websitegroenedak)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 76/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Figure13Greywaterpretreatment(websitegroenedak)

XIX

Page103
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure14MichlPostandgreenhousewithfewerplants(visit22032005)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 77/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Figure15Maintenancepond(websitegroenedak)

XX

Page104
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Table29Averageconcentrationsin(mg/l)andspreadinbracketsofgreywater,effluentofpre
treatmentandreedbed/greenhouseEcoliaremeasured3timesandgiveandaverageinliving
cells/ml(MatthijsenBalke,1997)

Cluster1 Cluster2
1
Effluentpre Effluent Grey Effluentpre Effluent
Greywater 1
treatment reedbed treatment greenhouse
water
CZV 341(196) 154(26) 108(6) 1013(47) 180(99) 63(12)
BZV 5 74(32) 26(4) 3(1) 322(21) 27(2) 4
Ntotal 74.4(13.8) 27.9(11.4)10,1(2,0) 56.0(17.1) 10.6(5.5) 11.9(2.1)
NH 4 N 58.1(16.9 12.3(7.3) 0,2(0,0) 32.6(11.8) 3.0(1.5) 0.4(0.4)
NO 3 N 2.9(0.4) 7.2(1.5) 5,4(1,9) 3.9(1.7) 2.6(0.7) 8.0(1.7)
Ptotal 9.1(0.5) 3.8(1.3)0,5(0,03) 7.5(0.6) 3.1(0.5) 0.6(0.2)
PO 4 P 4.1(0.5) 1.8(0.8)0,2(0,05) 2.9(0.3) 1.3(0.3) 0.3(0.1)
EColi 1123 1 1973 163

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 78/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XXI

Page105
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

2.2Driversandbarriers
Inthetablebelowtheresultsoftheinterviewsareaddressed.Thetable30highlightsthe
driversandbarriersofthetenantsWaterGroup(Post,pers.com.)andbytheformer
housingcompanyWoningstichtingJuliana(Smeijer,pers.com.)inthedesign,current
andfuturisticphase.
Table30DriversandBarriersindecisionmakingofHetGroeneDak

Actor 1.Tenant 3.Woningstichting

Juliana

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving Yes Yes Yes Yes Noinvolvement

aldrivers Preventionofdryingoutofsoil Yes No No Yes duetotake

Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes No No Yes overbyother

highnutrientsandpathogens housing

concentration company.

Recyclingofwater Yes Yes Yes Yes

ProtectionsurfacewaterforoverflowYes No No No

Protectionofgroundwater Yes No No Yes

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes

NiceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingYes No No No

Environmentallabel/advertising No No No Yes

Preventionofproductionpolluted Yes ?? ?? ??
sludge1

Protectionofdamagetothelandscape Yes ?? ?? ??

byflooding,erosion,andtreatment

plants1

Environment Healthrisks No Yes Yes No


albarriers Floodingrisks No Yes Yes No
Maintenanceproblems No Yes Yes Yes

Highenergyuse No Yes Yes No

Materialconsumption Yes Yes Yes No

Smell No No No Yes

Sound No No No Yes

Economical Lowwatersupplycosts Yes No No Yes

drivers Lowenergycosts Yes No No Yes

Lowseweragetaxes YesNo Yes Yes

Lowwaterboardfee Yes No Yes No

XXII

Page106
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes

barriers Highoperationalcosts No Yes Yes Yes

Highenergycosts Yes Yes Yes No

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 79/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Risksofrentingtonewtenants No No No Yes

Risksofmallfunction/replacementsNo Yes No Yes

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environmentalfriendly Yes No No Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive YesYes Yes Yes

Social Difficulttechnology Yes Yes Yes No


barriers Managementofnewtenants No No No Yes
1 NotfromtheinterviewbutfromthewebsiteofHetGroeneDak

XXIII

Page107
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

APPENDIX3SOURCESEPARATINGINPOLDERDRIFT

3.1Descriptionofthetechnology

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 80/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XXIV

Page108
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

XXV

Page109
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Table31Expectedtreatmentcapacitygreywatersystem(BahloandWach,1992)

