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Formula Sheet for Stage 6 Physics

Preliminary Course
H.S.C. Course - Core H.S.C. Course - Options
v
m1 m2 Z =
Ep = G
r

I Ir


r

F
Io
v 2x
v1 d
M m 5 log( )
10
v 2


IA
r
E

IB
r
3


R T
2

m1


1
Energy=VIt L

v

P=VI m0 h
m
v2 mv
1 2
v av c
Vout
t
r t 0
Vin
r V
v
v 2

a 1
t c 2
av

V0
r r A0
r
a
vu
F =BIl V+ V-
av
t
r F II Speed of light Constants
c 3 X 108 ms-1
F ma
r k 1 2 in vacuum
l d
r Acceleration g 9.81 ms-2
1 2 Fd
Ek mv due to gravity
2
r r nBIAcos
p mv Universal Gravitation G 6.67 X 10-11 Nm2 kg-2
r v n
Impulse F t p p
Electric constant k 9 X 109 NC-1m-1
v n
s s

mm Magnetic constant k 2 X 10-7 Ns2C-2


F G 12 2 F qvB sin
d
Plancks Constant h 6.626 X 10-34 Js
r 3
GM V
E
d Rybergs Constant R 1.10 X 107 m-1
T 42 2

E hf mass of proton mp 1.67 X 10-27 kg


c f mass of neutron mn 1.68 X 10-27 kg

mass of electron me 9.11 X 10-31 kg

charge on an electron e 1.602 X 10-19 C


How to Use the Formulas for Stage 6 Physics
Preliminary Course
Formula Name Comments Typical Problem Typical Answer
v f Wave v= velocity (m/s) Calculate the wavelength v 3
v f 0.5m
Equation f = frequency (hz) of a water wave travelling f 6
8.2.1 = wavelength (m) at 3 m/s whose frequency
is 6 Hz.
1 Intensity Law I = intensity (no units) A globe is viewed from 2
I 1 d 3d , 1 1 thus it appears 9 times less
I 8.2.3 d = distance (m) metres at a certain
d 2
brightness. How bright
d
2
d2 9
does it appear 6 metres bright.
away?

v 1

sin i
( 1 n 2 )
Snells Law
8.2.4
v1 = speed in first medium
v2 = speed in second medium
A light ray travelling at 3
X 108 m/s in air enters a v sin i sin r v sin i
1 2

v 2
sin r sin i = angle in first medium
sin r = angle in second medium
pool of water at 45 to the
normal. If it slows down v sin r
2
v 1
Angles are always to 2.4 X 108 m/s, what is 2.4 10 8 sin 45
38
measured to the normal its angle in the water? 3 10 8

E
F Electric Field E = Electric field (N/C, V/m) What is the force exerted F
E F qE 2 10 6 X 5 10 3 0.01N
q 8.3.2 F = Force (N) on a 2 X 10-6 C charge q
q = charge (C) moving in an electric field
of size 5 X 103 V/m?
V Ohms Law R = resistance () What is the current V V 18
R R I 3A
I 8.3.2 V = voltage (V) through a 6 resistor I R 6
I = current (A) when a voltage of 18 V is
applied across it?
Energy=VIt Electrical Energy (J) How much energy is Energy=VIt=240X2X3X60(sec)
Energy V = voltage (V) delivered to an electric =86400=86.4kJ
8.3.4 I = current (A) kettle if a current of 2A is
T = time (s) used for 3 minutes
plugged into the mains
(240V)?
P=VI Electrical P = power (W) What current is required P 2400
P VI I 10 A
Power V = voltage (V) by a 2400W electric heater V 240
8.3.4 I = current (A) plugged into the mains
(240V)?
Formula Name Comments Typical Problem Typical Answer
r Average vav = average velocity (m/s) How much distance is r
v av v av r v av t 16 4 60 384m
t Velocity r = distance covered (m) covered by a car travelling t
8.4.1 t = time (s) for 4 mins at an average

speed of 16 m/s?

