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UPPER INTERMEDIATE lobal Lol ttn eel oler ONT Tey L__ workbook NATL Teves on the Galapagos Istanls and on some islands in the Indian Ocean. Ie lives between 100 and 150 years. Treats grasses, leaves and shrubs ‘The first one was discovered in 1535. 6 Mot Mish tan Wk ecdhe A giant tortoise ean weigh up t0 300 kg. © Grammar 2A The definite article [Are these sentences correct (V) or incorrect (X). Circle the correct answer: 1 My-wife comes from Perth, in the Australia. © 7 2 love autumn when the colours are amazing, WX 3 How long have you played the guitst? vx 44 Bam was a teenager in 1990s, vx 5 Madagascar is an island i Indian Ocean. vex 6 The Moon is more than 350,000 kilometres from the Earth vx 7 What time do you have the breakfast? vx 8 Microwave oven was invented in 1945 by Percy Spencer. vx 9 The British drinka lot of tea, vx 1o Ie important not to give up hope. vx Grammar 2B The definite article ‘Choose the definite article or no article to complete the sentences, Circle the correct answer. 1 = /The Simmpson Desert in Australia has some of the Jargest sand dunes in the world I don't like - / rhe winter, Tes always so cold. ‘One of the most useful inventions of the 19th century was ~ /the electric light bulb. Tn the USA - /the fourth of July is « national holiday. “Most health experes say that-/ the breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Whae’ the capital ety of - /the Canada? ‘When Rebecca was young she could play -/ the violin. Dopamine and Norepinephrine are the two chemicals in our body that cause - /1he love Te ee ee ee ee eS ee ee ET eee Right & Wrong Grammar 3 Narrative tenses Choose the correct option to complete the story Circle the correct answer ‘Amber (1) settled down / was just settling down ‘when she (2) heard / was hearing a knock on the door. She (8) got / was getting out of bed and (4) had put on / put on her dressing gown. Then she (6) walked / was walking down the stairs and (©) opened / had opened the door. There was nobody there! The night was dark, The moon (7) hadn't shone / wasn't shining and the only light in the street (8) was / had been broken for more than a week. Amber heard a noise. She realised it was the sound of cats who (8) fought / were fighting outside in the garden, but apart from that it was silent. Amber (10) stepped / was stepping out and (11) moved / was moving a few steps forward. She (12) took / had taken another look around, but still couldn't see anything. She (13) was leaving / had left her mobile on the table next to the bed so she couldn't even use the light, from that, Suddenly the door (14) slammed / was slamming bebind her. Amber (15) jumped / was jumping and Vocabulary 1A Certainty and truth ‘Complete the text about Charles Darwin with the words in the box flew inthe face heresy infamous muttering recanted Galileo wasn't the only scientist to have problems with the church, In his day, the ideas of Charles Darwin were seen as (1) ___ Darwin's ideas about evolution (2)_____ of many of the teachings and beliefs of the church and there was much (3) —__in the scientific community as well. There were certainly a number of (4) Society in London, and at a number of colleges at Oxford University It is also believed that on his deathbed Darwin 6 has views, bur there certainly isn’t any ‘evidence to support this claim. Vocabulary 18 Certainty and truth Write a word in each gap to complete what the people say The first lete i given for you Galileo was 4 minds of his time. one of the greatest 2 Some people are still not by the Big Bang theory, 3. Darwin's ideas about evolution were w. 4 some of the most controversial of his time. 4 Tm just noes hhow he could arrive at his conclusions from seeing animals on his voyage on the Beagle. 5 There are still probably some people in the Catholic Chorch who h________abour the ideas of Daswin, 6 I think the story about Newton and the apple is rather d_——— Vocabulary 1€ | Certainty and truth Match the two parts of the sentences. There’ no denying “The truth of the ‘Whatever people might say, the fact In actual There's no You rly don' have to ake doubt about it, the ideas on evolution and the Big Bang theory were always going to be controversial. fact, some scientists have even disproved their own, theories later on in life matter is that many people are unwilling to change their opinion whatever the evidence. 4 my word for it if you don’t want to. «remains that scientists often get things wrong. £ that the story of Galileo is absolutely amazing. Vocabulary 2A right “Write the expressions in the correct box to show what the word right means. Are you right-handed? ‘Are you sure this is the right place? Drive straight down here and take the first unig oon the right. How many did you get right? 1 don't think you have any right to complain. I've been here a lot longer than you. Tm sorry. Pl do it right away. Sasha’ right. We have been here before. ‘We can’t drive down there. There’ no right of way. What do you mean you can’t se it? Its right infront of you! (Correct ] [How many did you get right? [One side of the bod: [Something you are (not) allowed to do or have 3 Ae Mum! Tcan’t find my new jacket. Have you seen it? 8 Open your eyes! — 4 & Ohno! My dad’ going to kill me when he sees my test result be Why? ——__________ 5 &: Have you finished the washing-up yet? 1B. Whoops! Vocabulary 3 The prefix mis- Complete the sentences withthe words inthe box rrisheard mispronounce | misunderstand misuse ‘misquoted misspell 1 Ididn'e you write itin American English. 2. ‘Play it again, Sam’ is one of the most frequently lines from a film 3 know my name is unusual, but why do people always the word center ~ that’s how 4 That’ the third time this morning you've ‘me! Are you sure you aren't going deaf? 5 Some people get really upset when teenagers certain words, but they have to (Exactly, immediately or completely ee} Vocabulary 2B right Complete the conversations using the sentences below. There are three extra sentences you do not need. ‘Are you right-handed? ‘Drive straight down here and take the frst curing on the right. How many did you get right? don't think you have any right to complain. 've been here lot longer than you. Pm sorry. il do itright away. ‘Are you sure this is the right place? We can't drive down there, There’ no right of way. Ie ight in front of you. dink we're lost. Don't worry! Ie just round the next corner. 2 a: Excuse me! Could you tell us how to get to the station from here? Sure © conderstand that language use changes. 6 His accent is so strong it’s easy to —_____ what he says Extend your vocabulary 1A Metaphors for honesty and dishonesty Choose the correct option to complete the sentences, Circle the correct answer. 1 Tean'theieve he would behave in such an anderband / upstanding way. Ie certainly wasn’t very nice of him. 2 She has such high / low standards. I don't think she would ever tell abe 3. Tewas amazing. One minuce he was realy popalar and the next nobody wanted to speak to him, I've never anyone fall stoop from grace so quickly. 4. Hee been an urderhand / upstanding member ofthis comnmanity forthe past 40 years + She’ really aver /cver gossip. She probably knows los of secrets, but she'll never tell anyone. 6 never thought you'd fal /stoop so low. How could do that to her? ‘That was really low / bigh down. I can't believe you'd ever behave like that. Right & Wrong Extend your vocabulary 1B Metaphors for honesty and dishonesty Look at each sentence. Is the person being honest (H) or dishonest (D)? Circle the correct answer. 1 Ican’t believe he would behave in such an underhand ‘way. It certainly wasn't very niee of him. H/D 2 She has such high standards. I don’ think she would ever tell ale HID 3 Tewas amazing. One minute he was really popular and the next nobody wanted to speak to him. I've never seen anyone fill from grace so quickly. H/D. 4+ Heb been an upstanding member of this community for the past 40 years. H/D 5. Shes really above gossip. She probably knows lots of secrets, butshe'll never tell anyone. H/D. 6 Inever thought you'd stoop so low. How could you do that to her? H/D 7 That was really low down. I can't believe you'd ever behave like that. H/D Extend your vocabulary 2 -isms ‘Complete the sentences with the correct kind of ~im. 1 After she rescued & child from the river, Marie was praised for her h_______. 2 Rupert was very angry when he lost his job atthe age of 63 and he accused his employer of a____. 3 B___ is the main religion in Tibet. 4 As___is whem the sounds of words are mixed wp. 5) Making jokes about women is just one type ofs_ ___. 6 The ideas of Karl Marx are often associated with «@___. 7 Many schools in Canada promote the idea of b_as they think it is important that children can speak both English and French. Listening Getting it right 51.03 Listen to a radio programme and choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Cirele the correct answer. 1 The programme is about the correct use of English by actors / politicians / television presenters. 2 There's often an international /an English /a BBC version of city’s name. 3. The BBC Pronunciation Research Unit was originally called the Advisory Committee on Correct English Usage / Spoken English / Speaking English 4 The unit creates a list of topical names every day / week / month. 5 The unit has a database with more than 20,000 / 200,000 / 2,000,000 entries. 6 When a mistake is made, iis normally spotted by someone at the World Service / the Pronunciation Research Unit /a member ofthe publi. 1.04 Listen to the sentences and choose the correct pronunciation of rhe. Put a tiek (V) in the correct box. ak 1 The words aren’t very clear and its easy to mishear them, 2 When are you going to tell me the answers? * 3. Have you listened to the lyrics on his. / latest song? | 4 Tewas one of the funniest things I heard. 5. You'll find lots of examples on ] the internet. 6 They won the award for best new artist. 7 The idea is that people hear whar they want to. | 8 What was the last CD you bought? [ Reading The Plagiarist 1 Whats the definition of plagiarism? Read paragraphs 1-2 of the article quickly to check your answer. 2 Answer the questions in your own words, 1 In.what circumstances, ifany, do you think itis acceptable to copy things from the internet? 2 Inyour opinion, when does ‘research’ become plagiarism? 3. Find the words in the article for the following definitions. 1 Ppp peeing he original informa. (paragraph 1) 2 The exact words of another person. (paragraph 2) + Sonhing fa be yo complet at. Guegriph 3) Large pieces of something. (paragraph 4) stad anade € says 5. todo something in order to try to stop something bad from happening (garagraph 5) iat dtelon 6 behaving dishonestly (paragraph 6) 5_—taweoue's soe 4 Write che missing words. 1 Heused a atonch __ engine to find the information. 2. She recovered quickly and there were no —ride__ effets 3. With direct speech you should use guctabon marks 4 You can easily coy! and paste the text. 5. The shelves were sed) need to build them. 6 Thad to install the -made so we didn't winpate _ sofeware. 5. Read the article again to check your answers to exercise 4 6 Answer the questions in your own words. 1 Doyou think plagiarism is a problem for schools and universities in your country? 2 Doyou think children as young as seven need to be taught about plagiarism? Right & Wrong The plagiarist |. How dd we free before the internet? Finding anwer to almost any question is now just a MRE Gt ryping the question into a At eRGIRE MAU shen looking at che results Although we sul hve to make sure ches ig raRdMCSA Meek hae diferent Sores ae ging ii se serine been expend infor One of the side effScs 6f this has been the rise of plaglériaf in schools and universities According to the Macmillan online dictionary, plgiarism is ‘the process of taking another person's work, ideas or words,and using them as if they were your own’. IFT had used this quoi thou mentioning the fee and adding quotgton mari then I would be guilty of plagiarism Cid So sho Ifyou use th jngerner then you'll know how easy it is to highlight a piece of text, copy itand then paséeit into a document on your computer Its a useful too|.when we are copying something for personal se such at fog gape, But Rea ifoed \ food recipe. Bu erent story when sve are preparing a piece of work that will be Wied ahd judge as our own bya teacher OF EXAMINEE. Wu szgce Loignsy, problew Imagine how tempting i must be for a snudent looking forthe answer to a aslea) 0” question to find answer online and copy and paste itinto their own document xu. ‘rithout acknBtTEd dng the orignal author. Apart from copying and pasting chen of tex it also posbeto buy AVE essay on te incrnen REAR alee to get someone else to do their work for them. Its problem facing many schools and ene aopeaganons Tn an efor fo combat the problem, many schools now use computer sbfowire designed to deter plagiarism. is one internet sevice that compares students’ work with material found online tygenreri tioning, [ Sosy plagiarism is tackle Wh stddenes ae as young as seyen, | toronto goeyon Hseudgrsare ust heals fofmially credit | eit ere -t0:erca nar sickee, fe, te | seknowledge (re) to han someane pubic and referencé Souces then attitudes might | ons comouterseeen | change, Copying other people’ words tach (v0) tomeke an ate eal wih and pateiding they are yours isa formof | pe chee tid its something children need to | tempting ‘ecect)~ceseiingsometring hs Team from a very early age rakes yu ol you woul he to hve oro 3 R 2 (s) uma @) Right & Wrong Writing ‘An email to explain a point of view Reading 1. Which of these statements are true about you when you discuss controversial issues with friends or colleagues? 19) Talways want to be right. ») Idon't mind admitting that I'm wrong. 2») Talways stay calm and listen co the other person. 1) sometimes get angry and argue. 3 LfLhave an argument, forget about it afterwards, IfT have an argument, I think about it afterwards, 2 Read the email. Which statements in exercise 1 do you think are true for Silke? Hi Denis, thought I'd write about the argument we had on Saturday. Ie’ a shame we both got angry because instead of defending our viewpoints constructively, cour positions became more extreme. So I'l ry and argue my point more calmly, and hopefully we can put the argument behind us! Essentially, what I wanted to say was that its important to keep an open mind. You argue that science can explain everything. But while I admit that science plays a vital role in our understanding of the world, don't you think ita litle arrogant 10 say that science has all the answers? Surely even scientists recognise that they work with theories, not absolute truths. ‘The Big Bang isa case in point. You claim this is fact. But wouldn't i be more accurate to say that ies the theory that best fits current observations? Afterall, our understanding of the universe has changed dramatically over the years and might change again. And even ifthe Big Bang is correct, can scientists explain what came before it? If not, isn’t there room for other ways of explaining how the universe was created? A for the general suspicion towards science in the media, I take your point about that, and T can see why you find i frustrating, What I meant to say on Saturday was that this suspicion is probably dae to the difficulty that many people have in understanding complex scientific theories! Anyway, [just wanted to put my thoughts dawn on paper so you understand what I was trying to say Silke fe) (8) une w 3 Which of the following adjectives best describe the way Silke explains her point of view? 1 dogmatic ~ she's so sure that her beliefs are righe that she expects Denis to agree with her 2. respectful - she expresses herself in a polite and kind way 3 persuasive ~ she wants to make Denis agree with her 4 aggressive ~ shes angry and wants to argue with Denis 5 tactful ~ she’ very careful not to upset Denis in any way 6 condescending - she shows that she thinks she’ more intelligent than Denis Writing skills: explaining your point of view 4 Inher email, Silke uses a number of techniques to explain her poine of view in a respecefal and persuasive smanner. Find and underline examples ofthese things: 1 Three negative questions that make her argument more persuasive, 2. Three words and expressions that indicate that she agrees with Denis or understands his point of view. 3 Two verbs that refer to what Denis said during the argument. 4 Two expressions that tell Denis she wants to make something clearer. 5 An adverb that she uses to try and persuade Denis she is right. 5 Find these words and expressions in the email and match them with the way in which they are used. 1 instead of 2 Essentially, while After all evenif due to emphasises the most important aspect of something 1» emphasises that elthough another thing might be right, it doesn’t make your viewpoint wrong gives a reason to explain what you have just said 4 says that one thing replaces another «means Because of and introduces the reason for something £ means although and contrasts two things Right & Wrong Preparing to writ 6 Read the Writing task below and choose an issue to write about. Then make notes on the arguments that people who agree or disagree with the statements use to defend their viewpoint Writing ‘Choose one of the controversial issues below, or think of another one. Now imagine that you have had an argument with a friend or colleague about the issue. Write an email explaining your viewpoint in a respectful and persuasive Scientists have manipolated data to make us think global warming is man-made. There needs to be some form of censorship on the internet 1s wrong to get ajob because you have a contact in the company or organisation, + | thought '¢ write about the argument we had *'l try and argue my point more calmly. “+ Hopefully we can put the argument behind us! + I's important to keep an open mind, + Even (scientists) recognise that. * (The Big Bang) is a case in point. + As tor + Anyway, | ust wanted to put my thoughts down on paper So you understand what I was trying to say. Grammar 1A Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous Complete the text with the correct form of the verb in brackets, In recent years, heavy rains (1) much of West Africa. These rains 2) (ead) to some of the worst environmental and health problems seen in the region for years. Of course, when ‘we hear the word Africa on the news most people think drought. And when we hear the words ‘Afvica’ and ‘rain’ swe assume it$ good news — unfortunately this isn’t always the case. Although the rains @) (mean) an increase in agricultural production the rains @ (abo cause) widespread flooding and this (5) (pail) many ofthe crops. ‘With the rains a new problem (6) (arrive) - locusts. Experts who (7) (work) in the region for years say is one of the worst natural disasters they (8) (Gee). People o (wait) for years forthe rains and now they (10) (ome) the situation is actually ‘worse than before. Gil) over Grammar 1B Present perfect simple, present perfect continuous and past simple ‘Choose the correct verb form to complete the sentences. Circle the correct answer. 1. Sharks fved / ave lived / have been ling in the sea for millions of years. 2 One in five people ere / hve been /bave been being afraid of water since they were a child. 3 When did yu lst sim / have you last sou / ave yo last been saimaing inthe sea? 44 Man changed / has changed / as been changing the environment since he first appeared on Earth. One ofthe bis taken / bas been taking place off the coast of Alaska in 1989. 4 Did you ever stand / Have yon ever sod / Have you ever been stding om a jelly sh? est environmental disasters rok / bas “Temperatures in the world’ oceans rare / have risen / brave been rising over the past 30 years. f In ecent years scientists Became / bare become / have been ‘becoming concerned with the melting ice atthe polar regions. ‘9 In 2010 temperatures in the Artic were / have been / bave been being the coldest for many years. Grammar 1 Present perfect simple, present perfect continuous and past simple ‘Are these sentences correct () or incorrect (%)? Circle the correct answer 1 Tve been interested in sharks since [was child, WX 2 A few years ago I have been bitcen by a shark, but luckily I wasn’t badly hurt. vex 5 Yesterday there were some reports of a big shark off the coast. vx 4 Twas never frightened as there's more chance of being hit by a car than being bitten by a shark, WX) 5 I've been studying hammerhead sharks last year. W x 4 My fs dive was in 2001 in Australi vx 7 Thaven't been back there for years, but I'm going there later this summer ve 8 Tdidn'tsee a great white yet. ve Grammar 2A Adjective order Choose the correct option to complete the phrases. Circle the correct answer. a grey rough /rough grey Atlantic sea ‘an old round silver /old silver round compass an anciens strange /a strange ancient sea mystery 1 green small glass / small green glass / small glass green bottle with a message inside 5 a lovely 19th century / 19th century lovely poem about th 6 aseiling mode big / big madera sailing / modern big sailing / big sailing modern yacht 7 a beautiful col / cool beaurifel morning breeze ‘8 a wooden old red rowing / a red recing old wooden / an old red woaden rowing boat Land & Sea Grammar 2B Adjective order Pat the words in the corzet order. 1 blue / dark / deep / sea / the 2 an/ Viking / old / ship / wooden 3 noisy /a/ seagull / white 4 from the depchs / giant / 2 / monster / mysterious 5 beautiful /boat / long / sailing 6 woollen / long / colourful /2 / scarf > ancient / atlas /Tealian / small /2 8 a/ breeze / cool / lovely / see Vocabulary 1A Natural world Choose the correct option to complete the sentences, Circle the correct answer. 