Effluenthouses Effluentsedimentation Effluentreedfilter Treatmentefficiency


(mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (%)
BZV 5 253 190 10 95
CZV 409 383 26 93
Ntotal 12 5 0.3 87
Ptotal 5 3 2 44

Table32Greywateraftersedimentation(Soons,2003):foursamples(retentiontime1,2days)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 81/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Aspect Unit Greywateraftersedimentation


Averagevalue Spread
COD (mgO 2 /l) 322 296342
suspended 54 3375
colloidal 109 82137
dissolved 159 139185
COD/BOS 20
(mgO 2 /l) 88% 1measurement
NKjeldahl (mgN/l) 19.6 11.128.3
NH 4 N (mgN/l) 3.7 1.45.9
Ptotal (mgP/l) 3.3 2.55.6
PO 4 P (mgP/l) 0.6 0.21.9
5
EColi 7.7 1220
/100ml(x10 )

Table33Rainandgreywaterquality(Cmark,2004)

Aspect Unit Clean Influentrainwater Cleangrey Greywater


rainwatertank washingmachine watertank outdoorvalve
Temperature C 18 18 19 19
Acidity pH 7.20 7.55 5.75
Saturationindex(SI) 0.27 0.11 2.71
Aggressivecarbonicacid Mg/l <0.5 2.03 5.31
(CO2 )
Carbonicacid(CO2 ) Mg/l 8.4 6 5.6
Conductance mS/m 42 23 6
Hydrogen carbonate Mg/l 238 120 17
(HCO3 )
Chlorine(Cl) Mg/l 9 18 11 <5
Sulfate(SO4 ) 9 16 10 <5
Calcium(Ca) Mg/l 8 65 65 6
Iron(Fe) Mg/l 0.02 0.01 0.37 0.03
Manganese(Mn) Mg/l 0.02 <0.01 <0.01 0.02
Escherichiacoli /100ml <1 <1 250 350
ColigroupE.F.(37C) /100ml <1 <1 250 400
Coliamount(37C) 0+/10 0+/10
Coliamount(44C) 10+/0 9+/1
Aeromonasspecies(30 /100ml 100 150 80 55
C)

XXVI

Page110
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

3.2Driversandbarriers
Inthetablebelowtheresultsoftheinterviewsareaddressed.Thetable34highlightsthe
driversandbarriersofthetenants(Ruiven,pers.com.),architectopMAAT,bythe
currenthousingcompanyPortaal(Engelen,pers.com.),municipalityArnhem
(Warnshuis,pers.com.),inthedesign,currentandfuturisticphase.
Table34DriversandBarriersindecisionmakingofPolderdrift

Actor 1.Tenant 2.opMAAT

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving Yes Yes No

aldrivers Preventionofdryingoutofsoil No No No

Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes Yes Yes

highnutrientsandpathogens
concentration

Recyclingofwater Yes Yes Yes

ProtectionsurfacewaterforoverflowNo No No

Protectionofgroundwater No No No

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes

NiceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingNo No No

Environment Healthrisks No No Yes

albarriers Floodingrisks No Yes ??

Maintenanceproblems No Yes Yes

Highenergyuse No Yes Yes

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 82/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Smell No Yes Yes
Economical Lowdesigncosts Yes No Yes
drivers Lowwatersupplycosts No Yes Yes
Lowenergycosts No No No

Lowseweragetaxes No No No

Lowwaterboardfee Yes No Yes

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts No Yes Yes

barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes Yes

Highenergycosts Yes Yes Yes

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes No No

Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive YesYes Yes

XXVII

Page111
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Social Smell No Yes No

barriers

Actor 3.Portaal 4.Arnhem

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving No Yes Yes No Yes Yes

aldrivers Preventionofdryingoutofsoil involv No No No Yes Yes

Reductionofwateremissionswith ement Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


highnutrientsandpathogens

concentration

Recyclingofwater Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Reductionofenergyuse No No Yes Yes Yes

Protectionsurfacewaterforoverflow Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Protectionofgroundwater Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Microbiotopeinneighbourhood Yes Yes No No No

Environment Healthrisks Yes Yes No No No

albarriers Floodingrisks No No Yes Yes Yes

Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Useofchemicals Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Highenergyuse Yes Yes No No No

Economical Lowwatersupplycosts Yes Yes YesYesYes

drivers Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Highenergycosts Yes Yes ?? ?? ??