V Average aav = average acceleration (ms-2) A train accelerates from 12 V 18 12
a av a av 0.5ms 2
t Acceleration v = change in velocity (m/s) m/s to 18 m/s in 12 s. t 12
8.4.2 What is the value of this
t = change in time (s)
acceleration?

F ma Newtons
Second Law
F = sum of all forces (N)
m = mass (kg)
8.4.2
a = acceleration (ms-2)
1 2 Kinetic Ek = kinetic energy (J) A ball possesses 10 J of 1 2E 2 10
Ek mv E k mv 2 m 2 k 2 5kg
2 Energy m= mass (kg) energy. What is its mass if 2 v 2
r r 8.4.3 v = speed (m/s) it is moving at 2 m/s?
p mv
Momentum P = momentum (Ns, kgm/s) What is the momentum of p mv 1400 6 8400 kgms 1
8.4.4 m = mass (kg) 1400 kg car moving at 6
r
v = velocity (m/s) m/s?
Impulse F t Impulse Impulse = change in momentum A ball of mass 0.5 kg Impulse p f p i m(v f v i ) 0.5( 2 (2))
8.4.4 (Ns, kgm/s) travelling at 3 m/s hits Impulse 2
wall and bounces back at Impulse Ft F 20 N
t 0.1
the same speed. If it is in
contact with the wall for
0.1 s, what is the force
exerted by the wall?
m1m2 Universal F = force (N) What is the gravitational m1 m 2 6.67 10 11 X 2 X 6 X 10 24
FG 2 Gravitation G = universal gravitation force between the Earth F G 19.6 N
d d2 (5.8 10 6 m) 2
8.5.4 constant (6.67 X 10-11 Nm2 kg-2) (m=6X1024 kg) and 2 kg
m1 = mass of body 1 (kg) ball given that the radius
m2 = mass of body 2 (kg) of the Earth is 5.8X106 m
d = separation between the two
bodies (m)
r3
GM Keplers Third r = radius of motion (m) What is the period of a r3 GM 4 2 r 3 4 2 X 5 X 10 8
Law T = period of motion (s) 1012 kg comet that orbits at T 17203s
T 2
4 2
T 2
4 2 GM 6.67 X 10 11 X 10 12
8.5.4 G = universal gravitation 5 X 108 m?
constant (6.67 X 10-11 Nm2 kg-2)
M = mass of system (kg)
How to Use the Formulas for Stage 6 Physics
HSC Course (Core)
Formula Name Comments Typical Problem Typical Answer
mm Gravitational Ep = Potential energy What is the m1 m 2 6.67 X 10 11 X 100 X 100
Ep =- G 1 2 Ep G 3.3 X 10 12 J
r Potential Energy G = universal gravitation constant gravitational potential r 2000
9.2.1 (6.67 X 10-11 Nm2 kg-2) energy between two
m1 = mass of body 1 (kg) 100 kg masses
m2 = mass of body 2 (kg) through a distance of
r = separation between the two 2000 m?
r
bodies from infinity to r (m)
r
F mg Gravitational F = force (N) What is the weight of F mg 100 X 9.81 98.1N
Force M = mass (kg) a 100 kg person?
9.2.1 g = gravitational constant at the
surface of the Earth 9.81 ms-2
2 2
v x ux Newtons Laws ux = initial speed in x direction (m/s) What is the maximum Let up be positive.
v u 2ayy
2 2 of Motion vx = final speed in x direction (m/s) height of a projectile At max. height, vy=0, thus
y y
9.2.2 uy = initial speed in y direction (m/s) launched at 45 to the 0 u v2 2a g yy u 2 sin 2 45 2 X 9.81yy
x u xt vy = final speed in y direction (m/s) horizontal at 50 m/s? u 2 sin 2 45 50 2 X sin 2 45
1 a = constant acceleration (ms-2) y
y uy t ay t 2 2 X 9.81 19.6
2 x, y = change in displacement (m)
t = time (s)
r GM
3
Keplers third r = radius of motion (m) What is the period of r3 GM 4 2 r 3 4 2 X 5 X 10 8
law T = period of motion (s) a 1012 kg comet that T 17203s
T 4
2 2
T 2
4 2 GM 6.67 X 10 11 X 1012
9.2.2 G = universal gravitation constant orbits at 5 X 108 m?
(6.67 X 10-11 Nm2 kg-2)
M = mass of system (kg)
v 2
Relativistic Lv = apparent length (m) What is the apparent v2 (0.9c ) 2
L L 1 Length Lo = rest length (m) length of a spaceship L v L0 1 150 1 65.4m
c c2 c2
v 0 2