1 Hannibal erossed the snow-capped / rolling mountains ‘with his elephants. The Amazon is a very dense / broad river. 3 Tome from a town in the south-east of Australia that is surrounded by rolling /bigh hills. 4 Mount Kilimanjaro isa broad /bigh mountain in Kenya, Antartica is actually a very diy /snow-capped desert. ‘6 The hills in many Mediterranean countries are quite barren / dry. 1 Throughout the mid-west of the USA you see mile after mile of rivers / fields of corn 8 Upto 50 per cent of all species of animals and plants live in the grasyfarests / rainforests. Vocabulary 18 Natural world ‘Complete the sentences with the correct word. The first eter is given for you. 1 Only 20 per cent of the world’s d_____are covered in sand. Many of the largest are covered in ice and snow. 2. Around 45 per cent of Canada is covered inf, 3 The g______ fields in central and northern [Argentina are known as the Pampas. 4 The longest r in North America is the Mississippi 5. The landscape in many Mediterranean countries is quite b__. 6 The tallest m in the world is Mauna Kea in Hawai av 33,465 ft, but only 13,796 is above sea level +7 Some areas of the Atacama d____ in Chile have not had any. for hundreds of years. Vocabulary 2 land “Match the two parts ofthe sentences. thought we were going to erash, Tm going for another ob interview tomorrow When Sam had his accident allt in realy slowly ‘When your application landed on my desk 1 Tknew you were the right person for the job. '» he landed up in bed for a week. «© butin the end we landed safely. 4 and I'm really hoping to land this one as T need the money. «and ll help you land it Vocabulary 3A The sea ~ Complete the sentences about the sea with the words in the box. There are two extra words you do not need. currents dive jellyfish sands seaweed shelfish snorkel tide wave ‘There are probably around 2,000 different species of (1) ___ in our seas, bat of these only around 100 are dangerous to humans. A jellyfish can move or swins, and even (2)____ by ‘opening and closing its bella bie like an umbrella), but such ofits movement is dictated by the ocean @— This is one reason why many are washed up on the (4) ofa beach when the (5) comes in. They usually eat small fish, some (6) like shrimps and zooplankton (very small animals), but they don't eat (7) =e we @ Vocabulary 3B The sea Complete the puzzle with words connected tothe sea. F F | (fe | | | f E LTT ] U {4 F PT I Across 2 aloose pale brown substance that you find ata beach, formed from very small pieces of rock (4) 3 s.common grey and white seabird (7) 5 apiece of equipment with a tube that fits into your mouth so that you ean breathe while swimming under water (7) 6 a large expensive boat that is used for racing or sailing (5) ‘a green or brown plant that grows in the sea (7) 9 the way that the level of the sea regularly rises and falls during the day (4) Down a strong movement of water in one direction (7) the empty shells of sea animals 0) a large ship that carries oil or petrol (6) a line of water that rises up on the surface of the sea (4) Extend your vocabulary country or land? Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Circle the correct answer. 1 Tid’ know you came fom the same country / land as Maya 2. Fora long time America was seen as the conntry /and of opportunity. How ma “They sled for 42 days, but nally they sav county / land ‘The country / land around here is quite hilly Did you know that Canada is che second ry /land in the world? y countries / lends have you lived in? Listening ‘An important change 25 105 Listen co a radio programme and complete phrases with the adjeesves inthe box amazing beautiful dramatic easy good rolling sudden whole IPve always loved the (1) hills and the mountains. i holds a lot of (2) _____ memories Ie must have been quite a(a) (3) _______ change moving from the city to the country Thad a(n) () home, a car Tewasn’ta(n) ( decision, was spending my (6) life looking at ‘The view is (7) Te learned to live without electricity which hasn't been, ®. Pronunciation 1 Spoken forms 1.06 Listen and circle the word you hear in each 1 Dida Doncha 2 goa, gonna 3 gimme "gonna 4 did kinda 5 goa gonna Doncha _Didja Pronunciation 2 Sounds 1 Before listening, pur the words in the bor in the correct group depending on their sounds. allowed cry 08 key lou now pier sea take Bese dasetee eset fear feel grey guide here 2 9 1.07 Listen and check your answers. Land & Sea Reading 4 There are almost... species of dolphin. The messengers of Poseidon + fourteen — )¢ forty four hundred 5 The best known dolphin isthe 1 Choose the correct answer to test your knowl : — of dolphins. + Rissos black X bottlenose 6 These dolphins live in every ocean of the world except the Arctic and ... oceans. 1 In mythology, dolphins have often appeared as, bringers of arctic editerrancan = Pacific + food x goodluck «bad luck 7 aaa ae _ 2 Dolphins are marine jebumans sharks < tna mammals shellfish © fish 3 They belong to cetacz, a group which also includes ... ese frst ovo paragraphs ee «sharks whales jellyfish halen The messengers of Poseidon Sea creatures have always played an important role in human culture, especially dolphins. Because oftheir intelligence and friendly attitude, dolphins have often appeared in different mythologies as bringers of good luck. They are common in Greek myt and were the GaURDertoccos the Greek god,of the sea Dolphins are marine mitnals and belong to c¥2AM a group of mammals which also includes whales. There are almost 40 species of dolphin and one of the best known is the bottlenose dolphin which lives in every ocean ofthe world except the Arctic and the i Antarctic oceans. Dolphins don't have many enemies. Infact, their greatest threat comes from bumens. (One of the world’ most controversial dolphin experts is Richard (Ric) O'Barry. Inthe 1960s O Barry worked 2 the Miami St sae "in the US where he trained dolphins He then captured and treined five dolphins for a television series ealled Fipger which became a huge success around the world. The series told the story of a bottlenose dolphin called Flipper the friend of a park warden and his two young sons. “The part of Flipper was played at different times by the five dolphins, one of which was called Kathy, [twas when Kathy died that O’Bargy’s attitude to dolphins changed. He Secied eves wrong totain dlptins in QPONPand sated wo compign asi be dolphin industry. Ironically, it was the success of Flipper that led to the opening of water pl adh parks around the world, encouraging the capture of dolphins. % In 1989 Ric O'Barry founded The Dolphin Project to study Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. Since then the organisation has studied over 850 different individual bottlenose dolphins. O’Barry has also written several books to raise awareness about dolphins in captivity including Bebind the Dolphin Smile wicdomosy® (1989) and Js Free @ Dolphin (2000). He hes | Glossary ] also been the subject of the award-winning | camosignes)-toty to acriew poids | documentary film, The Cove. The 2009 flim | s28lchergeby pemasng oer peopiertne | told the story of O'Barry’s campaign to stop | Svermertiecesenenng logy the hunt of dolphins and increase the publics | Jmowledge and concern for our marine warden nour ~ araone wose fob sto be environment. ‘erponaile ora pour place orig Land & Sea 3 Read the rest of the article and decide if the sentences are true (7) ot false (F). Circle the correct answer and correct the false sentences. 1 Richard O'Barry trained dolphins before working oon Flipper TIF 2 The part of Flipper was always played by a dolphin called Kathy. TIF 3. O'Barry’ attitude to dolphins changed afte his wife died TIE 4 He then started campaigning against something he had helped start TIP 5. He joined the Dolphin Project in 1989. TIF 6 To Free a Dolphin was an award-winning film. T/F 4 Write the verbs in the correct form. Sea crearures ____ (anys play) an important role in human culture 2 Dolphins __ (often appear) in different mythologies. 3 Dolphins _____ (nor have) many enemies. 4 Their greatest threat (come) from humans. 5 Since 1989 the organisation (rudy) over 850 different individual bottlenose dolphins. 6 O'Barry _____ (ab arite several books because he wants ____ (rst) awareness about dolphins in captivity 5 Read the article to check your answers to exercise 4. 6 Answer the questions in your own words. 1 Why do you think Ric O’Barry’ attitude to dolphins changed? 2. Have you ever seen a dolphin? Describe where and when. 3 Do you agree with Ric chat dolphins shouldn't be kept in Land & Sea Writing A website comment 1 When you visita place or restaurant for the first time, do you find information about it on the internet before going? 2 Do you read comments posted by people who have been there? 3 Do people's comments affect your choice of places wo go? 2 Read the comments posted on a travel website and write the name of the section each comment is from. When wo visit Arriving & departing ‘What 20 do Where to eat Getting around you want to leave the beach o- hotel poo! then head for ‘La Quinta’ (Fith Avenue). t's the main shopping street and a good place for restaurants too. ts @ ppedestian wakway which makes it stress-free place to shop. I you want to explore ruins then Chichen Itza is undoubtedly the best place to start 2 tts not a large town and you's probably spend most ‘of your time around the beech area anyway. You can ‘walk almost anywhere and the taxs ae very reasonably Drced. A lt of the locale use colectivos to get to other resors in the area. These are passenger vans and they stop atthe major hotels. g— ‘The best way is arguably 1o take the bus. It's certainly the cheapest! I's ak-conaftionea, there's space for luggage, edt wll leave you atthe Playa bus station conveniently situated on Sth Ave and Juarez. You can also buy vouchers for taxi sides inside the airport terminal bling 4 ve ust returned from a ter-cay hokday in Playa dal Carmen and tha waether was ner perfect. I'd agree sith other postings that February to May isthe best ‘ime there, The sea i calm for svimming and there isn't ‘much rain. There are alot of tourists though, especialy at Easter 5 if you want to ty the local cuisine then you shoule Ceinitaly vet Carboncttes. Tha foods great and the ‘atmosphere is relaxing. Ask for the El Pastor tacos. They ‘are quite simply dalicious and tne service is tourst- friendly. Don't mis it 3 Match the words and say what they refer to in the comments. 1 air + free 2 conveniently friendly 3 near perfect 4 reasonably 4 conditioned 5 suress «priced 6 tovrist « sicoated Writing skills (1): expressing degre: certainty 4 Complete these sentences with adverbs expressing degrees of certainty. Then read the comments again to check your answers 1 Ifyou want co explore ruins then Chichen Itza is u___s the best place to start. 2 Ivsnora large town and you'll p_____ spend. most of your time around the beach area anyway. 3) The best way isq_____to take the bus. 4 Tese_ the cheapest! 5 Ifyou want to try the local cuisine then you should d_____ visit Carboncitos. 5 Which ewo of the adverbs in exercise 4 express a lower degree of certainty than the others? ve @ Writing skills (2): being briof 6 The most useful website comments are often brief in order to communicate the information and writer's opinion as concisely as possible. Look at the whole comment below and idensify the most importante information. Then rewrite iti T've just returned from a [0-day holiday in Playa del Carmen and the weather was near perfect. I'd agree with other postings that February to May is the best time there. The sea is calm for swimming and there isn’t much rain ‘There are a lot of tourists though, especially at Easter, 10 words or less. Preparing to write 7 Read the Writing task below: Keep your comments brief, hic make sure you include your personal opinions Writing ‘Write a series of comments for a website about the place you live ora place you have visited recently. Write comments for the following sections. When to visit Arriving & departing Wher to do Where to eat Getting around * If you want to explore .. then +... 18-4 good place for . ‘In my opinion *# Don't miss it +The best way to + You should definitly visit cashier a ® L al el ; be es is = —_ lo Grammar 1A Modals of speculation Read the sentences and put them into the correct category. ‘Write the sentence numbers in the boxes. 1 You must have an amazing memory. 2 Ifyou look carefully you might be able to see two faces in the picture, 3. Iesimpossible! He can't have done it without using atrick. ‘There must be a way of doing itso that no one can see. ‘The magician’ assistant might have been in the audience Tecould be a féke, you know. ‘There could be more than one way of hiding the correct card 4 You can’t have known what Twas thinking, Cera ossiie Grammar 1B Modals of speculation Choose the correct model verb to complete the text about Houdini. Circle the correct answer Most people have heard of Harry Houdini, but if he hadn't met Bess Rehner, his future wife, we (1) could / might / must never have heard of him. ‘When she met him in 189 he was Just doing small card tricks. But Bess suggested he concentrate on his escape acts and he soon became ane of the greatest escape artists ever. To become so good he (2) could / might / must have spent hours practising and he (8) can't / may / must also have besn very fit. Over the years his acts became more and mors Caring and for Bess it (4) can't / could / must have been easy knowing that each time he performed he (5) can’t/ might / must cie. In 1909 Houdini wrote a book called Handcuff Secrets in which he revealed how most locks and handouts (6) can’t / could / must be opened. in 1926, Houdini collapsed Con stage at what was to be his final performance. It(@) can’t / may / must have been a real shock as he'd done the same act many times before and always survived. Its thought he (8) can't / might / ‘may not have been killed by a student who punched him hard in the stomach, although he was already ill ‘and he would have died anyway. Grammar 2 Passive and anticipatory Complete the sentences so they mean the same as the original sentence. 1 People say that if you break.a mirror you'll have seven years’ bad luck Ir___ifyou break a mirror you'll have seven years’ bad luck. 2 There is a rumour that touching the left foot of the statue of John Harvard will inerease your intelligence. Tr_____ touching the left foor of the statue of John Harvard will increase your intelligence. 3 People report that if you vist the Tower of London at midnight you will se the ghosts of two young boys. Ik if you visit the Tower of London at midnight you will see the ghosts of nwo young boys. 4 People sey that if you find a four-leaved clover you will be lucky. Ie__ifyou finda four-leaved clover you will be hacky. 5 People repore that bathing in the Dead See will help make you healthier: It help make you healthier. «6 There isa rumour that by drinking herbal tea every morningyou won't become ill so frequently. Ir___by drinking herbal tea every ‘morning you won't become ill so frequently. bathing in the Dead Sea will Grammar 3A ‘Complete the sentences with either the past perfect simple cor past perfect continuous form of the verb in brackets. 1 She _____ (arte) two other mystery novels before she got this one published. 2 The family who (rent) the big old house disappeared one day and were never seen again. 3 Hannah _____ (already live) in Paris for six months before she finally found a job, 4 He zor) inthe theatre and he decided to stay on after his friends left Adam years before, but we (ose) contact with each other. 6 She said chat she (wort) as a magician’s assistant when the accident happened. 17 Before he met my mother, my father (pend) all his time travelling around the world, Grammar 3B Past perfect simple and past perfect continuous Choose the correct tense to complete the sentences. Circle the correct answer. 1 Gavin wat / bad been there before, so this time he knew / brad ben kein exactly where 0 0. 2 Karoline suddenly realised /bad been realising she met / bad met him somewhere before. 3. They were waiting / had been waiting for hours when the flight finally departed. 4 By the time Amanda had decided / bad been deciding it was already too late. 5s Paul thought bel seen / hel been seeing the film before, but he hadn't / bad’ been. 6 Yasmin bd rum / bad ben rvming fr the bos when she tripped over and Broke /Bad broken her arm. 7 After my daughter had explained /bad been explaining the plot to me I enjoyed / had enjoyed the film a lot more, Vocabulary 1A Suffixes (jobs) ‘Choose the correct suffix from the box to make the name of ajob. te ian (2) -oF 2) 1 My aunt plays in an orchestra, She8 a professional music, 2 ‘Towork as flight attend__ you normally have to be atleast one metre $7 centimetres tall 3 Ellen MacArthur always dreamt of being a sail_—. 4 Many people work in the city of London as stockbrokers and bank. 5, What exactly does afm direct_— do? 6 When I was at college I worked as a wait to make 7 They say you should never trust a politic —. G) vats Vocabulary 1B Suffixes (jobs) ‘Complete the sentences with the correct word. The first letter is given for you. Remember to use the correct suffix. 1 IthinkI prefer playing football to being 2 Someone who looks after people’ eyes is called ano___. 3 Tom’s dad teaches at the university. He's ap, 4 Aperson whois in an army is called a s_______ 5 Pm not very good with money so I have an a to look after my finances. 6 Hloudini was a famous American m_____. 7, Tlove making things with wood — I've always wanted to beac . § All the lights went out and we had to call Vocabulary 2 Vague language 1 (people) (Gane meron ca Secs ha Joe Bloggs John Doe the Joneses ] ‘Tom, Dick or Harry | Even families that aren't well-off try to look as if they have as much money as their neighbours. In English we say they afe eying to keep up with 2. Until we know who the vietim is well just have to refer to him as 3 Nowadays exams seem to be easier and it looks as if any can get into university! 4 He's just your average different from you or me. certainly no Magic & Mystery Vocabulary 3 Vague language 2 (things) ‘Complete the sentences with the correct word or phrase The firs lever is given for you. 1 Greg likes walking and cycling and all that kind of 2 Iebone of those t____ you use for golf. you know, putting the ball in. 3, Just buy him the latest electronic g ‘men love them. 4) That’ the s___ o__ t__most people lke. 5 Tim not sure a magic show is the k___o. t___ she would enjoy, but you never know 6 Can you pass me the w. Extend your vocabulary: metaphors {deceiving someone) Complete the sentences with the words in the box chase gave leading path ride 1 She was really him on. Telling him she was a famous film star was just too much! 2 Trevor really. time we went round to his house he was out and we ‘were never able to catch him, us the runaround. Every 3. Tewasa complete wild-goose ____ anda waste of time 4 can’t believe I was taken for a ___ again! You'd think after it happened once that it wouldn't happen again. 5 Alex felt so stupid. She'd led him up the garden and he'd never even suspected it. istening Visiting Northern Ireland (91.08 Listen to the radio programme about Northern, Ireland, Put the topics in the correct order (1-6). —— A famous ship, local legend. — Links with literorure —— Location and population. Money tips. —— Strange and magical places Pronunciation Contractions and weak forms (251.09 Listen to the sentences and tick (V) the one you hear. a Who do you think it could have been? Who do you think it could've been? Things had been going wrong for quite some time. Things have been going wrong for quite some time. 5 a You must have known what was happening. ‘You must've known what was happening, 402 He had never understood what was wrong. He'd never understood what was wrong. ‘They could've waited alittle bic longer. They couldn't have waited a lite bit longer. 6» Who had been waiting forthe sight opportuni Who'd been waiting for the right opportunity? a wm ® Reading Magical & mysterious places 1 Which of these ‘places’ have you heard of What do you think they have in common’ Utopia Shangri-La Atlantis El Dorado 2 Read the article. Then match the places with their ‘locations’. Utopia Shangri-La Atlantis El Dorado ‘South America Y the Atlantic Ocean 3 the Mediterranean Sea A a Asia Z ‘3 Purthe words into the table according to which legendary place they refer to. fictional island lost civilisation netural disaster perfect society certhquake easy money longer life lost city of gold mystical valley ‘iba chief expedition Ue [Shangri-La Atlantis El Dorado, (36) vn 4 Read the article to check your answers to exercise 3 5 Complete the quotes with one ofthe names: Uipia Shangri, Atlantis El Dora, 1 ‘Since Et be, oh gold nuggets, dus, an entire temple of gold? Toe Road 0 =u) 2 Tes the death ofa whole culture and a whole heritage es ike the cng of "(Mary Bowen) "Brerybody as their own ideas of : I tried to teach myself to enjoy the present, enjoy the now’ (Mark Knope) « ‘Amap ofthe word shat doesnot ince is not worth even glancing a for it Teaves out dhe one country at which Humanity is always landing? (Oscer Wilde) 6 Answer the questions in your own words. is the city of gold, there might 1 Can you think of a modern-day equivalent to El Dorado? 