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Bollettino ufficiale dell'Associazione Studiosi Scienze Eterodosse (ASSE) sulla free energy, sui nuovi sistemi propulsivi

e sui protagonisti di ricerche e visioni del mondo alternative. Distribuito ai soli soci.

Anno V

n.22
gen.-feb. 2004

Pendolo di Zamboni detto anche moto perpetuo


esemplare stile impero ancora perfettamente funzionante
2

Valerio Rizzi Giorgio Giurini


4 Studio sui generatori omopolari
Pier Luigi Ighina
11 I monopoli magnetici
Transworld Energy
18 Resonance Energy Concept
Progettomeg
22 Fusione Fredda
Rex research
29 Friction Heaters
Yahoo watercar mailing list
65 Brevetto cinese per l'elettrolisi dell'acqua
Alden P. Armagnac
73 Magic with Magnetism
Genesis world energy
79 Igas Technology
Mike Johnston
81 A Simple Device For the Production of Free Energy
Mike Johnston
84 Using a Fuel Cell to Produce Hydrogen
Mike Johnston
88 UFO power
Rexresearch
89 Electromagnetic Ship Propulsion
103 Brevetto tedesco sull'antigravit
Giampiero Quadrelli
113 Un libro su Radiestesia, salute e ambiente
Francesco Piantelli
119 Ho scoperto l'energia inesauribile
Cosimo Sgarlata
123 Brevetti
Gabriele Salari
183 Giuliano Preparata
Piero Faraone
186 Giorgio Piccardi
Daniele Frattura
188 Marcello Creti
D.H.Childress
194 La Grande Piramide e il Potente Cristallo
3

Evgeny Arsentyev
215 Shauberger

La Redazione provvisoria della rivista presso il seguente indirizzo:


Franco Malgarini
via di Boccea 302
00167 Roma
Email: malgariniaz@iol.it
Sito Web: http://utenti.lycos.it/altraenergia/
Mailing list:http://groups.yahoo.com/group/altraenergia
Tale indirizzo anche sede dell'A.S.S.E.

La redazione non vuole impedire la distribuzione della rivista al di fuori


dell'associazione. Tuttavia, ci pu essere un potenziale danno per
l'associazione stessa, a meno che non sia necessario davvero. Per il resto,
preghiamo di usare il buon senso e di passarla solo a chi vi fidate.

La Redazione

Franco Malgarini e Eugenio Odorifero


4

STUDIO SUI GENERATORI OMOPOLARI BASATI SUL SISTEMA DEL DISCO DI FARADAY
Di Valerio Rizzi e Giorgio Giurini

Figura 1: foto della macchina correntemente utilizzata per le sperimentazioni

Figura 2: la stessa (fronte)

Gli scriventi, interessati allo studio dei generatori omopolari basati sul sistema del disco di Faraday, hanno
deciso di costruire dei prototipi per verificare sperimentalmente i dati presentati da alcuni autori.
5

Figura 3: uno dei primi prototipi da noi realizzati sulla base della macchina di de Palma, costituita da due ruote
omopolari in serie

Il sistema da considerare al riguardo pu essere rappresentato come segue:

Faraday scrive nel suo diario, descrivendo questa parte dei suoi esperimenti:
255. A copper disc was cemented on the top of a cylinder magnet, paper intervening, the top being the
marked pole; the magnet supported so as to rotate by means of string, and the wires of the galvanometer
connected with the edge and the axis of the copper plate. When the magnet and disc together rotated
unscrew the marked end of the needle went west. When the magnet and disc rotated screw the marked end
of the needle went east.
256. This direction is the same as that which would have resulted if the copper had moved and the magnet
been still. Hence moving the magnet causes no difference provided the copper moves. A rotating and a
stationary magnet cause the same effect.
257. The disc was then loosed from the magnet and held still whilst the magnet itself was revolved; but
now no effect upon the galvanometer. Hence it appears that, of the metal circuit in which the current is to
be formed, different parts must move with different angular velocities. If with the same, no current is
produced, i.e. when both parts are external to the magnet.

Di questi generatori esistono alcuni modelli sperimentali proposti da vari autori. Avendo preso visione delle
documentazioni disponibili, ne risultato che i modelli, con relativi prototipi e documentazioni, di De Palma, di
6

Tewari e di Trombly-Kahn, sono in pratica i pi degni di attenzione. Lintenzione di verificare


sperimentalmente le formulazioni teoriche o di svilupparne delle alternative basandosi direttamente sulle
presentazioni dei suddetti autori. In particolare verificare il significato e le implicazioni di due cose:
1) la prima che come risultava fin dallorigine sembra che il comportamento di questo tipo di generatore
contrasti con la comune legge fisica per la quale si produce corrente per induzione nel caso di taglio dinamico
delle linee di campo magnetico. Un taglio geometrico chiaramente presente, ma intuitivamente il campo si
suppone ruotare in modo solidale col disco conduttore coassiale rispetto al magnete, perci un taglio effettivo
in senso dinamico non dovrebbe esserci (cio non dovrebbe esserci variazione di flusso rispetto al tempo,
d/dt, dalla quale si deduce normalmente lentit della f.e.m.).
2) La seconda riguarda lidea sostenuta dai suddetti autori e da altri riguardo al fatto che lenergia prodotta dal
dispositivo sarebbe maggiore dellenergia fornita allo stesso. Qualunque cosa possa significare in senso fisico un
evento cos formulato, in termini generali, per non violare il principio di conservazione dellenergia, si potrebbe
supporre che il sistema vada considerato aperto (anzich chiuso), e quindi che nellinterazione delle entit fisiche
in gioco vi possano essere una o pi componenti non determinate che concorrono allenergia in uscita. Perci
leffetto che si presenta apparentemente nel modo proposto dagli autori menzionati pu essere accettabile,
bench non necessariamente nel modo da essi interpretato. Vale a dire che in un dispositivo del tipo preso in
esame vi potrebbe essere uninterazione coinvolgente non semplicemente lenergia del campo magnetico locale e
lenergia di rotazione comunicata dal motore, ma un fattore relativamente esterno ai parametri del sistema
considerato, che verrebbe ad essere localmente eccitato con conseguente apparente amplificazione dellenergia
in ingresso del sistema. Dire che il sistema sia da considerare aperto pu essere tautologico, poich ogni sistema
pu essere visto come in realt aperto (sul fatto che lo sia o meno un sistema-universo una questione di
ordine non fisico), e il fatto di considerarlo chiuso una semplificazione pratica efficace, dovuta alla differenza
significativa tra effetti dovuti al substrato ambientale rispetto a quelli dovuti ai suoi componenti, oppure vi
apertura o chiusura per il fatto che qualitativamente sono presenti dei tipi di entit fisiche differenti non
direttamente permutabili. Si intender chiuso, in pratica, un sistema in cui sono determinabili tutti gli elementi
che contribuiscono al sistema stesso. Perci lapertura del sistema se fisicamente c deve necessariamente
essere dovuta alla presenza attiva di uno o pi fattori non determinati, o dal comportamento non previsto di
fattori noti.

La nostra analisi
I risultati sperimentali indicano quanto segue:
a) la tensione aumenta linearmente allaumentare della velocit angolare
b) la tensione direttamente proporzionale al quadrato del raggio del disco
c) il verso della f.e.m. dipende dal verso della rotazione
d) il verso della f.e.m. dipende dal verso del campo magnetico
Da questi dati si deduce in primo luogo che la f.e.m. prodotta non dipende dalla forza centrifuga, la quale
dovrebbe, in virt dello spostamento di masse elettricamente cariche, generare una polarit della f.e.m.
indipendente dal senso di rotazione.
Risulta invece pi convenientemente applicabile la seguente congettura:
- allinterno del disco esistono elettroni di conduzione, liberi di spostarsi, che sono interessati dalla forza di
Lorentz secondo la seguente relazione:
1) F = .B.Q
Inoltre su una carica (elettrone) agisce una forza dovuta al campo elettrico:
2) F = E.Q
Risolvendo il sistema rispetto alla forza F, si pu scrivere:
3) E.Q = .B.Q
7

cio
4) E = .B.Q / Q
quindi
5) E = .B
Integrando questa formula
R2
6) V = .B.
R1
abbiamo:
7) V = .B.(r2-r1) / 2
dove V = f.e.m. in Volt con B in Tesla.
Il modello sopra esposto, pur lasciando una grossa incognita (apparentemente non c alcuna velocit relativa tra
il campo magnetico e la carica) che affronteremo poi, ben si adatta al caso perch i dati misurati su due prototipi
da noi costruiti sono perfettamente in accordo con il calcolo.
In particolare la F.E.M. (in assenza di carico) misurata con parametri di velocit e induzione noti risulta essere
uguale a quella calcolata.
In presenza di carico la tensione ovviamente si abbassa, ma ci sembra sia dovuto quasi esclusivamente alla
resistenza dei contatti striscianti i quali, se costruiti con opportuna tecnologia, possono permettere lerogazione
delle correnti promesse dai menzionati autori, che possono arrivare allordine dei 10.000 A.
Il generatore che attualmente in fase di studio (richiede modifiche ai contatti striscianti che saranno sostituiti da
un contatto liquido) fornisce le seguenti prestazioni:
8

Momento dinerzia della massa rotante in fase di determinazione


Diametro del nucleo centrale 70 mm
Velocit di rotazione 5000 R.P.M.
Induzione nel nucleo centrale 1,8 2 Tesla
F.E.M a vuoto 500 mV.
Tensione a carico con una corrente di 120 A 430 mV
Potenza erogata 50 W
Potenza assorbita dal motore circa 350 W
variazione di potenza assorbita dal motore per circa 32 W
correnti parassite
variazione di potenza assorbita dal motore in presenza nessuna apprezzabile variazione
o in assenza di corrente erogata (a velocit costante)

Questultimo parametro stato tenuto sotto controllo per diversi minuti allo scopo di capire se lenergia erogata
sia in qualche modo legata allenergia iniziale di lancio. Sempre a questo scopo intendiamo calcolare il momento
dinerzia allo scopo di poter paragonare le energie in gioco.
Note
1) Durante una prova, prima della distruzione dei contatti striscianti siamo riusciti ad ottenere una corrente di
750 A.
2) Non si conosce il rendimento del motore ed quindi attualmente impossibile misurare la potenza assorbita per
la messa in rotazione del generatore IN ASSENZA DI CARICO. Tale potenza che a regime teoricamente 0
invece di notevole entit ed costituita del lavoro speso nel centrifugare laria che circonda la massa rotante ed
al momento resistente dovuto alle spazzole.
3) Sono state eseguite diverse prove allo scopo di determinare i fattori di perdita. Essi risultano essere
sostanzialmente tre: due in ingresso, cio attriti e correnti parassite, e uno in uscita, le perdite ohmiche.
4) Alcuni costruttori di generatori omopolari hanno sottratto dal valore dellenergia di ingresso quello
dellenergia spesa in attriti, e quindi calcolato il rapporto tra lenergia duscita e quella di ingresso. In questo
modo hanno ottenuto rapporti superiori allunit. Tuttavia, per onest intellettuale, si deve ricordare che quanto
da essi fatto pu considerarsi corretto solo a condizione di dimostrare che lenergia dissipata (attrito, calore) non
rientra in circolo in qualche maniera alterando le impostazioni di calcolo (esistono delle analogie in altri casi).
Per fare questo bisogna quantificare esattamente le componenti di perdita, cosa che nel nostro caso non ancora
possibile.
Attualmente il lavoro di modifica imperniato sui seguenti parametri:
a) aumento di un fattore 1,4 sul diametro del nucleo (la F.E.M. Raddoppier)
b) implementazione del contatto liquido
c) studio di un rotore a wafer senza contatti intermedi atto a fornire tensioni pi elevate.
I sopraelencati lavori di modifica, tesi ad un grosso incremento della potenza erogata aumentando la tensione
duscita e diminuendo la resistenza interna della macchina, sono necessari allo scopo di eseguire dei bilanci
energetici che abbiano matematicamente senso. Infatti dai dati sopra riportati si evidenzia che lenergia fornita
MAGGIORE dellenergia erogata, ma nel contempo lapplicazione del carico, il quale assorbe 50W, NON
RICHIEDE il corrispettivo aumento di potenza assorbita dal motore (a velocit costante). Non possibile
attribuire lenergia di uscita al momento dinerzia (energia immagazzinata per portare da v0 a v1 la massa
rotante), in quanto se cos fosse si dovrebbe osservare una diminuzione della velocit della massa rotante.
9

Questo il circuito equivalente della macchina:

La resistenza di carico costituita da 3 resistori: due di essi rappresentano le resistenze dei cavi, laltra la
resistenza dello shunt di misura.
I resistori sono cos denominati:
R1 = resistenza di un cavo = r cavo
R2 = resistenza di un cavo = r cavo
RS = resistenza dello shunt = 1 mOhm = r shunt
RX = R1+ R2
RX + RS = resistenza totale di carico
R int = resistenza interna del generatore.
Su RS a 110 A sono presenti 0,110 V, quindi:
RX = (0,43 V-0,110 V) / 110 A = 2,9 mOhm
La resistenza totale di carico quindi:
2,9 + 1 = 3,9 mOhm
Spiegare il fenomeno dellinduzione con la formula d/dt senza alcun dubbio insufficiente, in quanto la
menzionata legge in grado di quantificare il fenomeno ma non in grado di spiegarne lorigine. Inoltre la
formula va presa in senso generale attribuendo alle variazioni di flusso qualunque origine.
Luso della forza di Lorentz come quantificazione e spiegazione, seppure parziale, del fenomeno in oggetto (
applicabile solo a cariche o conduttori in movimento), sembra pi appropriato, dal momento che si pu assumere
come movimento degli elettroni di conduzione il moto stesso del conduttore, cio del disco. Ci che invece non
siamo in grado di spiegare su tale base la coerenza della legge formale coi risultati sperimentali, in quanto
campo magnetico e carica sembrano possedere la stessa velocit, dando adito a una velocit relativa uguale a
zero. Ne conseguirebbe quindi lannullamento della forza agente sulla carica.
Esistono diversi altri tentativi di spiegazione, il pi usato dei quali fa riferimento al fatto che i contatti tra rotore
e statore sono fermi: saremmo dunque in presenza di un moto relativo. Assumendo come valido questo moto
relativo, e intendendo il campo come linee di forza, si pu pensare di applicare d/dt, ottenendo
probabilmente risultati compatibili con quanto risulta sperimentalmente. Da notare che il moto relativo esiste tra
un conduttore virtuale, determinato dai due contatti, e il campo magnetico. Virtuale perch i contatti
striscianti sono fissi, ma il disco organo su cui passa la corrente in moto, e tale conduttore si definisce
istantaneamente tra il centro del disco e il punto della sua circonferenza dove in quellistante avviene il contatto.
La soluzione di questi dubbi (se il campo stia fermo o sia in moto e quanto a ci connesso) fondamentale,
poich come visto precedentemente lerogazione di energia non richiede un corrispettivo aumento di energia
10

fornita, ed fondamentale conoscere a quale sistema di riferimento vada applicata la legge di Lenz.
A questo proposito voglio ricordare i dubbi che da 150 anni assillano lelettromagnetismo:
1) dato che il campo magnetico agisce senza applicare direttamente una forza significa che si ha una azione a
distanza oppure, in alternativa, che il campo agisce attraverso un mezzo.
Dalla conferma della seconda ipotesi risulta la negazione della prima, ed basata sul fatto che sperimentalmente
si pu verificare come la velocit di propagazione delle onde elettromagnetiche sia finita. Quindi ci che si
trovava in un punto dello spazio in un dato istante, in un istante successivo si trova in un altro punto dello
spazio.
Se la propagazione avviene nel VUOTO significa che il VUOTO, cio il NULLA, possiede propriet di
propagazione, e questo un assurdo FISICO, non solo in senso lessicale e logico.
Riteniamo quindi che alcuni fenomeni elettromagnetici richiedano di essere riesaminati, nonch il concetto di
ETERE, ovviamente rivisto in modo nuovo.
Gli autori continueranno lo studio, tenendo informati gli interessati. Tutti coloro che desiderano seriamente e
costruttivamente scambiare opinioni o dati possono contattarci al seguente indirizzo email:
valeriorizzi@jumpy.it
11

CENTRO INTERNAZIONALE STUDI MAGNETICI


VIALE ROMEO GALLI,4 TEL. (0542)23722
40026 I M O L A ITALIA

APPARECCHIO PRODUTTORE DEI MONOPOLI MAGNETICI POSITIVI E NEGATIVI


DI GUGLIELMO MARCONI

DENOMINATO PULSATORE MAGNETICO ROTANTE DI INTENSIT MASSIMA VOLTAICA

EMETTE ENERGIA PURA DEL SOLE O QUELLA DELLA TERRA CAPTATA DALLA
ELETTROCALAMITA. LE DUE ENERGIE SONO LA COMPOSIZIONE DI TUTTE LE
MATERIE TERRESTRI.

Fotocopia originaria del disegno eseguito da G.MARCONI nel 1936


12

[dal retro del foglio, NdAS]


LEGENDA
A) Ferro quadrato a forma di U, lunghezza cm.100, spessore cm. 4.
B) B') Bobine di filo di rame isolato con resistenza ohmica per 12 volt 50 A.C.C.
C) Tubo di ferro, diametro cm. 4, lunghezza cm. 65.
D) Scatola isolante per le bobine
E) Muro di mattoni e gesso.
F) F') Asso di legno quercia americana
G) G') Cuscinetti a sfera
H) Motore elettrico c.a. giri 600 al minuto movimento destrorso.
I) I') Puleggia grande cm. 18 (diametro), piccola cm. 5 (diametro).
L) Accumulatore 12 volt 50 amp. Le batterie in serie totale 132 volt.
M)Anello di amianto. Larghezza cm.10.
N) Filo di rame nudo mm. 5 collegato con terminale bobina affrancato sull'amianto.
O) Collegamento flessibile di rame mm. 5 nudo a forma di molla portatore del negativo della batteria
tramite il collegamento di rame coperto R.
P) Collegamento file di rame comperto tra il + della batteria e il cuscinetto.
Q) Elastico in gomma per dare la flessibilit al collegamento O.
R) Collegamento tra il flessibile e il negativo della batteria.

L'Elettrocalamita deve essere chiusa come in una scatola.


Per aver la produzione dei monopoli magnetici positivi o negativi basta invertire i collegamenti del positivo
e negativo della batteria.
La forte tensione di 132 volt dato dalle due bobine (che sopportano solo 24 volt) produrr la fuoriuscita dell'energia solare
o terrestre in una delle due bobine separando automaticamente le due polarit dell'elet-
trocalamita.

S) FILO DI RAME COPERTO COLLEGATO CON TUTTA LA RETE INTERNA DI FERRO


DELLA ELETTROCALAMIT PORTATORE ALL'ESTERNO DELL'ENERGIA DEI DUE MO-
NOPOLI MAGNETICI.

P.S.: Nel 1936 Guglielmo Marconi disse al suo collaboratore Pier Luigi Ighina (ora direttore del sopra nominato
centro): tu farai conoscere il mio disegno dopo passati 50 anni, i giornali che pubblicheranno il mio disegno
avranno un grande futuro nell'avvenire.
CENTRO INTERNAZIONALE
STUDI MAGNETICI
VIALE ROMEO GALLI,4 TEL. (0542)23722
40026 I M O L A ITALIA
AVVISO
Un gruppo di scienziati italiani nostri collaboratori si recato a Cicala (paese in
provincia di Catanzaro) dal 25 agosto a 21 settembre 1986. Sulle alture della
Sila hanno eseguito esperimenti per trovare l'antidoto contro l'energia nucleare.
Gli esperimenti dettero esiti cos perfetti da non aver pi preoccupazioni per le
centrali nucleari.
P.S. Per eseguire i sopraddetti esperimenti hanno adoperato i monopoli magnetici
di Guglielmo Marconi.
Il direttore
Pier Luigi Ighina

Pubblicato dal Nuovo Diario di Imola il 4 ottobre 1986


13

LE DUE GRANDI STRADE SCIENTIFICHE

L'ANTIDOTO PER L'ENERGIA NUCLEARE

L'invenzione della radio ci aiuter a capire come neutralizzare la radioattivit generata dalle centrali atomiche e
dalle esplosioni nucleari?
La risposta anche se pu sembrare incredibile, si.
Ma vediamo come e perch l'invenzione del primo premio Nobel italiano ci pu essere d'aiuto.
Per costruire la radio Guglielmo Marconi adoper un'antenna aerea (isolata dal terreno) ed un'antenna internata,
in modo tale da ottenere due differenti potenze, a cui dette il nome di energie.
Il nostro scienziato cap che le due energie sono, in verit, una sola: l'energia del Sole che, dopo esser scesa sul
nostro pianeta ed averlo saturato, torna al suo punto di origine.
La discesa e la risalita di questa energia venne denominata da Marconi ritmo Sole-Terra.
Questa scoperta rese possibile la costruzione del primo apparecchio radio rice-trasmittente, oltre a segnalare
l'avvio di molte altre conoscenze scientifiche.
Infatti, il nostro premio Nobel arriv a dedurre che dal ritmo Sole-Terra dipende la costituzione ed il buon
funzionamento di tutte le cellule viventi sul globo terrestre.
Marconi, ad esempio, si rese conto che bloccando una piccola quantit di questo ritmo si ha la solidificazione
delle due energie, creando cos una cellula, cio materia.
Inoltre, Marconi stabil che il ritmo Sole-Terra ha un movimento rotatorio in senso orario, quando l'energia
scende verso la Terra, ed in senso anti-orario, quando l'energia torna in direzione del Sole.
Questo fenomeno venne spiegato da Marconi con il fatto che l'energia del Sole si riflette nella Terra e fa
dietro-front: in questo modo, anche il movimento impresso all'energia subisce la riflessione e quindi si inverte.
Ma, la scoperta di maggior rilievo (quella, per intenderci, che ci dar la possibilit di neutralizzare la
radioattivit) fatta da Guglielmo Marconi riguarda i poli magnetici della Terra.
Egli arriv a capire che la causa del Polo Sub e del Polo Nord l'ammassamento di energia solare, da un polo, e
di energia terrestre, dall'altro.
Quest'ultima conoscenza lo indusse a pensare che, probabilmente, anche la magnetite possedeva caratteristiche
analoghe.
14

E difatti, dopo una profonda analisi di questo minerale, si rese conto che la magnetite ha un ammassamento
separato delle due energie.
In conseguenza di questa determinazione, cominci ad interessarsi alla fenomenologia che caratterizza
l'elettrocalamita.
Dopo anni di studi Marconi giunse a concludere che la corrente continua che attraversa l'avvolgimento (su di una
sbarra di ferro) di una elettrocalamita produce (sulla sbarra) lo stesso fenomeno riscontrabile nella magnetite e
nei due Poli terrestri: vale a dire, l'ammassamento di energia solare da una parte e di quella terrestre dall'altra.
Guglielmo Marconi mor nel 1937, ma prima di morire incaric un suo fedele collaboratore (Pier Luigi Ighina,
che ebbe occasione di lavorare con lui dal 1926 al 1937) di proseguire gli studi sull'elettrocalamita.
Ed proprio per questo motivo che costitu ad Imola (vera citt natale di Marconi), circa 50 anni fa, un Centro
di Studi Magnetici, tuttora in funzione, che ha realizzato il sogno di Marconi: produrre i famosi Monopoli
Magnetici da una elettrocalamita (che, in altri termini, sono il risultato della separazione di due polarit
magnetiche in una elettrocalamita).
Tra i risultati ottenuti nel laboratorio di Imola, per mezzo del Monopolo vi la neutralizzazione di scorie
radioattive, come si visto nel corso di ripetuti esperimenti.
Questi esiti, di un'importanza davvero rilevante, data l'attualit dell'argomento radiazioni, potranno essere
confermate, tra non molto, anche da altri laboratori, dove si sta ricostruendo l'apparecchio produttore di
Monopoli.

Il ritrmo dell'energia tra il sole e la terra la formazione e l'alimento vitale delle cellule del pianeta terra

Le due scoperte pi importanti di Guglielmo Marconi sono:


- il ritmo di energia solare e terrestre, permanentemente vivo;
- i monopoli magnetici positivi e negativi.
Con i monopoli magnetici si possono ottenere:
la neutralizzazione di qualsiasi arma bellica;
la neutralizzazione di tutte le energie nucleari;
la neutralizzazione della forza di gravit;
la neutralizzazione dei movimenti tellurici;
la formazione di cupole magnetiche spaziali;
la formazione di qualsiasi materia esistente sul nostro pianeta;
la rigenerazione delle cellule vive difettose dell'uomo;
la ricostruzione e la disintegrazione della materia;
l'allontanamento delle nuvole.
15

CENTRO INTERNAZIONALE STUDI MAGNETICI


VIALE ROMEO GALLI,4 TEL. (0542)23722
40026 I M O L A ITALIA

Pubblicazione effettuata
in occasione del
50 Anniversario della morte di
Guglielmo Marconi
1937 1987

Il ritmo sempre vivo che risana le cellule malate dell'uomo


16

FOTOGRAFIE ESEGUITE NEL NOSTRO LABORATORIO CHE CONFERMANO L'ESISTENZA,


LA COSTRUZIONE, ED IL FUNZIONAMENTO DELL'APPARECCHIO PRODUTTORE
DEI MONOPOLI MAGNETICI POSITIVI NEGATIVI.

A B Contenitore dell'elettrocalamita e del separatore dei poli magnetici (realizzato con


rivestimento in gesso).
C Tecnico che regola l'uscita dei monopoli dal filo rame stagnato proveniente dall'interno
dell'elettrocalamita in corrispondenza dell'ago di una bussola magnetica.
D Gettito di energia proveniente dell'elettrocalamita di sola polarit positiva si nota la
deviazione a destra dell'ago della bussola.
E Elettrocalamita non funzionante si nota l'ago della bussola nella direzione del conduttore
di rame stagnato.
F Gettito di energia di sola polarit negativa proveniente dall'elettrocalamita si nota la
deviazionea sinistra dell'ago della bussola.
G-HI L'Elettrocalamita esistente all'interno del contenitore illustrato nelle foto A B.

Dimostrazione visiva delle tre posizioni che indicano la separazione dei due campi magnetici di una elettrocalamita
17

Studi Magnetici
Apparecchio per neutralizzare i terremoti
Sono pi di 20 anni che questo apparecchio stato
installato nel terreno adiacente al nostro laboratorio e
continua a funzionare.
Dal giorno dell'installazione in Imola i movimenti
tellurici di qualsiasi tipo si sono tutti neutralizzati.
L'apparecchio stato costruito adoperando tutti i
segreti di Guglielmo Marconi.
Sono 50 anni di ricerche, studi, esperimenti eseguiti nel
nostro laboratorio. Se questi nostri studi venissero
presi in seria considerazione dalla scienza ufficiale si
potrebbero salvare molte vite umane.

Il Direttore del C.I.S.M.


Pier Luigi Ighina
18

Fonte: http://altenergy-pro.com

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TransWorld Energy

Resonance Energy Concept . . .


. . . takes advantage of a tiny portion of the vast ambient energy reservoirs present throughout our
universe. A human is as a speck of dust compared to the earth, likewise, our Solar System is as a speck of
dust in the Galaxy, and it, in turn, is a speck of dust in the Universe. One common denominator in all of
these bodies is their disturbance of ambient magnetic resonance. Where ever the ambient resonance is
disturbed there exists the potential to produce useful energy.

Present everywhere throughout the Universe, electromagnetic energy is accessed via catalytic activity -
either directly, as in the case of Solar Cells, or indirectly by mechanical means. Resonate Magnetic
Waves (Faraday's action at a distance) allows energy activation transfer to remote points of usage. Active
wave energy at point "A" translates into electrical energy at point "B." Capture and use of this energy
(which exists freely) is at the core of what power companies charge customers. Direct access (bypassing
the power company) is far more desirable and efficient, as in the case of Solar Cells. However, solar cell
technology requires vast numbers of active cells to produce enough energy to power a house for even a
few hours. Perhaps in they will become more efficient, but even then they will still depend on the sun.
The Resonance Energy Concept depends on nothing more than the earth's continued orbit and rotation,
and a single Resonance Energy Device (about the size of a shoe box) produces ample energy to power
itself, and even the largest of houses, almost indefinitely.

Please do not mistake this for a "perpetual motion" device. It is nothing of the sort. Pull the plug and the
power shuts off; necessary parts may wear out over time. The useful energy exists and may be harnessed
for as long as the ambient resonance is disturbed, which occurs easily and requires no physical motion on
the part of the device. A casual observer watching one of these devices will see only the end result, lights
come on, refrigerators run, etc. Without specialized instrumentation it is impossible to tell resonance flux
is occurring. However, we can see the results of a certain effect of magnetic resonance with every step we
take.

Gravity is a result of magnetic resonance flux. Incoming magnetic waves spin electrons sideways
producing useful electrical energy. Absorbed wave energy produces heat, thus earth has a hot interior.
Physical movement in electrical systems occurs in the direction of current flow, and frictional drag from
inflow current defines gravity. Accretion masses (energy sinks) provide all solid objects with their
respective gravitational fields.
There are four major sources providing enormous amounts of ambient background resonant wave
energy: Cosmic, Galactic, Solar, and the Earth's own ambient electromagnetic background. It is the
19

earth's electromagnetic background which concerns our purposes, a free, self-renewable and
environmentally benign power source.

The earth's electromagnetic ambience comes from reflection, deflection, and absorption as a result of
Faraday's action at a distance. Traditional physics holds the earth's background ambience to be of little
interest. Upon consideration of the evidence to follow we hope to change that interest level. Information
on the earth's magnetic flux field is available to the public from the US Geological Survey Office in
Colorado, USA. When examined and properly understood these maps yield important information
regarding reflection, deflection, and absorption of incoming magnetic waves and action at a distance.

When properly understood, these maps yield an ambient electromagnetic flux of 7.2 billion Volts at a
point of measure. This is the part of the earth's energy system that relates to the Bird on a High Voltage
Line. The motor system that spins/rotates the earth is provided when deflected magnetic flux from
electrons changes to electrical flux. The level of electrical energy required to rotate the earth is derived
thus: Earth's mass in Kg = 5.9 X 10 to the 24th power (according to "Physics for Scientists and
Engineers", 2nd edition, edited by Ramond A. Serway). Using this information we can calculate the
Watts of Electricity required. Absorbed flux energy heats objects from the inside out, thus the earth's hot
interior. Water is strongly diamagnetic - ocean waves present on windless days provide visible proof of
the overhead incoming magnetic flux. The earth's weight and rate of spin allow for the calculation of the
incoming ambient background energy required to rotate the planet.
Astrophysics is primarily concerned with light in the visible spectrum rather than wave phenomenon
associated with action at a distance. While solar energy can translate into electrical power, the spectrum
of visible light is only a tiny portion of total electromagnetic energy spectrum, and can therefore only
translate into a tiny amount of energy. The Solar System, however, is alive with energy from the entire
electromagnetic spectrum, and that energy is far greater than the light produced by our sun. Very high
frequencies allow radio telescopes to photoghaph the entire Galaxy. The following is a radio photograph
taken at 408 MHz, that is, all the energy visible in the photograph resonates at 408 MHz, far beyond the
spectrum of visible light. (Photo courtesy of Radio Sky, Haslam 408 Mhz; http://www.tuc.nrao.edu/)

The Milky Way Galaxy measures 150 light years, end to end. Red and Yellow indicate the actual galactic
boundaries, outer radiated energy is displayed in green. Not visible in this photograph, the earth exists
near the keft end of the central high energy area, surrounded by a soup of energy that extends in all
directions.
Accretion and formation of galaxies, suns and planets are the result of energy sinks. Mass retains heat
and is "cooked" from the inside out by the microwave background provided by the Universe. Flux
moving into energy sinks provides the frictional force known as gravity. Spinning mass in the presence of
incoming flux amplifies the gravitational effect.