Highseweragetaxes No No Yes Yes Yes

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes Y/N1 Y/NY/N

Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes YesYesYes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Social Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

barriers Acceptanceofnewtenants Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Difficulttechnology No No Yes Yes Yes

Risksofhousingequipment No No Yes Yes Yes


1Y/Nmeansyesorno

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 83/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XXVIII

Page112
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

APPENDIX4SOURCESEPARATINGINEKOPORTEN

4.1Implementedtechnology

Figure16AboveviewEkoporten

XXIX

Page113
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure17SystemschemeEkoporten

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 84/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Table35Collecteddailyamountsandtheconcentrationsofelementsintheurine,feacalflushwater,
greywater,andbiodegradablesolidswaste(average+standarddeviation)(Vinners,2001)

XXX

Page114
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Table36RemovalefficiencyofthereedbedinEkoportenintime(Karlsson,2003)

Year Removalefficiency(%)
BOD7 COD Susp.Solids NTotal PTotal
1997 88 84 82 58 76
1998 97 90 84 62 69
1999 98 92 89 36 61
2000 98 94 96 54 78
2001 92 90 70 50 58
2002 94 84 68 42 44

ThetreatmentefficiencyofthereedbedisstudiedbyGustafsson(2005).

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 85/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Figure18BOD7concentrationininfleuntandeffluentofthereedbedinEkoporten

XXXI

Page115
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure19AmountindicatororganismininfluentandeffluentofthereedbedinEkoporten

ThecompostcompositionforN,P,andKas%ofTotalsolidsisdepictedintable.

Table37Compostcompositionas%ofTSinEkoporten

Year Ntotal(%ofTS) Ptotal(%ofTS) K(%ofTS)


1997 1.6 0.65 0.6
1998 1 0.4 0.3
1999 1.6 0.7 0.45

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 86/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XXXII

Page116
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

4.2Driversandbarriers
Inthetablebelowtheresultsoftheinterviewsareaddressed.Thetable38highlightsthe
driversandbarriersofatenant(Lind,pers.com.),anexternalconsultantMiljInvest
(Karlsson,pers.com.),bythecurrenthousingcompanyMarkarydsbostder(Kkel,
pers.com.),municipalityNorrkping(Franzen,pers.com.),inthedesign,currentand
futuristicphase.
Table38DriversandBarriersindecisionmakingofEkoporten

Actor 1.Tenant 2.MiljInvest

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving No Yes Yes No No No


aldrivers involv involv

ment ment
Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes Yes Y/NY/N
highnutrientsandpathogens

concentration

Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes


Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environment Healthrisks No No No No

albarriers Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes Yes No

Highenergyuse No No Yes Yes

Higheremissions No No Yes No

Economical Lowwatersupplycosts Yes Yes No No


drivers Lowwaterboardfee No No Yes No

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes

barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes Yes Yes

Highenergycosts No No Yes Yes

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes Yes Yes


Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive Yes Yes Yes Yes

Social Difficulttechnology No No No No
barriers Healthrisks No No No No

Actor 3.Markarydsbostder 4.Norrkping

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

EnvironmentWatersaving No Yes Yes No No No

XXXIII

Page117
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

aldrivers Reductionofwateremissionswith involv Yes Yes involv Yes Yes


highnutrientsandpathogens ement ement
concentration

Protectionofsurfacewater Yes Yes Yes Yes

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 87/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Protectionofgroundwater No No Yes Yes
Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes
Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes No No

Niceenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling Yes Yes No No

Environment Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes Yes

albarriers Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhood No No Yes Yes

Economical Lowtaxesfororganicwaste Yes Yes Nointerestin

drivers Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes costs

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes


barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes

Morerent Yes Yes

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes No No

Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive Yes Yes Yes Yes

Social Difficulttechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes Yes

XXXIV

Page118
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

APPENDIX5SOURCESEPARATINGINSKOGABERG

5.1Descriptionofthetechnology
Figure20AboveviewSkogaberg

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 88/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