2. Ifchey did exist, which of the places would you most like to visit? Why? 3. Describe your ‘Shangri-La’. Magic & Mystery Magical & mysterious places Does Utopia exist? What about Shanarcl, Atlantis and El Dorado? Let’ sare with ropa. The word Ups was INAS Si ThomayAlge who used ia the le fora book he wrote in 1516, In the book he described a §@¢MMPLiend in the Atlantic Ocean Since then the word has been used to describe a SRECH™HTwhich everything is perfect. In other words, a place that couldn't possibly exist! Shangri-La is another fictional place that started life in a book. The book was Last Heregply he Brith author James Hilton, Published in 1933, Hilton deseibed a ‘iysudal Valley where people aged more slowly and lived longer. People continue to use the term Shangri-La to refer to a magical place. Although the valley in Hilton’s book is fictional, some places in the Buddhist Himalaya between northern India and Tibet have claimed to be the location forthe story cot 38 Adlantis was an sland first mentioned in Plato’ Tinmacus and Critias. Accogehng to Pleto’s dialogues, Atlantis was destroyed by an earthquake or other natural dissster 4Dout 9,000 years previously. Plato's characters say it was situated somewhere outside the Pillars of Hercules. Although most believers think Atlantis was in or near the Mediterranean Sea, Mune Swift, others have placed it in the Atlantic Ocean or Antarctica. Wherever it is or isn’t, the idea ofthis lost eivilisation continues go inspire and intrigue us stol peek Dorado waste name of: EEPAReT th covered bins wih gd fread then dived into Lake Guatavita situated in Colombia, The ritual became the basis fr the legend of El Dorado which told of a lost city of gold. The possibility of finding gold in this lost city attracted many explorers including Francisco Orellana and Gonzalo [Glossary Pizarro who, in 1541, set off on an expedition | Inspire (vert)-to give someone the entrusasmto | to find their fortune. They didn’t find the city, | 0rcteate something but Orellana ‘discovered’ the Amazon River. | intFigue (ver) ~to make someone very interested ‘They were followed many yeas later by Sir | Aietine meres sonny pec Walter Raleigh who was also unsuccessful in his attempt Since then the name El Dorado | tyaerasmgoncesnacees | mye eso staal pers has been used to describe anywhere that tua er aor ceemeny ‘money can be found quickly : Magic & Mystery Writing A review Reading 1 Answer these questions. 1 When was the last time you went to see a show or theatre production? 2 What made you decide to see it? 3 Did you enjoy it? Why / Why not? 2. Read the website forum reviews and then answer the questions, 1 What thing do the two reviews have in commo: 2. What are the two main differences between them? ‘Show: Family Magic, with magician Hannah Houdini I'm not generally a fan of magic shows, so I idn't have very high expectations when | took my son to see Family Magic with other parents at his schoo! Kids! entertainment is 50 often a tedious experiance for adults, so I was pleasantly surprised by just how ‘much | enjoyed this show. There's nothing original ‘about it~ a magician does some fairly standard Houdini with help from an assistant ~ but it was funny ‘and fest-moving, end Ms Houdini was brillant at ‘geting the kids to relax and enjoy themeeives, What's ‘more, 2s in the best animated feature fms, there were plenty of humorous references aimed at the adults in the audience, some of which mace me laugh out oud. Allin al, this is highly entertaining show that completely exceeded my expectations. Show: Magic Max ‘Afier seeing Magic Max a number of times on TV, we were really excited about sesing his live show. The tickets were pricey, but worth it, we thought, and because we booked early we got excelent seats, Unfortunately, the show di’ ive up to expectations, I'd heard such good things about itn the press, but Left the theatre fesiing disappointed. Magic Max is famous for his wit and his unbelievable Houdini stunts, ‘and | was looking forward to seeing him do hypnotism lve too. But there was no hyonotism and few Houdini stunts because Magic Max spent too much of the show taking and teling humorous anecdotes. In short, Iwas expecting a lot more and did't feel that Magic Max justified his bling as a major starn the magic worl 3. What rating do you think the reviewers gave the show they saw? seirsrsr A great show ~I highly recommend it #r#W A good show — worth seeing 424 OK, but nothing special % Disappointing - I dan‘ recommend it Family Magic: ‘Magic Max: Writing skills (1): talking about expectations 4 Complete these expressions from the reviews that are ‘used to talk about expectations. Then read the reviews again to check your answers. 1 Ididn't have very h, a 2 Iwaspl _ su. 3. a... show that completely ex —______ 4 we were really ex a seeing his live show 5 the show didn’eL toe 6 Llefe the theatre £____ i____ 7 TwasL_____fo.__to seeing him do hypnotism Iwas ee_____alonm ___ 5. Which expressions in exercise 4 are used to say thatthe reviewer? + had positive expectations before the show had negative expectations before the show thought the show was going to be better 4 thought the show was going to be worse Writing skills (2): adding emphasis 6 Find and underline examples of these ways of adding emphasis. 1 extreme adjectives (eg fantastic) 2. intensifying adverbs (eg very) 3 just such + noun phrase Magic & Mystery 7 Read the Writing task below, Think about your expectations before you saw the show, and how you felt about it atthe end Writing Write a review of a show or theatre production that you have seen recently or in the past. + Because we booked early we got excellent seats ‘+1'd heard such good things about it in the press, + There's nothing original about it + It was funny and fast-moving. + What's more, there were / was plenty of + Allin allthis is @ highly entertaining show. + In short, Iwas expecting a lot more and didn't feel that... justified his / her / their biling as . @® Grammar 1 will for present habits ‘Write will or won't in each sentence. 1 ‘There's no point saying anything, She pay any attention to what we chink. People ‘keep on shortening my name ceven when they know I hate it keep on telling him to be more careful with his listen. always play their musie ‘money, but he just “Teenagers too loud. Parents nowadays often name their children after famous pop stars or actors. Iedoesn’t matter how many times you ask me, 1 doit. People usually mix me up with my twin brother and call me Josh instead of Jake. Grammar 2A Past ha Are these sentences grammatically correct (¥) or incorrect (X)? Circle the correct answer. 1 ‘When I was young I used to love eating bacon, bucnow I'ma vegetarian. v I would live with my aunt and uncle when Iwas a teenager. v ‘My aunt and uncle were vegetarians so they dido’t use to eat meat. v ‘When I was ten I used to hate eating fish v (On the weekends I would go fishing with my older brother. v used to enjoy lying in bed under the blankets cating a packet of chocolate biscuits. v In 2003 I would go and live with my aunt and uncle, v used to love the smell of toast early in the morning. v él gor the chance I would eat my aunt’ freshly baked bread with los of butter. v Grammar 2B Past habits Complete the sentences with nsed to + verb, would + verb or the past simple of the verb in brackets, Sometimes used to and sould are both possible. + James (kno) from an early age that he ‘wanted to be a chef, 2 [____(loe) the taste of freshly squeezed orange juice. 3 Asa child Rocky (help) his father with the barbeque. 4 Sonja (0 like) spicy foods. 5 When Julie was five she on the cooker. 6 My mother between meals 7 T____ (bare) doing the washing-up. 8 When she was young Elaine (pend) hours watching her granny cooking in the kitchen. burn) herself (not let) us eat Grammar 3A be used to / get used to ‘Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Circle the correet answer. 1 People are /get used to having access to information 24 hours a day. 2 When we went on holiday I found it very difficult bing / getting used to not having my mobile phone. 3. Pete’ always late, but all his friends are /get used to it and so they make sure they tell im to arrive half an hour early. 44 When his car broke dovn, Phil had tobe / get used to taking the bus to work. 5. Sally's been vegetarian for five years, so she ir/ gets used to not eating meat. 6 ‘My grandiather is 84 years old and he uses the internet all the time, but he found i difficult to be /ge used to it a frst. + Pm/1 gor used to people mispronouncing my name, So don’t really get annoyed anymore 8 When Jasmine first moved to France she found it difficult being / gesting used to speaking French every day. Parents & Children Grammar 3B be used to / get used to Wiite the correc: form ofthe verb 1 be or ger to complete the text When Parminder was 18 she left her home in India and moved to England to study. At frst she |, found many things strange. It was really dificult to (1) __ used to the weather t wasn't the rain, she (2) ________used to that in India, as she had lived in the hills in | the north of the country. The problem was the temperature -it was always so cold. She also | found it difficut to (@)________ used | to the food which she found bland. She didn't understand how anyone could (4 Used to eating food that didn't have any flavour. Al least she didn't find the language strange — she (6) ___used to speaking English with her parents, 60 that wasn't a problem. | Now, a year later, she (6)______used to the food, not that she particularly likes it She's 7) more used to the | weather, although the winter was terrible. She's also (8) __used to the way people | speak. Of course they speak English, but i's | different to the English she (2) Used to back home in Inia Vocabulary 1A Parenthood Choose the correct word to complete each sentence about parenthood. Circle the correct answer. 1 When your child takes their ist step i just amazing / challenging /relenless. 2 Upat five, feed, change the nappy, then sleep for an hour before stating over again! Ie’ just challenging / airaclous / relentless, 3. The firs time I saw his tiny hands and feet almost cried. The birch of your first child i always 60 tnpredictable / miraculous /relerles 4 Single-parent families must find i realy challenging / fur: / underestimated looking after a young child. 5, Tfind looking after one child exhausting / life-changing / miraculous 0 1 just don't know how you manage with three. 6 She cries all the time. IeS amazing how such a small person can be so omy / noisy / sees. John said it must be great fun being at home with the baby all day long so I suggested he try today. [can hardly wait to get home as ['m sure he rewarding / underestimated / unpredictable how difficult is. 8. Tes really crazy / underestimated / expensive to raise children nowadays with all the things you are supposed to buy for them. Vocabulary 1B Parenthood Complete the second sentence with a word or phrase from the box that has the same meaning as the underlined word cor phrase in the first sentence. [ bringing up check upon clsciptine neglect | praise spoil tell me off trust 1 Ie’snot easy raising three young children. Its not easy three young children. 2 Thave to monitor them all the time. You never know when they might get into trouble. Thave to them all the time. You never know when they might get into wouble. 3, Tes amazing how many parents indulge their children, buying them everything they want. Its amazing how many parents —____ their children, buying them everything they want. + You need to compliment children when they behave well. You need to behave wel 5 My dad would often criticise me when I was young, but Tinew he loved me. ‘My dad would often young, but I knew he loved me. 6 Parents who ignore their children should be punished by the authorities. Parents who punished by the authorities 7 Thelieve in my children. Pm sure they'll always do the righe ching. T_______ my children. I'm sure they'll always do the right ching, 5 When you punish a child ies important that they understand why. When you they understand why. children when they when I was, their children should be a child it important that w @ Parents & Children Vocabulary 2 Names Complete the sentences with the words and phrases about names in the box. You do not need to use all the words. maiden midgierame nickname pseudonym stag patronyr ame unisex name 1 John B, Fredrickson. The my 2 Sam could be either Samantha or Samuel, so I don't know if a man or a woman. That’ the problem with stands for Barry, which is 3 When I watched The Laze Station «film about Tolstoy, Icoulde’t understand why they kept on calling him Nikolaevich. Then | discovered thet this was a 44 Alice in Wonderland was written by Lewis Carroll But this was aewally che of Charles Dodgson, a profesor of mathematics at Oxford 5 Didyou havea ‘when you were a child? 6 The magician and escapologist Erik Weise was better known by his of Harry Houdini. 7 Sometimes I'm asked for my mother's —______, but don’t know what she was called before she got married! Vocabulary 3A Describing food Complete the puzzle with words connected to taste and texture of food. Fr z iF Across 1 having a very pleasant /nice taste (9) 4 having an unpleasant taste, especially because something is no longer fresh (4) wet and soft like a biscuit when you put it into tee (3) having a song sharp taste / not sweet 6) cooked in a lot of oil or fat (6) Down 1 tasting horrible or bad so you don't want to cat something (10) 2 making a loud noise when you bite into something (7) 3 having a strong taste and a bitter flavour, lke a lemon (5) 6 not having a strong taste and not interesting to eat (5) Vocabulary 3B Describing food Complete the sentences with the correct word about the taste or texture of food. The frst lextr is given for you. 1 This food tastes d__. Can you give me the recipe? 2 You need to stiri otherwise it goes L_____ 3. The meat$ a bit e___ T guess I didn’t cook. it for long enough. 4. you add alittle lemon juice i'l make ita bits —____. 5 Wow! How much chilli did you putin this? Tes really 6 Lfind Bnglish food really b______— It doesn't seem to tibte of anything 7 These apples ae nice and bite into them. 4 My mother used ro make this lovely chocolate cake that was alls oon the inside. when you Parents & Children Extend your vocabulary 1 Metaphors for relationships Complete the tex with the word inthe box There are tact words you do noe need attached close cracks deep separated split strong inseparable ‘When I was young I dida'e realise chat not all families were like mine. My family was extremely (1) We lived with my gran, and my aune, uncle and two cousins lived next door. My cousins and I spent all our time together and were often (2) _____. Then Tefe home and went to college where | met Megan. We immediately became friends and I got ro know alot about Megan’ family ~ they were so different from mine, Her ‘mum and dad had got married at 17 and Megan was born a year later. Already (3) had appeared in her parents’ marziage. They argued all the time and they (4) up when Megan was just two years old, After that Megan went to live with her gran and ¢grandad and she became very (5) to them. So-we did have one ching in common, we both had really (6) bonds with our grans Extend your vocabulary 2 Prefixes with self- ‘Match the two parts of the sentences with seif-. 1 Michael fele very self 2 When people suffer from low self- 3 He's so self- 4 Its important to keep your self- There's no reason for this self- 6 She's one of the most self 7 Come on! Ifyou don’t have any self- 8 Now she’s gota job she's much more self 4 centred and arrogant people I've ever met. confident than she wsed to be. «conscious knowing his parents were watching him, 4 control and try not to lose your temper. «esteem they often become depressed. pity. Get over it and be positive. respect, why do you think other people should respect you? righteous. Always telling other people how to behave! Listening Eating through time 9 1.10 Listen to a radio programme about eating habits and match the phrases in the box with the decades. Write each phrase next to the correct decede. ‘rozen meals international food more snacks prepared meals the end of breakfast three meals a day 1960s: (1) 1090s: (4) 1970s: (2) 2000s: (5) 1980s: (3) 2010s: (6) Pronunciation 1 will / won't (49 1.11 Listen and underline the word will /won't where itis stressed. 1 He won't be late. So stop worrying. 2 You just wont listen to me and it really annoying. 23, Lia wil eal back eo his parents, 4 Samantha will help you if you want. 5. They will ignore what’ good for them. 6 Children these days just won't pay attention. Pronunciation 2A. Consonant clusters 1 Underline the consonant clusters in these words 1 fesible 5 teuths 2 strong. 6 attempe 3 depth 7 creative 4 throughout 6 lengths 2 1.12 Listen and repeat the words. Pronunciation 2B Consonant clusters 4a 1.13 Listen tothe sentences and write the word you hear in each gap. ‘That's got such a___ taste. My favourite number i “Try not to swim out of your {'m just not sure what she 1 didnt know Joan was There were some nasty rumours He was born on the —___of Jul} Do you like this ________> Parents & Children Reading Destructive names 1. What do you think these things have in common? Look the words up in a dictionary to check your answer hurricane cyclone typhoon 2. Whats the worst weather you have experienced? Write five adjectives to describe it and how it made you feel. 3. Read the article and answer these questions. 1 Who chooses the names for che hurricanes? 2 Why are the leters Q, U,X,Y and Z not used? 3, Whyare the names French, Spanish or English? 4 Why do they use people's names? 6 Whyis the 2011 list the same as the 2005 list? 1 Whyare some names used only once? What’ different about hurricanes today? G4) uses 4 Write the missing words from the final paragraph without looking at the article. If there are more (1) 21 hurricanes ina @. as was the case (3) 2005, the other storms (4) their names from the (5) alphabet Alpha, Beta, Gamma, (6) and so on. In (7) there are fewer hurricanes (@) ____ than in the past. (9) —_____, today’s hurricanes are (10) stronger and more dangerous. 5 Check your answers by looking at the final paragraph of, the article. 6 Answer the questions in your own words. 1 How has the media affected your view of hurricanes? 2 What, if anything, do you think towns and cities can do to prevent damage from storms? 3. How do you think the weather has changed in recent years where you live? Parents & Children Destructive names Arlene, Bret, Cindy, Don, Emily and Franklin may sound like the names of a group of friends, but the names have a more destructive significance. They are, in fact, the first names on the list of hurricane names for 201 ‘The names of hurricanes are chosen from a lst selected by the World Meteorological Organisation. Each name on thelist starts with a different letter. The name of the first hrurricane of the season starts with the letter A, the next with the letter B, the next with the letter C and so on. The letters Q, U, X,¥ and Z are not used for Adantic Ocean hurricanes because there aren’t many names that start with those letters. For Atlantic ‘Ocean hurricanes, the names can be French, Spanish or English, since these are the major languages ofthe countries on the Atlantic Ocean in the areas where hhurricanes occur, Hurricanes are given names because they help o identify storms as they move across the ocean, They also reduce confusion when two or more tropical storms occur at the For hundreds of years, hurricanes in the West Indies were named after the saint's day fon which the hurricane occurred. It was in 1953 that the US National Weather Service began using names for storms. At first only female names were used, but in 1979 they started using both male and female names. Today the names of hurricanes alternate between male and femal. “There are six lists of names for the Atlantic, and one lis is used each year. Every sixth year the first list begins again. The 2011 hurricane name list is the same as the 2005 hrurvicane list, but with some important differences. When 2 hurricane strikes thats unusually destructive, its name is retired and never used again. Four hurricane names were retired in 2005, including one of the most famous of all time ~ Katrina - which has been replaced by Katia If there are more than 21 hurricanesin [Glossary 4 season, a5 was the case in 2005, the ‘other storms take their names from the Greek alphabet: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and so on. In general, there are fewer hurricanes now than in the past. However, today’s hurricanes are much stronger and more dangerous. sttenat vor) =o happen or come one ater note: eatructive (sete) causing seve erage oar ‘ccur (rt =f est or be ound someware retire er) ~torerove ‘tke vet) -1onappan sudden and unexpectady cexisng carage Parents & Children Writing An autobiographical extract Reading 1 Answer these questions. 1 Are autobiographies a popular form of literature in your country? 2, Do you enjoy reading autobiographies? Why / Why not? 3 Have you ever considered writing your autobiography? Ifs0, who would you want to read it? 2. Read four tips for writing a biography. Then read an extract from an autobiography. Does it follow the advice in the tips? 1 Choose events that helped to define you asa person. 2. IFpossible, connect events to a recurring theme in your life 3. Be descriptive - help painca mental picture of events 4 Give details— these will help readers to recal similar events in their own lives Iwas always a very timid child and ie worried me that [ didn’t tlle enough. Unfortunately, when I did talk, 1 ‘would usually go very red. Whenever this happened, ‘one unforgiving classmate would lick the end of his finger and reach out towards my cheeks while making 2 loud hissing sound. This made me fel as if everybody in sight had stopped what they were doing to look at ‘me, though in retrospect, 'm not sure many people really noticed, ‘Ataround that time, an incident occurred that totally changed my perspective on keeping quiet. One evening. dduzing the holidays my family gathered round the kitchen table to discuss a problem involving some land they owned. Proceedings started off calmly, but soon ‘heated discussion had developed. Ie suddenly struck: ‘me that my uncle, rather than getting involved, just sat and listened. Hector looked nothing like my father, his brother, and had a huge moustache that drooped atthe ends, This made him look permanently sad. He ‘must have remained sient for almost an hous, during which time the others failed to reach an agreement. AL that point, they turned to him for an opinion. ‘We need to sell the land, he said, and thea fel silent again. He sounded as if he'd known the right answer ali along, and days later the land had been sold. Looking back, suppose Hector might simply have had nothing more to say but he certainly seemed like the deep thinking ‘quiet type. For the first time, I realised how powerful silence ean be. units 3 Who do you think the autobiography was written for? Why? + For the writer, to help him/her remember things » For the general public. For furure generations of his/her family Writing skills (1): saying when things happened 4 Look at che underlined words and phrases in the extract. Which one(s) refer to or introduce these time expressions? 