Previously noted, solar energy represents only a very small portion of the magnetic wave energy present
in our solar system and on earth. Solar-type devices provide uncomplicated and inexpensive direct access
to that limited spectrum of energy. They also open the door to directly accessing other, greater energy
sources.
20

All electromagnetic energy harvesting methods include three things: a catalyst, a collector, and a pump.
Catalysts include sensitization through doping with certain elements, as well as air and earth grounding.
Collectors include temporary storage, as in capacitors, coils, and transformers. The pump system
includes induced movement onward to a point of use. Conventional rotating coils and magnet systems
activate the electrons present such that action at a distance can occur, serving therefore as an energy
activation pump. Indirect acquisition of electrical energy by mechanical means (as in a dynamo - a
combination collector and pump drawing energy from the earth's ambient energy background) is
wasteful in its low energy yield and costs to operate, troublesome to maintain, and dergades and polutes
the environment.

Direct access systems (such as solar cells) have the same effect without mechanical action. Magnetic
waves, impacting and deflecting, spin local electrons sideways producing useful electrical energy. And
while solar energy is inherantly limited in its energy yield, accessing the full electromagnetic spectrum
offers an incredible yield, far more output than input, from a virtually unending, fully renewable,
environmentally benign source. TransWorld Energy is bringing it to you.
Continue to the gallery . . .

altenergy-pro.com

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TransWorld Energy
Home

Electromagnetic
Spectrum Energy

Resonance Energy
Concept Device 1 Device 2 Device 3-1 Device 3-2 Device 4
Resonance Energy
Products Gallery

Contact

Device 5-1 Device 5-2 Device 6-1 Device 6-2 Device 7

Device 8-2 Device 9-1 Device 9-2

Device 8-1

Resonance Energy Device Gallery . . .


. . . click on a thumbnail to view the full-size photograph.
21

altenergy-pro.com

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TransWorld Energy
Home
Device 9-2 . . .
Electromagnetic
Spectrum Energy
. . . Prototype Energy System for Brazil and Saudi Arabian Markets: Note the coils in pairs, left and
Resonance Energy right. Each pair produces 1000 Volts at 50 Amps; 8 pairs = 8000 Volts at 400 Amps when output to a
Concept
Buss Bar. Dimensions are 14.5" High/16" Long/10" Wide. A milliwatt motor turns the magnetic shield
Resonance Energy
shich separates the magnet pairs at their block; wall separation provides magnetic fluxing and useful
Products Gallery electrical energy.
Contact
22

Fonte: http://www.progettomeg.it

presenta in esclusiva:

UN'ESPERIMENTO ITALIANO
Pagina pubblicata il 12/11/2003

E' con grandissimo piacere che vi annuncio che Progettomeg ha l'onore di seguire da vicino un esperimento volto
a replicare il fenomeno della fusione fredda che stanno portando avanti dei ricercatori in una localit vicino
Napoli.
Per molti motivi lasceremo queste persone ed i luoghi esatti nell'anonimato ma le prove, le attrezzature e le
configurazioni degli esperimenti saranno i pi precisi possibile e supportate anche da immagini, in modo da
rendere replicabile la cosa anche ad altre persone.
Attualmente l'esperimento ha dato incoraggianti evidenze ma ancora sono da effettuare tutti i dovuti controlli
volti a determinare le energie in entrata ed uscita e tutti gli altri fattori che possono fare la differenza tra una
reazione chimica ed una atomica, quale quella della fusione fredda.
Le pagine verranno messe on line pian piano, un p per la mancanza di mio tempo ed un p per stare al passo
con queste prove che richiedono moltissimo lavoro di un accuratezza particolare. I risultati che vuole ottenere "il
Gruppo di Napoli" dovranno essere inconfutabili.
Insieme all'esperimento cercher di inserire la storia e le vicende passate di questo "miracoloso" evento che, in
verit, nulla ha di miracoloso se non la meravigliosa complessit del nostro universo che le consente di esistere.
Bene, aprite occhi, cuore e cervello e gustatevi questo splendido lavoro che stanno portando avanti a LORO
SPESE questi ricercatori della verit.
Roy V.
1 - I primi esperimenti pagina pubblicata il 14/11/03
2 - Metodi di misurazione pagina pubblicata il 17/11/03

LE PRIME PROVE
Pubblicata il 14/11/2003
In questa prima pagina descriver la configurazione dell'esperimento in corso dando un'elenco di materiali,
attrezzature e procedimenti che il "Gruppo di Napoli" st utilizzando in questi giorni.
Le prime prove pratiche sono gi iniziate, sono state ripetute ed hanno dato ottimi risultati, anche se non ancora
tanto accurati da poter dichiarare con assoluta certezza che si tratti di Fusione Fredda. Attualmente siamo
proprio nella fase di messa a punto di sistemi altamente sofisticati e precisi che possano misurare tutti i parametri
in gioco.

Ma chi sono queste persone che stanno portando avanti l'esperimento?


I loro titoli sono ottimi. Abbiamo un laureato in fisica, un chimico ed un ingegnere come "zoccolo duro" del
23

gruppo pi una serie di "collaboratori" di grande esperienza anche loro. Mi spiace non poter citare, per adesso, i
loro nomi ma lo meriterebbero veramente. Tra l'altro alcuni di loro avevano gi tentato di riprodurre una cella a
Fusione Fredda nei primi anni '90 ma all'epoca and male per la mancanza di informazioni accurate che
spiegassero le condizioni minime per l'apparire del fenomeno. Ora tali informazioni sono di dominio pubblico (e
per questo c' da ringraziare Giuliano Preparata, Emilio Del Giudice e tutto il gruppo dell'Enea di Frascati).
La prima configurazione
Ma andiamo all'esperimento.
Innanzi tutto c' da chiarire che gli elementi utilizzati non sono quelli "classici", ovvero palladio ed acqua
pesante, poich per i costi elevati e la difficolt di reperimento risultava troppo difficile da riprodurre con i mezzi
ed i fondi di un piccolo laboratorio (e comunque con tale configurazione i risultati positivi sono oramai accertati
con assoluta sicurezza).
Si optato allora per una configurazione pi "economica" e prendendo spunto dal lavoro effettuato dal
laboratorio francese di J.L Naudin si giunti alla scelta ed utilizzo dei seguenti elementi:

Elettrodi: tungsteno (Negativo) e ferro (Positivo)


soluzione 0,1 molare di carbonato di potassio (praticamente acqua di
Elettrolita:
rubinetto ed un pizzico di carbonato!)
Alimentazione elettrica: alimentatore variabile (DC da 0 a 300 V)

Il tutto, per lo meno in questi primi esperimenti, stato inserito in un contenitore di vetro (NON REPLICATE
COSI' L'ESPERIMENTO POICHE' PROVE SUCCESSIVE HANNO EVIDENZIATO L'EMISSIONE DI
NEUTRONI MOLTO PERICOLOSI PER LA SALUTE; leggete pi avanti per sapere che materiali utilizzare
per la schermatura).
Con questa semplice ed economica combinazione quello che ne scaturito, una volta alimentato il tutto, ha fatto
strabuzzare gli occhi ai nostri ragazzi. Ma vi riporto direttamente parte dell'entusista mail inviatami la notte del
31 ottobre scorso:
" [...] in una soluzione di 200 cc a 0,1 M di Carbonato di Potassio a 65 C, utilizzando un elettrodo di
tungsteno sul negativo e un fil di ferro sul positivo di un alimentatore variabile (DC da 0 a 300 V), facendo
salire la tensione da zero, intorno ai 60 V abbiamo notato un aumento della corrente (circa 5 A che alla prima
prova hanno bruciato i fusibili dell'alimentatore di 2 A, mentre alla seconda prova, con fusibili da 8 A ha
retto), intorno ai 120 V sull'elettrodo di Tungsteno hanno cominciato ad accendersi dei bagliori puntiformi
perfettamente distinguibili l'uno dall'altro e la corrente scesa a 2 A circa, intorno ai 160 V la densit dei
bagliori era tale da non essere pi discernibile l'uno dall'altro e la corrente scesa a 1,5 A, a 200 V e oltre
l'elettrodo di tungsteno era avvolto da una sfera di luce abbagliante e il liquido ribolliva vigorosamente
emettendo una enorme quantit di gas con la corrente che scendeva a 0,5 A.
A questo punto abbiamo staccato la corrente e osservato l'elettrodo di tungsteno ancora immerso in soluzione:
era di color rosso vivo, ci indica che, tenendo presente che il tungsteno fonde a 3422 K, su quell'elettrodo si
sono raggiunti almeno 2000 - 2500 C, una temperatura ENORME che ha dissolto anche la guaina che
reggeva l'elettrodo!
L'elettrodo, visto al microscopio mineralogico 7 X, presentava dei grossi fori sparpagliati un po' ovunque. Le
misure energetiche, visto il ribollire allucinante, vista l'emissione di gas, vista la imprevedibile variabilit
della corrente, ci hanno colti impreparati e abbiamo solo qualche dato che non posso prendere in
considerazione perch non accurato. In ogni caso questa prova (anzi, queste tre) stata fatta senza conoscere
ancora il calore specifico della soluzione (che non abbiamo ancora misurato) per capire grossomodo a che
genere di fenomeno stiamo andando incontro e devo dire, dopo questa sera, si apre un campo sconfinato di
ricerca e approfondimento [...]
Su tre prove fatte (anzi quattro, di cui una nulla visto che dopo poco si bruciato il fusibile) non abbiamo
24

avuto nessun problema di riproducibilit: il fenomeno si sempre ripetuto, il tungsteno ha sempre raggiunto
una temperatura di quasi fusione, il tutto ha sempre ribollito e la corrente prima salita e poi scesa in tutte le
prove. Quindi il fenomeno c'. [...] "

Che dire... veramente impressionante! Durante queste prove sono state scattate alcune immagini tramite la
telecamerina di un cellulare (visto che non si aspettavano quello spettacolo non si erano premuniti di macchina
fotografica), che vi inserisco qui sotto:

Alimentato con 100 V

Alimentato con 180 V


25

Alimentato con 220 V

A questi primi esperimenti seguito un grande lavoro di analisi delle grandezze in gioco con la progettazione e la
messa a punto di sistemi di misura appropriati a tutt'oggi in fase di completamento.
Ma sono continuate anche le prove pratiche cambiando e migliorando la configurazione dell'esperimento.

Organizzazione e tecniche di misurazione

Pubblicata il 17/11/2003
Gli esperimenti proseguono a ritmo serrato insieme alla formulazione di modelli teorici da verificare.
In questo momento siamo nella fase di montaggio di un vaso dewar per alte temperature e siamo in procinto di
misurare con precisione i vari rendimenti. Il nostro valente chimico si sta dimostrando indispensabile per capire in
dettaglio cosa accade nelle soluzioni a quei potenziali e con quelle specie in gioco.
Dallo studio degli elettrodi di Tungsteno utilizzati nella prima prova ci siamo accorti che questi non sono puri,
ma contengono il 2% di Torio... ce ne siamo accorti per caso, misurandone la radioattivit dopo una prova.
Immaginatevi la sensazione che abbiamo provato quando, mettendo il contatore Geiger l vicino, questo si
portato subito a fondo scala: era la riprova che l sopra si era sviluppata una reazione nucleare! (questo vuol dire
emissioni di neutroni: FATE SEMPRE MOLTA ATTENZIONE!)

Invece, dall'analisi degli elettrodi nuovi e delle tabelle standard degli elettrodi per saldature TIG, ci siamo accorti
che la sigla WT presente sulla nostra confezione indicava proprio la presenza di Torio... per il tungsteno puro
occorrono gli elettrodi WP, che ci siamo rapidamente procurati.
26

Elettrodo in tungsteno
Oltre al calcolo dei rendimenti, un problema che cercheremo di risolvere l'interpretazione della luce e del
rumore emesso dalla reazione: sono effetti della combustione di qualcosa (tungsteno) oppure sono dovuti al fatto
che l dentro si generato un plasma? Nel secondo caso, l'ipotesi Fusione Fredda diventa schiacciante. In ogni
caso, per prove prolungate, il tungsteno si consuma vistosamente assottigliandosi: o perch brucia (si ossida)
insieme a qualcos'altro o perch alimenta il plasma.

Riguardo le misure calorimetriche, dopo vari tentativi e capocciate sui libri di chimica, abbiamo scoperto che, per
basse concentrazioni di soluto solido in acqua, il calore specifico e il calore latente di evaporazione sono
tranquillamente approssimabili a quelli dell'acqua pura, ci che cambia sono le temperature di ebollizione (pi
alta) e di congelamento (pi bassa).
In ogni caso le fenomenologie in gioco determinano un complesso meccanismo difficile da afferrare nella sua
completezza, di conseguenza, l'iter sperimentale proseguir in questo modo:
- misura precisa dei rendimenti, consumi di materiali e emissioni in una cella "standard";
- misura della variazione di questi parametri variando la configurazione standard (cambiando
elettrodi, variandone la geometria, cambiando le concentrazioni) fino all'ottenimento di un reattore
"ottimo" per consumi, emissioni e rendimenti energetici;
- costruzione di un dispositivo sperimentale (un prototipo tecnologico) che utilizzi questo surplus di
energia.

Inoltre abbiamo un'opportunit incredibile, che possiamo anche definirla una fortuna: la presenza nel laboratorio
di un sistema di interfacciamento industriale gia' perfettamente connesso ad un computer.
Grazie a questo dispositivo, che funziona come un controllore di processo dotato pero' di peculiarit molto
sofisticate, intendiamo monitorare tutte le grandezze di processo che entrano in gioco. Questa condizione ci
permetter di studiare il fenomeno con una certa completezza.
Adesso siamo impegnati per l'interfacciamento di questa unita' al sistema di cella. Come sapete i livelli di tensione
applicati alla cella sono piuttosto elevati e anche la corrente e' abbastanza intensa. Ho dovuto configurare un
hardware particolare che mi permette di accettare tali grandezze fisiche opportunamente optoisolate fra di loro
anche per ragioni di sicurezza.
27

Questa interfaccia sar in grado di misurare contemporaneamente la corrente della cella, la tensione, la
temperatura interna, la temperatura esterna, calorie entranti e uscenti ecc. Inoltre, avendo un ingresso a impulsi
potrebbe essere interessante inserire un contatore di neutroni ma, purtroppo non possediamo tale strumento. Alla
fine del processo di acquisizione, il programma e' in grado di produrre i grafici relativi ed effettuare i confronti
analitici necessari. Successivamente effettueremo delle analisi chimiche sugli elettrodi e sulla soluzione di
reazione. Tra cui mi auguro di poter contare anche su di un analisi al microscopio a scansione, grazie all'aiuto
offertoci da una universita' che abbiamo contattato.
Insomma, ce n' di strada da fare e noi stiamo appena imboccandone una.
Come aiuto chiediamo informazioni dettagliate sulla fisica dei plasmi: il nostro un plasma in acqua, quindi
un fenomeno incasinatissimo... se qualcuno avesse conoscenze in tal senso pu inviare materiale o
semplicemente contattare Roy al seguente email: nuovenergie@email.it.
Grazie infinite, il vostro aiuto prezioso.

La cella dove si sono svolti i vari test (dopo i primi precedentemente descritti)

Particolare della cella elettrolitica.


28

La cella durante una prova. Quello che si viene a creare un plasma in acqua... INTRIGANTE vero?
29

rexresearch.com
Home ~ Catalog ~ Links

Eugene Frenette / Eugene Perkins / Ralph Pope : Friction Heaters

Infinite Energy 23: 23 (1999)


Eugene Frenette: US Patent # 4,143,639
Eugene Perkins: US Patent # 4,424,797
E. Perkins: US Patent # 4,483,277
E. Perkins: US Patent # 4,501,231
E. Perkins: US Patent # 4,651,681
E. Perkins: US Patent # 4,779,575
Ralph Pope: US Patent # 4,798,176

Infinite Energy 23: 23 (1999)

December 1998 Kinetic Furnace Test: Previously Reported Results Retracted

By Jed Rothwell & Ed Wall

We first reported on the Kinetic Furnace, invented by Eugene Perkins and Ralph Pope, in Issue #
19. The device had, at that time, been tested by several independent engineering laboratories and
services. The Kinetic Furnace is, as the name implies, a device for heating and forcing airflow. Heat
is generated by means of a rotor that flings water from the hub to the rim of its chamber, through
some precisely dimensioned nozzles. This stirring action is driven by a 6 HP electric motor. The
heated water is driven out of the rotor chamber into a radiator and out an output duct.

In April 1998, Eugene Mallove and Jed Rothwell assessed the furnace for themselves at the
inventors facility in Cumming GA, where they observed the apparent production of excess heat.

Furhter testing was carried out by Mallove and Ed Wall, June through September of 1998, in Bow
NH at NERL (New Energy Research Laboratory), but no significant excess heat was observed
during that period. Another machine was shipped from Georgia, but it too showed no excess.
Finally, Pope loaded a third unit into a van and drove it to New Hampshire himself. He helped install
and test it, but this third test also failed. Different sources of water were tested, the operating
temperature and the rotation speed of the motor were varied slightly, but no significant excess
energy was observed. In IE #22 we reported on this briefly, expressing continued hope that the
machine would produce excess heat. We reported a COP (Coefficient of Performance) of 115%
(155% excess heat) This level of excess heat is difficult to establish with certainty using airflow
calorimetry. A 200 or 300% excess could be detected with confidence, but 15 to 20% could be the
result of subtle errors.

Pope returned to Georgia, discouraged. It was clear that we had hit a dead end, and that if the
machine does work, there must be something different about the way it was being operated or the
water or some other material in Georgia. We decided that the only way we would ever get to the
bottom of this mystery would be to conduct extensive tests on site in Georgia, using our instruments
30

and Popes in parallel. The machine is large enough to allow several temperature probes and
ammeters to be attached simultaneously, unlike the small hand-held cold fusion cells, which often
only have room for one set of instruments.

In November 198, Pope reported that he was now achieving a COP as high as 180% with the
machine he had brought to Bow, which had been reconditioned and reassembled with a new rotor
and pipes. Rothwell conducted a half-day of testing of this machine in the Cummings GA machine
shop location, using the same instruments and techniques Rothwell and Mallove used in April. Most
of this 180% turned out to be an artifact of Popes anemometer, which suffered from a power supply
probem caused by worn out rechargeable batteries. The measured air speed was too low. The high
excess heat results reported by Pope in previous issues of this magazine were also probably caused
by this error. Ralph Pope does not agree with this assessment and believes that the air speed was
measured correctly. The blower power did not change and so it is highly unlikely that the airspeed
fell. While the large excess was clearly wrong, apparent 46% excess heat was seen, which was in line
with what we observed in April. We were encouraged by this preliminary result, yet puzzled and
wary by our inability to replicate it in New Hampshire. We decided to press ahead with full-scale
tests in Georgia. Ed Wall went to Georgia bringing several tools and precision instruments, listed on
page 27.

In the series of tests from December 4-9, 1998, Wall, Rothwell, and Pope tested the Kinetic Furnace
extensively, using higher quality instruments and more sophisticated techniques than Pope had ever
used. Unfortunately, no significant excess heat was observed. Based on the December results, we
believe our initial assessment in April was incorrect, and there was never any significant excess heat
in the tests we performed in Georgia or New Hampshire. We believe we have discovered the source
of the error which caused the artificial heat in Georgia. The error was in technique rather than
instruments or formula. In the December tests we used an improved technique, a computer, an HP
34970A Data Acquisition System, and an array of 11 K-Type, 20 gauge wire thermocouples (four on
the inlet and seven on the outlet side). The thermocouples were calibrated carefully through the
temperature range of interest and compared to NIST traceable mercury thermometers. By
performing this calibration, we learned that the thermocouples read about 0.5 F less than the
calibration thermometer over the temperature range of interest. At the same time we used the
computerized instruments, we repeated the tests using the same relatively crude, hand-held
instruments --- ammeters and thermometers employed in November. In this second test with hand-
held electronic, alcohol and mercury thermometers, we measured no excess heat, thus confirming the
computer thermocouple readings.

The biggest problem with the April and November tests in Georgia was the lack of a calibration
heater This was not an error or an oversight --- we did not have the time to install one during these
preliminary, one-day tests. The tests in Bow NH were conducted over two months, and they
employed a calibration heater to avoid dependence on air speed measurements and formula-based
calculations. With a calibration heater, results from the electric heater were compared with those
measured with the Kinetic Furnace. Even of the air speed, electric power, or duct cross-section
measurement is inaccurate, the comparative results should show an excess, if one exists.

The first day and a half of testing in Georgia were devoted to installation and testing of the
thermocouples and the calibration heater, which was run at three power levels, up to 3.25 kW. At
the end of the second day we turned on the Kinetic Furnace, which also consumes about 3 kW
electric power. All tests were done with the heater in place, whether it was active or not, to maintain
consistent air flow patterns. He Kinetic Furnace testing protocol calls for the machine to be run with
the cooling fan turned off until the internal water temperature rises to at least 160 F. Then the
blower is turned on, and internal temperature drops rapidly at first. Stored up heat in the rotor and
water are removed. In 20 to 30 minutes the rotor and outlet temperatures stabilize. Twenty minutes
into the first Kinetic Furnace test, the initial burst of saved up heat was exhausted, and the
31

temperature fell to about the same level seen with the calibration heaters at 3 kW. It was obvious
that the furnace was producing no excess heat.

In our first test it was apparent that the Kinetic Furnace was producing no excess heat. This left two
possibilities, which we investigated over the next 5 days:

1. That the previous results were an artifact.


2. That the machine previously produced excess heat, but it was not producing it on December 4.

To check for possibility #1, an artifact, we began by repeating the tests with the thermometers, hand-
held ammeters, and other instruments used in the previous tests. We placed the thermometers in the
same locations as the computerized thermocouple arrays. The hand held instruments were used at
the same time as the computerized equipment, during both calibration heater runs and live Kinetic
Furnace runs. The hand held instruments showed the same 9 or 10 F delta T as the computerized
thermocouples, which indicates no excess heat. We then moved the thermometers to a location
roughly as far away from the Kinetic Furnace as Rothwell selected in November and we observed a
13 or 14 F delta T. To assess possibility #2, we tried changing the rotor, the water, the air flow
speed and other parameters, which we hypothesized might have a controlling effect on an excess
heat phenomenon.

A hypothesis discussed by Horace Heffner in the Vortex Internet forum came to mind. Heffner
thought that a warm stream of air might be moving from the outlet duct 15 feet back to the inlet.
Although that seemed unlikely, we looked for a stream of air by placing the anemometer next to the
outlet duct, at a spot 50 cm back from the end of the duct, toward the Kinetic Furnace. We moved
the impeller around, searching for a stream of warm air, checking the left side of the duct, the right
side, the top and bottom. The anemometer is quite sensitive to small streams of moving air. The
impeller did not spin, so we conclude there was no discrete stream of air going from the outlet duct
back toward the Kinetic Furnace. However, the hypothesis stuck in mind, so we did a more careful
examination on the air surrounding the Kinetic Furnace and duct on all sides. We now believe there
is an area of circulated air around the machine that is warm in comparison with air in the greater
volume of the room. This was more apparent during tests on Sunday when the machine shop was
deserted and the air in the rest of the building was quiescent. The machine shop is a 5000 sq. ft. steel
frame building with the ceiling 14 ft high at the eaves. Outside of this envelope of warm air around
the machine, at locations 20 and 30 ft away, the ambient air temperature was roughly 13 cooler
than the Kinetic Furnace outlet, and roughly 3 degrees cooler than the air surrounding the inlet.
Thus, the actual delta T temperature between the inlet and outlet was 9 or 10 , indicating no excess
heat.

In April and November, we measured the inlet temperature at a spot too far from the Kinetic
Furnace, outside the cloud of warm air. This spot was picked because Ralph Pope cautioned us not
to place the sensors too close to the furnace where they would pick up heat radiating from the rotor
and other hot machinery. However, this was incorrect. There was little significant radiant heat; most
of the heat near the machine was convective, and it went away during the test. In the first round of
tests in December, four inlet thermocouples and three thermometers were placed in various locations
around the inlet. The closest ones were about 6 inches away from the rotor and calibration heater.
The farthest ones were 35 inches away from the inlet and reasonably well-shielded from radiant heat,
yet they were only 0.9 F cooler after the fan was turned on. The difference would have to be 4 F if
the excess heat was as high as it appeared to be in November, so radiative effects were not large
enough to nullify the apparent excess heat. During the warm up phase of the experiment, before the
fan was turned on, the difference between the inlet thermocouples and thermometers was 2 to 3 .
Evidently this was convective heat, because when the fan was turned on and the air pulled past the
thermocouples and rotor this temperature difference largely disappeared.
32

The confusion about the inlet temperature underscored a serious weakness in our test setup that
continued even after the first round of December tests. We were still not doing the calorimetry the
way a heating and air conditioning (HVAC) engineer tests a furnace. The HVAC engineer places the
inlet temperature sensor in a single point source. In our tests we did not know precisely where the
inlet air originated because we did not have a concentrated point source. When we realized this, we
constructed an inlet duct. The inlet was initially about 20 x 6 located 6 below the bottom of the
furnace, in a source of cool air. We believe there is no heat path from the Kinetic Furnace rotor or
the calibration heater back to the thermocouples. In runs with the calibration heater, the heat balance
computed according to the formula came out close to unity, with a COP between 96 and 106%. This
inlet duct draws warm air from the cloud surrounding the Kinetic Furnace and its environs, but that
makes no difference.

After installing the inlet duct and making other improvements, we tested intensively for three days.
Pope altered the pump several times, changing out the rotor and water, but these changes had no
effect, just as they had had no effect in Bow. Based on these tests and the exhaustive testing in Bow,
we conclude that the three machines we have tested never produced excess heat. It is possible that a
Kinetic Furnace produced excess heat in earlier tests at Popes facilities with the Air Techniques
engineer, or in tests at Dunn Laboratories, Inc., and elsewhere. Pope reports that during these tests,
the outlet duct was always passed through a plywood barrier in a window and vented outside, so the
error we observed in December could not have occurred.

Rotor heat up rates were similar to those measured in Bow, and rotor steady state temperatures were
nowhere near those reported by Pope (140-150 F). Such high temperatures would be difficult to
explain, except as apparent and strong excess heat, but they could not be confirmed. This steady-
state rotor chamber temperature remains a key unresolved issue. If there are conditions during which
this temperature is higher than what we have seen, then it is possible that Pope and Perkins saw
better results. Attempts were made to increase the rotor temperature by restricting the intake plenum
cross-section area. The rotor temperature was raised ~ 10 F by this method, but this introduced
another factor. The air moved much faster in the intake than the exhaust, so it was cooled by the
Bernoulli effect. This was seen during calibration when the blower alone was run for an extended
period. The COP came out slightly over-unity for the blower alone because we did not take into
account the Bernoulli equations. The actual COP must obviously be under unity for the blower.

Why It Took So Long ~

He reader might wonder why it took 9 weeks to confirm the conservation of energy. Our test results
in New Hampshire showed no significant excess heat at any time, and the first test of the Kinetic
Furnace in Georgia conclusively proved there was no excess heat. On the face of it this is a simple,
straightforward measurement very similar to those conducted by HVAC engineers every day, so you
would think that an experienced engineer would get it right the first time with ease. Indeed, Mallove
and Wall did get it right the first time. They spent the next 9 weeks making sure. The installation in
Bow included an inlet duct, so the apparent excess cannot be caused by the same problem we fixed
in Cumming. However, it was clear that the calibration heater was also producing noisy, nominally
over-unity results, putting 15% within the range of error.

The apparent correlation of rotor RPM to slightly over-unity COP turned out to be unconfirmed by a
large number of other tests.
33

Another reason it took so long to resolve this issue is that people think slowly and research takes
time. Consider the electric generator and motor. Oersted discovered that electric currents produce
magnetic effects in 1820. This triggered intense research by Henry, Faraday, Fresnel and other
leading scientists. It took Faraday roughly 10 years to prove the converse: that magnets induce
electric fields. Faraday devised the first crude electric generator in 1831, and it was a while after that
before anyone realized that generators can also be used as motors.

Difficulties ~

Like most experiments, this was a running battle with recalcitrant equipment, fatigue and inadvertent
carelessness. Here are some of the things that went wrong.

At first we measured the power into the resistance heater incorrectly, because of the complicated
network of two transformers and the autotransformer (variable voltage transformer).

The power meter interface to the computer failed to work, perhaps because of software conflicts
with the HP 34970A, so we were unable to download instantaneous power graphs. We depended on
the computed power average and total energy. Power input was very steady so this was not a
significant problem. In the previous visit with Mallove, power graphs downloaded successfully and
showed steady-state operation.

The computer interface to the anemometer also failed to function correctly. The air speed changed
every time we altered the configuration, and twice we deliberately slowed down the blower by
rewiring to increase heat retention in the rotor housing. We thought this might promote excess heat
generation. Because we could not record data automatically from the anemometer to the computer,
each time we changed the wind speed we had to go through a laborious 20-minute process to
manually record the data. It was measured in FPM (ft/min.) with the DTA4000 electronic
anemometer. The anemometer was mounted on a camera tripod. The impeller was positioned at 9
points on a 3x3 array, with points equidistant 3 inches apart. The impeller was placed at a grid point
and left to stabilize for one minute. Eight readings were taken at 15-second intervals. The average
value and standard deviation was computed.

After the inlet duct was completed, 4 thermocouples were installed in various locations within it.
Wide variations and fluctuations in temperature were noted. Apparently, eddy currents produced
warm spots within the box. All thermocouples were moved to spots exposed to the incoming rush of
air, and the temperatures all registered the same. However, they were probably all registering a
fraction of a degree cooler than they would have in the same air motionless because of the Bernoulli
effect. This fraction of a degree difference might be mistakenly interpreted as excess heat.

The volume of air flowing through the duct every minute is computed by multiplying the speed of the
air, in feet per minute (FPM), by the size of the duct in square feet, to give cubic feet per minute
(CFM). However, the cross-section of this duct was irregular. One side was slightly longer than the
others and the corners were not right angles. We straightened out the corners somewhat with steel
angle brackets. We traced the exact inside dimensions of the duct onto a piece of plexiglass, copied
that onto graph paper, and determined surface area, which was 130.7 inches (91% of one sq. ft.).
When this correction factor was applied to the formula, the calibration runs and Kinetic Furnace runs
agreed to an uncanny extent. The numbers were so close at one point that we worried we were
making a mistake.

A section of Rothwells November report describes a typical instrument malfunction:

At minute 75, I placed the DTA4000 near the stool to measure ambient temperature with the built-
in thermometer. At minute 105, I discovered that the milling machine nearby interfered with
34

electronics in the control box. When I lifted the control box, the temperature display changed from
71.6 to 71.1 F. I put it down again and it changed back to 71.6 , repeatedly. I moved it a meter
away and it dropped to 71.1 and remained stable.
The red alcohol thermometer registered 71 , and the Acu-rite registered 68.9 and 68.5 . I moved
the stool two meters further inside the building, to a location where all the instruments indicated the
air was slightly colder, and all reached the same spread of values they showed before the run: 70.7
on the DTA4000, and 70 , 68.7 , and 68 on the others. In the new location the anemometer
moved with a slight draft of 70 FPM. The air was moving toward the Kinetic Furnace.

This illustrates the importance of using instruments based on different physical principles. We ues
mercury thermometers as well as electronic thermometers because mercury thermometers cannot be
affected by the electric fields generated by a milling machine.

How Heat Was Measured ~

We measured heat from the Kinetic Furnace by two methods. First, we simply compared the control
run to the Kinetic Furnace run at the same power level. When the control run temperature went up
9.5 , the Kinetic Furnace went up 9.5 . When the flow air was restricted then the control run went
up 19 ; the Kinetic Furnace also went up 19 . Second, we applied the HVAC formula to compute
the actual heat flow. The formula is:

Delta T x 1.08 x FPM (air speed measured in feet per minute by anemometer) x Duct opening as a
fraction of one square foot = BTU heat output.

Here are two typical Kinetic Furnace runs:

December 5, Run 3

Input power 3.40 kW = 11,604 BTU/hr. Output power: 10.9 F x 1.08 x 1171 FPM x 0.91 sq. ft. =
12,509 BTU/hr.; COP 108%.

