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Networking Fundamentals

A network is several computers, printers, and other devices that are connected together with cables or radio signals. This allows the
computers to talk with each other and share information and resources (usually files and printers). Networks vary in size; they can be
as small as two computers connected to each other by a cable, or they can span the entire globethe Internet is actually the worlds
largest network.
The collections of interconnected computer networks around the world make up the Internet. People connected to the network can
share resources and information. Computer programs can be used and accessed simultaneously.

Types of Network
Computer network can be categorized according to range, functional relationship and topology.
A. Computer Network According to Range.
1. Local Area Network (LAN) A network that connects computers in the same geographic area or within a local area,
such as, building, room, a home or a schools computer laboratory. Computers in this kind of network can be
interconnected through cables or wireless links.
2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) MAN is larger network than LAN. It usually covers several offices, buildings or
schools, each with their own LAN but connected to each other in the same locality or place.
3. Wide Area Network (WAN) - A network that connects computers across a large geographic area using telephone lines or
satellites. The Internet is actually a huge Wide Area Network.

B. Computer Network According to Functional Relationship

1. Peer-to-Peer Network - In a peer-to-peer network, everyone stores their files on their own computer, and anyone on the
network can access files stored on any other computer. Because you dont need any additional software (Windows 7
includes peer-to-peer networking), peer-to-peer networking is an
inexpensive way to connect computers in a small office or home. The
disadvantages of a peer-to-peer network are that it doesnt offer as much
security as client/server networks, and it can be difficult to find files that
are stored on many different computers. Windows 7 Home is designed for
use in small home and office peer-to-peer networks.

2. Client/Server Network In a client/server network, everyone stores their

files on a central computer called a server. Everyone on the network can
access the files stored on the server. Client/server networks are more
secure, easier to administer, and much more powerful than peer-to-peer
networks. Thats why they are used to connect computers in most
businesses. The types of computers that can be used as servers include
mainframe computers, minicomputers and powerful PC, Macintosh, or
UNIX computers. Clients can use PCs, Macintosh computers, handheld
devices, etc.

C. Computer Network According to Topology

Topology refers to the layout or structure of the network in relation with the flow of data. Examples are:
1. Star Topology - The most commonly applied topology. Uses a central device (hub) with cables extending in all directions.

2. Linear Bus Topology Linear bus topology uses one long cable, referred to as backbone, to which computers and other
devices are attached. A terminator is placed at each end of the backbone to keep the signals from bouncing back and
being received again by the nodes in the network.

3. Ring Topology- It is consists of several computers joined together to form a circle. Data moves from one computer to the
next in one direction only. Any data or messages will pass through adjacent nodes until it reaches the target node.

4. Hybrid Topology- Hybrid topology is a combination of different types of topology used in a network system to adapt to
the different design of floors or rooms in a building.

Star Topology
Linear Bus Topology Ring Topology
Types of Internet Connections
Connectio Advantages Disadvantages
n Rate
It uses Modems(a
Not expensive
modulator/demodulator) that convert Slowest connections, you
the analog data transmitted over phone 24 kbps to Availability: able to get
cannot use the telephone for
lines into digital data that computers can 56 kbps internet service almost
the Internet and phone calls
anywhere in the country
read (demodulation) and also convert for the same time.
digital data into analog data so it can be
transmitted (modulation)
Better than dial-up
Widely available in most metro
ISDN connections are
Integrated Services Digital Network areas
considered still more or less
(ISDN) Still a valid option, especially
uses fully digital signals over copper those who are too far away from Not dramatically faster than
phone wire, a standard telephone line. 128 kbps the telephone companys
analog service
This means there is no conversion from Central Office to qualify for DSL
The access charge is usually
digital to analog and back again in the service
manner that an analog modem works. Able to talk on the telephone
Not available everywhere
and surf the web simultaneously
Always on connection
Cable connections
another broadband option which takes
advantage of another setup found in
Very fast and reliable connection
homes-cable TV. A cable modem uses 1.5 Mbps Not available in all areas
with fixed monthly fee.
the cable TV providers hybrid Fiber/Co- up to 7.5 Variability of speed
Always on connection
ax infrastructure as a shared data Mbps Upstream speed limited
High speed
network. All of the devices connected to
the neighborhood co-ax network talk
and listen to each other.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
also known as xDSL (a generic name),
is another broadband service that many Excellent Internet connection.
telephone companies and other DSL allows you to use telephone
providers offer to consumers. It is normally while connected to the
Not available everywhere
composed of several subcategories, the Internet.
due to the signal limitations
most common being ADSL (Asymmetric 512 Kbps to Always on connection
based on the distance.
Digital Subscriber Line), SDSL 20 Mbps Also able to use dial-up
DSL connections is much
(Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line), and connections
costlier tan dial-up.
HDSL (High-data-rate Digital Subscriber High speed
Line). ADSL technology is a transport Promise of affordability
that allows faster flow of information Uses existing lines
downstream than upstream, while SDLS
supports one speed regardless of
upstream or downstream flow.
DLL allows you to upload and DLL is much more expensive
Dedicated Leased Line [T-carrier
download large files quickly. than cable and DSL
Level (T1)]
High speed connection that is connections.
A leased line is a telephone line that is 1,544,000
directly from ISPs network. Available mostly in United
rented directly form the telephone bps
Available virtually everywhere in States, Canada and Japan.
company, and sometimes is referred to
the regional serving area Too expensive to the
as direct connections to the Internet.
Always on connection individual and small business
Wireless Connections 256 Kbps to Anyone with WiFi ready gadgets You have to stay within a
as much as and devices can be connected WiFi Hotzone.
10+ Mbps to the Internet anywhere in the Sensitive to the heavy rainy
world without any cords or wires day
for as long as you are in a WiFi
Available virtually everywhere in
the regional serving area
Always on connection