1 particular time in the past 2. a time period in which something happened 3 every time something happened 4+ two things that happened at the same time 5 one thing that happened immediately after another ‘© one thing that happened a short time after another Writing skills (2): describing perceptions 5. Match the two parts of these sentences from the extract. ‘Then read it again to check your answers This made me feel as if Hector looked nothing like This made him look He sounded as if He seemed lke + permanently sad everybody had stopped what they were doing. «the deep thinking quiet type. 4 my father. ¢ he'd known the right answer all along 6 Complete the rules with the words below: ‘adjective noun phrase 1 look / feel / sound / seem + 2 Took / feel / sound / seem + like + 3 look / feel / sound / seem + as if + Parents & Children Preparing to wt 7 Read the Writing task below and think about « moment or event in your life to write about. To help you do this, consider looking at old photos, possessions or diaries and talking to fiends and family members. Then decide who ~ your intended audience is (ee exercise 3) and follow the ‘ips in exercise 2 Writing ‘Write an extract for your autobiography. ‘las always ‘Tt worriad me that ‘Whenever this happened, . ‘This made me feel as If. “In retrospect, + Looking back, “An incident occurred that totally changed my perspective on + It suddenly struck me that + Irealses . Grammar 1A Passive voice Complete the text about speech writing using the correct form of the verb in brackets. When a politician makes a great speech ‘we often have to remember that the speech itsert (1) (not write) by the politician, but by a professional writer who (2) —___ (pay) a lot of money. When the speech goes badly wrong, it isn't the writer (remember), but the ians (4) (often make) or (6) (break) by ‘their ablity to speak in public, so itis essential ‘they trust their speechwriter, However, when politicians (6) (question) by journalists or members of the public, the choice ‘of words is down to them, Sometimes they (7) _____(gIve) clever ‘sound bites’ by their writers, but even then they have to use these at the right time. Grammar 1B Passive voice Rewrite the sentences using the passive voice so that the meaning is the same. 1 Every year the government spends millions of pounds. Millions of pounds 2 The police are questioning some politicians about their expense claims. ‘Some politicians 3 In May 2010 voters elected David Cameron as Prime Minister. David Cameron 4 They will hold the next meeting on Tuesday evening, The next meeting 5 In che light of recent events they are reviewing & number of decisions, A number of decisions 6 The police arrested hundreds of people at the demonstration yesterday. Hundreds of people @ wwe Grammar 2A have / get something done Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the box. cut decorate doi 2) dry-clean pluck repair 1 Your hai is getting very long. Isnt it about time you had it__? 2 Julies going to a party on Sunday so she’s having her rails 3 Tean’catford to have the grass cut. guess I'l just have ro ___it myself. 4. My car broke down last night so I'm getting it today. ‘5 Before the baby was born they decided to ger the spare room —— . «6 Pauline hates having her eyebrows ‘Uma needs to get her dress the wedding. in time for Grammar 2B have / get something done ‘Match the two parts of the sentences. 1 Always get your children’ feet We need to ger the roof Is important to get your eyes Lucy’ having her wedding dress The exam board are getting all the papers checked ‘We're getting cable TV installed Amir had his leg operated on adjusted so that it's a perfect fit after he had broken it in two places. after three students were caught cheating. 4 measured before you buy new shoes for ther. «checked every couple of years. £ sowe can wateh the next World Cup. repaired before the winter Power & Money Grammar 3A quite Choose the correct meaning of guit in each sentence, 1 The chances of winning the lovtery are quite slim. + completely 8 Binly 2 Quite a few people enter the lottery every week. a alice 3. Tthink people who buy lotcery tickets every week are ‘quite mad. 4 completely 4+ Sam was quite lucky because he won the lottery twice. b alot of b nocvery + complecly very 5 quite enjoy the anticipation. Winning is not the most important thing. + notvery very much 6 The frst week the lottery started I bought quite « few tickers. + notmany » alot of + fairly & nocvery Grammar 3B quite Read the text and find eight places where the word guite is missing. Draw an arow to indicate the correct paces | Taking part in the lottery is a form of gambling, but nowadays it seems to be acceptable. One reason is that it gives people something to dream ‘about, but this seems unfair as in most cases the chances of winning are about a million to one. Of course, the lottery raises a bit of money and ‘when ~ as is the case in the UK ~ this money is __used for good causes, people seem to feel this is OK. In some countries the lottery has been going for 2 long time. For example, in the UK the national lottery started on 14 February 1994 - a romantic day! Some people have complicated ‘systems for choosing their numbers while others, simply pick at random. Whatever you might think of lotteries, they are here to stay for some time. ‘We quite often choose family birchdays as our numbers. Vocabulary 1A Adverb phrases ‘Complete the text about Tom Wolfe with the words in the box. [ cdaly ofcourse nesdless to say remarkably The Bonfire ofthe Vanities was Torn Wolfe's first novel (1) it wasn't the first book he had written, but all the previous ones had been factual ® the book was written in serial form and published in the Rolling Stone magezine @)___ Wolfe had to write each section in just ewo weeks. (@) he had ad a loc of experience of writing to deadlines becanse he'd spent ten years as a newspaper journalist. Vocabulary 1B Adverb phrases Are the underlined adverb phrases correct (V) or incorrect (X) in these sentences? Circle the correct answer. 1 Qdaly enough, books about money often don't sell very well. vx ‘Miraculously being a banker is nota very popular job at the moment. vx 3 Even after having lost millions he wes strangely aright. vx 4 Ofcourse, everyone knows that Wall Street is the financial centre of the USA. vx 5 We did rematkably well out of the recent economic situation, vx 6 Obviously we weren't too badly affected by the financial crisis, bu then aguin we were quite lucky. VX 7 Needless 0 say people don't rust bankers as much as they did in the past. vx une (0 Y Power & Money Vocabulary 2A Collocations (money) Choose the word in each sentence that does not fit. Circle your answer. 1 Whenever [have any joo /pocet / pare cha ina jar and save it 2 He had a small / considerable / spending forcane, but lost. iall when his company collapsed. 3, Idon't have enough money to consider /pay / stl the bill. Can you gett this time? 4. Hoow ean anyone live lke that? They must be desperately / dirt /fltly poor. 5 Tused to ger £5 pucker / spre / spending money when 1 was young: 6 Some Hollywood actors are dit / filthy / extremely rich. Vocabulary 2B Collocations (money) ‘Complete the text about money with the words in the box. Iputie dit fithy loose pay pocket small Extend your vocabulary 1A Metaphors for money as food or liquid ur the words in the correct order to make sentences. 1 a/our/ outof/ chunk / savings / it / huge / took 2 pie / the / wanted /2/ everyone / slice / of 3 company / cash / problem / has / the / serious / with / fow/a 44 just/ money / pouring / the / was /like / drain / down /it 5 did / out/ much / that / splash / on / how / you 6 swallowed / just / be/ the / up / to / money / seemed Extend your vocabulary 1B Metaphors for money as food or liquid Complete the metaphors with the words in the box, There are four extra words you do not need. ‘Asa young woman her family were (1) poor. They lived in 2 one-room house in rural Alabama. ‘Asa young child she never got any (2) money from her parents, bat she could ear a litle by doing small jobs around the neighbourhood. Some days. her father even found ic difficult to (3) —______ the bills. Like most youngsters she dreamt of being tich and famous, but she made her dream come true. She's now (4) —____—rich, but she remembers where she came from and has set up charities to help poor families. fortune over the ‘years to set up schools and provide medical facilities. She says, For me it just (6) change, but for ‘many of these people it’s the difference betveen life and death.’ She’ given away a (5) ‘chewed chunk: slice splashed flow piece ‘spread pouring ripping swallowed 1 Tecan’t believe how easily money seems to be - up nowadays. 2 There's just not enough for everyone. You can'all have a__of the pie. ‘At the moment they're the project, butt can‘ last forever. 4 We out on a luxury holiday, but it was definitely worth it. 5. Ifyou have a cash always borrow some from the bank. 6 The ills take a big. ‘out of my salary each month so I don't have much left to spend on going out. money into problem you could Power & Money Listening Acar boot sale (1.14 Listen to three people talking about car boot sales. Which person says these things? Pura tick (¥) in the corresponding box. ‘Andrea [Josh [Harry 1 He/She has broughe | ‘things to sell. I 2 He/She has already bought something. 3. Tes the frst time he/she | has been to a car boot sale. 4 He/She enjoys meeting people ac car boot sales. 5 He/She has seen something he/she right buy, 6 He/She has come to find something specific. Pronunciation 49 1.15 Listen to the quotes from femous people and. ‘underline the words they stress. 1 ‘The artof leadership is saying no, not saying yes. Its very easy to say yes?” Tony Blair 2 ‘Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names. John F Kennedy 3. ‘Never, never and never again shal it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of cone by another! Nelson Mandela 4 ‘Tam not interested in power for power’ sake, but I'm interested in power that is mora, that is right and that is good? ‘Martin Luther King, Jr. 5. ‘Being powerful slike being a lady. Ifyou have to tll people you are, you aren't?” Margaret Thatcher Power & Money Reading The Speaker 1 Match the words with the definitions. applicant audience | mentor series | Baseseessine este eneODeteeeESeee eee] 1 Asset of television programmes about a particular subject. audition judge 2 Someone who applies for something. aunnliccan’ 3. Ashort performance in which you sing, dance or act s0 that someone can decide if you are good enough to perform in something 4 An experienced person who helps someone with, less experience. nnentor + A group of peoplewho have come rostea performance. 6 Someone who decides who the winner of a competition willbe 5 2 Use the len form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences. ‘The Speoker was the title ofan eight-part television series, Te) LO fcr br rede) by the BBC in the UK. Each applicant (2) MOS O48) (ask) co prepare and film a one-minute speech. 8 es and sixty speakers (3) Lite CGA (oo) by the three judges. These speakers (4) uBé LWSCO (invite 0 the next stage of regional auditions in front of the judging panel and en audience, Of the 160 speakers, only 20 3) athe sClechel (elect) to go through to the next stage. The final eight o me cal (coach) by celebrity mentors and given new challenges to help improve their speaking skills. @ wus Read the article to check your answers to exercise 2, 3 4 Answer the questions in your own words 1. What was the aim of the series? 2 How old were the applicants? 3 What did they all have in common? 4 Whar did their one-minute speech have to be about? 5 What was different about the next stage of the competition? ‘What did they research in Malawi? ‘When was the lst episode broadcast? ‘Where did the winner come from? oe ee ‘What three examples of public speaking does Jeremy Stockwell give at the end of the article? 1 actor t ts 2 ae adist 3 —_4 i 7 Imagine you are taking part in a series like The Speaker and have to prepare a one-minute speech. What subject would you choose and what would be the main message? Subject: Message: Power & Money The Speaker Toe Speaker was the title of an eight-part television series. It was produced by the BBC in the UK. The aim of the series was to find Britain's best young speaker Young people bevween the ages of I+ and 18 from seross the country were invited to take part in Tbe Speaker. Applicants included ME Sens jokers, and shy, sensitive ; types. The one thing they had in common was a desire to talk publicly and passionately about what was important to them. ahale ommcuenie 2 (yg 7 Each applicant was asked to prepare and film a one-minute speech on any subject - from op music to polities, from hooligans to homework. From all the entries received, 160 speakers were chosen by three judges. These speakers were invited to the next stage of regional auditions, where they had to deliver their one-minute speech again, but this time in front of the judging panel ancvan audience, Of che 160 speakers, only 20 were selected by the judges to go tHFbiivto the next stage. They then had to give another speech on a subject they were given only seconds before making the speech. Some contestants also had to speak about a picture, again without any preparation ‘The final eight were then coached by celebrity mentors and given new challenges to help improve their speaking skills. Their specches were evaluated by the judges and their treo By hls pio nthe series, which was shown atthe end of April 209, only three ined. They were taken on a research trip to Malawi, where they found out first hand the effects of children’s rights, ahead oftheir final speech. Duncan Harrison, a 14-year-old schoolboy from Bristol was voted the winner by the judges and mentors. : i ‘When asked what makes a good speaker, the actor, dicector and teacher, Jeremy Stockwell, who was one of the judges ‘on the series, said, ‘An effective speaker [ Glossary ‘must know and trust who they are, contestant rou) = cmaore who takes partn contest what they have to say, and why they try (oun) ~ eating Ma yours fo mak or have to say it. Whether you're playing | “When youteke per inacompattion PIG VOM uunsoe, Hamlet, delivering a political message or | episode (our) part o television series tat ie presenting a school assembly, you must | "®ss#spsty havea story to tell, a message to impare | maa (wt) ~t0 av smsting sue as ineaton, and a clear sense of purpose’ ce, ior r unes (48 Power & Money Writing A business proposal Reading 1 Answer these questions 1 Do youruna business or have you ever thought of starting a business? 2 What qualities do you think you need to run a business? 3 Ifyou could start a business, what type of business would it be? 2 Look at thelist of points to include in a business proposal, Read the restaurant proposal and tick (7) which points are included, +A description of the proposed business & The unique selling point of the business The target markets 4. The existing competition «The possible reactions of the competition to the new business € Marketing plans 5 The people involved Action plan B&B Business Proposal (Our proposal isto open 2 beaktest and brunch restaurant (provisional to be calles B & Bin the High See. val be the fst in @ cin of restaurants we pian tecpen ove the next five years. Accorcing o our research thee a demend fora breekast and brunch restaurant inthe area. Apart rem cetring for the many offce workes, wo wil market the restaucent et the growing student pepultion ee well 2s lunchtime shoppers and visitors. ‘As for compete, there are curently eight oer restaurens in the High Svest and six ‘ast food restaurants incicing cafes shops. The majority of restaurants only open rom lunchtime and the fastfood restaurants ony offer a imted breakfast menu. We therefore balave we can open up @ new market (Ou US wal be the provision of national and international ‘cooked broaldasts served at a reasonable price in ‘elaxed suroundings trom 6.00am to 6.00pm. The restaurant wil not opan in the evenings and wil therefore rot have to compete wih the established restaurants in the area ‘The business wil be run by two partners who wil have equal shares. Between us we have more than 16 years expariance in the catering industry and have both worked in local restaurants. As @ consequence, we have a good werking knowledge ofthe local restaurant trad. (Our plan isto find suitable premises within the next tres months and then to open to the public three months later. This will colncide with the stat of a new academic ‘year allowing us an opportunity to promote the new business to students at the start of term, We both hope that you will be interested in becoming involved as @ backer. We believe that your business skis, ‘combined with our restaurant know-how wil make B & 8 ‘commercial success. 8 Find words in the proposal with these meanings. 1 a formal plan 2 the detailed study of something in order to discover, new facts 3. the fact that people want a service or prodhict 4 s company that sells the same goods or services as another company 5 the coral number of people willing to buy a particular product 6 one of two or more people who own @ company and share its profits and losses 7 aparticolar area of business or industry ‘8 someone who gives help or money to plan cr organisation 4. Use the wotds from exercise 3 to complete the sentences. 1 Teouldn' find a the business. 2 On top of that, my business cout and gave me his shares. 3 People told me it wouldn't work because there was no for the product. 4 However, all my the opposite. 5 Twouldn’t have had any so the ______—_ would've been wide open. 6 Iwent to the bank with a very good business to put money into dropped suggested 7 But they said I didn't have enough experience in the Power & Money Writing skills: presenting facts 5 There are certain expressions you can use when presenting a proposal. Write the second word in each sentence, using the words in the box. @ for from proposal therefore to USP | LO { Our_______is to open a restaurant 2 According ‘our research, there isa demand for .. 3 Apart ___catering for the office workers 4 As _ competitors, there are currently cight. 5 Our and international cooked breakfasts. 6 As____ consequence, we have a good working knowledge of the trade. 7 We ____ believe we can open up a new ‘will be the provision of national market, Preparing to write 6 Read the Writing task below. When preparing your proposal, refer to the list of points to include in exercise 2. Writing ‘Think of the area in which you live. Is there a business that you think is needed? Imagine you want to start the business. Write a business proposal to show to a potential backer. Use the list of businesses below for idess. restaurant petshop / vet hairdressers café supermarket bookshop The provisional name for the business is “There is a real need for. in the area, ‘+The majority of people in the area ‘have experience in... ‘I hope you willbe interested Grammar 1A soand such Complete the sentences using so or suc. 1 That new coffee edvertis ___ clever. 2 Think that adversising is. ‘time, If want something I'l buy it anyway. 3 —________ much money is spent on advertising useless products 4 Theadvert was strange that most people didn't know what was being advertised. 5. Tetwok, a long time for the name of the product to appear in the advert. 6 Personally I think that product placement in films is pointless. Do people really buy a watch simply because their favourite actor is wearing one? 7. Advertisers used to compare products, but techniques are no longer allowed. awaste of 8 There are few good adverts on TV nowadays 9 Amemorable logo is an important thing in today’s commercial world. 10 Things change ‘quickly in advertising. Is important to keep up with the latest trends. Grammar 1B soand such ‘Complete each sentence with so or such. 1 Thad____ fan at the cinema last week. 2 The film was good, but the best thing ‘were the trailers at the start 5 Samantha walked round the store and there was —___ awch she wanted to buy. 4 You're spoilt for choice, as there's _____a lot to choose from 5 ‘There’ no thing as bad advertising’, the saying goes. 6 There are few places where I feel really at home, but this is one of chem. 7 Advertising can have when done badly. a negative effect (46) var # What you said was. nasty; Pm, surprised she’ stil eking to you 9 Tve seen this lm never get bored off Grammar 2A Reporting statements and questions Are these sentences correct (¥) or incorrect (X)? Circle the correct answer. ‘many times, but I 1 When we went 0 the 200 they asked us if were we interested in snakes v 2. Albert says he is fascinated by snakes, but 1 think he's crazy. v 3 The book says not all poisonous snakes ‘were deadly. v 4 When I was young I puta spider in my sister’ bed and my mother asked me why did doit 5 Mysisterrold her teacher what Thad done. 7” 6 The teacher wanted to know if itis true v 7 Someone once told me that on average we swallowed eight spiders daring our lifetime. 