Table39Qualityblackwatermixture(deBlois,2004)

Parameter Totaldaily Specificamount*


amount(g/d) ((g/p.d)
Suspendedsolids 2180 29
COD 4210 56
BOD 2250 30
TOC 1440 19
Ntotal 490 6,6
Ptotal 67 0,9
K 220 2,9
*75persons

XXXV

Page119
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

5.2Driversandbarriers
Inthetablebelowtheresultsoftheinterviewsareaddressed.Thetable40highlightsthe
driversandbarriersofanexternalconsultantH2OLAND(Blois,pers.com.),the
housingcompanyEgnahemsbolaget(Gustavsson,pers.com.),thearchitectSweco
FNNS(Aleby,pers.com.),recyclingboardmunicipalityGteborg(Karlssonand
Aarsrud,pers.com.),VaVerket(WaterandSewerswork)municipalityGteborg
(Bokesj,pers.com.),Gryaab(sewerageandtreatmentdepartment)municipality
Gteborg(Mattsson,pers.com.),inthedesign,currentandfuturisticphase.

Table40driversandbarriersSkogaberg

Actor 1.H2OLAND 2.Egnahemsbolaget


Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Reductionofwateremissionswith No No Yes No No No

aldrivers highnutrientsandpathogens
concentration

Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

ProtectionsurfacewaterforoverflowNo No Yes No No No
Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling?? ?? ?? Yes Yes Yes

Environment Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes No No No


albarriers Floodingrisks Yes Yes Yes No No No

Useofchemicals Yes Yes Yes No No No

Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes Yes YesNo Y/N

Highenergyuse Yes Yes No No No No

CalamityAciddoses Yes Yes Yes No No No


Highwateruse No No No Yes Yes Yes

Smell Yes Yes Yes No No No

Economical Lowwaterboardfee Yes No Yes No No No

drivers Lowseweragetaxes No No Yes No No No

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 89/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Niceneighbourhoodtolive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dogoodthingsforthewhole No No No Yes Yes Yes

community

XXXVI

Page120
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Social Riskofhousingequipment Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers

Actor 3.SwecoFNNS 4.Recyclingboard

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Protectionsurfacewaterforoverflow Yes Yes No No No No


aldrivers Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Reductionofenergy Yes No No No No No

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Niceenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling Yes Yes Yes No No No

UseofenvironmentalfriendlymaterialsYes Yes Yes No No No

Minimizingdemolitionsurroundings Yes Yes Yes No No No

Environment Useofchemicals No No No Yes No Yes


albarriers Maintenanceproblems Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Highenergyuse No No No Yes Yes Yes

Recyclingoffertilizersinagriculture Yes Yes Yes No No No

Economical Lowenergycosts Yes No No No No No

drivers Lowseweragetaxes Yes No No No No No

Lowwaterboardfee Yes No No No No No

Developmentnewtechnology Yes No No Yes Yes Yes


Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours No No No No No No

Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Sameasinconventional No No No Yes Yes Yes

Social Notvisibleenvironmentalbehaviour Yes Yes Yes No No No


barriers Conventionalthinking No No No Yes Yes Yes

Actor 5.VAVerket 6.Gryaab

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


aldrivers highnutrientsandpathogens

concentration

ProtectionsurfacewaterforoverflowNo No No Yes Yes Yes


Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhood No No No No No No

XXXVII

Page121
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

NiceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingNo No No Y/NY/NY/N

Environment Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes No No Yes

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 90/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
albarriers Floodingrisks Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Highenergyuse Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Useofchemicals Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Medicinesandhormonesin Yes Yes Yes No No No


agriculture
Nospaceinground Yes Yes Yes No No No

Resourcesuse Yes Yes Yes No No No

Economical Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

drivers Lowgarbagecosts No No No Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Highenergycosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Highseweragetaxes No No No Yes Yes Yes

Highwaterboardfee No No No Yes Yes Yes

Useofground No No No Yes Yes Yes

Upscalingtechnologynotpossible Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours No No No Yes Yes Yes

Kitchendisposerisluxury Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Niceneighbourhoodtolive No No No Yes Yes Yes

Social Difficulttechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

barriers Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes No No No

Sewerblockagenearthehouses No No No Yes Yes Yes

XXXVIII

Page122
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

APPENDIX6SOURCESEPARATINGINUNDERSTENSHJDEN

6.1Descriptionofthetechnology
TheaboveviewfromtheUnderstenshjdenneighborhoodisdepictedinfigureXX.