Common Internet Terms:

Internet Interconnecting networks.
HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is a set of rules for transferring files on the World Wide Web. HTTP files can
be text, graphics, sound, video, or any other multimedia file type. HTTP works like this: your browser (for example, Microsoft
Internet Explorer) sends an HTTP request to a server for a certain group of Web pages. The server receives this request and
sends the page(s) back to your computer.
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is a set of special codes referred to as tags, that describe the general
structure of various kinds of documents that are linked together on the World Wide Web.
URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. This is an address for a file that is located somewhere on the Internet. Each URL
is unique to the Web page that it links to. URLs are structured so that they contain a protocol, domain name, resource, and
Hyperlink a link from one word or image to another. Most commonly, a hyperlink will appear on a page as a blue underlined
word or phrase (as seen in Figure 3-1), but they can also be images or animations. To use a hyperlink, you simply click on it
with your mouse and it will instantly take you to the destination.
ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. An ISP is a lot like a phone company, except instead of letting you make telephone
calls to other people, an Internet Service Provider lets your computer connect to the Internet.
Plug-in is a small piece of software that enriches a larger piece of software by adding features or functions. For example, a
plug-in extends the capabilities of a Web browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, by allowing the browser to run
multimedia files.
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. Much like HTTP, FTP is a set of rules for transferring files on the World Wide Web.
FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from the Web page developers computer to the Web server. FTP is also
used to download files to your computer from another server.
Cookie consists of one or more pieces of information that are stored as text files on your computer. A Web server sends the
cookie and the browser stores it. Each time the page is referenced, the browser resends the cookie to the original server.
Cookies are most commonly used to store frequently used information, such as user ID numbers. They are not harmful, as
their rotten reputation implies. They cannot transmit viruses, nor can they take any information from your computer back to the
server. In fact, cookies can be helpful because they allow a server to recall any user-specific information.
Cache You automatically request files when you look at a Web page. These files are stored in a cache. A cache is simply a
temporary storage place that is located in a subdirectory beneath the main directory for your browser. Caches are created so
that when you return to a page that you have recently visited, the browser can get the page from the cache, rather than going
back to the server. This saves time and reduces the amount of Internet traffic. Most Web browsers will allow you to manipulate
the size of your cache.
Encryption When you encrypt something, you are putting it into a code that only authorized people can understand. This
prevents unauthorized users from accessing personal or confidential information.
Firewall A firewall is a group of related programs that protect a private network from users from other networks. Basically, a
firewall screens all incoming information before sending it off to its intended destination so the network stays secure -free from
hackers, viruses, and any other types of security breaches.
Web browser is a software application that allows your computer to connect with, view, and navigate the World Wide Web.
The Web browser is what finds, displays, and allows you to interact with and look at Web pages. Most Web browsers are
graphical in nature, which means that they have the capability to show both text and images.
Pop-ups are annoying advertisements windows that disrupt your browsing on the Web. Depending on the security settings,
these annoying pop-ups may or may not show up while you are browsing the Web.
Web addresses also called URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), are the unique addresses for documents, Web sites, and
other resources available for browsing and downloading on the World Wide Web.

Understanding Web Addresses

Web addresses consist of four parts: a protocol, a domain name, a resource to be located or file, and an extension.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Domain Name Path Name/Folder Extension

world wide web Top Level Domain File Name

Other Top Level Domains (TLD)

.us United States .gov government .jp Japan
.ph Philippines .com commercial .fr France
.cn China .net Network provider .kr South Korea
.sg Singapore .edu education .coop Cooperative
.uk United Kingdom .org organizations
.ca Canada .info All types of info
.au Australia .biz business
DEFINITION A software program that permits one to access the internet via web addresses (URL Uniform Resource Locator). In
essence, it is like a picture frame that one uses to display photographs. The stuff you usually see at the top of the browser are simply
controls that let you tailor what you want that specific browser to do.

Google Chrome Microsoft Edge Mozilla Firefox Opera Safari Internet Explorer

DEFINITION A software program designed to search the internet for information. The search results are generally presented in a list
of results and are often called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files.