7 4 My friend was bitten by a snake, but he said he'd be alright v Grammar 2B Reporting statements and questions Revrite the questions in reported speech. 1 ‘Why ishoney so sweet?” she asked. She asked me 2 ‘Why do bees buzz? She wanted to know — 3 ‘How do bees turn pollen into honey?’ she asked. She asked me 4 ‘Does honey help heal cuts she asked She asked me — “Why does bee die when it stings someone?” she asked. She wanted to know 6 ‘Does pollen give honey its favour She asked me 7 ‘Will I die ifa bee stings me> she asked. She asked me. she asked. he asked. Rhyme & Reason Grammar 3A Reporting verbs Choose the correct ending to complete the sentences, 1 You promised 1 to let me know what happened last night. It stands to reason Id be interested ’ letting me know what happened last night. Ie stands to reason I'd be interested. 2 Tracey denied 4 toknow anything about the incident. mowing anything about the incident. 3 Sandra's teacher accused + her of cheating in the exam. her that of cheating in the exam, + Steve agreed that he was being totally unreasonable. 1 he that was being totally unreasonable. 5) They insisted 2 toknow the truth even when I told them they wouldn't like it! on knowing the truth even when I told them they wwouldn’e like i! 6 Brica reminded + ofher husband that not everyone saw things the same way. '» her husband that not everyone saw things the same way. 7 Ina recent survey a number of people complained 4 that the quality of programmes on TV was falling. ' co the quality of programmes on TV was falling. Grammar 3B Reporting verbs Complete the text w the reporting verbs in the box. accused admitted asked ascured claimed | | confirmed refused said Earlier today the police (1) that they had arrested a man in connection with an incident last night. The man was (2) __ of breaking into a car and causing criminal damage. At frst the man 8 to have done nothing wrong, and (4) _that the car was his When the police (6) him what colour the car was, he (6) __ that he didn't know and that, infact, he didn’t own car. The police (7) _____ the public that they were doing everything they could to solve the crime, but said that the man had Oo) to give his name and that this was holding up thelr inquiries. More to follow Vocabulary 1A Homophones Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Circle the correct answer. 1 There was a loud grown /graan from the audience when he lose che game. 2 The weather / whether in Britain is often wet and windy. What did you bye /éuy when you visited San Francis ‘My brother's got fare /ar hair and blue eyes. ‘What size / sighs shoes do you wear? Tina stood on the deck of the ship and watched the sure / shore receding inthe distance. 7 My mother used to read allowed / aloud vo me when L vasa child 8 I wish you wouldn't stare /stairat me, Ies very off-putting. ® Rhyme & Reason Vocabulary 1B Homophones ‘Complete the sentences with the correct word. The fist letter is given for you. Be careful of your spelling. Tove ie when I m______ new people. How did you fall down the s_____? Tm sure I've b. here before ‘When the children are in bed, we enjoy the p—____—and quiet 5 Darren’sa vegetarian so he doesn't ext 6 Youneced to grind the coffee b___ before you can use them. 7 Tamost countries you are not ata drink and drive Vocabulary 2B Advertising Complete the puzzle with words connected to advertising r | 1 someone who buys and uses goods and services (8) 4 someone you are trying to get asa customer Would you like another p. of cake? 9 They've just put up the £ on the Across ‘rains again Vocabulary 24 or audience 6) Advertising Complete the text about advertising with the words inthe box. There are ewo extra words you do not need. billboard brand commercials consumers jingle ogo slogan target audience As (1) _______ how do we make decisions about what to buy? Faced with two jars of coffee, which do we choose? Do we just look at the price, or is there more to it? Any advertising agency can tell you thet price is actually less important than (2) recognition. Ifyou recognise the name on the product and have a positive association, then you are more likely to buy it “To help with recognition some techniques are known to work really well. After all, who doesn’t recognise the @) for Apple computers? Some companies also use a (4) for example ike Juse do it’ Making (5) isn't simple either. Not only do they cost alot of money to produce, they can also be expensive to show on television. So picking the right time when your (6) ___ wil be watching is the key to success (@) um? 5 asymbol chat represents an orgenisation or company (4) 6 a large sign for advertising, often on a building or at the side of the road (9) 7 ashore phrase, usually with music, that is easy t0 remember, used to advertise something on radio orTV 6) Down 1 an advertisement usually on TV or radio (10) 2 a short phrase that is easy to remember (6) 3 a product or group of products that has its own name and is made by one particular company (5) pom ro, as I al Rhyme & Reason Vocabulary 3 Idioms: knowing and not knowing ‘Match the two parts ofthe sentences. 1 Whenever I want to know something I just look on the internet. Ie a real mine 2 Don't worry! We won't get lost. [know this place like the back ‘Teenagers often learn the lyrics to their favourite song ‘There's no point asking me. I don't have the faintest Tm really not sure he knows what he’s talking Tewas obvious that she didn’t have a She sat down to take the cxam, but was completely out = about. & by heart « clue. «idea. « ofher depth, «of information, «of my hand. Extend your vocabulary Ways of saying beautiful Complete the sentences with a word meaning beautifil. The firs eter is given for you. 1 really hate it when people say things like “He a <—____ay’ 2 You look absolutely gin that new outfit! 3. Arrecent scientific study reveals that most people think they are more a_____ than they actually are 4 You couldn't say hesh______, but he’s certainly 5 He was such a lovely baby its no wonder he’ grown up ie sag aneruseneeuoee J een 6 Oh! You look really p_____in thar dress in his own way. Listening The detectives 591.16 Listen to the radio programme and complete the sentences with the missing words 1. People chose Sherlock Holmes because of his character 2 Detective Inspector Rebus was a___ choice. Lisbeth Solander specialises in________ people. 4 She also has a memory 5 Wallander was created by the —_______erime writer Henning Mankell, 6 He doesn't have many friends, drinks a lot and eats too much ___ food. Pronunciation Homophones (91.17 Listen to the words and decide if they are homophones or not. Tick (¥) the corresponding box. s brake break 9 hair hear I De Rhyme & Reason Reading “Elementary, my dear Watson’ 1 Which of these skills do you think are most important for a detective to have? Which are che least important? Put them in order from I (most important) ~ 5 (least important). pape aoe the ability to tell when someone is lying ms knowledge of past crime cases az strong instincts intuition = confidence a 2 Which of these stills do you think the character of Sherlock Holmes had? 3 Write the words in the correct order. 1 a/ detective / fictional /is / name / of / Sherlock Holmes / che 2 and / Arthur Conan Doyle / author / by / created / He / ysician / Sgogtish / Sir / she 4 was, 3. and / are / biographer, / by / Dr friend / Holmess / John H. Watson { Most / of / stories / the / told VE 4 appeared / enemy / famous / Final / His /in / Moriarty J most / Problem / Professor / The / was / who Ra eee 4 Read the article and find the following names. 1 Amagazine : il dapacine 2 place where Hlmes fought Moriarty. ial he 3 The-tidle of one of his di st hooks. ‘ Aue te wd ob he a gorvilles 5 Read the article again and answer these -psjons ‘S 1 lid Conan Doyle use § it i nt ll Er Hocloraby tascye of hy uuiste'f 2 10 the inspiration for the character? A ive 43 SNeokl the Sccclhat photos, + Did Holmes ie athe Reichenbach Fall? entary, my dear Watson’? « Tenth pode fe F sah 6 Choose the correct option. Cirele the correct answer. 1 Conan Doylecdonited refused that the character was partly based on one of his university professors 2 He wrote to his mother and explained Calder that he was thinking of killing Holmes. & 3 His mother begged not be happy about it 4+ ReadersGomplained J reminded to the magazine that their hero had besa Killed. 5, Reader{begged /insned Conan Doyle to bring the detective back. = Conan Doyle confirmed aise to revive Holmes for several years. ~ Hear ane (lina oly Morya ln at the Fall — 4 Inhis memoirs, Conan Doyle ientioned) refed that 8 seader thought the later stories Were inferior. 7 Complete the phrases with the words in the box. jim that the public would back from in off on to 2 The character was based a professor. eae ae eee 4 The characgers fell __ their deaths. 5 They asked him to bring _Leiclt the detective 6 He eventually gave and agreed. 8 Read the article to check your answers to exercises 6and7, lesa re. lan ee ip len Cowan forle's shovies atarted belay public! in Sood (CE When did ides become opal? j a re Thins alee Fates @ wmz 22 Coucyn's tinal from belhy thing * Rhyme & Reason ‘Elementary, my dear Watson’ The Recon lt or sri of ae in eal Stn In 197 che Scottish phyla sd writer, Arthur Conan Doyle visited the Falls and decided they ‘would be the ae place to kil off his most famous creation ~ Sherlock Holmes Conan Doyle had studied to bea doctor and started a medical practice in 1882. While E he was waiting for patient to arrive he would write stories and ie was in one ofthese, 4 i Study in caret, thatthe detective Sherlock Holmes first appeared. Conan Doyle later admitted thatthe character was pardy based on one of his university professors The character of Sherlock Holmes became excremely popular when Consn Doyle’ stories started being published in Strand Megrain in 1891. But Conan Doyle wanted to-write more serious historical novels. He wrote to his mother and told her that he ‘was thinking of killing Holmes. He wrote, He takes my minal from better things’. His smother warned him tha the public would not be happy about i, and she was right. In The Final Problem, published in 1893, Holmes met his enemy; Professor Moriarty, at the Reichenbach Falls where they both struggled and apparently fell to their deaths. The public reaction was instant as readers complained to the magazine that their hero had been killed. Readers begged Conan Doyle to bring the detective back Conan Doyle refused to revive Holmes for several years, but eventually gave in and agreed to bring him back. In 1901 he published one of Sherlock Holmes’ darkest cases, The Hound ofthe Baskervilles. He later explained that only Moriarty had fallen atthe Falls and that Flolmes was now ready to face new enemies In his memoirs, Conan Doyle mentioned that a reader though che later stories were 1 infos the ones written before the Reichenbach Falls incident. According to the reader, Holmes may not have been kelled at the Falls, But he wasnt the same man afterwards. Sherlock Holmes appeared ina toa of 56 short stories and four novels. ec Saat in ll those stories he never said his most famous words ~ ‘Elementary, my dear ‘Watson’. Tvs a case of one of the most famous misquotes of all time. Conan Doyle would have been amysed, ralaiiony Glossary physician pou) —a sector revives) fo make someone became conscious or ave agen raga er) 19 use your svengn tit aint femscne or someting watorall (cur -space where wate fows over the ‘goof cater ater seep lace oma ance ee bei Rhyme & Reason Writing An advert to sell an item Reading 1. Answer the questions 1 Have you bought anything from an internet auction site like eBay™? If so, what was it? Were you pleased with it? Did the buying process go smoothly? 2. Have you ever sold anything on an online auction site? Tfso, what was expecting? id isl forthe price you were If not, would you consider selling something in this way? 2 Read two adverts from an internet auction site. Which cone do you think does a better job of selling the item? Why? Advert 1 1985 Marlin Acoustic Guitar in excellent condition ''m saling one of my most treasured possessions, @ 1985 Marin acousic guitar. | have cherished and cared for this instrument since | bought it new in 1986, and ‘am only sefing it because a recent accident has let me Unable to play be extremely sony to se8 it 90, and | hope that its new owner wil continue to look attr it well ‘hiss a used guiter, but | have kept itn perfect werking ‘order. The necks straight and the action is low with no ‘tet buzz, and it sounds wonder‘, with deep bess notes, {and it looks amazing too. There is a clesly visible soratch (on the back, but this does not affect the sound quality in any way. Please see the gecond close-up phate. Apart from that isin excelent condition and it has no ether visiole damage, ‘To give you some technical deta, hae a sokd spruce top and the top and sides are made of solid incian osev00d. The guitar comes with a hard case that wil alow it to be transported in an aircraft hold without boing damaged 52) Unt? Racer 3500 PX laptop for sale need to get a more powerful laptop, so I'm selling my old one. I's a Racer 3500 PX and I boughtit new around three years ago. As you can see from the photo, it’s in pretty good condition. One or two of the keys stick litle, bur apace from that it works well. There is a small mark on the sereen from when 1 dropped it one day, but is hardly visible because its in the top right-hand corner. I can send a photo if you'd like to see it “To see the computer’ specifications, go to: was, racer conv3500 PX, As you'll sce, ies gota fairly big hard disk and a decent processor, but its not really suitable for video editing, which is what I need todo. ‘3 Complete this table with information from the adverts and circle the correct options. ‘Advert 1 [Advert 2 Product I Product dear | Yes/No Yes7No from headline Condition New/Used [New/Used ‘Age Photos provided _|Yes/No Yes/No Damage / defects | ‘Reason for selling [Specific details [Yes/No "Yes/No included + Writing skills: describing an item 4 Bach of these sentences about the condition of the items contains one language mistake. Can you correct them? Read the adverts again to check your answers. 1 Thave keptit in perfect work order, 2 There is a clear visible scratch on the back 3 Ithas no other visible damages. 4 Iesin a pretty good condition. 5 One or two of the keys stick s little, Bt apart from that it works good 6 There a small markon the screen ... but it’s hardly seen. grecheote pen een) Rhyme & Reason 5 Write one word in each gap to complete the frst sellers personal feelings ebout the item. Then look again at Advere I to check 1 Tm selling one of my most — possessions 2 Thave cherished and cared —___ eis instrument since I bought i. 3 Til be extremely __to see it go. 4, Thope that ts new owner will continue to look ie well. 5 It_____ wonderful, with deep bass notes, and it___ amazing too. Preparing to write 6 Read the Writing task below. Choose two possessions to sell and write adverts that will make people want to buy them, Include the information in the eable in exercise 3, and include your personal feelings about the items. Then think ofa clear, descriptive headline for each advert. Writing Imagine you need to sel two of your possessions. Write adverts to post at an online auction site. ‘Lam only seling it because + Please see the close-up ohotos. ‘+ To give you some technical details, ‘It comes with + As you can see from the photo, *# To s2e the specifications, goto. + As you'll see, it's got unt? (53) @ Grammar 1A Conditional structures ‘Match the two parts of the sentences, Even if I had enough money Anyone can live here There's no way you'll et rich You can spend what you want Unless you're more careful ‘As long as there are things to buy Tes waste of money Providing you promise to pay me back. if you carry on spending like chat unless you have money to burn. you'll end up with nothing. Twouldn’t waste it on that. Tllend you the money you need. as long as you have the money. providing they can afford i. she'll carry on spending. Grammar 1B Conditional structures ‘Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Circle the correct answer 1 Even if / Providing you wanted to, you couldn't. 2 As long as / Unless you make more effort, there’ no way you'll succeed. 3, Til do it providing /unles P've got the time. 4 Nothing will go wrong as lng as / even if you do what I sey, 5 She won't talk to you providing / unless you apologise toher. 6 Aslong as / Even ifyou don’ give up, nobody will be upset with you. 7 He won't help even if/ providing you ask him. unt Grammar 2A Unreal conditionals Look at ches things that Jana says about hr life. Choose the correct options to complete the sentences. Circle the correet answers, 1 IFT spoke /bad spoken perfect English I could be getting / ageta beter jo. 2 TEL boven’ met /badn' met Pavel, I wouldn't be / have seen married now. 3 Teould have been /bad been a dances, if haven’: / hadn't stopped taking ballet classes when Twas 12. 4. TFT lived / bad fced in che US now, V'm sure my life would be / bave deen different. 5. My younger sister would go /ave gone to the UK last year, ifsbe took /sbeld taken ajob as an au pain. 6 TEL dew / Ta known what T know now, Td pay /bove paid ‘more attention at school. 17 Even if won /Bad been winning the lottery, I don’t think Td be /bave been any happier 8 TfL udied /bad studied harder when T was a school, Pd be /bad been at university now. Grammar 2B Unreal conditionals ‘Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1 Ifyou had asked me, I would (ell you what I thought. 2 Mariam would be happy ifJalil _____ (cme beck) for er, 3. TfLworked here, Pm sure I would. (ite it. 4 Sammy would have laughed if he (ear) what you sai. 5 If Thadn'e forgotten to fil in my lottery ticker, E would (Ge) celebrating right now. 6 Charles would be rich if everybody. (Gin) his book. TfGregor had asked me to marry him, I would (yes. » Dreams & Reality Grammar 3A. Regrets Are these sentences correct (V) oF incorrect (X)? Circle your answer. 1 wish [hadn't listen to her 2 Ifonly T' paid atcention when I was at school 3 Ishould have told her how I felt before it was 100 late. 4 Whata pity you hadn't tell me eater. 5 Idon' regret anything that had happened. 6 wish P'd known her when we were young. 7 should have went home ealir. RS xx RRS XxX Grammar 3B Regrets ‘Complete the sentences with the words in the box. ‘ale eaten made making taken telling told took 1 Tesapity ie ___so long. 2 Idonteregret him how I felt. 3 Ifonly hadn't so mmuch last night. 4 Tshould have ‘more of an effort. 5 Iwishyor'd me earlier. 6 Isa pityyou all the cake, 7 Tony ithadw so long to get there. 8 Do you regret such a fool of yourself? Vocabulary 1 Imagination Choose the correct option to complete the sentences about imagination. Cirle the correct answer. 1 Mariam used to look out of the window and daydreams / pretend / suppose about what could have been. 2 Asa child I'd often daydream / pretend /fumtasse 10 bea princess 3. Tjust can’t pure /suppese/wonder you living anywhere else. This is where you belong. 4+ Most people fantaie / pretend / picture about being tich and famous at some point in thei lif. 5 Don'tyou ever daydream /fontarse (wonder what it ‘would be like to live somewhere el 6 don't pretend / suppose / zonder that anyone can really imagine what Mariam’ life must have been like. Vocabulary 2 Phrases with real Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word real 1 In___ it’ often diffcule to tell fact from fiction. 2 Its time you started living in the —__ world. 3. This really doesn’t bear any relation to 4 Tean’e tell if this is che 00d fake. 5. The way some people distort_____to fic their belief is incredible. 5 How do we know this is for simply made up using special effects? Vocabulary 3A Life experiences (collocations} thing or a very and not Complete the sentences with the words in the box. find follow have live mark pay quit ‘My parents always told me it was important to 4 dream and never to have any regrets. As soon as you your feet in life something else comes along to knock you off them! your job than to give Its easier to up smoking. ‘Why is it thac many people a special ‘occasion by drinking too much and waking up not remembering anything about i? 5 Don't___a lie. Ar least be honest with yourself 6 You—___a responsibility, bur to yourself first and foremost. 7 Why should I the penalty for your mistakes?! ~ Dreams & Reality Vocabulary 38 life experiences (collocations) Complete each situation with a word or phrase from the box. There are four extra words or phrases you do not need all the bils happiness: aball advice for the moment responsiblity truelove uni the penalty time 1 Tom mou is live about tomorrow. 2 Sylvia’ having she’ going to have to face reality 3 Yvonne found the course 100 hard so she quit and gota job. 4 If you'd followed my —_____ in ths situation now. and forget but sooner or later you wouldn’t be 5 By the time Rashid had paid. he had. ‘no money left for food. 6 Ana thought she'd found when she met Marek. 7 Pete's just marking —____ travel around the world. until he sets off to Extend your vocabulary 1 Metaphors for the mind as a container Complete the sentences with the words inthe box. back crossed empty fixed open 1 There was just this idea at the ofmy mind that something might be wrong, but I didn't know what it was, 2 When things get too hectic Igo for a long walk and ryand thinking about anything, 3 Once she gets an idea ‘mind ies almost impossible to persuade her to do anything different. 4, Tenever even sy mind, Ie great not to be inher ry mind that he might have been lying. 