This indicates no excess within the margin of error. In other words, some of the resistance heater
control run are also over 100%, and the standard deviation of the anemometer readings was 46
FPM, so this result was between 106 and 110% Overall heat recovery from the system was excellent,
so you would expect the COP to be in the range of 90 to 100%.

December 5, Run 4

Input power 3.39 kW = 11,570 BTU/hr Output power: 10.1 F x 1.08 x 1171 FPM x 0.91 sq. ft. =
11,581 BTU/hr; COP = 100%.

Here is a calibration run with the resistance heater and a different airflow:

December 8, Run 4

Input power = 3.34 kW = 11,399 BTU/hr Output power: 19.0 F x 1.08 x 1022 x 0.55 sq. ft. =
11,534 BTU/hr.; COP = 101%.

Future work, if time and resources allow, will be with water flow calorimetry, which is easier and
more precise. Air as a calorimetric fluid is difficult to work with because it is turbulent, compressible,
does not mix well, is difficult to meter, and requires a huge duct. The flow of air through the duct
varies from one spot to another, and it varies over time. The anemometer impeller is not large
35

enough to cover the entire duct, so t is used to sample the flow at many points. Flowmeters and
temperature sensors immersed in a stream of water also test a small sample of the flow at one point.
However, a stream of water can be diverted into a graduated cylinder to test flow, and the fluid in
the cylinder can be stirred to be sure the probes correctly register the average temperature. You
cannot divert the entire stream of air into a container.

Once factors like the size of the duct cross-section were determined with reasonable accuracy, the
results from the calibration and Kinetic Furnace runs at different power levels began to line up with
unexpected accuracy. For example, in the first set of tests they all showed COP of 96% within 1%.
Later, at another air speed, they lined up between 97 and 99%.

Instruments & Equipment ~

Although the test procedure is simple in principle, we took great care to be sure we were getting the
correct answer. One method of doing this is to use redundant instruments based on different physical
principles. For example, to measure temperature one can rely upon high precision thermocouples
with confidence. In this case we only need to measure temperature to within 2 to 4 F. A cheap
thermometer will work adequately for this purpose. We did in fact use some discount store
thermometers, and one grade-school science class thermometer. We also used 16 K-type
thermocouples, 6 mercury thermometers of various ranges, two bimetallic dial thermometers, a
hand-held, high-precision, high-temperature dual thermocouple (HP-52), and a red alcohol
thermometer.

The HP-34970A thermocouple differences, as received, were less than 0.1 degree. The other
instruments did not agree so precisely, varying as much as 3 F. In one test of ambient temperature,
which was most accurate, the thermocouples settled at 73.9 , 72.3 , 72.7 , and 72.0 ; the mercury
thermometer, which was the most accurate, settled at 72.3 ; and the red alcohol which is marked in
2-degree increments, indicated 74 F. In a test of the outlet duct temperature, the thermocouples and
thermometers registered 82.4 , 82.9 , and the red alcohol thermometer which had a consistent 2
bias at all temperatures, registered 84 F. At that moment the HP-34970A thermocouples registered:
82.6 , 82.7 , 82.8 , 83.0 , 83.1 , and 83.0 degrees. This 0.5 spread of value was real:
temperatures within the air stream did vary. The thermocouples agreed more closely when calibrated
in stirred water or left in calm, ambient air.

Even though the cheaper thermometers did have pronounced biases, each agreed with itself. That is
to say, when we moved a mercury thermometer, a thermistor, and the red alcohol thermometer from
the inlet to the outlet, they all rose 9.5, even though they started at different values. The cheaper
thermometers were inaccurate, but precise. Inaccurate means the starting point in the temperature
scale --- the absolute temperature was correct. Precise means the temperature rose the same extent
as the NAST traceable thermometers.

Equipment used in this test included:


HP 34970A Data Acquisition system
11 K-type, 20-gauge thermocouples
Toshiba laptop computer interfaced to the HP 34970A
A Compaq portable computer to take notes and compute preliminary results with a spreadsheet.
Mercury thermometers to measure ambient air
Amprobe DM-II recording power meter
Pacer Ind., Inc., model DTA4000 impeller anemometer. The built-in thermometr was used in
November, and malfunctioned
Amprobe Ultra clamp-on inductive analog ammeter and voltmeter, and a Micronta clamp-on
inductive analog ammeter and voltmeter. These instruments do not detect power factor and they
tend to overestimate electric power. However, in the second set of tests in December, the results
36

they showed were close to the power measured with the more sophisticated Amprobe DM-II
Acu-rite dial thermometer with two thermocouples
Red alchol thermometer from ABC School Supply, Inc.
Dial thermometer on rotor chamber to measure the water temperature.
Two ducts made from 6x4 sheets of building insulating material
Stopwatch
Electronic camera
To calibrate, a variable voltage autotransformer, two transformers, and a duct heater with 3.2 kW
maximum output.

Was It Worth It?

We wrote above, the actual COP must obviously be under unity for the blower. A cynic might say
that the actual COP of a water mixer must also obviously be under unity, our tests were in vain, and
we made a gargantuan effort to prove the conservation of energy and the fixed ratio of work and
heat. This ratio was established in the 1840s by J.P. Joule. He used a falling weight to drive a paddle
that stirred water and raise the water temperature. It sounds similar to the Kinetic Furnace --- it
sounds as if we were trying to overturn an observation established 150 years ago and confirmed
countless times every day by scientists and HVAC engineers everywhere. But, there is an important
difference between Joules experiments, stirred water, and ours. The stirrer in the Kinetic Furnace
rotates much more quickly than Joules, so quickly that it almost certainly creates cavitation. Similar
cavitation on the smaller scale have apparently produced excess heat and nuclear effects. The nuclear
claim is controversial, but widely accepted. Much of the investigation into apparent nuclear effects
caused by cavitation is being performed in the mainstream by conventional scientists, and approved
of by the New York Times, Scientific American, and Popular Science (e.g., P.S., December 1999).
The Kinetic Furnace and Griggs Hydrosonic Pump probably perform cavitation on a scale thousands
of times larger than any of the experimental sonoluminescence devices. We must say probably
because we have no direct proof that cavitation is occurring, because we cannot see inside the steel
chamber. Perhaps the Kinetic Furnace was previously cavitating and producing excess heat, but it
later stopped.

It would be absurd to question the validity of Joules experiments. Cavitation has been carefully
studied since it began damaging marine propellers about 150 years ago. But, as far as we know,
cavitation and heat together have not been carefully researched. People have felt no need to study
heat evolved from cavitation, because no one suspected the heat might be unusual. Science works a
little like a national park. Thousands of people cluster around the main attraction and the visitors
center. Hundreds hike down the nearby well-worn paths, measuring heat and cavitation. But the
moment you step off the path into the woods, you leave the crowds behind. In a national park it is
unlikely that you will stumble into an unexpected rock formation or a hill that has never been
climbed, but in a quiet spot you might find a fossil or a new species of insect. The unexplored
avenues of science are infinitely larger than the physical paths on earth. The lesson of cold fusion, the
Marinov motor, and other strange phenomena described in this magazine is that you can reach the
unexplored wilderness of science in a few minutes with simple tools.

Previous Tests & Recent Work By Pope & Perkins ~

The Kinetic Furnace reportedly produced large excess heat in other tests over the years at Dunn
Laboratories, Inc. (1982, 1983), Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory (1984, 1986), Automated Test Labs
(1986), and elsewhere. What happened during those tests? Were the professional laboratories
incorrect? We do not know. In the papers provided to us by Pope, the tests are not described in
enough detail to judge with finality. It seems unlikely that professionals in these laboratories made
the same kinds of mistakes we did initially, before we installed the inlet duct. After all, their business
is to determine the COP of furnaces. However, they never pursued development of the Kinetic
37

Furnace. That is inexplicable behavior. Other companies in the US that tested over-unity cold fusion
devices have been quite enthusiastic. Heating and air conditioning companies have often contacted
out magazine and asked whether any practical device is available. They seem anxious to proceed
with development, and totally unconcerned about the fact that the scientific establishment does not
believe these devices exist. This is speculation, but perhaps after Dunn Labs and the others wrote the
reports provided to us by Pope, they realized that they might have made a mistake of some sort. The
HVAC engineer in Atlanta who performed the tests on the Kinetic Furnace many years ago stood by
his work, but he explained that it was a preliminary test.

It is possible that for the past few years, Pope and the late Eugene Perkins were performing invalid
tests, and their results may have been meaningless. They never employed a resistance heater or an
inlet duct, so they never would have caught the errors we discovered. They did not keep adequate
records by our standards, they had no computerized data collection, and they did not organize their
tests in a methodical, step-by-step fashion. To their credit, they did the best they could at the time
under difficult circumstances.

Their open and cooperative attitude, and their willingness to honestly face the facts is extremely
laudable. Many inventors of exotic technology will refuse to allow their machines to be tested in the
first place, and even when you find an error with a machine, most will refuse to listen or believe it.
Ralph Pope debated the issue with us at first, and he demanded rigorous proof that the inlet
temperature was not affected by radiant heat. This forced us to devise a good test to prove our
point, with the inlet turned 90 downward and the thermocouples shielded from the furnace above.
Pope accepts our conclusion that the present set of experiments show no excess heat, but he believes
that previous experiments were successful. He intends to continue testing if he can, and we will do
so as time allows.

These results must be seen in the light of the James Griggs HydroSonic Pump excess heat claims in a
superficially similar device. Mallove and Rothwell made measurements on the Griggs machine in
early 1994. The Griggs results may support the idea that cavitation excess energy is real but highly
variable, for reasons not yet understood.

HydroSonic Pumps have not yet been replicated widely. However, Griggs used much better
instruments and techniques than Pope-Perkins, and he uses water flow calorimetry, which is easier
and more reliable. We have a HydroSonic Pump, and we intend to press ahead with our plans to test
it at NERL when we have the time and resources in 1999.

Should anyone be devoting weeks and thousands of dollars testing this sort of claim? Mainstream
science says no. We think it is worth doing. We are disappointed, and we have no immediate plans to
continue testing the Kinetic Furnace at this time, but we do not consider these last few months a
waste of time. The instruments have been quite useful with other projects and the skills and
techniques for air flow calorimetry may prove valuable.

US Patent # 4,143,639
( Cl. 126/247 ~ 13 March 1979 )

Friction Heat Space Heater

Eugene Frenette

Abstract ~
38

A furnace or space heater is operable at low cost by a small electric motor which rotates an
elongated cylindrical drum on a vertical axis, within an elongated cylindrical casing at a clearance of
about one eighth of an inch in the annular chamber formed therebetween. A supply of light lubricant
normally occupies the lower portion of the annular chamber but rises to fill the chamber during
rotation of the drum. The casing is enclosed in a housing, having a fan chamber containing an electric
motor and fan or blower. The motor shaft may rotate both the fan and the drum.

Description ~

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It has heretofore been proposed in U.S. Pat. # 1,650,612 to Deniston of Nov. 29, 1927 to rotate a
stack of discs relative to a coaxial stack of fixed discs on a horizontal axis within a casing to generate
frictional heat in hot water flowing through the lower portion of the casing. In this heating device a
supply of oil is contained in the upper portion of the casing to lubricate the discs and to float on the
water at a predetermined level.

In U.S. Pat. # 3,333,771 to Graham of Aug. 1, 1967, a pair of vaned rotors are each enclosed within
a chamber of a casing, and mounted to rotate in a vertical plane on a horizontal axis as depicted in
FIG. 7 thereof. As in the Deniston patent water flows through the device and is heated by friction.

In U.S. Pat. # 4,004,553 to Stenstrom of Jan. 25, 1977 a single disc like rotor is revolved on a
horizontal axis in a vertical plane, within a casing to heat water passing through the device.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Unlike the above mentioned patents wherein thin discs or vanes, in single or stack configuration,
comprise the rotor, in this invention an elongated, cylindrical smooth surfaced, inner drum is the
rotor. The drum is rotated in a horizontal plane on a vertical axis within an elongated cylindrical,
smooth surfaced casing, or outer drum, to form an annular sealed, liquid, chamber therebetween
having a clearance of about one eighth of an inch. A quart of relatively light oil is captive in the
annular chamber and at rest occupies only the bottom thereof. However upon rotation of the drum,
by an electric motor of about one horse power, the oil rises to fill the chamber due to the pumping
action of the drum.

Thus friction heat is generated not by two metal, or other, surfaces contacting each other, but by the
contact of the opposing surfaces with the oil which not only lubricates but generates heat.

A portable space heater is formed by enclosing the casing and drum in the lower chamber of a
housing and drawing ambient air inwardly and around the heated outer surface of the casing for fan
discharge back into the ambient atmosphere by a large diameter, eight bladed fan driven by the drum
motor, or preferably by a separate motor. For use as a furnace an air blower and separate electric
motor blow ambient air around the casing for discharge into a heating system.
39

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of the portable space heater of the invention, in half section;

FIG. 2 is a top plan view in section on line 2--2 of FIG. 1; and


40

FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 1 of the device of the invention in its preferred form.

DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate one embodiment of the friction heat heater 20 of the invention which
includes an upstanding, hollow, cylindrical housing 21 formed of imperforate sheet metal 22 and
having legs 23 for supporting it on a floor 24 of a building. The space heater 20 is portable and in the
portable embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 the housing 21 is of predetermined diameter of
about twelve inches and of predetermined height of about thirty-two inches.

Fixed within housing 21 by suitable brackets 25 and 26 is a hollow cylindrical casing, or outer drum,
27 which is of predetermined diameter less than the diameter of the housing, such as ten inches, and
is formed of aluminum sheeting 28 for efficient transfer of heat. The cylindrical side wall 29, top wall
31 and bottom wall 32 of casing 27 are imperforate to form a sealed enclosure except for the filler
tube 33, which is closed by a removable threaded cap 34.

The casing 27 divides housing 21 into the lower air heating chamber 35, which it occupies and an
upper fan chamber 36, there being an annular air chamber 37 formed between the cylindrical side
wall 29 of the casing and the coaxial, concentric cylindrical side wall 38 of the housing 21.

Air inlet means 39 is provided in the lower portion of the housing 21 in the form of spaced apertures
41 extending around the cylindrical side wall 38 and air outlet means 42 is provided in the top 43 of
the housing in the form of apertures 44. The annular air chamber 37 connects the air inlet means to
the air outlet means of the fan chamber 36.

A reversible electric motor 45 is mounted in the fan chamber 36 with an eight bladed fan 46 fast on
41

one end 47 of the motor shaft 48, each blade being of about 25 pitch and the motor being about
one horse power for rotating the shaft 48 at between 1800-3600 R.P.M.

The other end 49 of motor shaft 48 extends into the air heating chamber 35 to rotate the hollow,
cylindrical drum 51 which is supported in suitable bearings 52 for rotating around the central,
vertical axis of the casing 27 and housing 21.

The inner drum 51 is sealed and hollow and includes the top wall 53, bottom wall 54 and cylindrical
side wall 55, the walls being of stainless steel. The exterior cylindrical surface 56 of the cylindrical
side wall 55 is smooth as is the interior, cylindrical surface 57 of the aluminum of the cylindrical side
wall 29 of casing 27 and the surfaces 56 and 57 are at about one eight inch clearance from each other
to form a narrow, annular liquid receptacle 58 therebetween.

It should be noted that the annular liquid receptacle 58 is not a passage through which liquid to be
heated is continually flowed, as in the above mentioned prior art patents. Instead it is a sealed
chamber and is provided with a supply of liquid lubricant 59 such as a quart of No. 10 oil which
normally rests in the horizontal space, or shallow liquid receptacle 61 between the bottom wall 54 of
the drum 51 and the bottom wall 32 of the casing 27.

It has been found that the best results are obtained when the lubricant 59 is Quaker State F-L-M-A-T
Fluid, Ford Motor Company Qualifications No. 2P-670306 M 2633F. Unlike prior patents, no water
is in contact with the oil.

The motor 45 is connected to a thermostat 62, of any well known type by cord 63 and to a source of
electricity by male plug 64 so that it is energized under the control of ambient temperature by the
signals of the thermostat.

In operation the motor 45 drives the drum 51 at a substantial speed, which causes the oil 59 to rise
up into the annular liqud receptacle 58 to substantially fill the same. The heat of friction between the
inner drum 51 and outer drum, or casing 27 is transferred by the oil while it prevents wear on the
surfaces 56 and 57 so that the exterior aluminum surface 65 of the fixed outer drum 27 becomes
heated. Meanwhile the large diameter, multibladed fan 46 is drawing ambient air through the air inlet
means 39, thence up through the annular air chamber 37 and past the elongated heated surface 65 for
discharge through the air outlet means 42 back into the room.

As shown in FIG. 3, it is preferable to provide a separate electric motor 70, usually about 1/8 H.P.
and driving an air blower 71, these being mounted in a lower air chamber 72 for driving ambient air
upwardly in an annular flow path in chamber 37 from the air inlet means 73 to the air outlet means
74. Air outlet means is the intake duct 75 of a hot air heating system 76 so that the heater 20
becomes a furnace rather than a space heater, the separate electric motor 70 enables the thermostat
62 to initiate rotation of the drum until a predetermined temperature is reached in the aluminum
outer drum 27, whereupon the thermostat automatically de-energizes the drum motor 45 while
continuing to rotate the separate fan, or flower motor such as 70, to furnish hot air to the room or
heating system 76 until the casing 27 cools to a predetermined temperature.
42

US Patent # 4,424,797
( Cl. 126/247 ~ 10 January 1984 )

Heating Device

Eugene Perkins

Abstract ~

A heater for heating a liquid including a housing defining a closed elongate heating chamber therein
with a cylindrical chamber surface, a rotor body rotatably journalled in the heating chamber with a
cylindrical peripheral surface thereon concentrically of the chamber surface so as to define an annular
space between the chamber surface and the peripheral surface on the rotor body, drive means for
effecting relative rotation between the rotor body and the housing, and pump means for circulating
the liquid through the annular space so that the rotation of the rotor body heats the liquid passing
through the annular space.

Description ~

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to liquid heaters and more particularly to a liquid heater which heats
liquid by shearing the liquid.

Various attempts have been made in the past to mechanically heat liquids. One type of such
mechanical heating device heats the liquid by shearing the liquid between rotary and stationary blades
in a chamber. A device of this type is illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 2,683,448. This type of heating
device creates a high degree of turbulence in the liquid passing through the device to be heated and
consumes a large amount of power in driving the rotary blades in the chamber. As a result, the
heating efficiency of this type of device is relatively low.

In another type of these prior art devices, the heat to heat the liquid is generated by the frictional
contact between rotating and non-rotating members. Examples of this type of heating device are
illustrated in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,625,929; 3,164,147; and 3,402,702. The problems with this type of
heating device are that a large amount of power is consumed in generating the frictional heat, and
excessive wear is encountered between the surfaces of frictional contact with each other within the
heating unit.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

These and other problems and disadvantages associated with the prior art are overcome by the
invention disclosed herein by providing a heating unit which uses a cylindrical rotor rotating in a
cylindrical heating chamber so that the flow of liquid in the chamber is laminar rather than turbulent
and with the rotor and chamber not being in contact with each other so that frictional losses within
the heating unit are minimized. It has been found that sufficient liquid shear is generated by the
rotating rotor in the heating chamber so that the liquid is heated, yet the power consumption
associated therewith is minimized so that the heating efficiency of the unit is maximized.

The apparatus of the invention includes a heating unit which may be incorporated in a heating system
adapted to heat air in a prescribed space such as a building or residence. The heating unit includes a
housing which defines an elongate heating chamber therein with a cylindrical chamber surface. A
rotor body is rotatably mounted in the heating chamber and defines a cylindrical peripheral surface
43

thereon concentric with respect to the cylindrical chamber surface. The peripheral surface on the
rotor has an outside diameter a prescribed amount smaller than the inside diameter of the chamber so
as to define an annular space between the rotor body and the chamber through which the liquid to be
heated is passed. Drive means is provided for effecting relative rotation between the rotor and the
housing and pump means is provided for circulating the liquid through the annular space between the
rotor and the chamber as the rotor is rotated so that the liquid is heated due to the shear of the liquid
in the annular space between the rotor body and the chamber. In the embodiment of the invention
shown, the pump impeller for circulating the liquid through the chamber is mounted on the rotor so
that the drive means simultaneously rotates the pump impeller and the rotor.

When the heating unit is incorporated in a heating system, the liquid heated by the heating unit is
passed through an air-to-liquid heat exchanger through which the air to be heated is also passed so
that the air is heated as it passes through the heat exchanger. The operation of the heating unit is
controlled so as to maintain the temperature of the air exiting the heat exchanger within a prescribed
temperature range while the operation of the fan circulating the air through the heat exchanger is
controlled in response to the temperature of the air in the conditioned space so as to maintain the
temperature of the air in the conditioned space within a prescribed temperature range.

These and other features and advantages of the invention will become more apparent upon
consideration of the following description and accompanying drawings wherein like characters of
reference designate corresponding parts throughout the several views and in which:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a view illustrating the invention incorporated in a heating system;


44

FIG. 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the heating unit of the invention;

FIG. 3 is a transverse cross-sectional view taken generally along line 3--3 in FIG. 2; and
45

FIG. 4 is a transverse cross-sectional view taken generally along line 4--4 in FIG. 2.

These figures and the following detailed description disclose specific embodiments of the invention;
however, it it to be understood that the inventive concept is not limited thereto since it may be
incorporated in other forms.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS

Referring to FIG. 1, it will be seen that the invention is embodied in a heating system 10 used to heat
air in a space to be conditioned such as a building or residence. The heating system 10 includes
generally a heating unit 11 connected to a liquid-to-air heat exchanger 12. The liquid-to-air heat
exchanger 12 is housed in an appropriate duct system 14 adapted to supply air from the space to be
conditioned to the heat exchanger 12 and to deliver air from the heat exchanger 12 back to the space
to be conditioned. A fan 15 is provided in the duct system 14 for forcing the air from the space to be
conditioned through the duct system 14 and the heat exchanger 12. The heating unit 11 is also
illustrated housed in the duct system 14 although it is understood that it may be located remotely
thereof.

The duct system 14 defines a heat exchanger chamber 16 therein in which the liquid-to-air heat
exchanger 12 is mounted with an intake plenum 18 connected to the space to be conditioned by an
appropriate return duct 19 so that the air from the space to be conditioned is supplied to the heat
exchanger chamber 16 through the intake plenum 18. The air passing from the intake plenum 18
through the heat exchanger 12 in the chamber 16 passes out through a supply plenum 20 connected
to the space to be conditioned by the supply duct 21 to supply the heated air back to the space to be
conditioned. The fan 15 is located in the heat exchanger chamber 16 so that the fan 15 forces the air
from the intake plenum 18 through the heat exchanger 12 in the chamber 16 and out through the
supply plenum 20. It will be noted that the heat exchanger 12 extends completely across the chamber
16 so that all of the air passing from the intake plenum 18 to the supply plenum 20 must pass
through the heat exchanger 12.

The operation of the fan 15 is controlled by thermostatic switch 22 which is located in the space to
be conditioned so that when the temperature of the air in the space to be conditioned drops below a
prescribed value, the switch 22 operates fan 15 to circulate air from the space to be conditioned
through the heat exchanger 12 until the air in the space to be conditioned has been raised to a higher
prescribed value. Such thermostatic switches 22 are conventional and need not be described in detail.
As will become more apparent, the operation of the heating unit 11 is controlled by a thermostatic
switch 24 located at the air exit side of the heat exchanger 12 as will become more apparent. The
46

thermostatic switch 24 serves to activate the heating unit 11 when the air exiting the heat exchanger
12 drops to a prescribed lower temperature to heat a liquid and supply the liquid to heat exchanger
12 until the temperature of the air exiting the heat exchanger 12 has been raised to a prescribed
higher temperature.

The heating unit 11 is illustrated mounted in the heat exchanger chamber 16 under the heat
exchanger 12 and includes a liquid heater 25 driven by drive motor 26. In the particular embodiment
shown, the drive motor 26 is connected to the liquid heater 25 through a bell and pulley arrangement
28. It is to be understood, however, that the drive motor 26 may be directly connected to the liquid
heater 25.

As best seen in FIGS. 2-4, the liquid heater 25 includes a housing 30 in which is rotatably mounted a
rotor assembly 31. The housing 30 is fixedly mounted in the heat exchanger chamber 16 while the
rotor assembly 31 is rotated by the drive motor 26.

The housing 30 includes a cylindrical side wall 32 closed at opposite ends by end plates 34. Each of
the end plates 34 defines a cylindrical projection 35 thereon which fits within the cylindrical side wall
32 and is provided with an annular groove 36 therearound which receives an O-ring 38 therein to
seal the end plate 34 to the inside of the side wall 32. The end plates 34 are held in position by tie
bolts 39 so that the closed chamber is defined by the side wall 32 and end plates 34. This chamber is
divided into a heating chamber 40 and a pumping chamber 41 by a divider assembly 42. The divider
assembly 42 includes an annular spacer wall 44 having an outside diameter so that it will snugly fit
within the side walls 32 adjacent one of the end plates 34 so that spacer wall 44 projects a prescribed
distance away from the end plate 34. The projecting end of the spacer wall 44 is closed by a circular
end plate 45 so that the pumping chamber 41 is defined between the end plate 45, spacer wall 44,
and the end plate 34 against which the spacer wall 44 abuts. The heating chamber 40 is thus defined
between the end plate 45, the end plate 34 opposite that against which the divider assembly 42 abuts
and the housing side wall 32. The heating chamber 40 has a diameter d.sub.1 defined by the inside
surface 48 of the side wall 32 and a length L.sub.1 defined between the end plate 34 and the end
plate 45. The side wall 32 defines an inlet opening 49 therethrough to the chamber 40 adjacent that
end plate 34 opposite the divider assembly 42 while the spacer wall 44 and side wall 32 define a
common outlet opening 50 therethrough which communicates with the pumping chamber 41. The
circular end plate 45 on the divider assembly 42 defines a transfer opening 51 therethrough about the
central axis A.sub.1 of the chambers 40 and 41 of diameter d.sub.2 so that the heating chamber 40
communicates with the pumping chamber 41 as will become more apparent.

The rotor assembly 31 includes a support shaft 55 which mounts a rotor body 56 thereon at one
position along the length of the shaft 55 and a pump impeller 58 at another position along the
support shaft 55. The rotor assembly 31 is mounted in the housing 30 so that the support shaft
extends coaxially of the axis A.sub.1 with the rotor body 56 located in the heating chamber 40 while
the pump impeller 58 is located in the pumping chamber 41. The support shaft 55 extends through
the transfer opening 51 through the end plate 45 in clearance therewith so that liquid can pass from
the heating chamber 40 into the pumping chamber 41 and extends out through the end plates 34
through appropriate openings therein. The shaft 55 is rotatably journalled in bearings 59 mounted on
each of the end plates 34 and held in position by retainers 60 on the outside of the end plates 34. A
seal 61 is provided around shaft 55 immediately inboard of each of the bearings 59 to prevent liquid
from passing out of the housing 30 around the shaft 55 at the end plates 34. The shaft 55 is provided
with a drive projection 62 which extends out of the housing 30 through one of the retainers 60 so
that the belt and pulley arrangement 28 can be connected thereto to rotate the support shaft 55.

The rotor body 56 is hollow and includes a pair of spaced apart washer-shaped end plates 64 which
are fixedly attached to that portion of the support shaft 55 within the heating chamber 40 with one of
the end plates 64 spaced inwardly of the end plate 34 and the other end plate 64 being spaced
47

inwardly of the end plate 45. The end plates 64 are connected by an annular rotor side wall 65 which
extends therebetween with the side wall 65 being fixedly attached to the end plates 64 and the end
plates 64 being fixedly attached to the support shaft 55 so that the rotor body 56 rotates with the
support shaft 55. The rotor side wall 65 defines a peripheral surface 66 thereon which is cylindrical
and located concentrically of the central axis A.sub.1 of the heating chamber 40. The surface 66 has
a diameter d.sub.3 which is a prescribed amount less than the inside diameter of the surface 48 so
that surfaces 66 and 48 defines an annular space 68 therebetween of a radial distance d.sub.4. The
surface 66 has a length L.sub.2 shorter than the length of the heating chamber 40.

The pump impeller 58 is fixedly attached to that portion of the support shaft 55 within the pumping
chamber 41 and includes a disk portion 70 oriented perpendicular to the axis A.sub.1 with an outside
diameter slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the spacer wall 44 so that the pump impeller 58
is freely rotatable with shaft 55 in the pumping chamber 41. The pump impeller 58 also includes an
attachment portion 71 used to attach the pump impeller 58 to the support shaft 55 through an
appropriate key arrangement. The disk portion 70 defines a centrally located counterbore 72 therein
which opens onto that side of the disk portion 70 facing the circular end plate 45. The counterbore
72 has a diameter larger than that of the support shaft 55 to define an annular cavity in the disk
portion 70 around the shaft 55. The disk portion 70 further defines a plurality of radially extending
passages 74 therein which open at their inboard ends into the counterbore 72 and open at their
outboard ends into the outer periphery of the disk portion 70. The pump impeller 58 is attached to
the support shaft 55 so that the passages 70 are aligned with the outlet opening 50 as they rotate
within the pumping chamber 41. It will be seen that the diameter of the transfer opening 51 and the
diameter of the counterbore 72 are such that liquid can freely pass from the heating chamber 40
through the transfer opening 51 and into the counterbore 72 so that the liquid will be forced
outwardly along the passages 74 as the pump impeller 58 is rotated with the support shaft 55. As
will become more apparent, this serves to force the liquid out of the housing 30 through the outlet
opening 50. The outlet opening 50 is connected to one side of the heat exchanger through a supply
pipe 75 while the inlet opening 49 to the housing 30 is connected to the other side of the heat
exchanger through the return pipe 76.

In operation, it will be seen that the heating chamber 40 and the pumping chamber 41 as well as the
passage through the heat exchanger and the pipe 75 and 76 are filled with a liquid to be heated such
as water. When the drive motor 26 rotates the rotor assembly 31, this causes the rotor body 56 to be
rotated in the heating chamber 40 while the pump impeller 58 is rotated in the pumping chamber 41.
The pump impeller 58 pumps the liquid through the liquid heater 25 to the heat exchanger 12 and
then back to the liquid heater 25 so that the heating chamber 40 and pumping chamber 41 remain
filled with liquid at all times. As the rotor body 56 is rotated via the drive motor 26, the liquid at the
cylindrical peripheral surface 66 on the rotor body 56 tries to move with the rotor body 56 while the
liquid at the inside surface 48 on side wall 32 tries to remain stationary. This establishes a velocity
gradient in the liquid across the annular space 68 between the rotor body 56 and the inside surface
48 of the side wall 32 to establish shear forces within this liquid. These shear forces cause the liquid
to be heated. The velocity profile across the annular space 68 is such that the liquid in the annular
space 68 remains in the laminar flow region so as to minimize the power consumption of the liquid
heater 25. Thus, it will be seen that the liquid in the annular space 68 is being moved longitudinally
of the annular space 68 by the pump impeller 58 while the liquid is moving circumferentially about
the space 68 by the rotor body 56. This heats the liquid in the annular space 68 as it flows therealong
and then flows out of the heating chamber 40 into the pumping chamber 41 where the pump impeller
58 pumps the liquid through the heat exchanger 12 so that the heat from the liquid can be transferred
to the air passing through the heat exchanger 12.

It has been found that the temperature to which the liquid can be heated in the annular space 68 is
dependent on the relative velocity of the cylindrical peripheral surface 66 with respect to the inside
surface 48 on the side wall 32. When water is used as the liquid, rotating surface 66 at a velocity of
48

about 1150 feet per minute heats the water to a temperature of about 140 F., rotating surface 66 at
a velocity of about 1800 feet per minute heats the water to about 165 F., and rotating surface 66 at
a velocity of about 2550 feet per minute heats the water to a temperature of about 210 F. Thus, it
will be seen that the temperature to which the water can be heated can be adjusted by adjusting the
rotational speed of the rotor body 56 to adjust the velocity of the peripheral surface 66 on the rotor
body 56.