Contraction v = relative velocity (m/s) of rest length 150m


9.2.4 c = speed of light (3 X 108 m/s) travelling at 0.9c?
t Relativistic time tv = apparent time (s) How much slower t0 1 1
t 0

dilation to = rest time (s) does an astronaut tv 2.29


v
v 2
v2 (0.9c) 2 0.19 times slower
1 9.2.4 v = relative velocity (m/s) travelling at 0.9c 1 2 1
c 2

c = speed of light (3 X 108 m/s) appear to an observer c c2


at rest
Formula Name Comments Typical Problem Typical Answer
F =BIl Magnetic force F = force (N) Calculate the force on F BI 0.1X 4 X 2 0.8 N
on a current- B= Magnetic Field (T) 2m of wire carrying a
carrying wire of I = current (A) current of 4A in a
length l in a l = length (m) magnetic field of
magnetic field 0.1T.
9.3.1
F II Force per unit F = force (N) What is the force per F I I 10 X 10
k 1 2 length l = length (m) per unit unit length on two k 1 2 2 X 10 7 X 6.67 X 10 6 N / m
l d l d 3
9.3.1 I1, I2 = two currents wires, both carrying
parallel=repulsive, 10A, separated by a
antiparallel=attractive distance of 3m?
d = separation of the two currents
(m)
k=magnetic constant (2 X 10-7 NC-
1 -1
r m )

Fd torque =torque (Nm) What is the torque on Fd 80 X 0.6 48 Nm
9.3.1 F =force (N) a nut when a 0.6 m
d=distance (m) spanner has a force of
80 N applied on it?
nBIAcos torque on a coil =torque (Nm) What is the torque on nBIAcos 200 X 0.2 X 3 X 0.20 24 Nm
immersed in a n =number of turns of coil a 0.20 m2 coil of 200
magnetic field B=magnetic field (T) turns immersed in a
9.3.1 I = current (A) magnetic field of 0.2
A = area of coil immersed in T carrying a current
magnetic field (m2) of 3 A?
cos =angle between the coil and
the magnetic field
v n Transformer Vp = primary voltage (V) A transformer is vp np n p vs 960 X 12
p
p

equation Vs = secondary voltage (V) required to step down n ss 48 turns.