5 Iebimportant to keep a(n) ‘uy to accept new things you encounter. mind and Ge) unre Extend your vocabulary 2 Truth and lies ‘Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Girle the correct answer. 1 They claimed they weren't being dishonest, simply stretching the lies / truth, 2. Panorama isa British documentary programme which sets out to expose lies /rruzh people have told, for example in business and government. Everyone tells ss / truth, but nat everyone gets caught. ‘The minute she learnt the lis /srush she burst into tear. was telling He /be truth, but nobody would believe me! Tes time you faced the Hies/trutb and admieted that you've made los of mistakes. 7 Some people are realy good at making up lies / rhe truth and don’t seem to think that it wrong in any way. 5 We filmed undercover in an attempe to reveal dies / the truth Listening The truth about lying (9 1.18 Listen to the radio programme and decide if the sentences are true (7) or false (F). Circle the correct + Tha npekae enone heen, T/E 2. Ifchildren lie, they won't become such successful adults TIE 2 By the agg of four almost 90 per cent of children lie TIF 4 The average man in Britain tells lies three times a dey, TF 5 Women lie more often than men. TIE 6 People tell white lies to avoid hurting the other person. TE Pronunciation Stress: phrases with real (@% 1.19 Listen and underline the stressed words. 1 Youdont have few dinortrealiy. 2 How do you know if something is the real thing mag Documentaries are about the real world. In reality, there’s no such thing as absolute truth. Tcan’t believe that this is for real. Sometimes things seem to bear no relation to what we already now \f netalie, Reading J The power of dreams 2 Read the article and choose the best description. : 1 Answer the questions in your own words +The interpretation of dreams and hove they affect our relationships with people and work. 1 How many hours a night doy morally sleep? Th ener tween REM ond NRE ‘ chi,» The difessnes between REM an sleep id tT FRedt Gn dreams, u 2 Do you Yer have a short nap (leep) during the day? ) Yo, Shave ae Waliaeertel ie rece? py stipn aon an ev . ‘ciecestully Complete different casks. 3 How well do you remember your drean Ned ase ys Leki) he aus * Bovine de aboutus or si fob I The power of dreams Researchers atthe Harvard Medical School have been looking at how sleeping and decease angen pi enc a. 2eohonr reat fee cretr ee tha a person who has PAAQMHE leaning a task wil be able to complete the rash beter i shen they wake up than a person who doesnt sleep, Now it has been ASA hae the ee even better. In other words, ifa student stays up all nighe to revise for an exam then he or she won't do as well as a student who combines their study with sleep. But the student who will do best in the exam is the one who sleeps and dreams providing the dreams are related to what he or she is learning. “The time we are aslep is divided into different periods. These periods are known as REM (rapid eye movement) slep and NREM (nan-rapid eye movement sleep. During REM periods our dreams are oor hpad inktnSe 2H Wier to remember when we wake up. Brain activity is also higher. According to Associate Professor Robert Stiekgold, a memory and dream researcher st the Harvard Medical School in Boston, theres convincing evidence that when we dream, the bran is making connections that help us learn what we have been learning previously ayoe It’s possible that in the future some courses will alee Ste short sleeping sessions 2 part of the learning process. The power pap is now an established practic in the prcessional word een iis BALES sme cars evens mater of tine Bef agree common wil on ‘And if our dreams can be controlled ear a our learning povential will [Glossary increase even more ‘own upon frase verd-to net aro of somthing We know that we can't live without sleep. | ap rour'-asnon step. unuen dung inecey | Research has shown that animals die Dower nao hou) =a thr sles dng the Sy unless they have sleep almost as quickly | ede» somsors,epecaly buscesran or ‘bushesswoman, rer energy tas peu) - somthing hat youhaveo., oan 2 if they don’t have food. But the reasons why we sleep and why we dream while we asp ae ill mang wagadl Dreams & Reality 3. Read the article again and decide if the sentences are true (1) or false (F). Circle the correct answer and correct the false sentences New research has revealed that someone who has @ nap after learning a task will be able to complete the 3. Evidence exists that the brain helps us learn chings when we are dreaming. KF The power nap is not well-considered in some cultures. KF 5 Animals ean live for extremely long periods without sleep. ‘We are quickly discovering the mysteries of sleep } and dreams. 4 Match the sentence halves. ‘Apperson who has a nap after learning a task Ifa student stays up all night to revise for an exam. Ifa person dreams about a task while they are asleep ‘The student who will do best in the exam is the one swho sleeps and dreams 5 The power nap is now an established practice in the professional world four dreams can be controlled to relate in some way to what we are learning Tr. then he or she won't do as well asa student who ‘combines their scudy with slep. ‘even if it’s frowned upon in some culeures. vill be able to complete the task better when they wake up, then they will be able to perform it even better. providing the dreams are related to what he or she is learning. then our learning potential will increase even more. Read the article again to check your answers to exercise 4, (Gs) ® unite: task beter, TK 2 Dreams aren't so vivid and intense during REMslep. 1X 7K 6 q ‘Write the missing words, here’ (1) con — evidence that when we <éream, che brain is making connections that help us learn what we have been learning previously. {Wes possible that in che furure some courses will incorporate short sleeping sessions as part of the Q ‘The power nap is now an (3) the (4) in ) earls __ process eafebillhedl practice in y world even ifit’s frowned upon some cultures. If our dreams can be controlled to relate in some way to what we are learning then our (5) L2G potential will increase even more. 7 3 Give your reactions to the sentences in exercise 6. Do you believe the researchers? Do you think power naps are a good thing? Do you think learning courses will inckude sleeping sessions in the future? Is it good or bad idea in your opinion? A. Yes 9 do belitve Tham Gecause IY secu fe te tue lepocty INE mere heave Melt i's ‘ao } Gee 2, Welt 1 renuathing ol ch fforer es ha» tearter been prediceding Yrod, Y ont Dave uy am x Mion 3,9 thank Af Nate ph do lnppew 14 exey Sounds those neronens qmuat be dascne. 5 werd Dreams & Reality Writing Expressing complaints tactfully in writing Reading 1 Answer the questions. 1 Have you had to complain about someone’ behaviour recently? Ifso, why did you complain? Did your complaint resolve the situation? 2 When was the las time someone complained about yout behaviour? How was the complaint made? Did you change your behaviour as a result of the complain 2 Read the three complaints. Are any of them similar to the situations you thought of in exercise 1? 1 There’ something P've been meaning to talk to you about, but haven't found the right moment. The fact is, Pve had some complaints about your behaviour in the office. They’re to do wich making private phone calls. Obviously, theres nothing wrong with you using the phone for private purposes from time to time, but I hear that calls have been frequent and have involved heated arguments. We all understand that it stressful to be going through personal difficulties, but could I ask you to keep private calls to a minimum, and leave the office if they're absolutely unavoidable? Thope you can sce my point of view on this, and let's talk things over if that would help. We've never met formally, but I'm the neighbour from the fiat above yours. I'm writing because [ wanted to bring up the subject of noise at nigh. You're all students, so Tknow you tend to stay up late, but would you mind keeping your music down at night? The thing is, I have to get up at six every morning, and your music is keeping me awake beyond midnight. 'm not disputing your right to have your masic on, but if you could turn the volume down after L1pm that would be much appreciated. Thanks in advance, We haven't coincided this week, so I haven't had the chance to say this to you in person, but I think Tneed to mention the housework. I ean see you're really busy right now, but could you at least try to ‘wash up your things? If you could clean the kitchen surfaces too that would be great. Don’t get me ‘wrong, 'm not complaining about the housework you do in general, but after along night at the hospital, the last thing T want to dois have to clean dirty dishes before I can prepare a quick meal and crawl into bed. Thanks, 3 March each complaint tothe form it was probably writen in Letter Note Email ___ Writing skills (1): introducing a difficult topic tactfully 4 Complete each extract from the complaints with one word. 1. There's something I've been m____to talk to you about. q 2 Pm writing because I to bring up the subject of 3. haven't had the {0 say this to you in person, but... 4 The f£____is, 've had some complaints about your behaviour. 5 Thet____is, Thave to get up atsix every morning. 6 think Tneed to m_ the housework. 7 Weall u___ that ie stressful to be going through personal difficulties. 8 Tk_____you tend to stay up late. 9 Teans you'r really busy right now. 1) O___ there's nothing wrong with you using the phone for personal purposes uT'mnot d________your right to have your music on. 12 Don't get me w____,'m not complaining about the housework you do. Dreams & Reality 5 Match each group of extracts (AD) in exercise 4 with one of the functions below. Write the correct letter next to the functions. — Showing you understand the other persons’ circumstances. —— Preparing the reader for a difficult topic. — Recognising the other person’ rights or efforts Introducing 2 problem tactfully. Writing skills (2): making polite requests 6 Purthe words in the correct order to make polite requests. Then read the complaints again to check your answers 1 private calls / could / you / toa minimum / ask /1/ keep /10 /? 2. mind / down at night / keeping / would / your / you / music /? 3. much appreciated /if/ that/ the volume / carn / be / could / would / down / you / 4 at least/ things / ry / your / wash up / you / to / could Pp 5 would / you / the kitchen surfaces / that / clean / be / could /if/ great / 00 /. 7 Which two requests are grammatically different from the others? Why are they expressed this way? Preparing to write 8 Read the Writing ask below and think of or invent ‘ovo situations you want to complain about. For each one, think about which would be the best form to express your complaint 2 letter, note or email. Writing Write to complain tactfully about two different situations. ‘We've never met formally, but. + The complaints are to do with ‘hear that * Ihope you can see my point of view. * Let's talk things over if that would help. Thanks in advance, Grammar 1A Phrasal verbs ‘Complete the sentences with the words in the box. There are two extra words that you do not need, cross alter back down for off over to up 1 Twouldn’e stand phat if were you. Tell her to do itherse, — “F 2 Paulo stood at the top of the building and looked.conm Below him the people looked like tiny ants 3. Please, give it to her. Maybe she'll stop crying then! + Boris cam HIP LOOP chs father had writen co him years before. 5 On the 14th of March the group set off Meir epic journey. 6 Iesno good von ee answer. T didn’ even understand the question! 7 I'm going to have to think your suggestions and T'l let you know tomorrow Grammar 1B Phrasal verbs Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Circle the correct answer, 1 Rani will be fine, shed gone anc through ¢ gone eer ae 3. Once you've set off get it off ips best to keep going. Prise eee ote evi aces on eae 4 "Thee¥ opine easing shot Jog ppm pick yourself up and stare again 6 Tee seldomggme acre such a nice group// come such a nice _group across of people before. 7 After Katarina had her accident her friends loked after der /ooked ber after nti she was better. 8 Once the fuss has allied downy died ie down everything will go back to normal Grammar 1C Phrasal verbs Are these sentences correct (¥) or incorrect (X)? Circle your answer. {After chinking things over I've decided to accept your offer. @* 2 Once the flames had died it down we were able to see what damage the fre had done. v® 3. Mary looked her elderly relative after and found it very tring ) x 4 Once you've gone through something like that you never forget it. 7 x 5 Td come the story aross ofthe Phoenix before an ‘always thought it was some kind of metaphor. g x x 6 Don't pick up it I chink its poisonous. 7 Can you give this book back to Jerry? o* Grammar 2A Verbs with fo and -ing . Choose the correct verb form to complete the sentences. Circle the correct answer. 1 Do you regres(emingy to come here? 2 We regret informing Ao inform you that you have not been accepted for the course 3 Ron stoppedelistening / to listen vo what his wife said « long time ago. 4 Diana forgot telling to tellus that she was going tobe late 5, Tried paying (go pay, but they just wouldn't take my money! 6 Do you rememberesking / 0 a him? 7 The sounds of hirdsong were so lovely we stopped Tistening/ to listen to them for about an hour. 4 Last year I ried rock liobing/ to rok elm, but T discovered that I'm scared of heights. une ———— Rise & Fall Grammar 2B Verbs with to and -ing Complete the text with the correct form of the verb in brackets Wi always remember (1) Vit hng (visio my aunt and uncle who lve in Cornwall. They lived on a farm and it was great. But one time, | must have been around eight, my holday started really badly. We'd driven down ffor London, but had stopped (2) (rest) once or twice on the way down because the journey was so long. By the time we arrived it was dark and it was dificult to see much. | remember @ MAL (get) out of the car and steppir straight into a big ouddle. | immediately repretiod 4) —Ai2Oai Mf west my best shoes a they were riped by the mud and water, My mother tried (6)_Jo@eam (clean) them, but it was hopeless. Apparently I didn’t stop © — (ery) for hours afterwards. Vocabulary 1A Word formation: nouns and adjectives Put che words into the correct category. achiooue corsanbe apn pao fects prepay) peers mae synboteunprececetd ‘Noun Adjective | (@) uns Vocabulary 1B Word formation: nouns and adjectives Complete the sentences withthe correct word The Best lerteris given for you 1 In the past 30 years there's been an u______inerease in the number of skyscrapers built. 2 In fac, its become something of ag phenomenon. 3. Many of these buildings are seen a 5 of wealth and p. 5 4 Wsthea, ‘equivalent of buying diamonds or fast cas. 5 The largest increase has been in one ~ the Middle East. 6 ‘The designs for many of these are quite 7 Ofcourse, the one thing that has made all ofthis p_____ is oil What happens when that rans out? Vocabulary 2 Collocations with rise ‘Choose the comect option to complete the sentences Circle the correct answer. 1 Sam needed to rise / raise his voice so that everyone could hear him over the noise of the engine. 2. As the temperature ror / ised people started to look for somewhere cool to sit. 3. The tide was rising / mising so quickly the people were in danger of drowning. 4 Tes more expensive to rite/ mus children than ever before s Anumber of people have risen / raised the same problem, so what are we going to do about i 6 The recent rise / rare in prices has meant more people are finding it difficult to buy a house, 7 Astensions rie /mnise the fear of violence increases 8 We're having a party to ary and rise / raise Sophie's spirits after the terrible week she's hed. Rise & Fall Vocabulary 3 Cause and result ‘Complete the text about the dectine of the Maya with the words and phrases in the box. consequently dueto ledto resulted in tiggers Its often difficult co know exacdly what (1) —___ the decline of a great civilisation like that of the Maya. Often its @)____a combination of events and not one particular thing, Tn recent yeers, ome scientists have claimed that changes inthe climate (3) catastrophic failures in crops and that) civilisations like the Maya faced starvation. Added to this was contact, with people from outside which (5) ‘exposure to new diseases that wiped out huge numbers and helped bring this once great civilisation to its knees. Vocabulary 4 Falling ‘Choose the correct option to complete the text. Circle the correct answer, Kevin stood up quickly and (1) landed / lurched / slipped ‘uncontrollably towards the door. He'd forgotten about the steps and (2) collapsed / lurched / sipped on his way down, then (3) landed / last bis balance / slipped on the ground with a thump. ‘Ouch,’ he said, He got back up and made his way as quietly as he could towards the gate. One more obstacle before he finally reached the edge of the field where he could look up at the stars. He took one step out onto the narrow bridge and (4) landed / lst his balance / lurched, falling into the stream. Ten minutes later he made his way back to bed and (5) collapsed / lurched / slipped onto i with a big sigh. Extend your vocabulary 1A Words with re- Write the correct word to complete each sentence, 1 The image of a phoenix being — is used in ‘many cultures. a refuelled —» reborn «recharged 2 Greg hoped that Amy would her decision. + reconsider» refill reschedule 3 After filing her exams Lucy had to ____ them. + rebuild b reset resic 4, T'mso tired [need to tke a holiday and my batteries, a recharge» refl «reset 5. Nowadays we are encouraged to —____as such of our rubbish as possible 1 rebuilds reeycle rekindle 6 Doyoumind the meeting for 9am tomorro + resetting resituing ¢ rescheduling 7 Keiko and Kanji spent the weekend together, but it didn't _____ their love for one another. + recharge» rekindle © reset 8. This coffee’ lovely. Do you mind if I have 2 rebuild & refuel refill Rise & Fall Extend your vocabulary 1B Words with re- ‘Match the words tothe definitions reconsider refill rekindle resit reschedule recycle reset 4 to change waste materials such as paper and glass so that they can be used again » tomake you start feeling or thinking about something that you have not thought about for a long time ¢ to press a special button or to make changes so that a machine will work again 4. to put another amount of something into a container that was already fall, but is now empry «to think again about decision in order to decide if you should change it # to change the time when something is planned to happen. fg totake an examination again after fling it previously @ ons Listening A unique building 9 1.20 Listen to a conversation about a famous building and tick () the correct answer to the cuestions 1 Which building took 14 years to build? + The Reichstag The Sydney Opera House 2 Which year marks the 100th anniversary of Gavds death? + 2017 & 2026 3 Was Gaudi the fist architect to work on the Sagrada Faralia? 2 No & Yes 4+ When were alot of Gaui models and papers destroyed? + On his death in 1926. During the Civil War. ‘5. Why does Jordi chink the building is so popular? 4 Because itis sill being constructed. Because itis controversial 6 Where does the money come from to build it? 1 The tourists who visi it » The government and church. Pronunciation Stress: stressed syllables 9 1.21 Listen to the pairs of words. Are the stressed syllables the same or different? Puta tick (¥) in the corresponding box. Noun Adjective [Same [Different | 1 [symbol [symbolic 2 [region regional 3 [prosperity [prosperous + |compfrison | comparable [5 inspiration | inspirational ingenuity [ingenious 7 [possibility [possible Rise & Fall Reading The test of time 1 Complete the table, using the names in the box. Alexander the Great Bevin Delhi France Greece Julius Caesar Mongols Paris Rameses ll Samargand Washington [Civilisation Leader (Capieal Egypt Thebes [Napoleon Bonaparte [Germany [Friedrich the Great [Athens India (Mohandas Gandhi (Genghis Khan Rome Rome United States [Abraham Lincoln 2 Read the first three paragraphs of the article on page 6 to complete the fact fle 1 Game ttle: 2 Type of game: 3 Aim: 4 Player’ role 5 Howto start: 3 Complete the sentences with verbs from the box. ‘build conquer develop negotiate recruit trace Players can (1) artisans and advisers to help them. They have to @) —_____ their neighbours and (3) ____ with some of history's most famous rulers. They have to (4) objects and land, and (5) _____ tools and technology: During the game, they (6) ‘Wonders of che World craftsman, scientists, 4 Read the article ro check your answers to exercise 3 5 Match the words with the definitions. adviser a 3 craftsman + ruler + aman who makes beautiful or practical objects using his hands ' someone who is trained in science, especially someone whose job isto do scientific research © aworker who has special skill and training, especially ‘one who makes things 4 someone whose job is to give advice on subjects they know a lot about, for example polities or nancial matters ¢- someone who controls a country 6 Answer the questions in your own words. 1 Do you ever play board or computer games? Which do you prefer? 2 Have you ever played a game like the one described in the article? 