The radial distance d.sub.4 of the annual space 68 affects the volume of liquid that will be heated by
the rotating rotor body 56 at any one time. Distances of 0.06-1.0 inch for the distances d.sub.4 have
been found practical to reasonably heat the liquid passing through the annular space 68. A distance
d.sub.4 of about 0.75 inch has been found preferable to heat the liquid at a flow rate of about two
gallons per minute.

The heating rate capacity of the liquid heater 25 is also dependent on the velocity of the cylindrical
peripheral surface 66 on the rotor body 56. When water was used as the liquid to be heated, a
velocity of about 1800 feet per minute generated about 19,000 BTU per hour whereas rotating the
surface 66 at a velocity of about 2550 feet per minute generated about 25,500 BTU per hour. The
volume of liquid in the liquid heater 25 and the system of the heat exchanger 12 and the liquid heater
25 should be such that the air passing through the heat exchanger 12 at a prescribed volumetric rate
can be heated over the desired temperature differential. It is found that liquid heater 25 holding about
one gallon of liquid with the system holding about three gallons of liquid is sufficient to heat air
passing through the heat exchanger 12 at a volumetric rate of about 300 cfm about 40-80 F. with a
temperature differential in the liquid passing through the heat exchanger 12 of about 15-20 F.

In the system illustrated, the diameter d.sub.1 is about 5.5 inches, the diameter d.sub.3 is about 4
inches, and the length L.sub.2 of the surface 66 is about 6 inches. The drive motor 26 operates from
a 115 volt power source and draws about 5.5 amps to rotate the rotor assembly 31 at about 2400
rpm to move the peripheral surface 66 on the rotor body 56 at a velocity of about 2550 feet per
minute. Thus, the drive motor 26 has a power consumption of about 0.6 kilowatt per hour to
produce a heating output of about 25,500 BTU per hour. In the above system, the fan 15 was
operated to force air through the heat exchanger 12 at a flow rate of about 300 cfm. With the rotor
assembly 31 rotating at about 2400 rpm, the air passing through the heat exchanger 12 was heated
from a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to a temperature of 100-145 F. while the water
temperature supplied to the heat exchanger 12 from the liquid heater 25 was at a temperature of
about 210 F. and the temperature of the water returned to the liquid heater 25 from the heat
exchanger 12 is at a temperature of about 185 F. At this rotational speed, the pump impeller 58 was
pumping the water at a flow rate of about 2 gpm with a pressure differential of about 0.5 psi across
the impeller 58. The thermostatic switch 22 in the space to be conditioned was set to maintain the
temperature of the air in the space at about 71 F. while the thermostatic switch 24 was set to start
operation of the liquid heater 25 when the temperature of the air exiting the heat exchanger 12
dropped to about 100 F. and to stop operation of the liquid heater 25 when the temperature of the
air exiting the heat exchanger 12 reached about 140 F. Typically, the operating cycle for the fan 15
was about 10-12 minutes with the liquid heater 25 being operated for about two cycles of 1-2
minutes each during each operating cycle of the fan.
49

US Patent # 4,483,277
( Cl. 122/26 ~ 20 November 1984 )

Superheated Liquid Heating System

Eugene Perkins

Abstract ~

A heating system using two liquid heaters of the immersed rotor type is provided for supplying
heated liquid to a heat exchanger, and the liquid heaters are alternately connected to and
disconnected from the heat exchanger so that the disconnected heater will produce superheated
liquid.

Description ~

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A heating system which may be portable or installed, for example in a residence or other building,
utilizes as its source of heat a liquid heater comprising a chamber filled with a liquid in which a body
is rotated to create friction in the liquid, which is then supplied to a heat exchanger external to the
liquid heater. A heating system is provided having two such liquid heaters, together with means for
alternately connecting each of the heaters to the heat exchanger while disconnecting the other heater
from the heat exchanger, thereby producing superheated liquid in the closed liquid heater.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

A number of U.S. patents, and my co-pending application for patent Ser. No. 311,074, filed Oct. 13,
1981, for Heating Device, now abandoned describe and claim apparatus for producing heat by
rotating a cylindrical body within a closed chamber containing a liquid, thereby producing friction
and shearing action within the liquid and raising its temperature to a degree which makes the liquid a
source of heat when supplied to a heat exchanger forming part of a heating system.

It is often necessary or desirable in the use of heating systems utilizing such liquid heaters to
continuously provide to the heat exchanger liquid at a higher temperature than can normally be
produced by a liquid heater of the type to which the invention relates, and it has therefore been the
object of this invention to provide a liquid heater of that type, and a heating system utilizing such a
liquid heater, which will produce superheated liquid for delivery to the heat exchanger.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS


50

FIG. 1 is a part sectional and part elevational view of the heating system provided by the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION

The invention provides a new and useful liquid heater and a heating system utilizing the heater to
provide liquid at higher temperatures than may normally be provided by the pertinent type of liquid
heater.

The liquid heater provided by the invention is disclosed in FIG. 1 and comprises a housing chamber
defined by a cylindrical wall 2 and end walls 4, 6 through which there extends axially a shaft 8 on
which there are mounted in spaced relation two cylindrical rotors 10, 12. Between the two rotors
there are two parallel, axially spaced annular walls 22, 24 defining on either side the spaced rotor
chambers 26, 28 and between them a compartment 30 within which there is mounted on the shaft a
centrifugal type pump 32. The inner edges of the annular walls 22, 24 define a central opening 34
providing communication between the two rotor chambers and the pump chamber. The rotor
chambers have, respectively, inlet ports 36, 38 and the pump chamber has outlet port 40. Any
suitable means may be provided for rotating the shaft, the rotors and the pump.

The heating system provided by the invention utilizing the described double rotor and single pump
liquid heating apparatus comprises a heat exchanger 50 comprising a screen and an elongated tubing
through which liquid from the heater is passed, and which may be conventional in structure and
operation or which may be modified as described and claimed in my co-pending application for U.S.
51

patent Ser. No. 311,074 filed Oct. 13, 1981 for Heating Device, now abandoned. In the system
according to the present invention the port 40 of the pump chamber 30 is connected by tubing 52 to
the inlet port 53 of the tubing which forms part of the heat exchanger, and the ports 36, 38 of the
rotor chambers 26, 28 are connected, respectively, by tubes 54, 56 to the fixed part 58 of a switching
valve 60. A tube 62 leads from this valve to the outlet port 64 of the heat exchanger tubing, and the
valve comprises a movable member 70 having two passages 72, 74 through it. Suitable means, such
as that illustrated, may be provided for moving the valve part 70 to alternate positions, in one of
which the outlet port 64 of the heat exchanger tubing is connected to rotor chamber 26 through tube
62, valve passage 72 and tube 54, and in the other of which the outlet port of the heat exchanger is
connected to rotor chamber 28 through tube 62, valve passage 74 and tube 56.

In the use and operation of the described system the shaft is rotated to rotate the two rotors and the
pump and the switching valve is operated in the manner described to cause each of the rotor
chambers to be alternately connected into the heating system while the other rotor chamber is
disconnected from the remainder of the heating system. In this latter condition the liquid in the
disconnected rotor chamber will be superheated because the rotor operates without release of the
liquid in its chamber to the rest of the system. Upon further operation of the valve the closed rotor
chamber will be connected into the system and will deliver superheated liquid to the heat exchanger.
At the same time as this occurs, the other rotor chamber will be closed at the switching valve to
cause superheated liquid to be produced within it which will be delivered to the heat exchanger when
the valve is again shifted.

US Patent # 4,501,231

Heating System with Liquid Pre-heating


Cl 122/26 ~ 26 February 1985

Eugene Perkins

Abstract ~

A heating system is provided in which a rotor is rotated within a body of liquid within a chamber to
heat the liquid by friction, and the liquid is conveyed to a heat exchanger and then returned to the
liquid heater. The rotor chamber of the liquid heater is surrounded by a jacket chamber to which
cooled liquid passes from the heat exchanger and in which it is heated by convection from the rotor
chamber and from which it passes to the rotor chamber.

Description ~

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION


52

A heating system which may be portable or installed, for example in a residence or other building,
utilizes as the source of heat a liquid heater comprising a chamber filled with a liquid in which a body
is rotated to create friction in the liquid, which is then supplied to a heat exchanger external to the
liquid heater through a circulation system. Direct introduction of the cooled liquid from the heat
exchanger causes a thermal impact on the liquid with reduction in efficiency of the system, and this
thermal impact is reduced by supplying the cooled liquid from the heat exchanger to a jacket
surrounding the liquid heater before introduction of the liquid into the heating chamber of the liquid
heater.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

While liquid heaters per ses of the described type have been described in many patents and in the
literature, no heating system, whether protable or installed, utilizing such a liquid heater as the
source of heat has been developed or used. Among the many reasons for this is the observed fact
that the cooled liquid returned from the heat exchanger to the liquid heater produces a thermal
impact on the liquid in the heater reducing the heating effect on the liquid within the heater and
therefore the overall efficiency of the system. The object of the invention has therefore been to
provide means for reducing the thermal impact and therefore increasing the efficiency of the system,
and this is accomplished by the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a part sectional and part schematic view of a heating system in accordance with the
preferred embodiment of the invention, and
53

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2--2 of FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION

The preferred embodiment of the heating system provided by the invention comprises a liquid
heating unit A, a heat exchanger B, and tubing C which provides a system for circulating heated
liquid from the liquid heating unit to the heat exchanger, where it loses heat, and back to the liquid
heating unit for re-heating.

The basic liquid heating unit A comprises a housing 2 formed by a cylindrical wall 6 having a
horixontal axis, and end walls 8, 10. These walls bound a rotor chamber within which there is
mounted a shaft 12 a rotor 14 having a cylindrical surface 16 and, if desired, end walls 18, 20. The
rotor surface is concentric with the cylindrical housing wall 6 and is spaced inwardly from it, leaving
an annular space 22 within the housing and surrounding the rotor.

The shaft 12 is rotatably mounted in the end walls of the housing and extends outside the rotor
chamber through a sealed bearing 24 in end wall 10 into a pump chamber 30 where a centrifugal type
pump 32 is mounted on the shaft. Means are provided for rotating the shaft, the rotor and the pump
and may take the form of a pulley and belt 34 which are connected to be driven by a motor (not
shown).

The heat exchanger B is of conventional construction and comprises a screen through which a tube
extends which, in accordance with known practice, is formed into a plurality of parallel sections
connected by bends to provide a continuous conduit within the screen to which heated liquid is
supplied from the liquid heater A and from which cooled liquid flows to the liquid heater.

Means are provided by the invention for pre-heating the cooled liquid flowing from the heat
exchanger before it is introduced into the rotor chamber of the liquid heater, and such means
comprise, first, an annular jacket chamber 40 which surrounds the rotor chamber 22 and is bounded
on the outside by a cylindrical outer wall 42 and internally by the annular wall 6 of the rotor
54

chamber. The radial width of the jacket chamber may be selected to provide a total volume of the
system (rotor chamber, pump chamber, heat exchanger tubing and connecting tubing) adequate to
produce sufficient liquid heated to a designed temperature to provide the BTUs required by the
system.

In accordance with the invention the parts of the system are interconnected to produce a flow of
liquid to cause the desired pre-heating of the liquid output of the heat exchanger. To provide this
flow the upper part of the jacket chamber is connected at 50 to the tube 52 which is connected to the
outlet end of the tubing of the heat exchanger, while the lower part of the jacket chamber is
connected at 54 to the inlet end of the heat exchanger tubing through tube 56, pump chamber 30 and
tube 58, which connects to the inlet of the heat exchanger tubing. The inlet and outlet connections
50, 54 between the jacket chamber and the heat exchanger are located at opposite axial ends of that
chamber.

Internally of the apparatus the lower part of the jacket chamber communicates with the lower part of
the rotor chamber through port 60 which is below the inlet opening 50 to the jacket chamber, and
the upper part of the rotor chamber communicates with the upper part of the jacket chamber through
port 62 which is above the outlet port 54 of the jacket chamber.

In the operation of the system cooled liquid flows from the heat exchanger through tube 52 and
enters the jacket chamber 40 at port 50. Within the jacket chamber it flows downwardly in
oppositely directed streams, as shown at 70, 72 in FIG. 2, to the lower part of the jacket chamber
where it enters the rotor chamber through port 60. Within the rotor chamber the liquid flows
upwardly in oppositely directed streams 74, 76 and is mixed with heated liquid being produced in the
rotor chamber. The mixed heated liquid passes from the rotor chamber to the jacket chamber
through port 62 which is above jacket chamber outlet port 54. Within the jacket chamber the heated
liquid moves in oppositely and downwardly directed streams 78, 80 to the outlet port 54, from which
it passes through tube 56, pump chamber 30 and tube 58 to the inlet port of the heat exchanger
tubing.

The return flow of cooled liquid from the heat exchanger picks up heat in its passage through the
jacket chamber by convection through the rotor chamber wall 6 and therefore enters the rotor
chamber at a higher temperature than would be the case if the liquid stream flowing from the heat
exchanger entered the rotor chamber directly, thus increasing the efficiency of the system.

The provision of the jacket chamber or its equivalent also permits the total volume of the system to
be increased, this often being desirable or necessary to accomodate the heating unit to a particular
installation.

US Patent # 4,651,681
( Cl 122/26 ~ 24 March 1987 )

Heating System using a Liquid Heater as the Source of Heat

Eugene Perkins

Abstract ~

A heating system of the portable, installed or other type in which the heat source is an apparatus in
which a body of liquid is heated by friction produced in the liquid by a rotating body immersed in the
liquid and the heated liquid is supplied to a heat exchanger, the heating system being made efficient
55

and successful by relations between its parts and by reduction of the time spent in the heater
exchanger by the heated liquid.

Description ~

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A heating system, which may be portable or installed in a residential or other type of building, has as
its source of heat a liquid heater in which a body is rotated within a closed chamber containing a
liquid which, in turn, is supplied through tubing to a heat exchanger external to the source of heat,
which is of the type in which heated fluid flows through a tube having a plurality of parallel linear
sections connected by bends. The heated liquid is supplied by the source through a plurality of
separate tubes leading to alternate bends of the heat exchanger tubing, and the other bends are
connected through a plurality of other separate tubes to the inlet of the liquid heater, whereby heated
liquid passes through only a part of the entire heat exchanger and thereby retains a greater part of its
heat.
56

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The single FIGURE of the drawings is a view of the heating system provided by the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION

The preferred embodiment of the heating system provided by the invention is illustrated in the
drawings and comprises a liquid heating unit A, a heat exchanger B, and tubing C, which provides a
circulating system for carrying heated liquid from the liquid heating unit to the heat exchanger, where
it loses heat, and back to the heating unit for re-heating.

The liquid heating unit A comprises a housing 2 having an internal chamber which is bounded by
cylindrical surface 4, having diameter d1 and end walls 6, 8. A partition 10 divides the chamber into
a rotor chamber 12 and a pump chamber 14, and has a central opening 16 of diameter d2. A shaft 18
is rotatably mounted in the end walls and extends concentrically through the rotor chamber and the
pump chamber and passes through the opening in the partition. Means are provided for rotating the
57

shaft and may take the form of a pulley 20 carried by the shaft outside the housing and connected to
be driven by a motor (not shown) and belt 22. The pump chamber has an outlet port 24 and the rotor
chamber has an inlet port 26 to which are connected parts of the circulating tube system C.

Within the rotor chamber there is mounted on shaft 18 a rotor body 30 having a cylindrical surface
32 of diameter d3 and end walls 34, 36. The rotor surface 32 is concentric with the cylindrical
housing surface 4 and spaced inwardly from it by radial distance d4, leaving an annular space 38
within the housing and surrounding the rotor. The end walls 34, 36 of the rotor are parallel to, and
spaced inwardly from, the housing end wall 6 and partition 10 and are spaced inwardly from them by
distances d5 and d6, respectively.

An impeller-type pump 40 is mounted on shaft 18 within the pump chamber and has radial hollow
vanes 42 surrounding a central hub 44 having an inlet recess 46 which faces the central opening in
partition 10.

The heat exchanger B is of conventional structure and comprises a screen 50 supporting a tube 52
which in accordance with known practice is formed into a plurality of parallel sections 54 connected
by bends 56 to provide in conventional practice, a continuous conduit within the screen for the
passage of heated liquid.

The invention provides means for reducing dissipation of heat from the liquid in the heat exchanger.
In distinction to the conventional heat exchanger in which the liquid passes through the entire
exchanger tubing all liquid delivered to the tubing of the heat exchanger in accordance with the
invention passes through only a small part of the entire tubing of the exchanger, thereby reducing
dissipation of heat from the liquid and returning the heated liquid to the heating unit at a higher
temperature than if, as under conventional practice, the liquid passed through the entire tubing of the
heat exhanger.

The means for providing this result at the heat exchanger comprises a plurality of tubes 60 which
branch outwardly from the tube 62 which connects the heat exchanger to the outlet passage 24 of
the heating unit, and which are connected to alternate bends 56a of the complete heat exchanger
tubing. In addition, the tube 64 which leads to the inlet passage 26 of the heating unit is connected
through a plurality of branch tubes 66 which are connected to the bends 66a of the heat exchange
tubing between the bends 56a to which the inlet tubes are connected.

Because of these connections of the inlet and outlet passages of the heater unit to the heat exchanger
tubing heated liquid from the heater unit is within the heat exchanger for a shorter length of time
than is the case in which the liquid passes through the entire heat exchanger tubing system, thereby
returning to the heating unit liquid with a greater heat content. It will be understood that while, for
the purpose of this description of the preferred embodiment of the invention, the inlet and outlet
connections are made to alternate bends of the heat exchanger tubing the connections may be made
to bends or parts of the tubing spaced more than alternately if it is desired to increase the heat loss by
the liquid while in the heat exchanger.

The incorporation into a heating system of the features of this invention results in the maintenance of
a sufficiently high percentage of the heat content of the liquid to cause a "flywheel" effect which
permits successful use of the liquid heater of the described type as the source of heat of a complete
heating system.
58

US Patent # 4,779,575
Cl. 122/26 ~ 25 October 1988
Liquid friction heating apparatus
Eugene Perkins
Abstract ~

Liquid friction heating apparatus includes a pump rotor and an impeller rotor in a liquid reservoir. As
the pump and impeller are rotated they impart frictional heat to the liquid. Further, the pump at all
times delivers liquid to the inlet of the impeller which impells the liquid through restricted orifices to
further heat the liquid. The pump positively prevents cavitation and ensures a constant flow through
the orifices.

Description ~

This invention relates to apparatus for heating liquid and more particularly to apparatus for heating
liquid by internal friction.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It is well known to heat liquid by internal friction either by rotating a body in a liquid reservoir as
disclosed, for example, in my U.S. Pat. # 4,424,797 or by forcing liquid through restricted orifices as
disclosed in the patent to Horne et al. U.S. Pat. # 4,344,567. Though rotating a body through liquid
in a reservoir is effective to heat the liquid a problem of cavitation can arise where the rotor loses
intimate contact with the liquid, and during such periods the heating process becomes highly
inefficient.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The broad object of the invention is to vastly improve the efficiency of a friction heater for liquids by
not only rotating a cylindrical heating rotor in the liquid, but also by constructing the rotor as a liquid
impeller wherein a central cavity is provided in the rotor with fluid passages interconnecting the
central cavity and the periphery of the rotor, the passages being so arranged relative to the rotational
axis of the rotor that fluid is expelled with great centrifugal force through the passages, each passage
having adjacent its outlet end a restricted orifice. As the liquid is expelled through the orifices, it is
heated due to the frictional constriction of the liquid by the orifices. In addition, the liquid in the
reservoir has a measure of heat imparted thereto by the frictional engagement of the liquid with all of
the external surfaces of the rotor. To further increase the efficiency of the heater and in accordance
with the invention I provide pump means which delivers pressurized liquid from the reservoir directly
to the central cavity whereby cavitation in the cavity is entirely eliminated and liquid is forced
through the restricted orifices not only by centrifugal force but also by the pressure on the liquid
delivered by the pump to the cavity. Though any of a variety of pump means would fall within the
purview of the invention, desirably the pump is a rotor generally similar to the described heating
rotor but substantially reversed whereby as the pump rotor rotates it scoops liquid into the fluid
passages, which are arranged relative to the axis of rotation that the liquid flows inwardly to a central
cavity which is directly connected by conduit means to the central cavity of the heating rotor. The
advantage of providing a rotary pump of the type described is that it, too, as it rotates imparts heat
to the liquid wherever the latter is in frictional contact with the pump rotor.
59

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of apparatus for frictionally heating liquid in accordance with
the invention;

FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a rotary pump looking in the direction of the arrows 2--2
in FIG. 1; and
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FIG. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the rotary heating impeller of the invention looking in the
direction of the arrows 3--3 of FIG. 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Referring now to the drawings the numeral 10 designates an impeller constructed in accordance with
the invention. The impeller 10 is disposed within a closed housing 12 defining a reservoir containing
a suitable heat transfer liquid. The housing 12 has an outlet port 14 and an inlet port 15 connected to
the inlet and outlet, respectively, of a suitable heat utilization device (not shown) such as a heat
exchanger.

The impeller 10 comprises a cylindrical rotor 16 having a peripheral surface 18 and a central inlet
cavity 20. Fluid passages 22 lead from the inlet cavity to the peripheral surface 18 of the rotor, the
passages 22 being arranged relative to the axis of rotation of the rotor 16 that upon rotation thereof
in a predetermined direction, as indicated by the arrow 24, liquid is impelled by centrifugal force to
flow from the inlet cavity 20, through the passages 22 outwardly of the rotor. Restricted orifices 26
are provided in the fluid passages, preferably at their outer extremities where the velocity of the
liquid is at a maximum, to cause the liquid to become heated as it is impelled through the orifices.
The orifice 26 may be provided in inserts 28 and if there is danger of erosion of the rotor, should it
be of a light metal such as aluminum, there may be provided additional inserts at the inner ends of the
passages 22 or, for that matter, throughout the lengths of the passages, any and all inserts being
made of a substance, such as steel, having a predetermined hardness capable of resisting erosion.

Means, such as the shaft 28 and drive pulley 30, are provided for rotating the impeller rotor 16 and,
in accordance with the invention pump means, broadly designated by the numeral 30, delivers liquid
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from the housing 12 directly to the inlet cavity 20 of the impeller rotor 16 at all times while the latter
is rotated in the predetermined direction 24. As is apparent,thecavity 20 and the peripheral surface
18 are co-axial and a conduit 32 is co-axial with the inlet cavity 20, the pump means 30 being
disposed to induce pressurized axial liquid flow through the conduit 32 into the cavity 20.

As shown, the shaft 28 extends into the housing 12 in cantilever fashion with the inlet port 15 being
axially aligned with the shaft. This is the arrangement of a prototype. Obviously, the shaft could
extend to a bearing in the left hand wall of the housing 12 as viewed in FIG. 1 and the inlet port
could be located elsewhere in that wall. Regardless, the pump means 30 is shown secured to the
shaft 28 with the pump means having inlet means, hereafter described in detail, open to the liquid in
the housing 12 and an outlet connected to the fluid conduit 32.

The pump means 30 comprises a rotor 32 which may be substantially similar to the impeller rotor 16
though reversed. The pump rotor has a peripheral surface 34, a central outlet cavity 36 and fluid
passages 37 leading from the peripheral surface to the outlet cavity and arranged relative to the axis
of rotation of the rotor that upon rotation thereof in the same predetermined direction 24, fluid is
forced to flow from the periphery of the rotor into the outlet cavity 36. In order to positively induce
flow into the passages 37 the ends thereof are provided with suitable scoops 38 as seen in FIG. 2.
The fluid conduit means 32 comprises a cylindrical member rigidly connected to the respective pump
and impeller rotors 32, 16 for rotation therewith in axial alignment with the outlet and inlet cavities
36, 20.

The operation of the apparatus should be clear from the foregoing description. The pump and
impeller are driven in a closed system, and as the two rotors rotate, they heat liquid in frictional
contact with their exposed surfaces. In addition, the pump delivers liquid under pressure to the inlet
cavity of the impeller from which the liquid is impelled through the passages 22 having restricted
orifices 28 therein where the liquid is further heated. Due to the pumping action of the pump which
positively delivers liquid under pressure to the inlet cavity of the impeller rotor 16, it is impossible
for the inlet cavity to cavitate and thus liquid is at all times subjected to heating effects with
substantially no loss in efficiency as can occur where a rotor is simply rotated in a body of liquid. The
combined pumping action of the pump 30 and impeller 10 is highly adequate to ensure radial flow
through the outlet port 14, and the device being served, such as a heat exchanger, and back to the
inlet port 15.

It will be apparent that the invention is susceptible of a variety of modifications and changes without,
however departing from the scope and spirit of the appended claims.

US Patent # 4,798,176
Cl 122/26 ~ 17 January 1989

Apparatus for frictionally heating liquid

Eugene Perkins

Abstract ~

An impeller for frictionally heating liquid is arranged that upon rotation thereof in a liquid reservoir,
liquid is forced from the exterior of the impeller through passages having restricted orifices therein to
an inner outlet cavity closed on one side and having an axial opening on the other. The impeller not
only heats the liquid due to the shear friction of the liquid with its outer surface, but the liquid
62

flowing through these passages is further heated as it is forced through the orifices. The impeller
serves both as a friction heater and a pump to circulate heated liquid through an outlet port in the
housing to a heat utilization device and back to an inlet port.

Description ~

This invention relates to liquid heating apparatus and more particularly to apparatus which heats
liquid by friction.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It is known to heat liquid by rotating a rotor in a reservoir of liquid, such an arrangement being
shown in my U.S. Pat. # 4,424,797. It is also known to frictionally heat a liquid byforcing it through
restricted orifices such an arrangement being shown in the patent to Horne et al. U.S. Pat. #
4,344,567.

A problem associated with rotating a rotor in a bath of liquid is that there can be a cavitation
problem wherein the liquid periodically separates at the interface between the rotor and liquid.
Further, where the heated liquid must be transported to a heat utilization device, such as a heat
exchanger separate pump means must usually be provided.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The object of the present invention is to provide an impeller comprising a rotor rotatable in a
reservoir of liquid to heat the same through frictional shear of liquid at the interface between the
rotor and the liquid. The rotor has a peripheral surface and a central outlet cavity which has an
opening on one side of the rotor while its other side is closed. Fluid passages extend from the
peripheral surface of the rotor to the outlet cavity and the passages are arranged relative to the axis
of rotation of the rotor that upon rotation thereof in a predetermined direction liquid is forced to
flow from the peripheral surface into the outlet cavity. Restricted orifices are positioned in the
passages to cause the liquid flowing therethrough to be further heated.

Another object of the invention is to provide the combination of an impeller of the foregoing nature
and a closed housing defining a liquid reservoir and in which the impeller is rotatably mounted, the
housing having an inlet port in radial alignment with the impeller rotor and an outlet port in axial
alignment with the opening in the side of the outlet cavity whereby the rotor, by its outer surface and
the restricted orifices not only serves as a liquid heater but it also serves as a pump to circulate the
heated liquid through the outlet port and a heat utilization device, such as a heat exchanger, and back
to the inlet port.
63

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing the impeller of the invention mounted in a closed
housing defining a liquid reservoir; and

FIG. 2 is a view of the impeller looking in the direction of the arrows 2--2 FIG. 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Referring now to the drawings, the numeral 10 defines the impeller of the invention which is adapted
to be disposed within a closed housing 12 defining a reservoir containing a heat transfer liquid. The
impeller 10 comprises a rotor 14 having a peripheral surface 16 and a central outlet cavity 18 having
an axial opening on one side while being closed on the other. Fluid passages 20 lead from the
peripheral surface 16 of the rotor into the cavity 18, the passages 20 being arranged relative to the
axis of rotation of the rotor that upon rotation thereof in a predetermined direction, as indicated by
64

the arrow 22, liquid is forced to flow from the periphery of the rotor into the outlet cavity 18.
Restricted orifices 24 are provided in each fluid passage proximate the outlet cavity 18 to cause
liquid to be heated as it flows through the passages into the outlet cavity.

Though it is within the purview of the invention for the passages to define various longitudinal paths
for liquid flow, desirably the passages are straight, as shown, and equiangularly spaced about the axis
of rotation of the rotor, the longitudinal axis of the respective passages sloping relative to the axis of
rotation in the same direction as the predetermined direction of rotation as indicated by arrow 22.

The entrances of the passages 20 at the peripheral surface 16 of the rotor are provided with scoops
25 which extend beyond the peripheral surface 16 and face in the same direction as the
predetermined direction of rotation.

In its position of use the impeller 10 is mounted in the housing 12 on a shaft 26 which extends
through a wall of the housing and may be driven in the predetermined direction 22 by any convenient
power source represented generally by the pully 28. The housing 12 has an inlet port 30 connected
to the outlet of a heat utilization device 32, such as a heat exchanger, and leading into the housing in
substantially radial alignment with the rotor. The housing 12 also has an outlet port 28 in substantial
axial alignment with the outlet opening of the outlet cavity and leading to the inlet of the heat
utilization device.

Desirably the rotor body of the impeller is made of a light-weight substance such as aluminum or
even plastic. However, such substances are subject to erosion as the rotor is driven at a high rate of
rotational speed through the liquid. To counter this problem, the scoops 25 and the restricted orifices
24 are formed on or in inserts 30, 32, respectively, having a hardness to resist such erosion. Means
are provided, such as screw threads (not shown) or an interference fit for rigidly connecting the
inserts to the rotor proximate the inlets and outlets, respectively, of the passages.

In use, the described impeller of the invention has been found to heat the liquid to a high level in a
short period of time with a high degree of efficiency and with no interruption in flow due to
cavitation.

Top ~ Home ~ Catalog ~ Links


rexresearch.com
65

Brevetto cinese per l'elettrolisi dell'acqua


Fonte: yahoo watercar mailing list
From: Frank Roberts <maagic234@yahoo.com>

The following is the english translation of a chinese patent less the patent drawings. I do not have the patent
number, just the translation of the abstract.
I hope you find it interesting.

Best Wishes
Frank Roberts

Found it! Text for Chinese watersplitter

ADVERTISEMENT
Abstract

An apparatus for generating Hydrogen and Oxygen by means of electrolysis without requiring an external power.
There are two main electrodes(the Anode and the Cathode) built at both sides of the Electrolysis compartment,
in the said compartment there are multiple Electrode plates and gas separating membranes connected in series.
At the upper part of the compartment, ducts convey Hydrogen and Oxygen separately to the repsective Gas
Concentrating compartments. There is a separation built between the Electrolysis Compartment and the Gas
concentrating Compartments. The Current Generating Tunnel is at the outskirts of the Electrolysis
Compartment, the electrolyte can flow without hindrance from these Tunnels to the Electrolysis Compartment.
Permanent magnets are fixed to the wall of the Current Generating Tunnels and Current Collecting Metal
Connectors of both Positive and Negative poles are fixed to the ends of the permanent magnets for energy
collection. These Metal Connectors are interconnected in series as shown in the drawings, the first connector is
then connected to the Cathode and the last connector is connected to the Anode of the Electrolysis
compartment.
This invention does not require an external energy or traditional power to maintain the Electrolysis process.

Claims

1. A generator of Hydrogen and Oxygen by Electrolysis, without requirement of an external energy. The housing
(3) of the device has two electrodes (the Anode(2) and Cathode(2)) connected at each end of it, inside the
housing, a Electrolysis Compartment (1) containing Gas Separating Membranes (4) inserted between multiple
Electrolytic Plates(6), these multiple sets of membranes and plates are manufactured and wrapped up by isolating
rubber frames (13), there are Gas Concentrating Compartments (7), (20) for both Hydrogen and Oxygen
separately, a division (8) is between the Gas Compartments and the Electrolysis Compartment. Some holes (5)
are drilled in the division in order to convey gas produced to the indivudual Gas Concentrating Compartment for
separate collection. The claim concerns to the Current Generating Tunnel (9) that is built around the Electrolysis
Compartment, the said Tunnel communicate with the latter at the bottom, the upper part of the tunnels also
communicate with the Electrolysis Compartment.
There are permanent magnet bars (23) fixed to the walls of the tunnel, at the ends(North and South) of the
magnet bars are the Positive electrodes and the Negative Electodes respectively(24) , (25), these electodes are
interconnected in series as shown in the drawing, being the first electode connected to the Anode and the last
one connected to the Cathode.
2. The claim concerns about a circulation pump (26) is installed in the circuit between the Current Generating
Tunnel and the Electolysis Compartment for electrolyte circulation.
3. The claim concerns about the addition of the Current Generating Tunnel (22) around the Electrolysis
Compartment.
4. The claim concerns about claims (1) and claim (3), that the isolating frames are elastomer isolating frames
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(rubber).
5. The claim concerns about claim (4) that the current producing sources are permanent magnet bars.