v s
n s
vs ns vp 240
9.3.4 Np = number of turns in the primary mains voltage (240V)
coil to 12 V. If the
Ns = number of turns in the primary coil has 960
secondary coil turns, how many turns
are required in the
secondary coil?
Formula Name Comments Typical Problem Typical Answer
F qvB sin Magnetic force F = force (N) What is the force on F qvB sin 1.6 X 10 19 X 10 5 X 3 X sin 30 2.4 X 10 14 N
on a charge in a q = charge (C) an electron travelling
magnetic field v = velocity (m/s) at 105 m/s in a
9.4.1 B = magnetic field (T) magnetic field of 3 T
Sin = angle between the velocity at an angle of 30 to
and the magnetic field the field?
V Electric Field E = Electric Field (N/C, V/m) What is the electric V 240
E E 1.33 X 10 5 V / m
d 9.4.1 V = Voltage (V) field between the d 18 X 10 3
d = distance (m) prongs of a mains
outlet (240V) if its
separation is 18 mm?
E hf Energy of a E = Energy (J) What is the energy of E hf 6.67 X 10 34 X 5.1X 10 15 3.2 X 10 18 J
Photon h = Plancks constant 6.626 X 10-34 a photon of yellow
9.4.2 Js light (f=5.1X1015
f = frequency (Hz) Hz) ?
c f Wave Equation c = speed of light 3 X 108 m/s What is the frequency v 3 X 10 8
9.4.2 f = frequency (Hz) of yellow light given c f f 5.1X 10 15 Hz
590 X 10 9
= wavelength (m) that its wavelength is
590 nm?
HSC Course (Options)
Formula Name Comments Typical Problem Typical Answer
Z = Acoustic Z = Acoustic impedance (kgm2s-1 What is the acoustic Z = 0.003 X 650 1.95kgm 2 s 1
Impedance =Rayls) impedance of vaseline given
9.6.1 = acoustic density (kgm) that its acoustic density is
= speed of sound in medium 0.003 kgm and the speed of
(m/s) sound in vaseline is 650 m/s?
I r Z 2 Z1 Reflection Ii=initial intensity What is the reflection intensity I r Z 2 Z1
2 2
(1.95 0.5) 2
( R) Intensity Io= output intensity at the interface of air (acoustic 0.35
I o Z 2 Z1 2 9.6.1 Z2 = acoustic impedance impedance = 0.5 kgm2s-1) and I o Z 2 Z 1 2 (1.95 0.5) 2
(medium 1) vaseline (Z=1.95 kgm2s-1)?
Z1 = acoustic impedance (medium
2)
d Astronomical M = absolute magnitude How far away is a star that d 1
mM
M m 5 log( ) M m 5 log( ) d 10 5.02
10 Distance m = relative magnitude appears m=4.5 on Earth while 10
9.7.4 d = distance in parsecs its absolute magnitude is 3.4? 4 .5 ( 3 .4 )
1
5 100 5.02
5
d 10 5.02
143 par sec s
IA Ratio of intensity IA,B = intensity of objects A and B How much dimmer is Sirius A IA
100(M B M A ) / 5 9.7.4 MA,B = absolute magnitude of A & (M=-4.3) compared to Echelon 100(M B M A ) / 5
IB B (M=-2.1)? IB
5 5 100 5.02
4 r
2 3
Keplers Third r = radius of motion (m) Sirius A and B orbit each other T = 61 X 365.25 X 24 X 60 X 60
m1 m2 Law T = period of motion (s) every 61 years. What is the = 1925013600 s
GT
9.7.5 G = universal gravitation constant radius of this orbit if Sirius A 4 2 r 3 GT (m1 m 2
(6.67 X 10-11 Nm2 kg-2) has a mass of 1027 kg and m1 m 2 r 3
GT 4 2
M1+M2 = total mass of system Sirius B is 1029 kg?
(kg) 6.67 X 10 11 X 1925013600(10 27 10 29 )
r3
4 2
r = 6.9 X 109 m
1 1 1 Rybergs = wavelength (m) What wavelength of light is 1 1 1 1 1
R 2 2 equation ni,f = quantum states (shells) produced in hydrogen by a R 2 1.1X 107 X ( 2 2 )
n f ni 2 4 1
9.8.1 R = Rybergs constant 1.10 X 107 transition between the first and nf ni

m-1 fourth orbitals (shells)? 1


9.7 X 10 8 m
1 1
1.1X 10 7 ( 2 2 )
4 1
h Wavelength of a = wavelength (m) What is the wavelength h 6.626 X 10 34
1.2 X 10 37 m
mv particle h = Plancks constant 6.626 X 10- associated with an elephant mv 1400 X 4
Formula Name Comments Typical Problem Typical Answer
34
9.8.2 Js (m=1400 kg) moving at 4 m/s?
m = mass of particle (kg)
v = speed of particle (m/s)
Vout Amplifier Gain Vout = output voltage (V) A BC547 transistor has a gain Vo
h FE V o Vi h FE 120 X 60 X 10 3 0.72V
Vin 9.9.6 Vin = input voltage (V) of 120. What is the output Vi
voltage if the input voltage is
60 mV?
V0 Open Gain Loop Ao = Amplifier gain A 741 op-amp has an output V0 12
A0 A0 10.9
V+ V- 9.9.6 Vo = output voltage (V) voltage of 12 V when its V+ is V+ V- (2.3 1.2)
V+ = positive input voltage (V) 2.3 V and its V- is 1.2 V. What
V- = negative input voltage (V) is its gain in this
configuration?