Figure21AboveviewUnderstenshjden

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 91/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XXXIX

Page123
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure22TechnicalschemeWMSUnderstenshjden

Table41UrinequalityofUnderstenshjdenperpersonperday(Jnsson,et.al.,1998)

Parameter Unit Value


pH 9.1
TotalSolids g/pd 10.9
Ntotal g/pd 4.9
Ptotal g/pd 0.42
Ktotal g/pd 1.34
Mg Mg/p.d 14.9
Fe Mg/p.d 0.52
Pb Mg/p.d <0.014
Cd Mg/p.d <0.0014
Cu Mg/p.d 3.3

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 92/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Cr Mg/p.d 0.026
Hg Mg/p.d 0.0006
Ni Mg/p.d 0.082

XL

Page124
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

6.2Driversandbarriers
Inthetablebelowtheresultsoftheinterviewsareaddressed.Thetable42highlightsthe
driversandbarriersofthetenants(Sederlund,pers.com.),bythehousingcompanyHSB
Stockholm(Westin,pers.com.),municipalityStockholm(Lundin,pers.com.),water
boardStockholmVatten(Hellstrm,pers.com.),consultantVERNAEcology
(Johansson,pers.com.),inthedesign,currentandfuturisticphase.
Table42DriversandBarriersUnderstenhjden

Actor 1.Tenant 2.HSBStockholm


Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

aldrivers Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes Yes Yes Yes No No


highnutrientsandpathogens

concentration

Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


ProtectionsurfacewaterforoverflowYes Yes Yes Yes No No

Reductionofenergyuse Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


NiceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingYes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environment Healthrisks No No No No Yes Yes

albarriers Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes Y/NYes Yes Yes

Economical Lowoperationalcosts No No No Yes Yes Yes


drivers Lowseweragetaxes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lowwaterboardfee Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes Yes No No No

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive YesYes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Social Difficulttechnology No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Risksofhousingequipment Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes No No No

Actor 3.Stockholm 4.StockholmVatten

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

XLI

Page125
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Environment Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes Yes Yes Yes

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 93/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

aldrivers highnutrientsandpathogens
concentration
Protectionsurfacewaterforoverflow Yes Yes Yes Yes

Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environment Useofchemicals No Yes Yes Yes


albarriers Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes No No
Smell No No Yes Yes

Economical Lowenergycosts No Yes Yes Yes

drivers Lowseweragetaxes No Yes Yes Yes

Lowwaterboardfee No Yes Yes Yes

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Highoperationalcosts No Yes Y/NY/N

Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes No No No


Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive Yes Yes Yes Yes

Social Difficulttechnology Yes No No No


barriers Risksofhousingequipment No Yes Yes Yes

Acceptanceagriculture No Yes Yes Yes


Decreaseofinteresttenants Yes No No No

Newtenantslessprofessional Yes No No No

Actor 5.VERNAEcology

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving Yes Yes Nocomment


aldrivers Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes Yes
highnutrientsandpathogens
concentration

Recyclingofwater Yes No

ProtectionsurfacewaterforoverflowYes Yes
Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes

Nochemicals Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes

XLII

Page126
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

NiceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingYes Yes

Environment Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes


albarriers
Economical Lowwatersupplycosts No Yes

drivers Lowseweragetaxes No Yes

Lowwaterboardfee No Yes

Developmentnewtechnology Yes No

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes


barriers Highoperationalcosts Yes Yes

Highenergycosts Yes Yes

Socialdrivers Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes


Niceneighbourhoodtolive YesYes

Social Difficulttechnology No Yes

barriers Risksofhousingequipment No Yes

Healthrisks No Yes

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 94/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Availableuserurine Yes No