Description of the operation of the apparatus

An apparatus for splitting water into Hydrogen and Oxygen without the requirement of an external
power

This invention concerns a Generator of Hydrogen and Oxygen by means of electrolysis without requirement of
an external supply of energy, such as electric current, petroleum derivated products or coal.
According to Chinese Patent ZL 95220793, a type of H2-O2 Generator by electrolysis is disclosed. Such
generator has a housing and a liquid deposit, with anode and cathod on both sides of the housing, with multiple
sets of electrolysis plates and gas separating membranes inserted in the Electrolysis Compartment. At the top of
the compartment there are two gas concentrating compartments, one for the H2, and the other for the O2. In
order the generator to work, electrolyte has to be introduced into the compartment, and electricity is required.
The apparatus consumes a great deal of electricity.
The improvement of this invention is the elimination of the external power source such as electricity, petroleum
derivated products or coal for producing H2 and O2.
This is done by the following solution: an apparatus consisted of a housing with electrodes at each side of the
housing, inside the Electrolysis Compartment multiple sets of Electrolysis Plates and Gas Separating Membranes
are connected in series, each Plate and Membrane is framed by isolating elastomer, at the top of the
Compartment there are compartments for the collection of H2 and O2 separately. They are separated from the
Electrolysis Compartment by a division sheet. Holes are drilled through this sheet in order to convey the gases to
the upper compartments. Outside the Compartment wall, a Current Generating Tunnel is located, both top and
bottom of the tunnel communicate with the top and bottom of the Electrolysis Compartment. Multiple
permanent magnet bars are fixed to the wall of the Tunnel. Collecting Electodes are fixed to the north and south
ends of the magnet bars for current collection.
The first of the electode is connected to the Anode and the last point of the last electrode is connected to the
Cathode of the Electrolyser.
The apparatus works as follows: Introduce electrolyte into the Electrolyser Compartment. The electrolyte
consists of a Sodium Hydroxide solution at 20~30% (30% weight NaOH, 70% weight distilled water), activate
the pump to circulate the solution, the circulating electrolyte within the Current Generating Tunnel will interact
with the Permanet magnet bars, producing positive and negative ions, these ions cut the magnetic flux and will
induce electric currents, the Collecting Electrodes will collect the induced currents to the Anode and Cathode,
and the Electrolysis will initiate. While the process maintains and intensifies, heat will be soaked up by the
electrolyte and the liquid will self circulate through the Tunnel by convection, and finally the circulation will self-
sustain, therefore pump can be disconnected eventually. But in order to archive high production rate of gases,
the pump can maintain its functioning.

Drawings of the invention

Drawing 1 Conceptual design of the apparatus (drawing 2 B-B cut-through view)


Drawing 2 Drawing 1 A-A cut-through view of Gas Concentration Compartments
Drawing 3 Electrolytic Plate
Drawing 4 Gas Separating Membrane
Drawing 5 Connnection of the Collecting Electodes with magnet bars and Anode and Cathode
Drawing 6 Transversal view of this invention
Drawing 7 Pump location and other particulars

Referencing to Drawing 1 and 2, the apparatus has a rectangular housing (3), made of alkali resistant plastic
(such as Polyethelene or Silicone), with a removable base (19), On one side of the Electrolysis Compartment is
the Anode(2) and the Electrolytic Plate(12), on the other side is the Cathode(11) and the Electrolytic Plate (10),
67

Inside the Electrolysis Compartment (1) there are multiple sets of Electrolytic Plates (6) with Gas Separating
Membrane (4) inserted in-between. Sixty sets are used in this invention. Each membrane and its respective Plate
are built with its individual isolating elastomer frame (look at drawing 4), The rubber frame (13) is mold formed
by injection to the membrane (4), the membrane is nylon-polyester fabric, of 300 seive finess and 0.08mm thick.
The rubber frame (14) is mold formed by injection to the Electrolytic Plate(6). At the bottom of the frame there
is a channel for pressure balancing(21), also there is a returning path (15) at the bottom of the basement, through
the channels(21), each electrolytc plate element can balance the level of liquid during the operation. The Division
(8) separates the Electrolysis Compartment from the Gas Concentrating Compartments, holes (5) are drilled
through the Division, and convey the hydrogen generated at one side of the membrane to one of the gas
collecting compartment (20), the oxygen generated at the other side of the membrane is conveyed through the
another set of holes to (7). (17) and (18) are exits for the H2 and O2 respectively. Curent Generating Tunnel(9)
are located around the Electrolysis Compartment, both the top and bottom of the tunnel is connected to the top
and bottom of the compartment. Multiple permanent magnet bars are fixed to the wall of the Tunnel. For this
purpose, 40 Strong Rare Earth Magnets( BaFe) are used(See drawing 5). Collecting Electrodes (24) and (25)
are fixed to the ends of the magnet bars, according to drawing 6 they are connected in series and also fixed to
the anode and cathode of the apparatus.
Drawing 6 shows the lateral disposition of the Tunnel (22)with respect to the Electrolysis Compartment,
Drawing 7 shows the tunnel is connected to the compartment through channel (27), a circulation pump (26) is
connected between them. For a higher rate of gas production, the permanent magents bars can be replaced by
electromagnets, but then it will require an external power source.

Fonte immagini successive:

http://www.geocities.com/mj_17870/watersplitter.jpg
http://www.geocities.com/mj_17870/watersplitter2.jpg
http://www.geocities.com/mj_17870/watersplitter3.jpg
http://www.geocities.com/mj_17870/watersplitter4jpg
http://www.geocities.com/mj_17870/watersplitter5.jpg
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Fonte: http://www.wasserauto.de

Magic with Magnetism


Popular Science - June, 1944
If this experimenter is right, his discovery will upset all our accepted ideas on this familiar force.
By Alden P. Armagnac

Can a magnet take water to pieces? No, say physics textbooks. Yes, says Prof. Felix Ehrenhaft, former director
of the Physical Institute at the University of Vienna, who now carries on his research in New York. If he should
turn out to be right his findings in the realm of magnetism promise practical applications as far-reaching as the
dynamos, motors, transformers telephones, and radio that have stemmed from Faraday's fundamental research in
electricity.
For his "impossible" experiment, Dr. Ehrenhaft employs the simplest of apparatus. Two shiny rods of pure
Swedish iron, sealed in holes through opposite sides of a U-shaped tube, resemble a setup familiar to high-school
students for breaking up water into hydrogen and oxygen gases by passing electricity through it. And that is
exactly what would happen if Dr. Ehrenhaft attached electric wires from a battery to the rods. But he does no
such thing.
Instead, he uses the iron rods as pole pieces, or 'north" and "south" ends, of a magnet - either an electromagnet
or a permanent magnet. Bubbles of gas rise through the twin columns of acidulated water, to be collected and
analyzed.
As might be expected, nearly all of the gas is hydrogen, liberated by a commonplace chemical interaction
between the iron rods and the dilute sulfuric acid, one percent by volume, in the water. But the phenomenal part
of the experiment is that oxygen also turns up, Dr. Ehrenhaft recently told the American Physical Society. To be
specific, it is found in clearly measurable proportions ranging from two to 12 percent of the total volume of
gases.
When the gases obtained with a permanent magnet are separated, the larger proportion of oxygen is found above
the north pole of the magnet. After rigorous precautions - including short-circuiting the magnet poles with wire,
so that the poles will be at the same electric potential - Dr. Ehrenhaft concludes that there is only one place the
oxygen can possibly come from. And that is from water decomposed with a magnet! Without a magnet, pure
hydrogen is evolved.
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Fonte: http://www.genesisworldenergy.org

iGas Technology

The Genesis IGAS (Industrial Gas) Technology represents a breakthrough related to the large volume
production of hydrogen and oxygen gases, which can be easily used to replace natural gas, coal, diesel, and
aviation fuel.
Among other significant potential beneficiaries, GWEs introduction of the IGAS technology will allow
large grid based electrical generation facilities and utility company customers to quickly benefit from the
substantial environmental and cost reduction advantages offered by the Genesis water to fuel generation
technology. Based on the current cost of traditional fossil fuels, IGAS users will find that the cost of
converting to IGAS can be recovered within in an exceptionally short period of time.
Large-Scale Gas Production
The technology behind IGAS is similar to that utilized within GWEs gCell, of which variations are used in
its Edison and HICEF technologies. However, the IGAS technology utilizes special features that are
intended to support long-term maximum operation in rugged industrial or commercial settings.
Large high output models of single IGAS gCell Stack based systems are capable of producing between 1
million and 2 million cubic feet of gas per day. IGAS systems can be assembled using any number of IGAS
gCell Stacks, making it possible to produce ultra large volumes of gas, capable of meeting the needs of any
industrial or commercial application. Smaller IGAS systems can be configured to meet literally any gas
generation need, large or small.
Other Potential Beneficiaries Of IGAS
Besides the benefits offered to utility companies and their customers, the IGAS technology offers
significant environmental and cost reduction benefits to a wide range of other applications. Examples of
those applications include:

Steel production and other large fuel consumption industries


Ocean going ships, including cargo ships and passenger liners (using sea or fresh
water)
Commercial airliners and private aircraft
Railroad locomotives
Heating and cooling of industrial buildings or office buildings
Heating and cooling of agricultural buildings
Heat or cooling intensive manufacturing processes
Hotels, Restaurants (cooking), Hospitals
80

For a 60-day period effective October 1- November 30, 2003, World Energy Management, the licensing
arm of Genesis World Energy, will make the IGAS Technology available through license to companies
who are interested in applying it to industrial and commercial applications.
The Genesis gCell Technology
Genesis IGAS is based on a revolutionary technology recently introduced by the Genesis Team in the form
of the Edison Device - a residential and commercial energy generation unit that creates gas and electrical
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81

A Simple Device For The Production Of Free Energy


By Mike Johnston
Copyright 9/9/00

I must confess a continuing fascination with water and consequently I am always looking for new and/or unique
ways to further develop it's potential as a source of energy. I found one such source in an old chemistry textbook
that I was leafing through this week. This paper is based upon an experiment that I found therein.
It is a simple experiment that is designed to show some of the properties of solvents and solutes, specifically in
this case how the properties of water are affected by the addition of sugar (Glucose: C6H12O6). The fact that
water dissolves sugar implies that H2O molecules prefer to exist in the solution state rather than in the pure
water state. So then we know that H2O molecules must have a smaller tendency to escape from a solution into
the vapor state than they do from pure water.
An experimental demonstration of this fact can be accomplished by setting up two beakers, one (cup 1, Fig. 1)
containing pure water and the other (Fig. 1, Cup 2) a sugar water solution, under an airtight container such as a
bell jar (Fig 1).

As time goes on we will observe that the level of pure water in Cup 1 drops while the level of the solution in
cup 2 rises. This observation indicates that there is a transference of water from pure solvent (Cup 1) to solution
(Cup 2) through the vapor phase. This transfer occurs because the escaping tendency, or Vapor Pressure, of
pure water is higher than the escaping tendency of water from the sugar-water solution.
I don't feel that I need to spend any more time on the nature of solute/solvent relationships or the purpose of
this paper. The next question that presents itself to the Free Energy researcher at this point would be "How long
would the cycle of of H2O molecules exiting the pure water cup and entering the solution cup continue?" The
obvious answers would be;
a) Until Cup 2 filled up and overflowed or
b) Until Cup 1 was empty
c)Until the concentration of sugar molecules in Cup 2 became so diluted that it would approximate pure
water (this may just cause the process to slow even further as the solution would still contain sugar molecules no
matter how diluted it became).
I don't believe that vapor saturation of the air within the enclosure would be a limiting factor in this experiment
as the air is just the transfer medium here and in fact vapor saturation would mean that there would be MORE
free H2O molecules to enter the solution in Cup 2, and even at vapor saturation, for every H2O molecule that
entered the solution cup another one could exit the pure water cup. To further accelerate the ongoing reaction
then it might be beneficial to remove some or all of the air within the enclosure. This would create an
atmosphere with a high concentration of water molecules or, in the case of starting with a vacuum, an
atmosphere composed TOTALLY of water vapor. Which again, would accelerate the process.
82

Next, to try to design some time of mechanism which will produce energy from this process we need to make
some additions to the basic design in this experiment. My ideas or such a design are in Figure 2.

In this version of the device you will note the modifications as being; the addition of a tube which connects Cup
1 with Cup 2 and allows the free circulation of water between the two. Also added is a semi-permiable barrier in
Cup 2 which would allow the free passage of H2O molecules but block the passage of the much larger sugar
molecules.
I believe that the effect of these modifications on the performance of the entire system would be significant. On
the one hand, since the transfer of H2O molecules between the cup of pure water and the cup of sugar-water
solution takes place through the atmosphere above the cups and at the surface of the liquid in the two cups, I
don't feel that the modifications I suggest would adversely affect this process. On the other hand water could
now circulate between the two cups via the portal of the semi-permiable barrier and the connecting tube. The
anticipated outcome would be that, as the H2O molecules enter the sugar-water solution above the semi-
permiable barrier, an equal number of H2O molecules would exit the sugar-water solution through the semi-
permiable barrier and return through the connecting tube to the beaker of pure water. This return would be
facilitated by the fact that the air pressure pushing down on the surfaces of the liquids in the two cups would
force their levels to be equalized and so the level in the sugar-water container could no longer rise and the level
in the pure water cup no longer fall. This would imply a continuous circulation of water from Cup 1, into the
vapor phase and then entering into the sugar-water solution in Cup 2 where air pressure will drive these
newcomers through the semi-permiable membrane and back into the pure water in Cup 1 through the connecting
tube.
I believe that this cycle would continue indefinitely as long as the original, necessary conditions for it to occur
are not altered. As depicted so far it is a continuous cycle of motion created by taking advantage of natural
phenomena. No laws violated and free energy is being produced. The main problem that I see here is that it
would be a system which was, to the casual observer, static. This is because the flow would be taking place so
slowly as to be unnoticeable to the naked eye but it would be taking place nevertheless.
I considered this problem for a while. I wanted a system which could produce at least a tiny amount of actual
electrical energy which could be measured. I thought of a couple of different ways to do it and settled on the one
depicted in Figure 3. This is not the ONLY way it could be done and probably not even the best but it will serve
to illustrate my point.
83

As you can see I have moved Cup 2 to a significant height above Cup 1. The limits of this upward placement
would be fairly large. As water vapor would exit to the atmosphere in a totally random way and be evenly
distributed through said environment then it would fill in the available space no matter what the configuration of
the placement of the two cups. This allows energy to be generated from the kinetic energy of the falling excess
water from Cup 2 as it builds up. This water would exit through a mechanical valve which would be operated by
the weight/pressure exerted on it by the liquid in Cup 2. As the water in Cup 2 rose it would reach a
predetermined level and this would cause the valve to open and dump the excess water down a tube and across
some type of device which would utilize this falling water to generate electricity. The speed with which the
process takes place could also be increased by increasing the surface area of the water in the two cups.
Admittedly this device could probably not generate much electricity and only intermittently at best, unless it was
engineered to release water in a steady stream at the exact rate which it entered the second cup at. In that case it
would have a continuous output. My main motivation in creating this device was as a simple mechanism to show
the possibility of creating overunity within a closed system. I think it demonstrates that concept.
END
84

Using A Fuel Cell To Produce Hydrogen


By Michael Johnston
Copyright 2003

From the time of Michael Faraday the idea of using hydrogen fuel to produce hydrogen fuel has lingered on
the lunatic fringes of electrochemistry. For the most part it is dismissed out of hand as just another impossible
perpetual motion device. The illustration below depicts what such an impossible system might look like.

At first glance this does seem to be impossible for several reasons. Mostly having to do with the Second Law
of Thermodynamics and the Conservation of Energy rule. But after carefully considering the operating processes
of all components involved in such a system some ideas for potential modifications come to mind which make it
look less and less impossible and more like it just might be deserving of some serious experimental research. In
this paper I will attempt to explain WHY I think this is so and detail my reasons for thinking as I do. And I will
try to do so within the bounds of currently accepted scientific principles.

First let's consider the electrolysis reaction. I won't go into excessive detail here as I have already done that
elsewhere in my collected papers on this site and am in the process of writing an even more detailed explanation
which will be posted on the site as soon as I finish it. The essential facts are that the electrolysis reaction depends
upon a certain minimum voltage (potential difference) being maintained between the two electrodes of the cell.
This is for the operation of the cell only. The amount of Hydrogen and Oxygen produced by the cell is
determined by the amount of current (amps) flowing through the cell. So at that same applied voltage You can
produce a gram or a pound of hydrogen within the same time period depending only on the amount of current
which flows through the cell.

In a fuel cell a voltage is produced. This voltage is 1.23 volts (0.8 volts under load) and it is produced and
maintained whether there is any current flowing or not as long as Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are present and
available to react. This almost seems to be two sides of the same coin and is too often interpreted that way but it
isn't that easy. You see, unlike the fuel cell, the voltage required by the electrolysis cell is not identical in every
85

case. It depends on the oxidation potentials of the reactants involved (including the electrolyte being used in the
cell), the concentration of electrolyte and the ratio of positive to negative ions present.

So the minimum voltage required by an electrolysis cell with NaOH electrolyte would be 1.47 volts. This is
larger than the voltage produced by the H2 + O2 reaction in a fuel cell and is determined by the difference
between the oxidation potential of the Sodium ion (+2.71 volts) and the OH- ion (-1.23 volts) or +1.47 volts.
From this data comes the belief that it takes more energy to produce H2 and O2 from water than is given off by
recombining the two. This is correct in this particular sense but misleading as it seems to imply that H+ and OH-
ions are the only reactants in an electrolysis cell. This is not true as the added energy requirement of the above
example proves. After all, the oxidation potentials of a reaction are the same no matter which direction it
proceeds in, they just change polarity. So, if the only reactants involved in both the fuel cell and the electrolysis
cell were only hydrogen and oxygen then the amount of energy released in the fuel cell would be identical to the
amount of energy required by the electrolysis cell (+/- 1.23 volts) ignoring resistance effects in both. Again,
remember that the above example applies only to an NaOH electrolyte at 1 m concentration. Other electrolytes
would be different. H2SO4 (2H+ [SO4]-- ) Sulfuric Acid, for example has an oxidation potential of only -0.11
volts.

The first fact then, which must be understood and accepted in order to see the veracity of the concepts set
forth in this paper is that; the fuel cell reaction and the electrolysis reaction are actually not the same reaction.
They are similar in that one combines H2 and O2 into water and the other separates water into H2 and O2 but
different because in the combination reaction H2 and O2 are the only reactants involved and in the separation
reaction the electrolyte is also involved and it is the electrolyte which determines the amount of energy required
for the separation. So the hydrogen and oxygen produced are more accurately described as a by-product of the
interaction of the electrolyte with the water molecules, not as a direct effect of the electric charge on the water
molecules.

Even if the voltage required was identical to the voltage produced the above system would still not work, if
constructed as pictured, due to the effects of resistance in the wires and the cell(s) and even if those resistance
effects could somehow be eliminated, such a system could only ever produce exactly the amount of hydrogen
and oxygen that it would need for it's own operation which would qualify it to be a scientific curiosity but
nothing more. This is because of the current that flows in each. The amount of hydrogen produced by an
electrolysis cell depends solely on the amount of current flowing through the cell (as long as the minimum
potential difference between the electrodes is maintained) and the amount of current produced by the fuel cell is
determined by the amount of H2 and O2 that are combined. In a straight DC circuit the current is the same at all
points and so the fuel produced would be exactly equal to the fuel consumed in the above illustration.

Ok, so it takes more energy (in volts) to produce H2 by electrolysis (with most electrolytes) than is liberated
(in volts) when combining the end products produced by the electrolysis cell. So what? That just proves that you
can't use a fuel cell to operate an electrolysis cell, right? Not necessarily. Since we have two different chemical
reactions (fuel cell/electrolysis cell) and we can easily see that the energy required/liberated is not the same in
both then we realize that we aren't really trying to make a single chemical reaction be exothermic in both
directions (the impossible scenario). What we are doing is trying to maximize the efficiency of an entire system
of which the chemical reactions are but one component. We must remember too that the chemical reactions in
the fuel cell and the electrolysis cell are independent of each other as both are complete oxidation/reduction
reactions and both are also independent of the metallic portions of the circuit in that they don't directly react with
the metals as they would in a battery.

This is a very simple and yet very important observation. The process of electrical conduction in a metallic
circuit is similar and yet at the same time very different from electrical conduction in a liquid/chemical circuit.
Once we have a charge flowing in the metallic portion of the circuit we are dealing with a whole different set of
rules and we have many more options at hand that can be used to manipulate said charge in such a way that it
will be to our advantage.
86

The illustration below offers a look at what a system which would enable a fuel cell to run an electrolysis cell
might look like. Obviously this is not a completed blueprint for such a system, only a starting point but it gives
the idea of what would be necessary to create such a system and I will go on to explain the theoretical reasons
why I feel that such a system just might work as intended if properly engineered.

The most obvious change from the first illustration is that I have separated the fuel cell and the electrolysis
cell by putting them on two different circuits. This will allow us to modify the way in which electrical energy is
handled/utilized in each circuit. This will not work with straight DC current though. To overcome this obstacle I
propose using a device such as an oscillator to turn the charge in the primary circuit into pulsed DC. It would do
this by essentially turning the current from the fuel cell off and on very rapidly without either (a) using any of the
available energy or (b) requiring any outside source of energy for it's operation. By doing this we open the way
for the next modification; the addition of an induction transformer to transfer the energy of the primary circuit to
the secondary circuit.

It is true that we are dealing with very small amounts of energy here and the method that I illustrate may not
be the best or most efficient way to accomplish the task at hand so it is intended to be a simple illustration which
communicates the concept in easy to understand terms. I have consulted with several people who are fairly
knowledgeable in regard to electronics as to whether the circuit above could be made to work as described. In
just the metallic portion of the circuit all agreed that indeed this is possible. Some suggested using a MOSFET
charge controller and others predicted that it would require custom made components but all agreed that it was
possible to do it.

What are the potential advantages of constructing a system like this though? Now that we have the system
this far we can begin to look at the next set of relevant concepts. We would want to use the transformer to
create a situation where the voltage in the primary circuit is increased. This will limit the amount of current that
can flow in the primary circuit and, as a result, limit/reduce the amount of hydrogen and oxygen used in the fuel
cell. Remember that current in the fuel cell depends on the number of atoms that are being combined in a certain
amount of time. The lower the current the fewer atoms that react, the less H2 that is used. For example, let's say
that we have a 10 watt fuel cell. Since volts (E) x amps (I) = watts (W) then that would be 1.23 volts x 8.2 amps
= 10 watts at no load voltage or 0.7 volts x 14.3 amps if you use the voltage under load value. So if we then use
our induction coil to boost the voltage to say, 6 volts, we would then only be able to pass 1.7 amps of current in
the primary circuit and the total energy would still be 10 watts.

In the transformer's secondary coil we step-down the above (6 v) voltage from the primary circuit to 2 volts.
87

The transformer changes the entire 10 watts from the primary into a different form and so, using Ohm's laws we
see that we can pass 5 amps of current at 2 volts in the secondary circuit, through the electrolysis cell. The end
result then would be that we are using 1.7 amps worth of hydrogen fuel in the fuel cell and producing 5 amps
worth of hydrogen fuel in the electrolysis cell. In other words we are producing over 2.5 times the amount of
hydrogen in the electrolysis cell as is being used in the fuel cell. This seems impossible at first but we are after all,
producing 10 watts of energy in the primary circuit and using 10 watts of energy in the secondary so both
conservation of energy and the second law of thermodynamics are left unchallenged and yet we are producing
enough fuel to power our fuel cell with plenty to spare.

Now we are beyond the scientific curiosity stage with this concept and into really useful territory. Imagine
the potential of such a system. If the extra hydrogen and oxygen are combined in another fuel cell then the
electrical energy produced in that reaction is free energy. If the water produced by the electrolysis cells is
recycled back into the electrolysis cells then you have a portable, self-contained power system which could be
used anywhere that energy is needed such as homes, businesses, cars, boats, spacecraft, aircraft etc. Considering
those potential benefits I believe that it will indisputably be worth the effort and expense to carry out the
experiments necessary to confirm the validity of this concept.

I plan to construct a prototype of this system myself as soon as time and money permit. Until that time I
intend this paper to be put into the public domain so that anyone who wants to experiment with the concepts
outlined herein may do so freely. In initial experiments it might be easier (cheaper) to replace the fuel cell with a
1.5 volt flashlight battery or several of them in parallel in order to achieve the desired current/power level. This
might allow you to work out the details of the electrical portion of the system more quickly. My only
requirements are that anyone using these concept notify me of the results of their experiments and, if you either
publish the results of such experiments or produce a (working) device intended for sale, based on this research,
that you credit me as the originator of the concept.

-END-

BACK
88

UFO Power

What could be more exotic than discovering the power source of those mischievous little "Visitors" that have
been plaguing our skies for untold millennia? In Jacques Vallee's book "Passage to Magonia" he traces various
stories, legends and myths back as far as recorded history goes and came to some interesting conclusions. Not
only were the current abduction stories similar to these but also the vehicles described. One thing that stood out
for me was his idea that this phenomenon seems to appear to the human observer to be always something just
beyond prevailing technological capabilities of the time. For
example, in the 1800's they were thought to be "airships" (blimps, dirigibles) and sure enough, shortly thereafter,
we had blimps. Later on we saw them as jet powered, then nuclear powered. Now we are assuming inter-
dimentional travel.
Another aspect of this is that, during reported encounters, the occupants of these vehicles are often reported as
speaking to their abductees either verbally or telepathically ( I'm not even going to go there). During these
conversations the abductees often ask how the ships are powered. In Response, the occupants usually tell them
something that again, relates to the technology of the time. Or soon to emerge technology. I mention this
because, in reading modern abduction reports, I have often seen water mentioned as being a part of this power
source.
I recall one abductees report as stating that the power unit featured two "tubes" of water which ringed the
ship. These tubes being side by side and rotating in opposite directions. Think about it for a minute. What
would happen in a setup like that?
Do we even know? What if the water in each tube was appositely ionized? What if a high energy charge was put
through the system?
I didn't mean to get stuck on electrolysis like this. I had hoped that the conversation would explore new areas.
It hasn't really so I thought I'd write this up as a new avenue. The focus is not supposed to be on UFO's. It is
intended to be in theorizing what such a setup would do. Maybe that isn't even their power source at all. Maybe
they (if they exist) are giving us periodic "hints". If so let's think about every possible angle of the thing. What if
you created a generator out of water filled tubing? What would be the result? Would it behave EXACTLY like a
metal conductor? Would some laws not apply and perhaps others be
discovered?
89

rexresearch.com
Home ~ Catalog ~ Links

Electromagnetic Ship Propulsion

Popular Science (January 1966); Silent Sea Engine for Nuclear Subs
Popular Science (January 1966), pp. 113-115; How to Build Your Own Sea Engine
Product Engineering (February 24, 1969); Magnetic Propulsion May Be Ready For Small Subs
Discover Magazine (May, 1980s); The Magnetic Ship
Warren A. Rice, Warren: US Patent # 2,997,013; "Propulsion System"
Additional References

Popular Science (January 1966), pp. 113-115, 188

Silent Sea Engine for Nuclear Subs

James Busse

In the silent world of underwater warfare, the slightest noise can bring sudden death to a submarine.
The electronic eats of the enemy can detect conventional engines and screw propellers as far as 100
miles away. A computer interprets the sounds and directs a deadly homing torpedo to their source in
minutes. How do you go about maneuvering a 3260-ton nuclear submarine without making a sound?
Two medical researchers at St. Louis Universitys School of Medicine may have found the answer
--- a revolutionary undersea propulsion unit dubbed the sea engine.

The interesting phenomenon upon which the sea engine is based was first observed in 1964 by Alfred
W. Richardson, a physiologist, and Sujoy K. Guha, a young biomedical engineer from India. The two
men were looking for a method of stimulating the flow of blood through the human body. They tried
various types of mechanical pumps without success. The pumping action was too irregular.

While investigating the effects of magnetic fields on weak salt solutions similar to blood, the two
researchers stumbled across an interesting fact They could make the electrically charged atoms in
such solutions move in one direction by applying a magnetic field in just the right way. Then they
made a second important discovery: The moving atoms dragged water molecules along with them so
that the entire solution moved.
90

Richardson and Guha suddenly realized that they had the makings of a new type of pump. They
quickly assembled an experimental model and found, as they had expected, that the device really
worked. Their pump consisted of nothing more than an unimpressive collection of junk-box
electronic components. Yet the instant they connected it to a source of electrical power, a weak salt
solution inside it began to move. A number of tests were made and new models were constructed,
some of which permitted very accurate control over the quantity of liquid being pumped, and others
which made the liquid move in a series of pulses, duplicating the pumping action of the human heart.
Amazingly, the pumps could move a variety of liquids --- including ordinary tap water --- without
difficulty. Then a visiting scientist from the Office of Naval Research suggested they try pumping
sweater. The pump worked better than ever.

The sea engine is a form of electromagnetic pump, which is nothing new. Units working on the same
principle have been used to pump liquid metals such as sodium through nuclear reactors for coolant
purposes. However, a pump had never before been constructed to move seawater --- electronically,
with no moving parts, with no sound. And thats what intrigues naval engineers.

The Navy Problem ~

Nuclear submarine skippers have had to develop a variety of ways of escaping detection. At times,
they dive to fantastic depths where sub noises may be confused with other ocean sounds. Or they
may sit quietly on the bottom and wait for the enemy to come to them. In any case, starting the
engine may mean immediate destruction.

An electromagnetic pump large enough to propel a submarine would require a lot of electrical
power, but this would present no power on a nuclear submarine. Naval engineers made a study of an
advanced pump constructed by Richardson and Guha, and found that conversion from pump to sea
engine necessitated only minor changes.

A submarine would be equipped with two sea engines: one to port and one to starboard. Each engine
would operate independently, the direction andforce4 of its propulsive jet of seawater changed by
the mere flick of a switch. In this way, the sub could move forward, backward, or turn by pumping
water in one direction on one side and in the other direction on the other side.

Most likely, sea engines would be installed along with conventional high-speed screw engines for
normal use. The sea engines enable the sub to engage in silent warfare by gliding along the ocean
bottom and maneuvering close to its prey.

How It Works ~

The simplest form of sea engine consists of two metal-plate electrodes mounted parallel to each
other inside a rectangular chamber called a cannula. An opening at each end of the cannula permits
seawater to flow between the electrodes. The cannula is mounted between the poles of a powerful
electromagnet, so that the magnetic field is concentrated on the water between them.

When alternating current is applied to the two electrodes, large numbers of ions --- sodium and
chlorine atoms in sweater --- are immediately attracted to the water between them. These ions
attempt to move back and forth between the electrodes. Their individual magnetic fields (each ion is
surrounded by its own tiny EM field) are repelled, however, by the powerful external magnetic field.
Many of the ions are thus forced to move sideways, away from the electrodes. As they move along,
they drag water molecules with them, causing the water to move out of the cannula. More seawater
enters from the other opening, producing a continuous flow.
91

Torpedoes & Destroyers ~

There is every reason to believe that a sea engine will power a radically now type of torpedo. The
ones were using now produce a relatively loud sound, giving an alert enemy a chance to duck. A
somewhat slower fish, powered by a silent sea engine using high-capacity batteries, would change
this.

Highly specialized types of surface ships, such as the hunter-killer destroyers, could also profit from
periods of silent running with sea engines.

How about the pumping of blood --- the application of the EM pump that Richardson and Guha first
set out to explore? Experiments are currently under way to use a modified sea engine to temporarily
replace the human heart during surgical operations. Another model may one day by used to pump
waste from a patients body during long operations.