3. Ifyou were going to play the game, which civilisation, ‘would you choose from exercise 1 and why? Rise & Fall units The test of time Ifyou know the names The Battle for Wesnoth, Silent Storm and Advance Wars then you are probably a fan of computer games. Many of the first computer games were based on traditional board games in which players took turns to move around a playing board and complete tasks. In the computer game versions, players would take turns to play with the computer. One of the most famous turn-based computer games is Civilization which frst appeared in 1991 and is still going strong today. The aim of the game isto ‘build an empire to stand the test of time’ In the game, the player takes on the role of the ruler of civilisation. The first thing the player has to dois choose which historical civilisation to ereate. These can inchude the Aztecs, the Mongols and the Romans. Each civilisation is led by a historical figure, such as Mahatma Gandhi and Julius Caesar. The game begins in 4000 BC and can last until AD 2100, At the beginning there are no cities anywhere in the world. The player has to build an empire starting with just one Settler unit. To help them they can recruit craftsman, scientists, artisans and advisers, Apert from having to conquer their neighbours, players have to negotiate with some of history's most famous rulers, trading objects and land, deciding if they are a friend or an enemy. They have to develop tools and technology, from the wheel to space flight. However, they also have to compete with up to six other civilisations. Doring the game, players can build Wonders of the World in the different time periods. ‘These range from the Pyramids and the Great Wall in the Ancient age, to the Apollo space program end the United Nations in the modern era, | Glossary | Since the game fist appeared there | Sanwer (rota contol ot and peope | have been many sequels including peeneeeree Civilization II, V and V, and Givilization Revolution. The game has ‘been one of che most popular strategy games ofall time, and was named one of the 16 most influential games in history. era pcun)-e histo‘ pesos whe pereus character | orteaice goin strong frase) success or heay, ane ing wll ror sr) ~to get somone to mip youte do semsning ‘rade (ert) ~to buy sl goods services Rise & Fall Writing A letter to a newspaper Reading 1 Answer these questions. 1 What different forms of public transport are available where you live? 2 Which, ifany, do you use on a regular basis? 3. In what ways could public transport be improved in your area? 2 Read the leter to a newspaper and answer the questions. 1 Which forms of transport does the writer mention? 2 Doyou think the weiter is young, middle-aged or older? 3. Isshe for or against the City Council’s new proposal? A step back in time? Tam writing in response to yesterday’ announcement by the City Council of its latest scheme to improve the transport system in our city with the introduction of « new tramine ‘While I am all in favour of encouraging people to-use public transport rather than cars, I'm not convinced that the tram is the best solution ‘Moreover, Ihave readin the papers thatthe proposed tram scheme will cost an estimated ££600m, [would like to suggest that this money could be better spent on improving our existing transport system. Firstly, we could give the city a fleet of next generation environmentally friendly buses. We have tone of the best bus services in the world, but many of the buses are old and in need of replacement. Secondly, che Council could create more cycle Janes. When it launched the City-Bike scheme five years ago, it went out of ts way to convince us that cycling was the future for transport in the city. Although I agree that bicycles are cleaner and quieter than cars, like many pedestrians, [often have to share the pavement with cyclists who wrongly assume they have the same rights as us. If chere were ‘more eyele lanes, maybe the city would be a safer place to walkin, d we not do more to keep cars out of think its wrong to assume that rivers will switch co using the tram when it arrives When the bike scheme starced, it was the buses that lose passengers and revere. Drivers will continue driving until we make it an unattractive option. Finally, I don't want to show my age, but [am old enough to remember when we used to have trams in the city in the 1950s. How stupid we were to getrid of them. Ifonly we'd known then how environmentally friendly they were and how much we'd need them in the furure. I wonder who was responsible for removing the original network of tramlines ~ the City Council by any chance? 3. Complete the sentences in your own words. ‘The City Council is proposing to ‘The scheme is expected to cost. ‘The writer is suggesting Her first proposal is She goes on to suggest. She thinks the money could also be spent on... Writing skills (1): presenting an argument 4 When you are presenting an argument, ies important to include both sides and indicate what you agree and Gisagree with. U' elso important to present the argument clearly and calmly. Complete the missing words and then check your answers with the leter. 1 W___,_Lamall in favour of encouraging people to use public transport rather than cars, 'm not <_____ that the tram is the best solution. 2 M________ Ihave read in the papers that the proposed tram scheme will cost an estimated £600m, would like tos. that this money could be better spent on improving our existing transport system. 3 A____Lagree that bicycles are cleaner and quieter than cars, like many pedestrians [often have to share the pavement with eyelists who wrongly a_____ they have the same rights asus. Rise & Fall Writing skills (2): ad ny 5. Read the last paragraph of the letter. Do you think she's being serious when she talks ebout how stupid people were in the past? 6 Irony is 2 form of humour in which you use words to express the opposite of what the words really mean. In ‘what ways is the writer being ironi Preparing to write 7 Read the Writing task below. Remember to present a balanced argument in a clear and calm way. Try to include a touch of irony if you can. Writing “Think of a new scheme that is being proposed where you live or choose one of the options below. Write a letter to a newspaper explaining why you are in favour of or against the scheme, new transport scheme smoking ban charging drivers to enter the city centre ‘making downloads illegal banning English words ‘am writing in response to... “+m not convinced that .. * I would ike to suggest that . ‘Although | agres that... + [think i's wrong fo assume that @ wus Grammar 1A Relative clauses Read the sentences. Do they contain defining (D) or non- defining (VD) relative clauses? Circle the correct answer. 1 Tears which are produced to protect the eyes are known as Basal tears. D/ND 2. ‘Tears that have a cleansing function have fewer hormones than those produced by emotions. D/ND 3. Aperson whose parmer cries a lots also more likely to ery D/ND 4 Prolactin, which is @ hormone, is involved in stress and isan important factor in crying and laughter. D/ND 5 Men who cry a lot are often seen as weak in ‘many cultures. D/ND 6 Women, who have high levels of prolactin, are more likely to ery than men. D/ND 2 The tear ducts, which are in the corner of your eyes, help tears drain away. D/ND Grammar 1B Relative clauses Complete the sentences with the relative pronouns in the box. that which who whose ] 1 Professor Randolph Cornelius, books include Research and Tradition in the Peyebology of Emotion and The Science of Emotion, will be giving a lecture atthe university nexe week. 2 His ideas, have been widely publicised, are certainly controversial. 3. Researchers have been studying people’ reactions to crying say its now becoming far more acceptable to cry in public. 4 Research by Professor Shields, was carried out between 2006 and 2008, has revealed some interesting facts. 5 Recent research shows that people cry regularly are more likely to be emotionally well-balanced 6 Films make people ery are usually ‘more popular with women than men, 7 Men who ery when they are sad are often viewed positively, many people. ‘may come asa surprise to Grammar 2A Present participle clauses Rewrite the underlined phrases using a participle claus. 1 After she had talked to John about the situation she made a decision. to John about the situation she made a decision. 2 Because she feared the worst, Elaine pretended that nothing had happened. the worst, Elaine pretended that nothing had happened. ‘Tabitha broke down after she had heard the news. ‘Tabitha broke down the news, 4+ While we waited for Pete to arrive we had a cup of tea. for Pete to arrive we had a cup of tea. 5 [think it would be worth checking out what reslly happened bel anything, T think it would be worth checking out what really happened anything. Ray hadn't said anything to his wife because he hadn't wanted to upset her. Ray hadn't suid anything to his wife, to upset her. 7 When she discovered what had happened, Patsy Jimmediately rang her mum. ‘what had happened, Patsy ‘immediately rang her mum. Tears & Laughter Grammar 2B Present participle clauses Match the two parts ofthe sentences. 1 Smiling, she took the glass and 2 ‘Yes; Tanswered and knowing she was the one for 3 Hearing her voice 4 Seeing the girl across the room. 5 Then, looking around 6 Handing her the glass T poured another glass of wine and walked over. she suid, Are you all lone?” I said ‘Hi, ?m Tom and you are ..?” 4 me said, But not anymore. « replied.‘T'm Melanie? € Tknew Iwas in love 2 Now put the sentences in the correct order to make the stony, Grammar 3A Emphasising cleft sentences Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Girele the correct answer. 1 Tes/The thing / Whar that really annoys me is when people star giggling for no reason at al. 2 [ts/The thing / What many people find amusing doesn't sake me laugh 2¢ al. 3. es/The thing / What only certain comedians who meke me laugh, 4 165/The thing / What often makes me laugh is other people's stupidity. 5. Ies/ The thing / What that will always remember is my first night up on stage. 6 Ie/The thing / What was my dadis interest in stand-up comedy that led to me becoming a comedian. 17 Its/The thing / Wat thax audiences often seemed t0 like was my ability to make fun of myself. Grammar 3B Emphasising cleft sentences Complete the sentences with the appropriate words. Do not use more than two words. : that moet people don't understand is Shareling jokes isnot ha ea ee ptching some ofthe best comedians in the UK which helped define the type of jokes I now tell @) vvvr0 that really annoys me is when people in the audience shout out, "Tell the one about nobody seems to appreciate is that telling the same jokes night after night can become extremely tedious. my wife and children who T feel sorry for the most as they have to listen to my jokes all the time. people always want to know is whether I can ever be serious. Vocabulary 1A Crying ‘Match the two parts of the sentences. 1 Be careful what you say to her as she might just burst 2 The party was so terrible Iwas bored 3 When Harrison and Sanchez were finally rescued they cried 4 The film was so funny T ended up erying 5 When Sally’ cat died she eried 6 His eyes filled with tears her eyes out for hours. {nto tears. of frustration when he heard that he'd lost yet again. tears of joy. to tears and could hardly wait to leave with laughter Vocabulary 1B Crying Complete the sentences with the words in the box. burst eyes tears wept 1 Stop crying your think it was the end of the world! 2 Ididn’tdo anything. He simply. into tears. 3 When Davina heard they'd been found alive she swith joy. ‘out, Anyone would 4 Listening to Andy go on and on just bores me 5. The situation was so funny I just with laughter. Tears & Laughter Extend your vocabulary 1 Metaphors for strong emotions Choose the correct option to complet the sentences shout strong emotions, Circe the corsect answer 1 Hamish was relly zed / Bure / pained by hat Angus sid. 2 The news came as a huge bw /pain / rouch and they didn't know ifshe would recover from it 3 Iwas bit /poined /ouched by your kind words. They meant lot ome 4 Ingrid was it / overcome / pained with grief at the death of her mother. 5 Tcblraed/pained / overcame me that I could do nothing to help. 6 When Tony left his wife it bit / overcame / touched her badly. Extend your vocabulary 2A Ways of saying laugh Complete the sentences with the correct type of laughter. Gaede ton cover newer: 1 Hs jokes aes funny they jot luke aac ne up. 2 What are you two cracking / siggering about? 3 In Shakespeare’ play Macirb here are three witches sho ccle/ gale 4 When Lauren cntcks up / giggles it really annoys me, 5 Sam couldn't stop chuctling / miggering to himself. Extend your vocabulary 2B Ways of saying laugh ‘Complete the sentences with the correct word. The first leter is given for you. 1 Ldon't know why yous every time | say something. 2 Brian's a bit of a crazy guy. He’ always <___ to himsett 3 You could hear them «______in aloud and unpleasant way. 4 The three of them were g 1 don't know what they found so fanny. 5 Sandra just dressed up like that forthe faney dress party all night. up when she saw us Listening The Actors’ Studio 4591.22 Liscen 10 someone talking about The Actors! Seudio and decide ifthe sentences are true (To false (F). 1 Lee Strasberg joined The Actors’ Studio in 1947. T/F 2 The Actors’ Stadio is 2 school for actors. TE 3 The technique ic is most often associated with is called method acting. T/F 4 Many famous people have been members of the school including James Dean, T/F 5 Robert De Niro puton weight in preparation forthe film Tixi Driver T/F 6 The Snudio has occupied the same building since istared T/F Pronunciation Emphasising: cleft sentences (pauses) 1 4% 1.23 Listen tothe sentences and underline the word after the pause 1. What many people don't realise is that chimpanzees and other apes also laugh. Ie is laughter that helps people relax. 3. The thing that surprises most people is how contagious laughter is, 4 What was most interesting about the survey was the number of people who claimed not to have laughed recently. Tewas Dartin who first noticed that apes laugh. 6 Whatoften declines as we get older is how frequently wwe laugh, 2 Listen agsin and repeat each sentence _—<—<—<—<$$ $< — $$ | Reading Pride or prejudice? 1 Do you have a favourite time and place to read? How long does it ususlly take you to read a novel? Is there | anything you don’ like about reading books? 2. Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of reading a book on an electronic device such as an e-book reader compared to a traditional print book format, Advantages Disadvantages Sead [tan ee GOP comporlalle to eyes poets beck is athaga = YCUAM dior’ ae body im ome { 3 Read the article and compare your answers with che writer’ 4 Write the verbs in the correct form. (decide) to give one a try. It 3) (happen) while 14) hadsal (ay) han Shady ty) Uta friend whose conversation mostly consisted of (5) wily (fell) me how amazing her new e-book reader (© —Hs — ¢o. After months of (1) -2aa4f (6) how such disliked the idea of electronic books, 1 Geoeul 5 Read che firse paragraph of the article to check ‘your answers to exercise 4. © Whar do the words in tales mean? Circle the correct answer 1 The bookcases at home were rammed full of books. + almost Sx completely 2 The books were dod in diferent ways, + covered positioned 3 Every book had its own sypefice. + Bont cover leer design 4 Tremember looking through tacts of LP records + collections X piles 5 There was usually an inner sleeve with the lyrics, inside cover small book 67 You could almost tell from looking at the grooves of the record how it would sound. Aline cat int the surface» song titles 7 Answer the questions in your own words. 1 Do you think the writer is ‘old-fashioned’? Give reasons for your answer. 2 Do you agree that there's no physical contact between, the user and electronic books and music downloads? 3. How do you prefer to read a book? 4 How do you prefer listening to music? Tears & Laughter Pride or prejudice? 1 ryonths of saying how much I disliked the idea of electronic books, decided to HRCA hopenet vel wnsupng tides pend che coronas ely consisted of telling me how amazing her new e-book reader was. But why would L want to read Jane Austen on an e-book reader® I protested while having coffee one morning witha copy of Pride and Prejudize propped up on the table infront of me “My problem is thet I come from a generat that grew up with books and records we could touch, fe] and smell. As a child the CEE nme nor eased anes books of all shapes and izes, bound in different ways. There were my father’s reference books standing alongside paperback novels while my mother’s large and rather heavy ar books occupied the bottom shelves. Every book seemed to be unique, having its own cover and typeface, printed on its own distinctive typeof paper, with ts own smell. Tewas much the same with records. I remember happy Saturday mornings spent looking through stacks of LP record at The Record Exchange, out local record shop. The LP record was big enough co allow artists and designers to create works of ar onthe cover “There was space for photographs and usually an inner 4&8 with the lyric, Tasng the viny] album from its sleeve and placing it on the record deck was something of artval. You could almost tll from looking at the grooves ofthe record how it would sound ‘The CD format reduced the album cover to a miniature plastic display and today's downloads have reduced the cover artwork even moreso that it appears asa postage- stamp sized image on an MP3 player. The result is there's no longer any physical contact bepween the user and the music and the acrul work loses a loc ofits indvidvaligy [ fear the same is true with electronic ae —— books. Without denying the convenience nid of ing able to Sorc oa olson one steone epetr} an om tae ee hae enero ttintve (ejecta ~ 208) to rcogeine becauee place in each book, of being able to choose ‘between an audio or text version and, in some cases, being able to access extras such as an interview with the author, miss the physical contact with a book. Or am I just being old-fashioned? ot being eifeont tom ether psoas or tings othe same ‘-ashioned acetates that aero lenge rvantin the mosn wera bro up (oraasl vert) =o stop somthing fom {ating by puting someting under tor against renner ESET Tears & Laughter Writing A presentation speech Reading 1 Answer these questions 1 Have you ever given or been given a prize or award? 2 Have you ever been to a prize-giving or awards ceremony? 3+ What usually happens at a prize giving? 2 Read the speech and answer the questions. Is the speaker giving or receiving the award? What s the relationship berween the speaker and Jennifer Selway? 3. Which of che following do you think the award is for? Business achievement Environmental work Aid in developing countries eis an honour and a great pleasure to be here today to present this award to my good friend and colleague, Jennifer Selway. I'm sure you'll understand when I say that it ame as no surprise ‘when I found out that she had been nominated. ‘After so many years of dedication, not only to her business but also to her charitable work in some of the poorest and most dangerous parts ofthe world, it's ftcing that her work should be acknowledged in this way, ‘When I spoke with Jennifer shordy after learning she had won the award, her first chought was not for herself, but for the others on the shortlist who had not been so fortunate. I'm sure you'll join me now in ‘congratulating them all for their achievements over the past 12 months. (pause for applause) In many ways Jennifer Selway isa unique figure in the world of business, She has always used her success as a way to help others who have been less fortunate in life. Whether it’s the staf in her shops who come from disadvantaged backgrounds or her suppliers who are often in the most isolated pares of the world, she has managed to make her business provide something positive for everyone, including the people who buy her products. 1 like to share an aneedote with you. A few years ago we were fiying back from Aftica, We'd been to a conference and were travelling with some people from a workshop in Ethiopia. The British prime minister of the time, who will remain nameless, ‘was travelling on the same plane in first class. We, of course, were in economy. Well, when the prime ‘minister invited Jennifer to join him in first class so that he could discover the secret of her success, she sent one of the workers to sit with him, explaining that he was the secret of her success. I don't think the PM ever quite forgave her. (eddress Jennifer direct) Jennifer. Ithas been a privilege to work with you. Please accept this award and please don't give it away. Ladies and gentlemen. I'd like you to show your, appreciation for the unique Jennifer Selway. 3. Use six of the words in the box to complete the sentences. ‘achievements anecdote applause chartable | nameless nominated privilege shortlist | staff unique Tm not going to say who it was. The person will be aa At the end of the ceremony there was loud “The award was forthe person ______ over the past yet, Unfortunately, wasn't lucky enough to be All the __at the conference hall were friendly Iewas quice a(n) —____ to have been invited. Writing skills (1): making a formal presentation 4 We often use formal language when we make a speech. Find the formal equivalent of these phrases in the speech. Pm happy to be here. Texpected Jennifer to be chosen This isa good way to recognise what shes done Let’ give them a round of applause Tve gota story to tell you. I've enjoyed working with you. Tears & Laughter Writing skills (2): writing an anecdote 5 An ancedote isa story that you tell people about something interesting or funny that has happened to you. Read the anecdote from the speech and write che verbs in the correet tense. Then check your answers with the speech, A few years ago we (1) ____ (fy) back from_ Africa, We @) —____ (gi) toa conference and G) —______Genvel) with some people from a workshop in Ethiopia. The British prime minister of the time, who (4) —______eman) nameless, (6) —_____ (rntvel) om the same plane in first lass Wall, when che prime minister (6) —_____ (insite) Jennifer (7) ___ join) him in first class 50 that he (8) ___ (an dixcover) the secret of her success, she (9) __ (end) one of the workers (i ith him, (1) (explain) that be (12) —_() the secret of her success. 