XLIII

Page127
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

APPENDIX7SOURCESEPARATINGINGEBERS

7.1Descriptionofthetechnology
Table43QualityofwastewaterstreamsandsolidsperpersonandyearofGebers(Palmquistand
Jnsson,2003)

Figure23AboveviewofGebers

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 95/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

XLIV

Page128
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

Figure24CompostfacilityatGebers

XLV

Page129
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 96/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)

7.2Driversandbarriers
Inthetablebelowtheresultsoftheinterviewsareaddressed.Thetable44highlightsthe
driversandbarriersofthetenants(Hort,pers.com.),bythehousingcompanyHSB
Stockholm(Westin,pers.com.),municipalityStockholm(Lundin,pers.com.),water
boardStockholmVatten(Hellstrm,pers.com.),inthedesign,currentandfuturistic
phase.
Table44DriversandBarriersofGebers

Actor 1.Tenant 2.HSBStockholm

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


aldrivers Reductionofwateremissionswith Yes Yes Yes No No No
highnutrientsandpathogens

concentration

Recyclingofwater Yes No No Yes No No


Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

ProtectionsurfacewaterforoverflowYes Yes Yes No No No

Reductionofenergyuse No No No Yes No No

Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

NiceenvironmentalbehaviourfeelingYes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environment Healthrisks No No No No Yes No


albarriers Maintenanceproblems Yes No No Yes No No

Highenergyuseduetotransporturine No No No Yes Yes Yes


newfarmer

Economical Lowoperationalcosts Y/NY/NY/NYes Yes Yes


drivers Lowdrinkwatercosts Yes Y/NY/NYes Yes Yes
Lowseweragetaxes Yes Y/NY/NYes Yes Yes

Lowwaterboardfee Yes Y/NY/NYes Yes Yes

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Highoperationalcosts Y/NY/n Y/NNo No No

Highenergycosts No No No Yes Yes Yes


Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive YesYes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Contributingefforttosociety Yes Yes Yes No No No

Proudoftechnology Yes Yes Yes No No No

Social Difficulttechnology No Yes Yes No No No

XLVI

Page130
UrbanEnvironmentalManagement

barriers Risksofhousingequipment Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

Healthrisks Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes


Disgusting Yes Yes Yes No No No

Continuityfarmertouseurine Yes Yes Yes No No No

Actor 3.Stockholm 4.StockholmVatten

Criteria PhaseAspect designcurrentfuturedesigncurrentfuture

Environment Watersaving No Yes Yes Yes


aldrivers Reductionofwateremissionswith No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
highnutrientsandpathogens involv involv

concentration ement ement


Protectionsurfacewaterforoverflow Yes Yes Yes Yes

Recyclingofnutrients Yes Yes Yes Yes

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 97/98
3/11/2017 EvaluatedSourceSeparatingWastewaterManagementSystems(SSWMS)
Niceneighbourhood Yes Yes Yes Yes
Niceenvironmentalbehaviourfeeling Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environment Healthrisks No Yes Yes Yes

albarriers Maintenanceproblems Yes Yes No No

Smell No Yes No No

Economical Lowoperationalcosts No Yes Yes Yes


drivers Lowenergycosts No Yes Yes Yes

Lowseweragetaxes No Yes Yes Yes

Lowwaterboardfee No Yes Yes Yes

Developmentnewtechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes

Economical Highdesigncosts No Yes Yes Yes


barriers
Socialdrivers Intensivecontactwithneighbours Yes Yes Yes Yes

Environmentalfriendly Yes Yes Yes Yes

Niceneighbourhoodtolive Yes Yes Yes Yes

Social Difficulttechnology Yes Yes Yes Yes


barriers Risksofhousingequipment No Yes Yes Yes
Healthrisks No Yes Yes Yes

Acceptanceagriculture No Yes Yes Yes

Decreaseofinteresttenants Yes No No No

Newtenantslessprofessional Yes No No No

XLVII

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/outputs/pdfs/W41_GEN_PHD_Evaluated_Source_Separating 98/98