Fifteen years ago, a government report said: Undersea warfare is a deadly game of blindmans
bluff, in which the winning side is likely to be that with the most acute hearing. A footnote might
add, and the quietest engines.

Popular Science (January 1966), pp. 113-115

How to Build Your Own Sea Engine

James Busse

Switch on the power and watch a stream of slat water mysteriously begin to flow around and around
a closed loop of plastic tubing. How? Build your own sea engine --- a fascinating gadget for the
amateur scientist or a top-flight science-fair project. It costs just a few dollars. There are many other
things about it that still puzzle scientists; perhaps you can make an improvement.
92

Make an electromagnet from an isolation transformer with a 100-watt rating. Cut through the
transformer laminations in two places with a hacksaw (see drawing below) and remove these pieces.
Next, cut a 5/8 gap (no larger) in the remaining laminations. Connect primary and secondary
windings in series (A to B in the schematic below). Connect C and D to the AC line. Quickly test the
gap for a magnetic field with a screwdriver tip. Try connecting A and C together and B and D to the
AC line, and again test the gap. One hookup will give a much stronger field than the other: thats the
one to use.

Make a cannula out of a length of plastic tubing. It must fit into the magnet gap. Two copper or
stainless steel electrode plates are mounted inside the cannula. Copper is best, but is attacked by salt
water and eventually it has to be replaced.

Carefully solder wire leads to the electrodes. They leave the cannula through snug holes sealed with
a good cement. Use the same cement to attach ends to the cannula. The ends have holes fitted with
short lengths of glass tubing. Two tiny holes drilled through the top of the cannula will allow
captured air to escape, permitting it to fill with water. The holes can later be sealed to prevent
leakage. Run a length of plastic tubing in a closed loop from one end of the cannula to the other. A
T-connection in the loop will aid in filling.
93

The Assembly ~

Use stove bolts to hold the transformer laminations together. Mount it on a base, with some type of
supports to keep the tubing at the level of the cannula. Switch S1 is optional. Do not use a lower-
wattage resistor for R1. Since it will give off some heat, mount it and R2 (optional) on a heat-sink.

Fill a glass with tap water and let it sit for a day to eliminate air [or boil it]. Add half a teaspoon of
table salt and stir until dissolved. Carefully fill the cannula and tubing with the salt water. Work out
all the air bubbles.

Check all electrical connections before applying power to the model. Inspect the cannula for leaks,
particularly where the lead wires and glass tubes pass through the walls, If everything is okay, plug it
into an outlet and throw the switch. Watch tiny dust particles and other impurities in the water to
detect flow. If there is no visible movement, try adding a tiny drop of ink to the water as an indicator
[or install a flow meter].

Try various resistances for R2. Eliminate it entirely and note the result. Vary the resistance of R1 and
see what happens. With a little experimentation, youll quickly find the best settings for maximum
pumping action. Watch the effect of increased conductivity (adding more salt) on flow rate.

Parts List ~

R1 --- 20-ohm, 160-watt wire-wound power resistor


R2 --- 100-ohm, 25-watt fixed wire-wound power resistor
S1 --- Single-pole, single-throw switch rated at 6 amps or better, optional
T1 --- 115-120 volt AC isolation transformer rated at 100 watts or better
Misc. --- Small sheet of copper or stainless steel, wire, solder, transformer mounting brackets, plastic
tubing, glass tubing, sheet plastic for tubing supports, AC power cord, &c

Figure 1 ~ Arrangement of electromagnet with cannula, containing electrodes positioned in the 5/8
gap, is shown in cross-section. In the schematic at right, S1 is the switch, R1 and R2 the power
resistors, T1 the electromagnet. Connect the primary and secondary of T1 together as described for
the strongest magnetic field. Leads A and D and B and C are the end leads of the primary and
secondary windings, respectively. Cut off or tape any adjustable-voltage taps on T1; these
connections are not used. Be sure to remove the plug from the socket before making any
adjustments.

Product Engineering (February 24, 1969)

Magnetic Propulsion May Be Ready For Small Subs

Today, electromagnetic propulsion (EMP) for submarines --- a propellerless and therefore silent and
maintenance-free way to drive a craft through water --- is getting new attention. A hypothetical
design for a 15-ton sub using this form of propulsion was presented at the recent SAE meeting in
Detroit by Dr Stewart Way of Westinghouse R&D Center, Pittsburgh.

According to Dr Way, a Russian inventor has already begun to test a prototype like the on Way
suggests, and engineers at the Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, indicate an intention of soon
building a similar prototype of their own.

Repulsive Principle ~
94

Way tested the first prototype, a 10-ft model, more than two years ago (Prod. Engg., September 12,
1966, p. 39). Since then, he a others have worked, off and on, to explore the idea. The US Navy had
been keenly interested in the concept from 1958 to 1961 but had found the outlook poor for
practical application of the theory.

Latest in superconducting magnet technology may have changed that outlook, Dr Way believes, by
greatly increasing the power plants efficiency.

The solid-state propulsion principle is as simple as high school physics. If a wire is placed between
the poles of a U magnet and current is passed through the wire, the wire jumps away from the
magnet, in response to Lorentz forces. Make a submarine the magnet and the surrounding water the
wire, and you have an underwater vessel with a no-moving-parts propulsion system.

Super Magnets for Super Subs ~

For his 15-ton vessel, about 24 feet long, Dr Way concludes that two tons of batteries could furnish
enough energy to drive the current through sea water. Reaction with a superconducting magnet
aboard the craft could propel the submarine at about 6 knots. And the 2-man vessel could cruise
more than 9 hours at a time, Way says.

Ways 10ft earlier prototype weighed 900 lb and had 300 lb of batteries, which had to be recharged
after about 15 min. It had a conventional rather than superconducting magnet, and its top speed was
only about knot.

The researcher says the advent of the practical superconducting magnet, which draws no power on
board, had vastly increased an EMP crafts potential range and speed. He suggests that someday
mammoth EMP cargo submarines with displacements of 1`00,000 tons may be hauling freight
silently through the ocean depths at speeds up to 25 knots. The energy for generating the current
around these supersubs would come from nuclear power plants.

Feasible Today?

Right now, EMP may be highly suited to small research submarines, Dr Way says, and he would like
to see a full-scale prototype developed in this country for practical evaluation.

Silence of operation would mean research subs could literally sneak up on fish. Water around them
would not be agitated, and ocean-bottom materials wouldnt be stirred up. Dr Way estimates tht
overall disturbance of the ocean would be reduced 90%. A small electromagnetic force would be
acting over a large area, rather than a large physical force acting over a very small area, as with a
propeller.

Other Advantages ~

In addition, an EMP sub would be more maneuverable than a conventionally propelled craft. At slow
forward speeds, conventional submarines dont respond well to lateral or yaw changes of direction.
Auxiliary propellers to correct this deficiency only add to ocean disturbance. An EMP sub could
easily be designed to provide lateral and turning forces as well as fine control of elevation.

Dr Way also suggests it may be possible to reduce hull drag by using the Lorentz force s on the wter
that surrounds the hull, though he didnt consider this effect in his design.

Design Considerations ~
95

To be sure, the designer of a working EMP sub would face some problems. To begin with, the
external magnetic field would attract metal objects on the ocean floor (treasure hunters might
consider this a boon). Dr Way judges that his 15-ton model would have to steer clear of iron objects
by at least 5 ft, else it might have to deenergize its superconducting magnet in order to get free.

The crews proximity to magnetic fields inside the sub is another problem. But Dr Way reasons it can
be solved by placing the field coil slightly aft and the crew well forward, with an iron shield between.

Also, liquid helium would have to be circulated around the superconducting magnet to maintain it at
cryogenic temperature. But Dr Way thinks an on-board refrigeration plant would not be necessary;
the rate at which the helium would boil off is not excessive. However, the lost helium would have to
be replenished periodically.

Discover Magazine (May, 1980s, Date/Author Unknown)

The Magnetic Ship

Anyone who has played with magnets knows it is possible to push one magnet along by forcing the
north or south pole of another close to the same pole of the first. Such a magnetic shove wouldnt be
a bad form of propulsion if there were a way to keep it going. In fact, some Japanese scientists are
trying to propel ships using this principle --- but instead of forcing actual magnets close to the ones
built into their ships, they continually generate repulsing magnetic fields in the surround seawater to
push vessels along. Yoshiro Saji and his colleagues at the Kobe University of Mercantile Marine in
Kobe, Japan, are convinced that their method of electromagnetic propulsion has the potential to
provide more efficient, faster way of powering even large tankers.

Saji begins with a large electromagnet mounted along the ships sides. An electric current from on-
board generators is then passed from one side of the ship to the other through conductive seawater,
creating a magnetic force that pushes against the ships magnet. The seawater is driven backwards,
and the ship is pushed forward, As the ship moves ahead, a current continually flows through a
constant repulsive field to drive it onward, In a sense the ship is lifting itself by its own bootstraps.

The idea of electromagnetic propulsion was first developed in the 1950s primarily by Stewart Way,
then a consultant for Westinghouse Electric Corporation. He wanted to use it for submarines, since
96

at the higher speeds promised by electromagnetic propulsion it would make them faster than surface
vessels, which are hindered by waves. In 1968 Way constructed a 10-ft working model of an
electromagnetically propelled submarine using conventional magnets. But a full-scale version of his
test vessel would have required magnets weighing 500,000 tons --- about 80 times the total weight
of a Polaris submarine. Lightweight superconducting magnets could have solved the weight problem,
but at the time they were prohibitively expensive to operate. Work on electromagnetic propulsion the
US came to a standstill.

Sajis recent work in Japan followed the development of highly efficient niobium-titanium
superconductors, cooled by liquid helium to a temperature of 550 F. Armed with these new
materials, his group has built two experimental scale models that he says prove the feasibility of EM
propulsion. The second and larger model is nearly 12 ft long, weighs 1650 lb, and has a
superconducting magnet with a field 60,000 times stronger than the Earths natural field.
Experiments have shown that it can travel about 1.5 miles per hour.

Extrapolating from his studies, Saji believes that a full-scale, 10,000-ton submarine tanker can
achieve a top speed of 100 knots, or 115 mph; the fastest submarines, now limited by water
resistance to the screw propeller, cannot exceed 70 knots, or 81 mph. Todays surface vessels,
because of wave drag, are much slower. Saji estimates the cost of building the sub would be
comparable to the cost of a conventional tanker of the same size. And he predicts that the subs
demand for fuel --- to deed the onboard generator that powers the electromagnet and the seawater
current --- would be less than the fuel needs of a traditional tanker.

Although there are no current plans to put Sajis studies to practical use, the principles of EM
propulsion have other potential application.

Yoshiro SAJI ~ Japan Patent JP 61-188297

US Patent # 2,997,013
(August 22, 1961)

Propulsion System

Warren A. Rice

The present invention relates to a propulsion system for vessels traveling in an ionic media and more
particularly relates to drive systems wherein the outer surface of the vessel constitutes an electrolytic
cell employing the ambient ionic media as an operating electrolyte. Still more particularly the present
97

invention relates to a vessel propulsion drive requiring no moving parts and wherein the thrust is
accomplished electromagnetically to promote laminar fluid flow at the interphase between vessel and
media.

The instant drive or propulsion system is applicable to all vessels, such as ships, submarines,
torpedoes, and the like traveling in salt water. Insofar as can be experimentally shown the device also
has utility as a space drive system for imparting thrust to a vessel traveling in an ionic atmosphere,
for example, space.

It has long been known that when an electrical current is passed through a magnetic field that a
thrust is accomplished which obeys te left hand rule and which is of a magnitude directly
proportional to the magnetic field strength and the current density. Such electrical principles are
applied in electromagnetic pumps for the handling, for example, of liquid material which is an
electrolyte. Such a device is illustrated in US Patent # 2,786,416 issued to Alan Fenemore (March
26, 1957).

Similarly, particle acceleration in vacuum tubes has demonstrated the concept of thrust obtained by
intersecting lines of magnetic flux with a suitable current flow in an ionic atmosphere. Reference is
made to US Patent # 2,397,891 to Donald Kerst (Februarry 21, 1950).

However, until the instant invention there was no appreciation of the application of the known
principles to the problem of propelling a vessel in an electrolyte and space.

It has now been found that the structural members of the vessel itself can be utilized to generate a
thrust of sufficient magnitude to be useful. It has also been found that the flow obtained at the
interphase between hull and fluid media is substantially laminar so as to impart an added credit to the
concept of vessel propulsion by material reduction in friction.

Thus, the hull itself generates the force to propel the vessel and the hull form imparts direct surface
thrust in contrast, for example, to prior art propeller propulsion and its accompanying turbulent flow.

Accordingly one of the objects is to provide a propulsion means integrated into the hull structure of
the vessel to be propelled.

Still another object is to provide a hull surface capable of serving as a cell in an ionic media so as to
provide desired EM force.

Other objects include the provision of a highly efficient propulsion means eliminating the necessity
for intricate mechanical movements extending into the liquid media to require intricate and expensive
seal means. These objects include obvious design simplification which can result from the adoption
of the presently described propulsion means.

In the drawings:
98

Figure 1 is a schematic perspective view of a tube across which is gapped a magnetic flux field and
showing an EMF crossing the gap using, for example, sodium chloride in water as the ionic media,
and indicating the direction of force generated by the tube.

Figure 2 is a perspective schematic view of a tube encasing, for example, the hull or shell of a
projectile, vessel, or the like where the EMF is generated by the cell established by the silver hull and
the magnesium sleeve and where the magnetic flux lines are available from permanent magnets used
as spacers.

Figure 3 is a schematic view of a device which also utilizes a cell created by structural portions of the
hull separated by suitable insulating strips and having a permanent magnet internally oriented so as to
establish magnetic flux lines intersectable by the EMF established by the cell in the electrolyte to
provide a thrust force in the direction indicated.

Figure 4 illustrates a hull structure in schematic cross section indicating a segmentalized external
system of alternate N and S magnetic poles supplied with an EMF from a suitable generator and
being conducted by the electrolyte or ionic media in which the hull is immersed.

Figure 5 illustrates in schematic perspective a system in accord with the present invention whereby
the hull establishes an electrolytic cell and the magnetic flux density is obtained by the use of a
generator-served electromagnet.
99

General Description ~

In electromagnetic phenomena it has long been known that if a current is passed across a magnetic
field a force is set up which generally is dependent upon the flux D, the distance between conductors,
and the amperage or current. The general formula may be expressed as:

Thrust in kilograms = (10.2 x 10-8 [flux density (gauss) x d (centimeters) x I (amperes)]

Conversion to pounds of thrust is accomplished by multiplying the thrust in kilograms b the rough
factor of 2.2.

Experimental work based on this data has generally validated this above expression and
supplementally has shown that the thrust is a reaction to the movement of the electrolyte through
which the current passes. Viewed in a vacuum the thrust may be expressed in terms of ionic drive
employing beta particle emission with the bonus obtained by appreciation of mass. Further, the flow
pattern appears laminar in nature in contrast to a type of thrust imparted by a driven propeller, the
latter being characterized as turbulent. Peculiarly the laminar flow is substantially independent of
hull design, that is, the hull design becomes considerably less critical assuming that the entire hull is
used as a drive fixture.

In general a magnetic field is established using components of the vessel as alternate N and S poles.
As between these structurally established poles a magnetic flux is established through an ionic media,
for example, an ionized atmosphere such as space or an electrolyte such as salt water. An electric
current, also emanating from the structural members of the vessel passes through the ionic media
cutting the magnetic lines of force. The result is a movement of the electrolyte in obedience to the
right hand rule. The movement is equivalent to the force exerted in accord with the foregoing
general formulation and a reaction force thus propels the vessel.

When the above expression is applied in space it can be said that hull members provide the magnetic
field and that hull members also serve the function of anode and cathode for current flow in an ionic
media. However, in the case of space the electron flow is established by the system and the particle
emission comprises beta particles which appreciate in mass as they approach the speed of light. Thus,
it is felt that some correction in value of the total thrust should be applied in the instance of an
application to space versus the situation existing for propulsion in an electrolyte.

In sopme instances the source of EM force may be cell-derived in which instance the hull of the craft,
or portions thereof comprise a single cell or a plurality of cells where the latter is advantageous.
Where this cell system is desirable permanent magnets establish the required magnetic field.

It will be appreciated that an electric generator within the craft may also supply EM force to the
anode and cathode members of the structure and provide an electromagnet with current for the
establishment of magnetic flux lines of desired magnitude.

Similarly, the scope of the contribution to embrace combinations of cell, magnet, and mechanically
generated source of EM force wherein the magnetic poles and the cathode and anode elements
comprise a structural adjunct to the vessel hull. Inasmuch as the current must pass through a
magnetic field in an ionic media, a simple form of the device is annular where the annulus is
immersible in the ionic media.

Specific Description ~

The invention may be better appreciated by reference to the accompanying drawings. With reference
100

to Figure 1, an annular form of enclosure or hull 11 is illustrated. Thus, the hull 11 is tubular in
character and is immersed in an ionic media 12, for example salt water or ionic space. Magnets 13
and 4, comprising elements of the hull 11, establish a magnetic field 15 bridging the gap shown.
Insulators 16, space the magnets 13 and 14 from closed contact with each other. An anode 17 and
cathode 18 are positioned between the magnets 13 and 14. The anodes 17 and cathode 18 are
positioned oppositely from each other. When current 19 is caused to pass across the gap through the
electrolyte 12 intersecting the magnetic lines of force 15, an electrolyte is caused to move in the
direction of the force arrow F propelling the hull 11 in an opposite sense. The required EM force is
supplied by a cell means or from a hull-contained source such as a battery or generator.

In Figure 2 the cell supplying the requisite EM force is made up of hull components. For purposes of
illustrations a segment 22 of the hull 21 is made up of silver. An annulus 23 made, for example, of
magnesium spacedly surrounds the silver segment 22. The space relationship is maintained by
magnets 24 leaving gaps through which electrolyte is permitted to flow. The alternate opposite
positioning of the magnets provides a magnetic field 25. In an electrolyte, current is caused to flow
between the silver and magnesium intersecting the magnetic lines of force and provides a thrust in
the direction of the force arrow F.

It will be understood that a suitable external circuit is provided as a means of controlling or


regulating current flow within the cell and this circuit is schematically represented by the bus bar
connection 21a. An equivalent reactive force moves the hull 21 through salt water, for example.
While a silver magnesium cell has been described it will be appreciated that other combinations of
anode and cathode chemical cells are well known in the art and are intended to be included in the
scope of the present invention. Experimental results in brine has indicated satisfactory performance
with the system as described, the EMF being directly proportional to the area provided by the cell
plates and the strength of the electrolyte. As the plates 22 and 23 deteriorate they may be replaced.

Referring to Figure 3 the hull 31 is longitudinally provided with a stripe-like pair of plates 32 and 33
running for a substantial length of the hull 31. These provide an anode and cathode for cell operation
in an electrolyte. When the plate 32 is silver and the plate 33 is magnesium, for example, a current is
caused to flow as between the plates 23 and 33. Insulating stripes or plates 34 electrically separate
the plates 32 and 33. A magnet 35 structurally bridges the hull cavity, its poles coinciding with the
insulating stripes or plates 34. In this form the magnetic lines of force travel peripherally around the
hull 31. As an EMF passes between the plates 32 and 34 they intersect the magnetic lines of force
providing an axial thrust to the electrolyte as expressed by the force arrow F. The reactive force
moves the vessel. As indicated in Figure 2 regulation of current flow in the resulting cell is
accomplished by an external circuit as illustrated in Figure 3 by the bus bar 31a.

The EMF passing between the plates, while illustrated as the product of a chemical cell may be
supplied by a generated EMF from a generator source not shown within the vessel. Similarly the
magnet 35 may be of the permanent type or may be of conventional electromagnet construction
where the field strength is established by a winding around a suitable core. In a similar way the EMF
and magnet fields of all the structures described may be supplied by a source of generated EMF.

Referring to Figure 4 a hollow hull 41 is illustrated wherein a plurality of alternating N and S


magnetic poles 42 and 43 respectively line the periphery of the hull 41, the lines of force emanating
from the magnetic poles providing a peripheral series of magnetic bridges around the hull
41,immersed, for example, in an electrolyte. Intermediate each of the magnetic poles 42 and 43, and
completing the schematic annular hull 41 are alternate cathodes 44 and anodes 45. Insulating spacers
46 separate the magnets from conducting the EMF emanating from the electrodes 44 and 45. When
a current is fed as between the electrodes 44 and 45 the current passes through the electrolyte media
in which hull 41 is immersed and cuts the peripherally bridged lines of magnetic flux to cause a
resultant force in a direction as indicated by the force arrow. The resultant reactant force drives the
101

vessel 41. A generator 47 supplies the requisite EMF, the generator being located, as shown
schematically within the hull of the vessel. As previously indicated a chemical cell may supply the
required EMF and the magnets may be of the permanent or electromagnet types. In the vessel 41 as
shown in Figure 4 it will be appreciated that the thrust is intimately related to the interphase between
hull 41 and the ambient ionic media. In this design the laminar flow predominates and studies thus far
advanced show maximum thrust substantially at the interphase and diminishing with radial
progression outward.

Figure 5 shows the hull 51 with a single magnet 52 which is in effect a core served by the winding 53
powered by the generator 54. Anode 55 and cathode 56 comprise electrode means in suitable ionic
media to self generate an EMF which cuts the magnetic flux lines moving peripherally about the hull
51. This hull structure illustrates the use of electromagnetic means in combination with a suitable
generated EMF. Insulation spacers 57 prevent the hull system from shorting out in service. As
previously described it will be appreciated that the members 55 and 56 may comprise a suitable
chemical cell.

In operation, structures as described have demonstrated unusually excellent propulsion seemingly


indicative of minimum hull drag at the interphase between hull and ionic media. The flow at the
interphase seems to obey laminar principles.

Having thus described my invention other modifications will be immediately apparent to those skilled
in the art and such modifications are intended to be included herein limited only by the scope of the
appended claims.

I claim: [ Claims not included here ]

NOTE: Rice's US Patent # 3,106,058 ("Propulsion System") is identical.

Additional References

Palma NETO ~ Canada Patent CA2342431 ~ Robotic Mobile

Hoenig ECKHARDT ~ Germany Patent DE4137952 (May 19, 1993) ~ The propulsion system
consists of a number of integrated EM stages that are operated with controlled phasing to generate a
fluttering wave action. The stages are set into a housing (21) with a flexible foam filling (22) and the
individual drive stages (40, 50, 60, 70) are coupled by rods (26). Each EM stage provides an angular
displacement of some 4 degrees and comprises a stator (41, 51, 61, 71) and coil (42, 52, 62, 72).
Use/Advantage: E.g. for submarine. Provides high efficiency propulsion.
102

For detailed technical analysis, see also:

Friauf, J.: Journal of American Society of Naval Engineers (Feb. 1961), pp. 139-142;
Electromagnetic Ship Propulsion

Way, S.: Journal of Hydronautics 2(2):49-57; Electromagnetic Propulsion for Cargo Submarines
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Fonte://www.verdi.it/document/fusione/2.htm

a cura di GABRIELE SALARI

Seminario
Lenergia fredda e le fonti rinnovabili
In ricordo di Giuliano Preparata
24 ottobre 2000
Sala della Sacrestia, Vicolo Valdina, 3/a

Introduzione di Massimo Scalia

Io, io, cos avevamo soprannominato Giuliano. Era il corso di laurea in fisica dei primi anni 60 ed eravamo un
po infastiditi dallingenuo entusiasmo e dalla volont di protagonismo con i quali Giuliano Preparata si era
presentato fin dal primo anno di corso. Solo il passare del tempo mi avrebbe fatto rinunciare, ci avrebbe fatto
rinunciare, allatteggiamento un po snob, un po intellettualistico che guarda con occhio critico
allentusiasmo e al protagonismo.
Senza una buona dose di questi due ingredienti difficile affermarsi, combattere per qualche cosa in cui si crede.
E Giuliano stato sicuramente un combattente; e quellingenuit dei ventanni si sempre pi rivelata come
slancio, curiosit onnivora e vero e proprio amore di sapere.
Preparata ha percorso tutta la strada che porta alla notoriet internazionale. Dalla scuola di fisica fiorentina i
Gattini alle esperienze fuori dal nostro paese Harvard, Cern e tante altre -, il profilo scientifico di Giuliano
si solidamente costruito come quello di un brillante fisico teorico dotato per di grande sensibilit e attenzione
alle problematiche dei metodi e delle misure sperimentali dei grandi laboratori della fisica delle alte energie.
Giuliano era stato liquidato dal 68 come forza sana: con questa etichetta venivano bollati dal movement tutti
coloro che invece di lavorare per limmaginazione al potere e contro lautoritarismo dellUniversit e dello
Stato, proponevano la strada del riformismo. Quando ci incontrammo, ventanni dopo, le analogie delle nostre
vite ci fecero sentire pi vicini. Inoltre Preparata aveva iniziato quel percorso che, nellarcigna corporazione dei
fisici ma non solo -, suona peggio che uneresia: essendosi per una vita occupato di fisica teorica delle alte
energie, osava cambiare campo e voleva dir la sua sulla fisica della materia condensata. Per di pi, brandendo
argomenti - dalla termodinamica dellacqua (con levidenza a favore dellesistenza di domini di coerenza) alla
fusione fredda che venivano guardati con sospetto. E questo percorso che porta Giuliano a mettere per
iscritto, il 1994, la sua teoria sulla coerenza della materia e a dare nuovo impulso alle ricerche sulla fusione
fredda. Insieme allinseparabile Emilio Del Giudice fonda il LEDA (Laboratorio Elettrodinamica Avanzata), che
al logo dellacrostico unisce limmagine della fanciulla cara a Giove. Lo stanziamento di fondi da parte di Moratti
e Tronchetti Provera e anche qui, come in ogni azione parallela, c una Diotima protettrice permette di
realizzare il laboratorio e i miglioramenti che, seguendo il protocollo di Fleischmann e Pons, portano a risultati
estremamente significativi: la produzione di energia, nella forma di calore, pu avvenire con un guadagno del
100% e con una riproducibilit, una continuit che era stata invece il maggior ostacolo alla credibilit della
fusione fredda. Certo, anche oggi capita che, distribuendo linvito di questo seminario allIstituto Marconi
dellUniversit La Sapienza, lo studente di fisica domandi: ma che cos questa fusione fredda?. Ma
nellambito della ricerca scientifica sono stati compiuti progressi determinanti. E del 94 larticolo su Nuovo
Cimento che Giuliano scrive insieme a Fleischmann e a Pons e poi, appunto, lesperienza di Leda. Gli sponsor
184

della piccola societ per si ritirano e si pone allora il problema di mantenere in vita la ricerca e il laboratorio. E
esattamente dallottobre del 96 che, nella mia veste di parlamentare, mi batto perch quellesperienza cos
significativa non vada perduta. LINFN, che pare allepoca avere assicurato al Governo la disponibilit a
considerare e sostenere senza alcuna preclusione ricerche nel settore della cosiddetta fusione nucleare fredda"
(cfr. il foglio allegato), sbarra invece laccesso. Devo ringraziare Renato Strada, allora direttore generale
dellEnea, e il presidente Carlo Rubbia se alla fine con Giuliano Preparata ed Emilio Del Giudice riusciamo a
incardinare LEDA e il suo know-how nel contesto delle ricerche sullenergia da idrogeno dellENEA. Anzi,
perch questo cammino sia davvero terminato, ti chiedo, presidente Rubbia, che dopo che accordi e cifre sono
state da tempo definiti, si passi nei prossimi giorni alla liquidazione della prima tranche prevista. Senza di che il
presidente di LEDA sarebbe costretto a portare i libri contabili in tribunale e questa nostra iniziativa avrebbe il
sapore di una beffa. Una beffa, oltretutto, nei confronti di Guido Preparata, il figlio di Giuliano e di Emilia
Campochiaro Preparata, la moglie di Giuliano, che qui presente e che mi gradito salutare. E permettimi,
Emilia, di ricordare, sia pure per un solo momento, il tuo ruolo decisivo e insostituibile, fino agli ultimi giorni,
quando ancora Giuliano sperava e mi diceva quale fosse la tua energia e il calore del tuo sentimento.

Il seminario di oggi richiede, certo, di ricordare la figura di Giuliano. Ma sarebbe in totale contrasto con quella
figura se non entrassimo in medias res. La teoria quantoelettrodinamica della coerenza della materia non un
fungo o una geniale trovata di Preparata. Gi nei primi anni '50 Dicke aveva proposto un modello di sistemi
atomici accoppiati con la radiazione, pi precisamente un sistema di N atomi su due livelli, per il quale doveva
essere possibile una transizione verso un maggiore ordine, la cosiddetta transizione di fase superradiante.
Quando Hepp e Lieb ripresero negli anni 70 la teoria della superradianza e lhamiltoniana di Dicke, venne loro
opposto che il modello non soddisfaceva alla richiesta di invarianza di gauge. Questa critica si poi rilevata
infondata (E. Del Giudice, R. Mele and G. Preparata, Mod. Phys.Lett. B7 (1993) 1851); ma analoga
indifferenza, non dico un esplicito ostracismo, stata riservata dai fisici della struttura della materia ai lavori di
Preparata e Del Giudice. Ha forse fatto premio una diffidenza verso una teoria generale che sarebbe alla base di
fenomeni troppo diversi tra loro. Ma, del resto, non era analoga la diffidenza che poteva sollevare e ha
sollevato, con un dibattito infinito, la teoria regina del XX secolo: la meccanica quantistica? E uno dei suoi
maggiori conoscitori, Feynman, non si divertiva forse a ricordare: nessuno la capisce, per tutti la usano?
Credo che questi problemi richiedano un tentativo di spiegazione pi approfondita, che, almeno in parte, spero
possa venire dagli interventi di oggi.
Indipendentemente da considerazioni sullantropologia o la sociologia della comunit scientifica, voglio ricordare
che la coerenza quantoelettrodinamica fornisce il miglior contesto interpretativo per fenomeni quali l'interazione
tra campi magnetici e sistemi chimico-organici, ma anche sistemi biologici: e, per quel che riguarda molti dei
partecipanti, la teoria che meglio affronta la bizzarra fenomenologia i tre miracoli, come si divertiva a
chiamarli Giuliano - della fusione fredda.
Seguendo poi unimpostazione che era anche di Giuliano, non c solo la questione di rivendicare una
cittadinanza per costruzioni teorico-scientifiche non allineate con laccademia e lufficialit non a caso Giuliano
aveva dato vita a Milano ad unassociazione: la repubblica delle lettere, di galileiana memoria - c
lentusiasmo, ben presente anche in Emilio Del Giudice, per le prospettive che si aprono sui terreni concreti delle
possibili applicazioni in un futuro vicino.
Oggi, questo seminario, nel ricordare Giuliano Preparata, affronta tematiche che erano al centro dei suoi interessi
come lo restano dei nostri. I problemi energetici, le risposte da subito possibili, la ricerca e linnovazione
tecnologica per disegnare gli scenari scanditi nel medio e lungo termine.
Oggi parleremo delluso efficiente dellenergia e delle fonti rinnovabili, dellenergia da idrogeno e della fusione
fredda. Oggi infatti una riflessione e una proposta si impone.
Il prezzo del barile di greggio si pi che triplicato nellultimo anno ed da mesi il protagonista delle copertine
dei TG e delle prime pagine dei giornali, con fosche previsioni sullinflazione e sulle ripercussioni economiche.
Questo un eccesso di drammatizzazione, che non giova certo ad affrontare con intelligenza e rigore i problemi.
Basta ricordare che proprio quindici anni fa il greggio aveva raggiunto i 35 dollari a barile, con un dollaro che
valeva 2.200 lire. Nell85 la bolletta petrolifera ascese a circa 60 mila miliardi di lire. Se moltiplichiamo il valore
del dollaro di allora la cifra della bolletta petrolifera 85 per 2 e li confrontiamo con i valori attuali abbiamo una
visione pi realistica delloggi, delle conseguenze dellimpennata del prezzo del barile, ad esempio,
sullinflazione: una visione che diviene ancora pi realistica, se teniamo conto del fatto che il petrolio, pur
185

restando la principale fonte primaria, calato di alcuni punti percentuali nella copertura del fabbisogno
energetico mondiale. Questo quadro rende comprensibili le valutazioni che quantificano tra lo 0,5% e l1%
laumento medio dellinflazione in tutta la UE, ove il barile di greggio si assestasse per tutto il 2001 sui 33 dollari
a barile. E non si prevedono incidenze significative sulleconomia dei paesi europei: sicuramente meno
significative di quelle legate allimmagine di debolezza e confusione delle decisioni, che la Banca Europea ha
dato in questi ultimi mesi.
La doverosa sdrammatizzazione consente di focalizzare meglio almeno due aspetti della questione petrolio. La
prima. A livello mondiale il gas naturale sta marciando verso il 25% della copertura del fabbisogno, ma il
carbone, nonostante il declino degli ultimi quindici anni, resta sempre la seconda fonte primaria, il cui principale
produttore e consumatore la Cina. Se la Cina, come altri paesi emergenti, decidesse di fondare sul carbone la
rincorsa dei paesi industrializzati le conseguenze ambientali sarebbero disastrose. E, seppur piccola, una
consolazione sapere che tali questioni sono allesame di una commissione mista, composta cio da dieci cinesi e
dieci non cinesi come mi ha spiegato Umberto Colombo che ne fa parte che tra laltro si pone il problema del
leap frog: se cio non sia possibile il salto di una fase tecnologica, proprio ad evitare lespansione industriale a
colpi di ciminiere e con grandi consumi di energia. Problemi del tutto analoghi si pongono per il miliardo di
indiani.
La seconda. La questione dellaumento del prezzo del greggio va ricollocata nelle sue dimensioni; oggi appaiono
a tutti decisamente ridicole le proiezioni di chi ai tempi della conferenza sullenergia era il febbraio 87
preconizzava per la fine del secolo, cio adesso, il barile a cento dollari. Al contrario per di quanto poteva
essere motivato allora, non dato vedere un trend di prezzo in calo o costante. La domanda dei paesi emergenti
contribuir a proporre lo scenario di un prezzo del petrolio in ascesa, seppur non drammatica.
Le due considerazioni assieme danno le dimensioni dellopportunit che si offre, non solo al nostro paese ed alla
UE, per impostare in modo serio la questione della sostenibilit delle scelte energetiche e del ricorso al risparmio
energetico ai negawatt , alle fonti rinnovabili, allenergia da idrogeno, alla fusione fredda. Perseguire gli
obiettivi di Kyoto potr diventare pi verosimile perch la lievitazione dei costi energetici delle fonti tradizionali
scoprir, e gi oggi scopre, le convenienze legate a queste fonti alternative.
Non so se faremo 400 kmq di specchi solari per coprire il fabbisogno italiano di elettricit, come ha di recente
ipotizzato Rubbia, ma certo che lItalia e i paesi del Mediterraneo si possono e si devono porre nella
prospettiva europea di grandi produttori di energia solare. Un modello da rivendicare nei confronti del Nord
Europa, come sempre Rubbia suggerisce. Ma accanto agli obiettivi di medio termine solare, eolico, idrogeno
dovremo essere in grado di indicare che cosa possiamo fare nei prossimi mesi. Non il compito del seminario di
oggi, ma una sfida che le sedi di ricerca applicata, e cio soprattutto Enea deve essere in grado di raccogliere
affinch limpegno progettuale non diventi sepoltura delle azioni a breve, che pure devono essere realizzate
anche a sostegno dellattuazione dei programmi per il futuro meno vicino.
Su questi temi sar utile a breve, entro i tempi della legge finanziaria, avere un confronto in cui coinvolgere
anche i ministri che sono di riferimento per Enea.
Oggi spazio allenergia fredda e alle fonti rinnovabili.

www.enea.it
Il sito dellente di ricerca dove, nel centro di Frascati, Giuliano Preparata fece i suoi esperimenti sulla fusione fredda.
www.infn.it
Il sito dellIstituto nazionale di fisica nucleare. Lintuizione di Preparata fu di creare dei ponti tra materie finora considerate lontane,
come la fisica teorica e la chimica.
186

Fonte: http://www.cifa-icef.org/piccardi_ita.html

Il contributo di Giorgio Piccardi al progresso della scienza .


Piero Faraone, Vice Presidente CIFA.
Giorgio Piccardi inizi gli studi di chimica nella sua citt di Firenze nel 1913, a 18 anni. La guerra 1915-18 per
lo costrinse ad interrompere per essere destinato al fronte italiano come ufficiale degli alpini. Fu decorato e
congedato nel 1919. Rientrato a Firenze complet i propri studi universitari laureandosi in chimica Iniziata la
carriera universitaria, divenne libero docente in chimica-fisica nel 1926.
Tramite concorso, vinse la cattedra di chimica-fisica, all' Universit di Genova nel 1938. Presso quello stesso
ateneo fond l'Istituto di chimica-fisica con annesso laboratorio di spettroscopia dove si occup di spettri
atomici e molecolari delle terre rare.
Lo scoppio della seconda guerra mondiale lo spinse a tornare in Toscana dove oper presso l'Universit di
Firenze. Nel 1945 fu chiamato alla cattedra di chimica-fisica della stessa citt ove cre l'Istituto di chimica-fisica
che diresse fino al 1965. Indirizz la scuola allo studio delle interfasi e dei fenomeni di superficie con conseguenti
applicazioni in campo biologico. Fece studi sulla struttura chimica e sulla spettroscopia con applicazioni in
campo industriale e nell'archeologia.
Un'attenzione particolare dedic al campo dei fenomeni fluttuanti che individu e approfond in studi che lo
videro impegnato anche a livello internazionale, ideando suoi metodi di indagine specifici che ne rivelarono la
genialit e lo promossero vero pioniere in tale ricerca. Riusc a fondare un centro universitario per lo studio dei
fenomeni fluttuanti ( il CUFF ) che fu collegato ad altri simili presso altri Paesi stranieri coi quali collabor
attivamente. Ricerche in base ai suoi metodi, furono fatte in tutto il mondo e perfino nell'Artide e in Antartide.
Dopo il 1951 la sua attivit scientifica riguard soprattutto i Fenomeni Fluttuanti con i test chimici da lui ideati.
Detti studi protratti per un ventennio, lo portarono alla formulazione di un enunciato molto suggestivo: "I
sistemi eterogenei, fuori equilibrio e sufficientemente complessi,rispondono a qualsiasi segnale esterno anche di
piccolissima energia". Il che interessava gran parte delle reazioni chimiche e i processi biologici. Ebbe per i suoi
studi riconoscimenti nazionali e internazionali.
Fu fondatore e divenne Presidente del CIFA (Comitato internazionale per lo studio dei fenomeni dell'ambiente)
nel 1969 ponendone la sede ufficialmente riconosciuta, a Bruxelles sotto l'egida dell' Universit della stessa citt.
Piccardi svilupp la sua attivit scientifica testimoniandola con oltre 200 pubblicazioni e una monografia uscita in
USA e in Russia (The chemical basis of medical climatology). Fu attivo fino al 1972 l'anno in cui manc a tutti
noi.
Durante la sua fervida attivit scientifica che lo vide impegnato nello studio dei fenomeni fluttuanti tramite i suoi
test colloidali trov una validissima collaboratrice nella drs.Carmen Capel-Boute dell'Universit Libera di
Bruxelles e Presidente del Centro Internazionale di Ricerca e di Studio dei Fattori dell' Ambiente (CIREFA).
La drs.Capel-Boute era Ricercatrice in elettrochimica e metallurgia presso la Facolt di Scienze Applicate di
quella Universit. Il suo incontro col prof. Piccardi avvenne nel 1950 a Firenze. Di Lei il professor Piccardi ebbe
a scrivere: "E' molto raro,Signora, trovarsi subito a proprio agio con coloro che si incontrano per caso nella
vita." Mentre la drs.Capel-Boute dopo quell'incontro scrisse di Lui: "Il patto di fiducia scientifico fu siglato con
un eccezionale sigillo di stima e di reciproca amicizia che testimoniata nell'ininterrotta corrispondenza
scambiata dopo quel memorabile incontro". Ed ancora: "Ho potuto cos riconoscere in Piccardi il Maestro
consapevole del quale avevo bisogno, essendo di circa ventanni pi giovane di Lui, per beneficiare delle sue
vaste conoscenze, della sua pi lunga esperienza e delle sue critiche costruttive alle mie ricerche."
Il risultato di tale incontro fu che fra i due studiosi nacque una solida e affiatata collaborazione nelle ricerche sui
fenomeni fluttuanti e nelle correlazioni che ne potevano derivare considerando l'importante ruolo giocato dalle
propriet fisiche dell'acqua a seconda che fosse o non attivata nonch l'importanza dell'attivit solare nelle
variazioni dei test colloidali studiati in parallelo contemporaneamente sia a Firenze che a Bruxelles.
La drs. Capel-Boute fu Presidente del CIFA dopo il prof.Piccardi e anim sempre con la sua inesauribile
passione e la sua preparazione, collaboratori e non, in ogni possibile confronto nei vari Convegni di studio che si
187

sono succeduti man mano fino ad oggi. Mai accus segni di cedimento dimostrandosi degna erede del prof.
Piccardi sia nella ricerca che nella dedizione.
Nel 1987 lasci la Presidenza al dr.E.P.Wedler dell'Istituto di Biometeorologia dell'Universit Libera di Berlino.
Con la morte improvvisa del dr. Wedler avvenuta nel 1990, Ella si assunse provvisoriamente l'onere di gestire la
Presidenza del CIFA nonostante il peso dell' et.
Ormai ottantenne, ebbe straordinario successo nel concordare con l'Universit di Puschino (Mosca) nel 1993 la
rinascita del CIFA presso quella sede per garantirne un futuro che presso la vecchia Sede belga non appariva pi
cos garantito dalle circostanze prevedibili .
Nel 1993, quindi, si ebbe un nuovo Presidente del CIFA, un Ucraino, il prof. Boris Vladimirsky, Astronomo
presso l'Osservatorio di Nauchniy in Crimea. La segreteria del CIFA s'insedi a Puschino dove il prof. Simon
Shnol Docente dell'Istituto di Biofisica dell'Universit assunse l'incarico di Vicepresidente, ruolo che conserva
tuttora col dr. Imre Ormenji gi Biometereologo all'Istituto Nazionale del Reumatismo di Budapest e con il dr.
Piero Faraone gi Direttore Medico (1976-1991) del Lab. Ig. Prof. Prov. Roma e del poi divenuto Pres. Multiz.
Prevenzione .
188

A cura di Daniela Frattura

Di personaggi unici nel loro genere


Tra questi M. Creti, un incredibile
caratterizzati da unevidente genialit, la
personaggio dei nostri tempi di cui, non a
Storia ne annovera pochi e principalmente
caso, la stampa nazionale ed internazionale
coloro che abbracciano i campi pi svariati
se ne attivamente interessata sin dalla sua
dello Scibile si contano sulle dita di una
giovane et.
mano. Marcello Creti

Marcello Creti nasce a Roma, il 16 Aprile 1922, da Mario Creti e Gerormina Cufaro una nobile e
antichissima Famiglia la cui Storia e stata raccolta attraverso approfondite ricerche corredate da ricca
documentazione effettuate a suo tempo da Creti Francesco, storiografo e noto araldico di fama
internazionale.
Dalle suddette ricerche si evince che le prime notizie sulla stirpe dei Creti risalgono allantica Grecia,
dove tale Stirpe originariamente era detta Kritos- Krites, che tradotto dal Greco significa " Scelto,
Giudice". Ancora citazioni sul cognome dei Creti, si hanno da parte di storici come il Forcellari nel
"Corpo Iscrizioni Latine " e ancora nel "Totius Latinitatis Onomasticon e Lexicon".
Senza dilungarci molto sul nome delle tante personalit appartenute alla famiglia Creti, citiamo alcuni
personaggi pi noti fra gli antenati.
Nellambito Religioso troviamo Fulgenzio Creti, Predicatore, Insigne Teologo ed autore di pi Opere
Sacre; ed ancora Pietro Creti che istitu a sue spese in Lecce un Seminario che fu la base di quello
attuale.
Nel campo dellArte troviamo:
Lorenzo di Creti, nato nel 1446 a Firenze, valentissimo pittore e discepolo di Leonardo da Vinci nella
bottega del Verrocchio, dove segu la maniera di Leonardo ed in parte del Perugino. Le sue Opere
migliori furono: " La Vergine col bambino" della Galleria Borghese, "La Nativit di Ges e ladorazione
dei pastori" della Galleria Antica e Moderna di Firenze.
Le notizie sulle sue opere si possono trovare nel Dizionario Moderno "Labor" (vol. II pag.205).
Donato Creti, nato nel 1671 a Cremona, con il Fraschini, il pi importante seguace dellultima maniera
di Guido Reni.
Opere capitali dellartista sono le grandi Pale daltare esposte a San Pietro, "il miracolo di San Vincenzo
Ferreri" esposto nella chiesa della Madonna di San Luca. Altri dipinti di Donato Creti si trovano nelle
chiese di Lucca, Bergamo, Brindisi e Palermo.
Giuseppe Creti (nonno di Marcello Creti) nato nel 1840 a Roma, fin da giovane eccelse nella pittura; a
soli tredici anni, nel 1853, fu premiato per larte del disegno dallInsigne Pontificia Accademia di San
Luca in Roma. A diciotto anni ottenne sempre da detta Accademia il primo Premio della Pittura, e a
vent'anni complet due grandi affreschi nella Chiesa di San Lorenzo in Lucina a Roma, rappresentanti
la Condanna ed il Martirio di San Lorenzo.
MARCELLO CRETI sempre stato il punto di riferimento per la chiarificazione di dubbi e incertezze.
Non va dimenticata la sua grande disponibilit verso gli altri, a tal punto da sacrificare spesso le proprie
esigenze. Ogni attimo della sua vita e stato dedicato ad una febbrile attivit, che gli ha permesso di
spaziare con disinvoltura in vari campi della Scienza. Tali attivit si sono concentrate in molteplici
direzioni: la Ricerca nel Campo della Fisica, dellElettronica e dellIngegneria dove a messo a punto
numerosi Brevetti e nel campo dellArcheologia e della Mineralogia.
Nel settore dellelettronica la sua attivit di inventore inizia precocemente, nel 1937 infatti a soli quindici
anni, effettua il suo primo brevetto di rilievo che mise a rumore il mondo della Scienza Tecnica che dovr
189

radicalmente cambiare i sistemi allora in uso.


Infatti realizza un particolare circuito elettronico con il quale elimina lEffetto Larsen e nasce cosi
lAmplitele, sistema ancora in uso nel campo della telefonia, noto come "Viva Voce".
Di tale invenzione si interessarono i giornali dellepoca sia nazionali che esteri, definendo il personaggio
Creti in vari modi : "Il nuovo Edison nato in Italia ", " un Piccolo Marconi "," il pi Giovane
Inventore del Mondo", scrivevano in decine di articoli compresa la stampa nazionale ed estera.
Tra questi ne citiamo uno apparso sulla Tribuna del 22 ottobre 1938, che dedica un lungo articolo per
illustrare linvenzione, dove il giornalista termina scrivendo: "... sembra roba del duemila e siamo
soltanto nel 1938".
Poich le Invenzioni del Creti sono Numerose, per brevit ne citeremo in questo contesto solo alcune tra
le pi conosciute:
1937- AMPLITELE . Brev. 357707 : apparato telefonico amplificato, atto alla conversazione libera che
permette di ricevere e trasmettere la voce amplificata senza impegno manuale, comunemente conosciuto
come Viva Voce. Tale invenzione stata brevettata in tutto il mondo.
1938-TELEFONO PLURIMO. Brev. 368324 apparecchio telefonico per conversazione libera e per
collegamento simultaneo tra pi linee telefoniche.
1938-COMBINATORE TELEFONICO VERTICALE. Brev.360507: Dispositivo trasmettitore di impulsi
per telefono da tavolo ad altoparlante.
1940-TELEFONO AUTOMATICO PORTATILE. Brev. 384047 : Apparato telefonico che pu essere
istallato su un automezzo o portato a tracollo e permette la comunicazione fino ad oltre 50 Km,
inserendosi per via aerea nelle reti telefoniche, attualmente chiamato telefono automatico mobile,
lantenato dellattuale Cellulare.
1940-MECCANISMO DI PROPULSIONE CON RELATIVO TELAIO PER VETTURE. Brev. 381020 :
Automobile che percorreva 48 Km con un litro di benzina. Piccola autovettura munita di un serbatoio di
aria compressa, caricato dalla parziale energia di inerzia nelle discese. Tale energia veniva poi recuperata
nei punti piani. Nel meccanismo di propulsione a benzina, la camera di scoppio a forma elicoidale, era
ricavata nella testa del pistone.
Dopo questultima invenzione in un giornale dellepoca si legge: " le invenzioni del pi giovane inventore
italiano saranno accolte nella produzione industriale bellica e civile "
E il periodo delle invenzioni nel campo militare:
1940-IL LUXMETRO. Brev. 392064 : Misuratore di luce caratterizzato dal fatto che segnala la distanza
in miglia marine da cui proviene la luce erogata dai proiettori del mezzo nautico nemico.
1940-TRASMETTITORE DA COMBATTIMENTO. Apparato militare erogante una portante variabile
al fine di non poter essere intercettato dal nemico. Per questa invenzione la Confederazione Fascista dei
Professionisti gli rilasci un attestato di riconoscimento.
1940- IRRAZIONALITA DELL AZZURRAMENTO. Ricerca strategica militare atta ad evitare che le
citt fossero focalizzate dagli aerei nemici.
1940- GEOCOMANDO PER CAMPI MINATI. ispositivo mediante il quale le mine, possono essere fatte
brillare individualmente a distanza .
1941- LANCIA MISSILI: Pedana di lancio per missili metallici, caratterizzata dalla sequenza di un
determinato numero di solenoidi che aspirano il missile e lo rilanciano a velocit crescente, dove lultimo
stadio innesca il propellente contenuto nel missile.
1941- RIFLETTORE ANTIAEREO : Proiettore al magnesio ad altissima intensit, caratterizzato
dallerogazione di fasci luminosi a distanze di circa 10 chilometri.
Agli studi per le applicazioni militari si accompagnano simultaneamente gli studi per le applicazioni ad
190

uso civile; fra le piu importanti abbiamo:


1941 - MOTORE SENZA STATORE : brev. 390416. Motore alimentato da energia elettrica privo di
avvolgimenti statici, particolarmente adatto ad essere utilizzato da mezzi mobili pubblici, obbligandoli a
percorrere una traiettoria stabilita (magneto filobus).
A tal riguardo si legge in un articolo depoca a firma del giornalista Carlo Zam:
".... si potra realizzare un nuovo tipo di ferrovia su autostrada... con motori magneticamente reattivi su
una larga guida ferrigna a livello del pavimento stradale."
1941 - brev. n. 388147 Dispositivo limitatore di segnalazioni sonore per autoveicoli.
1942 -TRADUTTORE MORSE : brev.400288 trattasi di un apparato elettromeccanico che viene inserito
in un ricevitore radio e traduce i segnali morse in arrivo in lettere alfabetiche attualmente detto telex.
1942 - brev.398121 : pistola di forma tubolare di piccole dimensioni (come una penna stilografica) che
puo essere azionata stringendo semplicemente il pugno della mano.
1942 - ACCUMULATORE LEGGERO : brev.403344. Pila elettrica leggera, priva di liquidi e
caratterizzata dal fatto che puo essere ricaricata piu volte.
1943 - CAMBIADISCHI AUTOMATICO : apparato utilizzato per la sostituzione automatica dei dischi
incorporati ad apparecchi amplificatori, comunemente detto juke box.
Per tale invenzione Marcello Creti riceve dalla Confederazione Fascista dei Professionisti un attestato di
riconoscimento con il premio di L. 10.000.
1946 - DIAFRAMMA VIBRANTE : brev.418913. Apparato in combinazione con casse armoniche allo
scopo di amplificare, raddolcire e diffondere uniformemente il suono degli altoparlanti.
1948 - brev.455613 : Marcello Creti brevetta un "sistema di figurazioni e scritte luminose ad uno o pi
colori, mediante incisione su sostanze plastiche trasparenti non vitree".
Questo brevetto venne poi utilizzato per indicare le uscite di sicurezza nei cinema.
1949-ONDOGENO: brev. 450696. Generatore di onde corte per applicazioni terapeutiche
( Marconiterapia).
1949 - NEON SCRIVENTE : brev. 451251 brevetto di principio registrato in Italia ed in Francia,
consistente nel sollecitare laccensione parziale e progressiva dei gas contenuti in un tubo di vetro.
1951 - BILANCIATORE MAGNETICO DI TENSIONE : brev.481969 particolare circuito a campi
magnetici atto a sollecitare laccensione istantanea, senza limpiego di altri apparati, di tubi a gas
rarefatti di qualsiasi lunghezza e a vapori di mercurio. (comunemente detto Instastart).
1952 - brev. 575201: Da unidea di Cerletti e Bini sotto invito del Prof.Martinotti dello Ospedale
psichiatrico di Santa Maria della piet realizza un apparecchio per provocare a mezzo di correnti
alternate degli attacchi epilettici artificiali ( noto come elettroshock ).

ONORIFICENZE

Quale risultato di questa notevole attivit scientifica nel campo della fisica, dellelettronica e
dellingegneria, gli vengono riconosciute nel corso degli anni numerose onorificenze in campo nazionale
ed internazionale, tra queste citiamo alcune tra le pi importanti:
Nel 1939 riceve il primo riconoscimento ufficiale per le invenzioni tecniche con lattestato di 1^ grado
con medaglia doro, rilasciato dal presidente generale maresciallo dItalia Pietro Badoglio.
Nel 1941 la Confederazione Fascista dei Professionisti nella persona di Artemio Ferrario, rilascia a
191

Marcello Creti un attestato di riconoscimento per linvenzione del "Trasmettitore da combattimento" .


Nel 1942 Marcello Creti riceve dalla Confederazione Fascista dei Professionisti il premio del Duce come
attestato di benemerenza.
Nel 1943 la Confederazione Fascista dei Professionisti gli conferisce un attestato di riconoscimento con un
premio di L. 10.000, per linvenzione del "Cambiadischi automatico per grammofono.
Nel 1947 Marcello Creti riceve dal Sacrosanctae Ecclesiae Lateranensis la Nomina a CROCE
LATERANENSE.
Sempre nello stesso anno riceve inoltre, dal SUPREMI SCALIGERI NOBILIARIS AC MILITARIS-
EQUITUM CONCORDIAE ORDINIS la nomina di Commendatore al Merito.
Nel 1949 alla Mostra Nazionale della Meccanica di Torino riceve una valutazione di merito di 1^ Grado
Assoluto con Targa dOro.
Nel 1955 dallAccademia Mondiale Professionisti riceve la Nomina di Vice Presidente per la classe :
INVENZIONI.
Nel 1956 La Galleria dellInventore gli conferisce il Diploma di Merito con Medaglia dOro per
linvenzione del " Generatore di Corrente Autoeccitante Molecolare di gas rarefatti".
Nel 1967 lAccademia di Paestum gli conferisce la nomina di Membro Accademico.
Nel 1968 a Bruxelles Le Centre Europen de Diffusion de la Culture gli assegna il Gran Premio al Merito
con medaglia doro.
Nel 1977 lAccademia Internazionale di Propaganda Culturale, per le sue alte Benemerenze scientifiche,
lo riconosce Socio Accademico.
Nel 1992 lOrdine Sovrano Militare ed Ospedaliero di San Thomaso dAcre, lo riconosce Membro
Onorario con la nomina a GRAN CROCE DI GIUSTIZIA, per meriti speciali .

In un giornale degli anni 50 in una intervista del giornalista Massimo Fabbri si legge:"Truman e
lesercito americano ... godono oggi le scoperte scientifiche di Marcello Creti. Col ricavato dei suoi 35
brevetti il giovane inventore intende creare quanto prima un centro studi di fisica."
E proprio in quegli anni che Marcello Creti rileva lantico monastero Benedettino di San Luca a
Guarcino sugli Ernici, che ricostruir interamente a sua spese, per farne un primo Centro Studi Italiano
di Fisica. Tale centro ebbe ospiti illustri, fra questi il Pontefice Paolo VI allora Mons. Montini.
Pur impegnato, nella ricostruzione del centro di San Luca, continua comunque i suoi studi dedicandosi
inizialmente a sistemi di Recupero Marittimi, uno dei quali consisteva nellagganciare il relitto
magneticamente, portandolo in superficie tramite funi dacciaio, un altro, utilizzava una molteplicit di
palloni gonfiabili dallesterno che agganciati al relitto lo portavano in superficie.
Realizza inoltre un magnetofono automatico a Nastro continuo alimentato a corrente alternata e corrente
continua, utilizzato ampiamente in quegli anni e ancora oggi in uso, per illustrare mostre e luoghi di
interesse storico ai visitatori. (brevetto n 560955).
Costruisce il prototipo della prima macchina fotografica automatica a 16mm, munita di un particolare
caricatore provvisto di pellicola e di pratica sostituzione. Questo sistema innovativo, fu utilizzato dalla
Kodak e commercialmente conosciuto come "istamatic".
Studia un apparato per provocare Campi Elettrici in bacini idrici di vaste proporzioni, consentendo il
trasferimento dei pesci vivi, ma temporaneamente paralizzati, in altri bacini di accoglienza.

A partire dagli anni 60, la sua attivit di ricerca applicata alla fisica subisce un rallentamento per
lasciare il posto a quella di esploratore e naturalista.
192

Infatti il Creti intraprende numerosi viaggi nel mondo che lo portano alla realizzazione di Documentari
Scientifici, uno dei quali (SUOMI - Viaggio al circolo Polare Artico) venne premiato dal Ministero
Cultura e Spettacolo con riconoscimento di Primo Grado.
Successivamente, negli anni 70, il suo campo di azione si sposta verso larcheologia e la mineralogia con
il ritrovamento di numerosi resti archeologici ed una notevole campionatura di cristalli, rocce e fossili.
In particolare i ritrovamenti legati alle sue ricerche minerarie furono talmente ricchi e diversificati, per
numero e specie di campioni, che gli consentirono di allestire una Mostra Mineraria Permanente. Tale
mostra, oggi meta di numerosi visitatori, mantiene ancora una grande importanza didattica e pu essere,
a ragione, considerata unica nel suo genere.
Negli anni 80 realizza, a sue spese e con laiuto di alcuni suoi collaboratori, un Centro dove vengono
concentrate tutte le sue attivit di scienziato, ricercatore, inventore, scrittore, archeologo e naturalista,
concretizzando un ideale che lo accompagnava sin dal 1938, un centro di studi e di ricerche che come
tutte le sue opere, senza fine di lucro e a completa disposizione di tutti coloro che intendano usufruire
delle strutture, continuando cos lattivit scientifica, culturale e divulgativa, unico scopo di Marcello
Creti, raggiunto grazie alla realizzazione di una Fondazione atta a tali fini; lascia cos unimpronta
dinteresse sociale a beneficio di tutti, che senza tema di smentita indistruttibile nel tempo.
Nasce cos lultima opera, la "FONDAZIONE CRETI", che sar anche sede della sua dimora fino al
giorno della morte, il 1 gennaio 2000.

In questultimo periodo la sua attivit si concentra su pi interessi. Ed cos che realizza :


Il "RIEQUILIBRATORE NEURONALE", apparato atto a ripolarizzare le cellule dei neuroni, in modo
da facilitare il percorso dellimpulso nervoso, di comando, proveniente dal cervello qualora interrotto da
patologie di varia natura;
Il RIGENERATORE BIOLOGICO: Particolare camera dove viene sistemato un paziente e sottoposto ad
un trattamento atto a sollecitare il metabolismo cellulare con ritmo costante. Come risultato si ottiene il
prolungamento della vita della cellula con levidente ringiovanimento della superficie cutanea.
Il "RILEVATORE DEI COSMITRON". Apparato atto a Rilevare con segnale luminoso e sonoro il
passaggio delle radiazioni cosmiche sul Pianeta Terra.
IL VIOLINO. Inoltre sollecitato da un liutaio e musicista tedesco, si interessa ad uno studio che da oltre
due secoli ha impegnato i liutai di tutto il mondo: la realizzazione di un violino che abbia le stesse
caratteristiche di prestazione e sonorit di uno Stradivari. Tale studio viene realizzato con la costruzione
di un VIOLINO che poi verr apprezzato e riconosciuto ufficialmente da Yehudin Menuhin, uno dei pi
celebri violinisti attuali che si sempre esibito con Stradivari originali.

Svolge una copiosa attivit di scrittore realizzando molte pubblicazioni su vari argomenti, fisica, biologia,
teologia, archeologia e principalmente sociologia, (richiedibili presso il suo Centro o consultabili presso
l'unico sito ufficiale "crescitacivile" ) nellambito di questultima sviluppa una corrente di pensiero
chiamata "REALISMO" divulgandone i principi, oltre che con le suddette pubblicazioni, anche con
trasmissioni radiofoniche e televisive .

Scritti di Marcello Creti:

Gli Anthalidei (La Civilt dell'Ultimo Neanderthal)


Dio c'
193

Dio non perdona


Siamo noi che vogliamo soffrire
Chi eri e chi potresti essere
Parapsicologia scientifica
Il Testo (L'Ultimo Testamento)
V Vangelo apocrifo
Riforma Cristiana
Il Taoismo
Conosciti (Sociologia)
Le Colonie Organizzate (Formazione della Vita e del Pianeta Terra)
Le Energie Irradiate (Trattato sulla Bioenergia)
L'Entit di Energia Pensante (Leggi strutturali dell'Anima e della Materia)
Testimonianze Anthalidee (Archeologia)
L'Era dell'Homo Demens
Morfologia (Fisiologia del Cervello)
Hepatos (Medicina)
I Virus (Origine delle Patologie)
Le Firme (Fisiognomica)
Gli Ominoidi (Origine ed Evoluzione della Specie Umana)
I Cosmitron 1 parte (Fisica: "Struttura dello Spazio e degli Atomi")
I Cosmitron 2 parte (Biologia e Teoria sul Cancro)
La Famiglia
Le Scelte
Le Attivit
I Sentimenti
Per concludere non si pu sottacere nella descrizione del personaggio Creti, cos razionale e cos tecnico, il
suo grande amore per la natura. Nella Fondazione da lui realizzata, ha creato un parco naturalistico di
incommensurabile bellezza dove si possono trovare numerose specie di animali che vivono in totale
libert in una rigogliosa vegetazione rimasta incontaminata e reso ancora pi suggestivo dalla presenza
di riproduzioni di animali preistorici realizzate in vetro resina e a grandezza naturale.
Il parco, definito dallo stesso Marcello Creti "OASI", per il suo contenuto conoscitivo in campo
naturalistico riveste unenorme importanza didattica ed quindi meta di scolaresche e visitatori adulti .
Non solo il Parco ma anche lantico edificio, ex convento di San Giacomo, oggi sede di tutte le attivit
della FONDAZIONE, con i suoi laboratori di elettronica, fisica e biologia, con la sua biblioteca, sala
conferenze e musei, e visitabile e a disposizione gratuita di chiunque voglia usufruire delle strutture per
attivit culturali o divulgative.
194

Fonte: D.H.Childress - Le Scoperte Scientifiche delle Antiche Civilt


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The author of the article gives a brief description of the real design of aircraft engine. Probably, this design is not
similar to Shauberger's one. However the very appearance of some ideas is rather interesting. Different people in
different places and time come to the same conclusions. Whether people think in a common way, or Nature laws
are the same. Could you believe that the author of the article has never read or heard about Shauberger's works
(I mean his engine, which operates on environment energy and has levitation properties)? But by accident
(thanks to Internet) when come upon the description of designs, I was surprised to find so much in common
between Shauberger's ideas and my suppositions. Outwardly Shauberger's engine looks like the following (see
Fig.l):

Fig.1
The possible internal device is shown in Fig,2 (the device is turned upside-down with respect to the photos).
216

Fig.2

Since the author of this work does not purpose to appropriate other's fame, then there is an attempt to explain
easily the arrangement of the engine. Besides, in spite of the fact that in Internet there is rather extensive
information on the device, however its immediate operation is not properly explained. There is an opinion that
the device is a mystification and cannot work at all. But I think this is not the case.
Undoubtedly a wheel, which seems strange at first sight (see Fig.3), is the main part of the engine. The engine
consists of 24 corkscrews-like devices, which rotate in circle (see http://evg-ars.narod, on the origin of
tornados).

Fig.3
Shauberger created the ideal conditions for appearance of the group of mini-tornados and the central tornado,
which is the motive force of the device. At the first stage by means of the wheel, air swirls around the axis of the
electric motor. Due to centrifugal force the same air is thrown to the periphery, passes through "corkscrews" of
the wheel and obtains rotation down axis of each "corkscrew". Air simultaneously swirls around 2 axes of
rotation.
217

Let's try to take a high-speed electric motor with a flywheel, which is fixed on the axis. Then rotate the device
around your hand. At the turning of the motor you will feel the forces, which acted in the way you do not
expect.
Thus the wheel creates 24 mini-tornados. The upper part of the device looks like a copper basin (see Fig.4).
Turning round the internal surface of the upper part of the device, mini-tornados move away to the internal cone
of the device and forward the outlet.

Fig.4
The approximate demonstration of the internal arrangement of Shauberger's device is shown in Fig.5

Fig.5
The cross section of the device allows understanding of the essence of tornado, which is observed from the
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vertical view. The first section, which is placed a little lower than the "copper basin", is the cross-section of the
tornado. The rest of two sections are placed closer to the outlet (only 9 balls are represented in Fig.6 but the
principle of operation is the same).

Fig. 6
Thus, 24 (9) balls (mini-vortices) roll inside the wall of the circle. The walls of each ball rotate in opposite
directions with respect to the walls of the neighbor balls. These balls will be concerned as a dual medium: on the
one hand it is a ball, since it rolls as a part of a ball bearing and laws of mechanics influenced on it, but at the
same time it is air, for which laws of hydrodynamic are valid. These balls at any collision of their neighbors tend
to collide to each other and thus simultaneously move to the center of the device. At the same time the opposite
movement of walls of the neighbor balls represent a rarified medium, by Bernoulli's law. Thus the balls are
"attracted" to each other. As a result, the whole mass of the rotating air is constricted towards the center, and
then considerably accelerates (because the diameter of the device is decreasing). Finally this mass flies out the
nozale, which is placed in the lower part of the device. The wheel with "corkscrews" rotates, and constantly
supplying these minivortices-bearings, entrains air, which comes from inside...
Shauberger asserts that the process becomes to be self-sustaining. Natural tornado can exist for a long period of
time and, obviously, the very existence of it is sustained only by pressure difference between environment and
the internal cone of the tornado. The discharge zone is created in the very center of the device. It means that
ambient air must approach there, after coming on the turbine blade and entraining in the rotation with
complicated trajectory (such a rotation can be called a "self-eversible toroid").
It seems to me that these are the basic principles of operation of the device. Indeed, such a process can be
concerned as an opposition to the ordinary explosion, since the matter does not move from the center but on the
contrary, tends to constrict into the common point (to the top of the vortex). Shauberger called this process
as implosion.
The rotating mini-vortices, which composite a tornado, are attracted to each other and tend to move to
the basic center of rotation.
Let us return to Shauberger. The witnesses of operation of Shauberger's device asserted that only air and water
were used as a fuel. Possibly, they were wrong a little. Most likely there were air and spirit, which looks like
water. During the operation the engine must consume ambient air and if to provide it with some fuel and burn it,
then it will forward the process of the vortex creation. In the presence of the big amount of oxygen, the flame of
spirit is almost invisible. As a result, there is a "flameless and smoke-free engine", as it was presented in some
publications.
In my conclusions I came to approximately the same design. Thus I offer a device, which remotely
resembles Shauberger's "windmill". In general, operation of the device is based on the same principles.
The similar laws are valid for the whirlpool in a bath and for the devices given below.
219

Fig.7

fig. 8

As distinct from Shauberger's device, there is no main cone, along which the vortex constricts to the center and
is ejected through the nozzle. Another distinction consists in more simple design of the wheel, which is used for
creation of the vortex (actually it is a usual centrifugal pump). The simplification of Shauberger's design (Fig. 7)
is caused by the fact that a natural tornado does not need similar contrivances (though his "corkscrew" wheel
calls nothing but admiration, since by the simplest and effective way it swirls air blasts at 2 perpendicular axes of
rotation!). My aim is to swirl the air blast into a small tornado as simply as possible and it is desirable to use no
mechanical components. This can be achieved, if instead of turbine of centrifugal pump, we will use something
like MHD-engine (magnetohydrodynamic engine) for swirling (see http://evg-ars.narod.ru). There is a design,
which has no moving components (except for the vortex). In the lower part of the device (Fig. 8) there is a
burning fuel (possibly, kerosene?). Moreover for MHD-engine we should use electro-conductive kerosene
(possibly, salted) and natrium addition agent. Roughly speaking, there is an attempt to reproduce the natural
phenomenon in a can. The essence of the process can be understood from Fig.9.
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Fig.9 "Tornado in a glass" Fig10."Natural tornado"

The process, represented in Fig. 9 , was firstly noticed by Einstein in an ordinary glass with tea and floating tea-
leaves (let us call it Einstein's glass). Examine closely the central upward part, which is namely a "trunk of
tornado". It seems strange that Einstein did not made the same conclusions.
The processes, which take place in Einstein's glass, are certainly the basis of the engine operation. Let us try to
make process stable. For that let us swirl water in a reservoir by means of a disk, which is fixed on the axis of
electric motor engine (Fig.11). Having been swirled, water moves along the complicated trajectory (fluid motion
is described on http://www.evert.de/, see Fig.12)

fig.11 fig.12

These figures allow us make very interesting conclusions. Linear speed of water motion is constant by all the
way and it is defined by linear speed of the disk edges. Fluid, which is accelerated by the disk, spires down and
forces itself to the center. At that moment there is an increase of angular speed of water rotation (if we rotate a
weight hanging on a thread, which is winded round the finger then we will see the analogous increase of speed of
rotation). Fluid with the increased angular speed of rotation goes up and bears against the central part of the
221

disk. The most interesting is the fact that speed of water rotation in the central part is higher than speed of
disk rotation! Water "pushes" the disk in direction of rotation. The rotating stream supports itself! This is
almost a perpetual mobile. But force of friction is the usual obstacle. This process occurs to be very stable and
low-damping. The conclusion is:
Vortex can be easily created at rotation of fluid or gas and if the conditions of rotation at top and bottom
of the device are unequal, it is nearly a ready self-sustaining system.
Not much of energy is necessary to make the process continuous. And what is more, the vortex absorbs energy
from environment in the form of heat!
Let us examine the simplified diagram of Shauberger's engine ( Fig.A ). The design can be presented as the
following simple diagram, which is nothing but the development of the idea of Einstein's glass.

Fig.A Shauberger's Engine


At the top of the internal part of the device there is a rotating disk (it is in red color). There is an upright plate
below. This design allows the unequal conditions of rotation for lower and upper sheets of water (air?). On the
left there is a heat-exchanger (it will be described below). On top there is a motor-generator, which at first serves
as a starter of the process, and after it reaches the tornado mode of operation it serves as energy generator. A
valve, which is fixed on the heat-exchanger,serves as a breaker of the process. The arrow in the left is an
actuating fluid of the device. This actuating fluid is heated by environment.
Centrifugal forces cause the increase of pressure at walls of the vessel and rarefaction in the central part. Due to the high angular speed
of rotation of upper water (air) sheets, as compared to the lower sheets, a meridional stream is created. This stream goes down 'along
walls of the vessel and goes up in the central part (in nature it is nothing but "trunk of tornado"). Moving along its complicated
trajectory, fluid (gas), falls sometimes into compression space, sometimes into vacuum space.

Let us remember the fundamental physical law, vizBoyle's law If we take a definite gas mass, then gas will be
heated at forced compression and cooled at rarefication. Thus, in the central part of the device air-and-water
compound comes to vacuum space, which is caused by centrifugal forces. At that there is a decrease of
temperature and increase of volume of the final gas mass. This increase of gas volume causes the increase of
kinetic motion of the stream, which comes upwards, along the central axis of the device. This recharged stream
with new energy arrives to the turbine disk, forces it to rotate with higher speed and to produce still more
intensive vortex. This vortex creates still higher rarefication etc. Cooled damp air is thrown out by centrifugal
force in the tube of the heat exchanger. Ideally, temperature of the heat exchanger is about absolute zero. The
heat exchanger is placed in the environment, which is "medium of energy excess", though from the ordinary
point of view it is normal. The heat exchanger is heated by it. Heat energy penetrates into the device and as a
result transfers into energy of rotation of the "self-eversible toroid".
We can make an interesting conclusion that there is also the oscillation process! And oscillations have a
resonance, that is the increase of amplitude at minimal energy supply' Thus we will be able to stabilize the effect
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since there are evaluated the dependences between amplitude of oscillation and all influencing parameters. There
is a temperature resonance!
In my opinion, Shauberger was a great person and his name is undeservedly forgotten. I think he had
nevertheless succeeded in making a generator, which gets energy from "nothing", more precisely, from
environment. Even if it is made very ineffectively, since this energy is free, it can remove all against arguments.
I believe that there is a possibility to make such engine-generator of amazing abilities, which can generate, or more precisely,
concentrate energy from environment energy. Social and economic consequences of such invention are undoubtedly boundless. That is
both a solution of energetic problems and change of the understanding of the notion "transport".

From the foregoing, we can depict a certain design. Let's make the following device as a hypothetical, "virtual"
engine ( Fig. B).

Fig.B Vortex engine-generator


This device can serve as:
1. Generator of energy, i.e. a concentrator of environment energy.
2. Heat engine, which has abilities to cool and condition. Besides, not necessarily to use water-air as actuating
fluid, since air and freon are also possible.
3. Gravitational mechanism. (This statement seems to be rather bold, but let me explain it):
3.1. There is a well-known effect of weight loss of fast-rotating masses. What does it depend on? Let us return
to Fig. 12. It is clear that at such a rotation of air there is a possibility to run up J-sq s to unconceivable speeds
(due to small air mass). The device is not threatened with destroy, for example, as distinct from a metal flywheel.
In spite of complexity of the trajectory, each point of it moves at a tangent to the Earth surface. It is quite
possible to reach 8 km/sec linear speed on this trajectory. If an artificial satellite with 1m orbit can exist, then
there is a question: "Is levitation possible here?"
3.2. Some time ago an article on gravitational mechanisms (mertioids) was published in "Technica Molodyozi"
("Technics for Young People"). There was a description of about 10 types of mechanism as well as the
explanation why they could not fly. However, in the end of the article it is stated that there is no final verdict on
the work of such devices, and the issue remains open. Thus I offer #11. Let us concern the experiment I made,
i.e. the rotation of the usual flywheel, which was placed on the axis of electromotor. I hold the motor with my
hands. The capacity of the motor was about 70 Wtt at 7000 r/min and U=24V. The rotating flywheel (aluminum
disk of 10cm diameter and about 200 gram weight) looks like an mertioid! It is enough to rotate the device
around your arm to feel incomprehensible propulsion, which is definitely directed. This interesting effect is
obtained due to the simultaneous rotation around 2 axes (axis of the motor and axis of the arm). The results of
the experiment caused the appearance of the idea, which has much in common with Shauberger's device.
Thus we can formulate some general principles of operation of the devices, which generate mechanical energy at
"absorption" of energy from environment.
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1. There is a generation of the process, which is close to be self-sustaining (We can find such examples in
hydraulics. The vortex of the type of Einstein's glass is very unstable and rather inertial state. There are
many examples in nature, such as: swirl of water or air, natural tornado; in electrotechnics, such as:
electromotor and dynamo, which are connected on the same axis, etc). For real self-support it is
necessary to add external energy in such a system. Sometimes energy, which , compensates losses by
friction or resistance, can be enough.
2. There is amplification of the process right up to resonance, which takes place in such a device (in
vortex there is a process of heating-cooling of air-water compound and in electrotechnics there is the
induction of electromagnetic fields).
3. The device is "reversed" with respect to the environment in such a way, that some part of the device
will have energy with very decreased energy potential. This "reversing" will become an absorber of
environment energy. For example, in hydraulics the central part of Shauberger's device is a space, which
is close to absolute zero by temperature and pressure. Therefore this part of the device is placed in the
usual environment of excess energy potential. In electrotechnics it is more complicated, since there is a
superposition and resonance of fields.
4. There is a release of "absorbed" energy from the closed space of the device in the form of mechanical
or electric energy. This energy is absorbed from the outside.
There are striking examples of such devices:
- Shauberger's Engine (see: http://www.dromo.com/ fusionanomaly/viktorschauberger.html) and Klem' s Engine,
which is very similar by its principles in hydraulics;
- Tesla's generator and Serl's generator in electrotechnics.
Thus we can conceive the interior of Shauberger's Repulsme. Most likely, this device was similar to vortex
engine-propulsion unit-generator of energy ( Fig. C).

Fig.C Vortex engine-propulsion unit-generator of energy

Vortex, which is created in the central part of the device, absorbs heat from air, which traverses through turbine
blades by means of heat-exchanger. The heat-exchanger is actually a usual centrifugal pump. Vortex absorbs that
minimal part of heat, which is necessary to keep rotation. The engine starts the operation at turbine untwisting
and at slight water injection, which comes from below. Probably, after the mode of tornado is reached, there is
no need in water and only air serves as actuating fluid. During operating of the engine, pressure is decreased in
the center and increased at the periphery of it. Rank's effect works in full here. More precisely, its work is even
more pronounced than in "Rank's tubes" (since in Rank's tubes swirled air is thrown outside instantly and rather
224

uneconormcally, and in the given case there is "accumulation" of the effect at circular meridian rotation). The
cooled from below heat-exchanger-turbine is heated from above by compressed air. The rejection of this cooled
air causes usual reactive thrust.
If it actually works (I think that if Shauberger's engine really existed, it had the similar design) then this design
could be considered as absolutely universal engine- propulsion unit-generator of energy. It is super ecological
and fuel-less, since it has cool airflow as exhaust. Technological effectiveness of the design is on the level of the
beginning of past century. Simplicity of the design can make us doubt its capacity for work. But I believe there
are no distinct contradictions here. The commercial plant, designed for generation of electric energy, could look
in the following way ( Fig. D).

Fig.D Block of vortex electricity generating plant


The design is very simple. Why should the "vortex trunk" be directed downwards? Let us turn the design upside
down. Thus, the generation of artificial vortex is greatly simplified. What is necessary to create the vortex? The
answer is as follows, we need not much of environment heat, moisture and the initial swirl of mass of
damp air. A cup-shaped vessel is filled with usual water. At the starting stage of operation, motor-generator
starts to swirl a water-air cone by means of turbine with helical blades. When the device starts operating in
tornado regime, then heat is absorbed from the ambient air. At that, motion of rarefied air accelerates
along the center of vortex and this airflow starts pressing upon turbine blades.

Motor-generator can be switched to the mode of energy-generation. There is a minimal description of the device
operation, but really the processes are more complex (there is advisedly left out the description of mini-tornado,
which is created at the appearance of the main tornado. The possible electrostatic effects are not described also).
Figure D is an attempt to emphasize the main thing, i.e. the fact, that process of vortex self-supporting is
possible and in my opinion, it is rather simple. I have no ideas about the height of the obtained vortex (at least if
the scales are kept it will be much higher than in the Fig. D). But if the process of natural vortices creation is
ordinary (at that, sometimes there are no obvious reasons for their appearance), then I offer to consider the
proposed device as a set of details, which provide the artificial creation of the natural phenomenon.
There is another question on the size of the device. I do not offer the giant size (50 meters in diameter Messiah
mashine can be concerned as such negative example). The description of Shauberger's Home Machine Power
seems to be more likely. Its diameter is about 1 meter. Besides, my own design is a symbiosis between thesetwo
devices, however constructively it seems simpler and probably better. Its minimal size is still defined by laws of
nature, since I have never seen natural air vortex, the size of which was less than I meter (usual swirls on dusty
road are the simple example of such phenomenon). But at the same time, if we imagine the maximal size of such
225

a system, then our imagination will easily picture a huge plant, which is placed on the open air and which is able
to generate a real tornado with all its disruptive power. But this tornado is "tamed" and therefore it always stays
at one and the same place, i.e. exactly over the energy plant. And what if we build a system of large-scaled
vortex energy plants, which are able to cool environment? Then we can speak about the influence on climate' It
would be an important contribution to the global warming control.
In my opinion, these devices can be widely produced as a small-sized autonomous energy source (for example,
for a detached building). Do you remember how in their time personal computers "thrown down" big electronic
computers? It is necessary to be closer to a consumer! For example:

???

Of course, everything looks rather fantastical, however I would like to intensify the impression and to understand
at last the essence of Implosion and what Shauberger wanted to offer.

Fig. 13 "Explosion" "Implosion"


Nowadays the whole man-caused civilization depends on Explosion (in translation from Latin it means
"explosion", "exhaust"). Operation of any modern heat-engine (see the left part of Fig. 13) is fuel combustion of
a certain extension, which causes raise of temperature and expansion of working body due to this burning. The
expanded working body pushes a piston or turbine and then is thrown away to obtain reactive impulse.
Practically, operation of any engine is based on the process of expansion, which is the result of fuel combustion,
This causes squandering of nonrenewable natural resources, viz: gas, oil, coal, and uranium (the products of such
a technology is a separate great problem). However the expansion of the working body can be obtained in result
of absolutely different process! Natural tornado can serve as an example.
Let me explain. Imagine that a working body rotates in some vessel (the simplest case is the swirling of usual air
(see the right part of Fig. 13, which represents the miniature model of natural tornado). Right away
theaccelerating ascending progressive motion will appear in the central part. There are three reasons for that:
226

1. Due to the rarefication of the central part of the vortex by centrifugal forces, there is a definite volume
expansion of final mass of gas and decrease of gas temperature. This mass is "supported" by walls and
bottom of the vessel. The only way to expand is to move upwards.
2. In the central part of the vessel the rarefied part of gas behaves according to Archimedean principle (more
lightweight body floats). It looks like a coverless balloon.
3. Swirling air obtains a considerable electric potential, which is positive in the center and negative at the
periphery. In spite of its simplicity, this tornado model (as well as the very tornado) is an excellent electrostatic
generator (the theory of appearance of such electric potential has the best representation in materials on Searl's
generator). In natural tornado the millions Volt value is obtained that results in the constant appearance of
lightnings in "tornado eye" and in its "trunk". Thus in the presence of such high voltage there is air electrization
in the body of tornado. And as is well known, like charges repel each other! (Positively charged air molecules,
which are devoid of electrons, repel each other). In such a way, due to electrostatic forces there is a rise of gas
pressure! This expansion causes the additional impulse for the upward motion of air. Is there in physic a
formulation of such an effect, i.e. the expansion of gas volume at its electrization? If there is no, then it seems
to be a discovery! Figure 14 is an attempt to prove, that tornado is electrostatic machine, and at that it has
the simplest design.

Fig. 14 Electrostatic model of tornado


The sectional view of tornado (see Fig. 14) represents an attempt to synthesize the designs, which are offered by
different inventors (in such devices a simple cylinder serves as rotor. This cylinder is made of dielectric and on
each side of it there is high voltage in several tens of KV). There is also an attempt to answer the question: what
are the means for tornado swirling?
The researchers of natural tornados speak about the presence of the system of mini-tornados at inner wallsof the
mam tornado (here I return to the balls-rolls,which were concerned above). There is also high electric potential,
which is generated on this inner wall with respect to the center of swirling. In my opinion, these balls-rolls are
under high electric potential and serve as rotors of the peculiar electric engine. That is an immediate source of
tornado swirling! There is a usual process of electrization at friction of dielectrics (see the animation on
http://evg-ars narod). At some boundary voltage there is "switching off" the forces of electrostatic attraction,
which compressed the balls. As a result of that, balls increase in their diameter. Pressure release, which exists in
the balls, should cause their cooling. This process is constant along the whole height of the tornado trunk. There
is an interesting effect to be noted, the higher speed of tornado, the thinner its trunk. But these are electrostatic
forces that can explain everything ! The higher speed of swirling, the more potential difference of the center
and periphery is, the more intensive attraction of the charged particles, and the thinner trunk of
tornado! Tornado has the ideal conditions for electrization, since there are huge friction dielectric surfaces
(nobody knows why there is a transmission of electrons at friction of wool on amber, but it does not mean we
cannot use that).
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Let me summarize all aforesaid and offer my own design of the vortex device. Most likely, during the XX
century the inventors of vortex devices have actually created really operational devices, which used heat energy
of environment (these are: Shauberger's engine-generator, Klem's engine, Tesla's turbine, Searl's generator,
Roshchm-Godm's experiment (Editor's: See the description of this experiment in the early issues of "NewEnergy
Technologies"), Potapov's generator, etc). All these devices have much in common at their operation:
1. There is heat absorption at operation of the device, and cooling of environment, which is a particular
"exhaust" (the reason is the conversion of environmental heat energy into the swirling);
2. The presence of strong magnetic and especially electric fields at operation of the device, caused by electric
forces, which are the reason of the process appearance;
3. Strange luminescence of the spaces, which are around the devices and inside the vortices (the reason is air
lonization at multi-kilovolt voltages),
4. All devices have not less than 1 meter proportions (since the operation of all these devices is based on the
presence of a vortex-tornado. Appearance of this tornado is caused by physical properties of water and air,
which are heat capacity, heat conduction, breakdown voltage, sluggishness etc).Let me summarize the principles
of operation of all these devices and offer my own design, which include the most useful of them ( Fig.E).

Fig.E Arsentyev's Engine-tornado


The device generates local natural tornado. There is an attempt to elaborate the principles, which are in the
basis of the electrostatic model of tornado (see Fig. 14). In its principle of operation the device has very much in
common with well known from school electrostatic generator (do you remember 2 rotating in opposite
directions plexiglass disks covered with foil and a lightning, appearing at breakdown between two metal balls,
which take the potential form these discs?). In our case the whole device is rolled up in a cone. Rotating inner
rotor, which is made of maximum possible lightweight material (e.g. thin-walled plastic), creates spiral and
swirling on their axes air bunches. These very air bunches are charge suppliers (they are not presented at Fig.E).

The device operates in the following way: the plates are positively charged on rotor and negatively on stator
(metallized black straps can be applied on the cone of rotor-stator by galvanoplastics method). Engine-generator
works as a motor until the plates reach breakdown voltage. Then there appears a charge between pairs of rotor-
stator plates that causes appearance of impulses, promoting acceleration of rotation. Inflow of "fresh" air from
below provides self-sustaining of rotation. Motor-generator turns to the oscillating mode. Water, is pumped
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from below and promotes intensification of air electrization (there is an effect of intensive electrization at
splashing of water drops in air, e.g. waterfall streams). It is well known that tornado is strongly "attracted" by
ponds. That is the principle of operation in general. The only energy sources are water and a huge amount of
air, transmitted through the device. Lightweight thin-walled plastic with galvanoplastic metallization can be
used as a material for rotor-stator (the usage of glued foil is also possible). The device must have not less than 1
meter diameter, since it is very important for the successful operation (there was a failure of Roshchm-Godin's
experiment with the device, which had 20 cm. diameter, whereas the device with 1 meter diameter worked).
Do not forget to ground metal parts of motor-generator!
Here is the project of the generator. There are no elaborated design drawings and everything should be tested.
However, if it is able to operate, then the similar commercial plant can be easily produced, especially since the
simpler device, the more effective it is.
At this stage the author focused attention on generation of energy, while creation of aircraft is the further step
in development of the project.
Let us return to Shauberger's Repulsine, the electrostatic model of his device assumes the following approximate
form ( Fig. F, G, H)

Fig.F,G,H
Possible
electrostatic model of Shauberger's engine-generator by E. Arsentyev
Most likely, in Shauberger's engine "supply" air proceeds from below and from above (i.e. there is a vortex
chamber on top of the device just as it is). Two mirror vortices
have common "tornado eye". During operation there is constant
electrization of the flow inside the device. Negatively charged
ring is created in the center of toroidal space (according to the
suggested electrostatic theory of tornado). In principle,
framework of the device can acquire positive potential. However
to make sure, it is better to ground the framework. At electric
breakdown of water-air compound there is cooling and twisting
of tornado cords inside the device. That is a motive force of the
device. Air ioni2ation is possible around the framework (in the
absence of grounding). At the first stage it is offered to use
classic Shauberger's turbine as turbine of the device (corkscrews
allow to obtain required twisting of water and air flows inside the
device). It is also possible to use a usual doubled centrifugal
turbine. The device can be made of metal (as Shauberger's one)
or of dielectric (for example, plastic) that is more interesting
from the modern point of view. Diameter of the whole device is
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about 1 meter. Water-air cords, which are generated by the corkscrews (or by blades in the second case) have 3-
5 cm diameter.

There are many publications on Koand effect, which appears during the operation of Shauberger's engine. For
some reason in these works Koand effect is always described as an explanation of wing lift. But Koand effect is a
phenomenon of absolutely another kind! It is the adherence of gas or fluid flow to the surface along which
they move! Obviously, the problem is m the erroneous understanding of Shauberger's notes about the presence
of such effect during the operation of the device. In my opinion, using Koand effect we can make a rotor wheel,
which has no blades or corkscrews. This rotor wheel can have the form of doubled hyperbolic cone. At hyper-
high speeds of rotation of such a turbine, water-air compound will be involved in tornado swirling exactly by
means of Koand effect, i.e. by means of adhesion of particles to the surface of the rotating cone. (See cover
page, Fig. H). By its design this turbine is very simple, since only maximal lightness and durability are demanded,
Plastic seems to be the best material, hence the design represents a rotor-thin-walled plastic "whirligig". All
electrostatic effects and other principles of operation are valid here (See Fig.H).
Let us now move away from Shauberger's principles and formulate the following problem- to achieve stability
of the process by modernization of the device, i.e. by removing of all mechanically movable parts.
Can you imagine fireworks, which are the rotating wheels with burning rockets on the rims? These rims
gradually accelerate and turn into the burning ring. It looks very effectively but absolutely useless, at first sight.
Speed of rotation is very high but nevertheless it is definite. What is the limit for this speed of rotation? Have
you ever thought why usual electro-motor is no table to rotate with the speed, which is higher than some
maximal one, and no matter how long you will apply voltage to the device? Everything is limited by moment of
inertia, existing for gyrating masses. This moment of inertia is denned by the weight of rotating body and by
weight distribution on the axis of rotation. Therefore massive rotor of electric motor or of rotating turbine can
never be rotated up to super speeds. Nowadays aircraft turbines have the highest speed of rotation (about 150
thousand rot/mm). Why should we need to rotate a heavy turbine or rotor? What if we will rotate air or, more
precisely, combustion products? Roughly speaking, I offer to stop rotation of the firework wheel and force
rotation of air or combustion products along some inner rim. Therefore we will obtain a burning ring, which will
get required reactive force at rejection of incandescent gases in proper direction. Let us consider the problem
from this point.
Operation of rocket engine is based on the expansion reaction, which takes place in some closed space (at
combustion of fuel + oxidant in the chamber) and also the emission of combustion products in the same
direction. At that, a body moves in the opposite direction.

Fig 15
Let us fill a cup with fuel and burn it (see Fig.15). Fuel expands at combustion and as a result of natural
convection the combustion products go up. In the real rocket engine there is a forced injection of fuel and
oxidant into the cup that causes more intensive motion of combustion products, than in our case. Let us
modernize the cup and make a hole in its center (see Fig. 16).

Fig. 16
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Thus, portions of air can inflow from below and sustain combustion. Expanding consumption products repel
themselves from inclined walls of the combustion chamber and therefore their raise is more justified.

Fig. 17
Let us place several similar chambers one after another (Fig. 17). If we concern each chamber individually, then
combustion products at their expansion repel themselves from inclined walls of the chamber and obtain some
impulse. At that, the process appears in the lower chamber and then becomes more intensive in the second and
all subsequent chambers. Thus combustion products are gradually accelerated. There is a process of kinetic
energy storage. In order to make the process of storage to be continuous, we should coil everything up.
Let us examine operation of the following device, which can be made of a metal tin (see Fig. 18). The arrows
symbolize burning fuel, which obtains an impulse at the expansion. This diagram is not connected with attraction
as the presented above figures of cups. It is caused by the fact that centrifugal forces come into force, i.e. fuel is
pressed to the rim and portions of air are delivered by centrifugal force through the hole in the center of the
device (see the top view on Fig. 18).

Fig.18
In the center there can be placed a motor-generator to release energy (see Shauberger's device). The presented
design has 4 combustion chambers and most likely, the vortex will be swirled of 4 rotating cylinders.
Shauberger's device has 24 cylinders at 1-meter diameter of the construction. Such proportions can be justified in
physical sense. In the same way we can take the required number of chambers. Then the vortex is contracted to
point as in the aforesaid description of balls-rolls.
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The operation of the device is presented in Fig. 19 (view from within). There is a toroid, which has self-
support of combustion reaction. The toroid draws air by means of centrifugal force and throws up
combustion products. Speed of rotation of the toroid can be very high since its small mass. At the same time, at
superhigh speed of rotation of this tore, some new and still unknown phenomena can become apparent. If this
engine really works, then there is no necessity of production accuracy and of high technologies, which are
required for making of aircraft turbines and rocket engines. The only essential requirement is heat resistance of
the device. Such an engine could be made at the appearance of ceramic stuff, i.e. far earlier than modern
era.

Fig 19

Now there is another "technological nonsense". I offer to make the simplest air-reactive engine, which has no
movable parts. Certainly, many readers have used to observe benzine or another inflammable substance burning
in a metal bucket or barrel. From time to time, tongues of flame create rising swirled vortex, which disappears at
once, since there are no special reasons for its existence. What if we help the flame and spend for rotation all
energy, which is generated in result of expansion of combustion products? Progressive motion will be the
consequence of this process.

Fig. 20
The device (see Fig. 20) represents a bucket with legs and a hole in its lower part. To support the reaction, air
inflows from below. The plate-made, corona-like part of the device coils up combustion products. Then under
the influence of centrifugal forces combustion products go up along walls of the bucket. New portions of air
aredrawn in the device from below and at once react with each other (the more intensive combustion, the more
portions of air are drawn into swirling that in its turn promotes combustion). The only aim is to forward all
energy output to swirling. This device is a miniature model of typhoon-tornado-spout, i.e. a naive attempt to
reproduce a natural phenomenon in a simple leaky bucket. But there is still undecided question: what is the
reason for limitation of speed of swirling and therefore speed of the flow, which goes from below?
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Fig.21
One more Shauberger's device is presented at Fig. 21. There are some changes along the section A-A.
Combustion products are drawn to the center of swirling and then they are divided in two flows: the first flow
goes upward, creating the vortex, and the second goes downward, making the motive force of the device.
Motor-generator is placed on the upper part of the device. It operates as a starter of the process at first and as
generator of energy, after it reaches regime of tornado. Let me remind of the fact that this engine uses energy,
which is generated as a result of fuel combustion (i.e. in any case, a kind of liquid fuel is required). Shauberger
asserts that it is sufficient to use air and water as fuel. I am not sure it is a realistic assertion, but later on I will
try to offer my own suggestion on the point, since from respect of energy consuming, natural vortex has no need
in something else

A-A section
Let me say several words about fuel for the device. It is evident that at the initial stage of operation the device
has lack of air. Therefore, fuel should have oxidant in its compound (something like napalm, which can burn by
itself). But, quite possible, I am wrong and usual aviation spirit is enough. Later on I will try to develop this idea
and modernize the design. The main point will be the same, i.e. how to make engine, which has no movable
parts. There are so many new ideas on the variants of engines that I am hardly able to describe them, not to
mention about making. If you will decide to make something similar, please, write (mailto:evg-ars@narod.ru)
but let me get notice that everything is submitted in Internet without diagrams and calculations.
To be continue...
What do you think about? Best regurds for all from Evgeny ArSEntyEV.