6 What do you think the speaker is saying about Jennifer in the anecdote? Preparing to write 7 Read the Writing task below. Use examples of formal language in your speech and try to include an anecdote Writing Either imagine you are Jennifer Selway and vite the speech you think she'd make when accepting the award. (Or think of someone you'd like to give an award to and write the speech you'd give when presenting the award. It can be someone you know or someone well known B «Thank you all for coming ... + Itis an honour to be here ... + Firstly, Ct ke to + On my way here tonight, | was thinking... +11 tke to share an anecdote with you. 1d Tike to thank +11 ike to end by saying 2) Unit 1 Listening like that photograph. Who’ it of Ie of my mother. I think she’s about four in the photo. She standing outside the family home in Auckland. with her pet dog. Is your family from New Zealand? I didn’t know. My mother’s side ofthe family is from New Zealand ‘My father’s parents were from Scotland. &: So why did your mother’s parents leave New Zealand? don't know. And, to be honest, I don‘ think my ‘mother knows either. My grandparents were both amateur musicians. They met when they were playing in an orchestra, Then he came over to Ireland and started a business. The rest of the family followed. ‘Oh. Does your mother miss New Zealand? + She was quite young when she left, but I think there's a part of her that wishes she could still be there. She often tll about it. Do you have any family there? Not really. Maybe some distant relations I don’t now about. Have you ever thought of going there to trace your family roots? ‘Yes, [have but its so far away. ‘You should go. And take your mother. T don't know. Its a long journey and maybe the place hhas changed. Maybe well go and find the family home has been turned into an office block. Don't be so pessimistic. Do you have any other family photographs? Thave a whole album. Do you want to see it? Pronunciation 1 ‘You can't speak English. n.Tean speak English, ‘Tle lives with his girlfriend. 3: He doesn't live with his girlfriend. ‘& They're not from Italy. They are from Ialy. ‘x You didn’t phone me lastnight. ‘I did phone you lastnight. They were here earlier. 3: They weren't here earlier. se She's been to London. She's never been to London, Audiosero Unit 2 Listening People often complain about radio and television presenters’ misuse of English. They become angry when they hear people talking about lss people instead of {fever people. Mispronouncing names, especially names ‘in other languages, is another problem area especially for newsreaders. Of course, many city names have English versions. ‘You won't hear a newsreader call Florence Firenze oF Paris Pir-e But how does the newsreader know how to pronounce the name of a small town in a distant country that is suddenly the focus ofa news story or the name of a politician who has just won an election? ‘The BBC Pronunciation Research Unit aims to ensure that pronunciation used on BBC radio and television is accurate and consistent. The unit was created in 1926 as the Advisory Committee on Spoken English. News presenters can phone the unit, send an email or check pronunciation online. The unit adds about 100 new pronunciations each week and tries to anticipate what names will bein the news. There’ a daily lst of topical rames and, if a story breaks during the day, che unit can add names to the list almost instantly. “The unit’ database contains more than 200,000 entries which have been added over che years. And if the unit needs to check the pronunciation of a word, it can always contact the BBC World Service which employs people from around the world, providing instant access to hundreds of different languages. Of course, there’ still the chance that someone will mispronounce something. When they do, a member of the public is certain to spot the mistake. Pronunciation ‘The words aren't very clear and its easy to mishear them. When are you going to tell me the answers? Have you listened to the lyrics on his atest song? twas one of the funniest things I heard You'll find lots of examples on the internet. They won the award for best new artis. The idea is that people hear what they want to ‘What was the last CD you bought? mo vt 9 Audioscript Unit 3 Listening ‘a: Dim in the heart of Scotland, standing on top of a mountain about ten miles north of Pihochry. I'm here with John Adams. So how long have you been living here, John? B: For about eight years. ‘A: What is it about living here that you like so much? 3: Pve always loved the rolling hills and the mountains in this part ofthe country. We used to come here on holiday when T was a child so it holds a lot of good memories ‘You moved here from Edinburgh which is about 90 minutes south of here. It must have been quite & dramatic change moving from the city tothe country. 1s Yes, it was. [had a well-paid job in advertising in Edinburgh. I had a beautiful home, a car ‘& So what happened? Why did you decide to give ic all up, leave your job and your home to live in the country and live off the land. 1 It wasn'ta sudden decision. I thought about it carefully. T think I just grew tired of living life for my job. I know itsounds selfish, bur I wanted to have more time to appreciate life. Inthe past, when I wasn't working I was always on the computer, on the internet, watching ‘TV. felt kind of... as if I was spending my whole life looking ata screen, and in the end I began to feel divorced from the person T wanted to be. Now Tean look at this. A: The view is amazing. And, apart from the view, what has changed? 1. Wall, I've learned to live without elecericity which hasn't been easy. And I've become relatively self-sufficient. ‘& Yes, Ican see you've been growing some vegetables over here. Come and take 2 look. Pronunciation 1 Didja see what happened yesterday? Aren't you gonna help me? was hoping you'd gimme more time. Its kinda too late. They've already gone. You gotta smile, haven't you. Doncha love it when there's some good news? Pronunciation 2 = sea, fel, key ‘au! - allowed, loud, now Jay) ~ ery, guide, night - day, grey, take fea here, pier Unit 4 Listening In recent years, Northern Ireland has become a popular tourist destination, Sicuated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, itis part of the United Kingdom. The I city is Belfast and the population is approximately 1,775,000. That's between a quarter and a third of the island's total population. ‘There are lots of magical places to visitin Northern Ireland. One of the most famous is the Giant's Canseway on the north coast. The causeway consists of around 40,000 columns formed by ancient voleanic eruptions. There’ a legend that the Causeway might have been built by Finn McCool, a giant who was the commander of the king of Ireland’s armies. Ics said thac he built the causeway in order to walk across the sea to Scotland. Northern Ireland is famous for its legends and storytellers. The writer CS Lewis was born there. Near his East Belfast birthplace there's a life-size sculpture showing 2 figure stepping through the magi wardrobe into Lewis’ Kingdom of Namia. Nobel Laureate poet and author Seamus Heaney was born on a farm near Bellaghy, and ‘writers Oscar Wilde and Samuel Beckett both lived in the town of Enniskillen as schoolboys. Another of Northern Ireland's claims to fame is its history of shipbuilding. The world’ most famous ship, the Titanic, vas built here in 1911, You can take a trip to see where the ship was created or walk the Titanic Trail around Belfast. While the euro is the currency in the rest of Ireland, the British pound is used in Northern Irelend. Most large shops accept the euro as well, but its best to ask first. Pronunciation, ‘Who do you think it could've been? ‘Things had been going wrong for quite some time. ‘You must've known what was happening. Hie had never understood what was wrong, They could've waited a lite bit longer. ‘Who'd been waiting for the right opporcanity? ——————— Audioscript Unit 5 Listening think we often believe that everything was better when ‘we were young, but its not always true. Some people say we used to have a healthier dict in the past and that modern diets do us no good. But is that crue? T'm old enough to remember when the fist supermarkets appeared in the 1950s and 60s. Until then the food we used to eat was produced nationally. We had three meals a day and we usualy ate the same food each week. ‘As more people started to travel in the 1970s people became more interested in food from other counties. Suddenly we could eat pizzas, fresh pasta, French bread and American ice cream. In the 80s, more people were living alone so the supermarkets started selling more ready-cooked frozen, meals. People didn’t wane to spend time cooking. It was the decade of the microwave meal “The 90s was the decade in which breakfast almost disappeared. Although it’s often called the most important ‘meal of the day, nearly one in three adults would stop having breakfast at home. In the first decade of the 21* century we stopped buying so much frozen food, but bought more freshly prepared ‘meals to eat while we watched cookery programmes on television. ‘Today fewer people have three meals a day. More and more people have snacks throughout the day: a sandwich, a chocolate bar, some erisps. We're also less active than. we used to be. When you take these factors into account, I think our diet today is probably just as healthy, or rather, just as unhealthy coday as it was in the 1950s, Pronunciation 1 He won't be late. So stop worrying. ‘You just won’t listen to me and its really annoying. ‘Li Ya will talk back to his parents. Samantha will help you if you want. ‘They will ignore what's good for them, Children these days just won't pay attention. Pronunciation 24 1 flexible s truths 2 strong 6 atempt 3 depth 7 creative 4 throughout 5 lengths Pronunciation 2B 1 That’ got such a strong taste, 2. My favourite number is four. 3. Try not to swim out of your depth. 4 T'm just notsure what she said, 5, Ididn'c know Joan was deaf 4 There were some nasty rumours spread, 7 He was born on the fourth of July. Do you like ths song? Unit 6 Listening ‘&: My name's Andrea. I'm from Argentina and this is the first car boot sale I've been to. Ir's quite strange ... the idea of selling things you don't need anymore from the boot of your car. So I‘saw the posters advertising the sale and I thought I'd come to see what i like. Maybe T'll buy something. You never know. [like that lamp over there. And I saw some books I'd quite like to read. My name's Josh Harcley. This is the fifth car boot sale Ive come to. Its abit ofa lottery. Ifthe sun's shining, you get quite alot of people ... The weather’s {quite good today so I'm feeling optimistic. Today I've brought some old computer bits and pieces to sell, and some garden furniture I don’t need anymore, I like car boot sales because you get to meet other people and have a good time. Ita social event. c: Tm Harry. Everyone knows me here. I collect old vinyl records: LPs and singles. Ie a passion of mine. I go to as many car boot sales as I can. lot of people had a record collection in the past that was replaced by CDs and downloads. Needless to say, alot of those records ‘were put in the attic or shut away in a cupboard. And they often appear in places like this. So today T've found a copy of The Beatles’ White Album in perfect condition, It was released in 1968 and the first copies hada serial number. Ie cost me 85, bu its worth «small fortune. Pronunciation The art of leadership is saying no, not saying yes. Its very easy to say yes. Tony Blair 2. Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names. John F Kennedy 3 Never, never and never again shall i be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of cone by another. Nelson Mandela 4 Tam not interested in power for power’ sake, but Pm interested in power that fs moral, that is right and that is good. Martin Luther King, Je 5 Being powerful is like being Iedy. Ifyou have ro tell people you are, you aren't Margaret Thatcher oe) eno — E E Audioscript Unit 7 Listening A: We're talking with Mandy Draper about the greatest fictional devectives ever. Now, Mandy, you went out on the streets to ask people about their choices 1 Yes, thats right. Iwondered if everyone would say Sherlock Holmes, Miss Marple and Hercule Poirot were the greatest detectives ever, or if they'd have some more unusual choices. ‘x What did you discover? Well, o be honest, most people did choose Sherlock Holmes. When I asked them why, they all said it was because of his powers of deduction and his unusual character ‘x: What other detectives did they choose? 2b, Detective Inspector Rebus was a popular choice. As you now, he was created by the Scottish author Ian Rankin. ‘A: That’ interesting, Any female detectives? 'B A few people mentioned Lisbeth Salander from Stieg Larsson’ best-selling Millennium Trilogy. ‘She specialises in investigating people and has a photographic memory. 4: Who’ your favourite detective, Mandy? 8: Well, Pm # big fan of Inspector Wallander who’ also from Sweden. The character was created by the Swedish crime writer Henning Mankel. How did you become a fan? saw the Swedish TV series and became hooked, Since then I've read all the books. He's such a strange character. He doesn't have many friends, drinks a lot and eats t00 much junk: food. ‘Thanks, Mandy. Pronunciation 1 here hear 2 sits seats 2 right write + hour our 5 not note 6 stare stair brake break > hair hear 10 way weigh Unit 8 Listening ‘When we are young we are taught that its wrong to lie and we should always tell the truth. Unfortunately, most children lie even ifchey're told not to. Research carvied out a the Institute of Child Study at Toronto Universi hhas revealed that this might not be such a bad thing. Apparendy, children who tell convincing lies when they’re two years old have a good chance of becoming successful adults. According to the survey, at the age of two, 20 per cent of children lie. At the age of three, 50 per cent lie, and at four almost 90 per cent lie. By the age of 12 almost every child tells lies. Lying involves multiple brain processes, and the better the lie, the more work the brain has to do. By training the brain early, researchers believe children will be able t0 think more clearly when they are adults. Another recent survey, commissioned by the Science Museum in London, bas revealed some interesting facts about the way we lie as adults. According to a survey, the average British man tells three lies every day, that’ over 1,000 lies a year. However, the average woman apparently only lies twice a day. ‘A majority of people think women are better liars than men in spite ofthe face that they tell fewer lies. Popular women's lies include ‘Nothing's wrong, I'm fine’, T don’t know where it s, I haven't touched it, and ‘Tewasn't that expensive’. Sorae people say you ean lie as long as its a white lie. A white le isa lie told to avoid making someone upset. One of the most common lies for both men and women is ‘Ie’ just what I've klways wanted’, said after opening a present from their partner. Pronunciation 1 You don't have to lie to distort reali 2 How do you know if something is the real thing or a fake? Documentaries are about the real world In reality, there's no such thing as absolute truth, Tean’t believe that this is for real. Sometimes things seem to bear no relation to what we fe Unit 9 Listening a Tecan often take long time to build a new building. “The Reichstag in Germany took nine years to rebuild and the Sydney Opera House took 14 years to ‘complete, Bue what about this building? Work starved (on it in 1882 and ie sill isnt finished. When do you think the Sagrade Famili will be finished, Jordi? 1: Tdon't know. Some people say 2017 and others say 2026, which is a special year because it will be 100 years since the death of its architect. a: Ieis an amazing building, Can you tell us something about it? 1: Yes, of course. It's the creation of the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudf although he didn’t actully star it. He began working on the building from 1883 until his death in 1926. A: Isit true that his original plans for the building were destroyed? . Yes. A lot of Gaudis models and papers were destroyed during the Civil War. The work you see today is based fon existing plans and the work of the architects who have been involved in the project over the years. This is one of the reasons why the building is so controversial. Ae Alot of people think the building should have been left unfinished, is that right? 1 Yes. As a tribute to Gaual. I think one of the reasons the building is so popular is because it is a work in progress. When you visi che building you can see the construction process. ‘x: Itattracts around two million visitors each year: . Thats right. Its an important symbol and one of Spain's top tourist attractions, And of course the money the visitors pay to visit the building has helped to construct it, The building of the Sagrada Familia is not supported by any government or official church sources. a Thanks, Jordi Pronunciation 1 symbol symbolic 2 region regional 3. prosperity prosperous ‘4 comparison comparable 5 inspiration inspirational 6 ingenuity ingenious 2 possibility possible Unit 10 Listening “The Actors’ Studio was founded in 1947 by the directors Elia Kazan, Cheryl Crawford and Robert Lewis. The following year, Lee Strasberg was asked to join the Studio as one of its teachers and in 1951 he became its Artistic Director, a position he held uncil his death in 1982. ‘The Studio was originally created to help develop the work of professional acwors, directors and playwrights. Ic isn'ta school, but rather a place where members can practise their art. To become a member you must pass a series of auditions and then be invited to join. Its perhaps best known for its work in the area of method acting, a technique in which actors use their own emotions and memories to help them become the character they are playing instead of ‘acting’ the part. Marlon Brando and James Dean, who were both members of The Actors’ Stadio, helped make method acting (or ‘che method’ as i often called) popular in films such as Streets Named Desire and Rebel Without a Cause. Inlater years, Robert De Niro continued this tradition, When he had to play the part of the boxer Jake LaMotea in the film Raging Bull,he gained 60 pounds (27 kilograms) and learned how to box. He worked as a taxi driver for three months while preparing to make the film Taxi Driver “Today The Actors’ Studio can be found in a former church building at 432 West 44th Screet, in the Clinton area of Manhattan in New York City building it has occupied since 1955. Pronunciation 1 What many people don't realise is that chimpanzees, and other apes also laugh. 2 Ieis laughter that helps people relax. 3) The thing that surprises most people is how contagious laughter is. 4. What as most interesting about the survey was the number of people who claimed not to have laughed recently. 5 It was Darwin who first noticed that apes laugh. 6 What often declines as we get older is how frequently we laugh. Grammar 1 tae have 2Have Toes 300 BHave 4Were 900 Sia Grommor 24 4 Have you ever wondered 2eome '3don't moan 4its Sare getting Gare putting Tnave get ‘helps 10 have discovered Grommor 28 1X locoract, Use the present perfect with since. 2x Incorrect. Every other day indicates a routine so we use the present simple. av Comet 47 Correct ‘5x lncomect, For generations indicates, something that started in the past ‘and continues now so we use tne ceresent perfect. 8 x Incorrect. Reguary indicates a routine ‘So we use the present simple, Tv Comect BY Conect Grammar 2 1 Every year 2at the moment 3 For years ‘4 curently Syet Gonce a week 7 since | was a chil Grommor 34 1 are opening 21 probably go out 3i8 4 gong to increase Sareleaving 8 'sgoing tobe Takes of arial Grammar 3B 1 are you doing asians 8 are you going to weer 4 "wear siaive @'m gong 7 are you leaving Biimeet Vocobulory 14 1 False atu 3 False 4 False Bue oTue Vocabulary 18 1 2alve Balke ‘asleep Salone awake Vocabulary 24 1d 2b Sh 4c Se 60 7a BF Vocabulary 28 4 Pessimistic 2 Optimistic 3 Pessimistic. 4 Pessimistic. 8 Optiristic 6 Pessimistic 7 Optimistic Optimistic Vocabulary 3 1 incurable | 2ceinkable reliable ‘respectable S renewable 8 intolerable Extend your vocabulary Btignt 4 lose the battle Sattacks Listening 4Twe 5 False BT Pronunciation 11 can speak English. 2 He dogsa' lve with his gtiend. 3 They ace fom Italy 41 did phone you lastnight 8 They weren't here earlier. 6 She's naver been to London, Reading 1 Your oun ansvers 2 4 Airem handshake, 2 People with a fern handshake can live longer. ‘8 How auicky peopie walked and how ‘wal they could balance on one leg 3 1 to shake: 2 know 8 are going to relate 4 inceasing S getting 6 publsned T suggests Bwillive Slooked towakes 41 could balance 12.wil ive 5 Your own answers Writing 1 Your own answers 2 Your own answers 3 429 62 be ais 4 Possible ancwer: She's aware that her Cchitsren are growing older and becoming indecencent, but is feeling relatively ‘optimistic about the Answer Key 5 11 was thinking of you the other day 280 3On another note 4 Anyway 6 ‘They all start new paragraphs. Unit 2 Grammar 1A 1 {What 6 Whose 2How 6 Where 3Who How 4Wwhich How 2 1.60% to 70% 2208 3 (Charles) Darwin “4Atrican elephant ‘5 The Atfican elaphant’s 6 Antarctica / Southern hemisphere 7 On average 50 to 60 years, Dut up to 80, 8 About 200 times ther size / up to 30 om. Grammar 1B 1 What is the sciatic name of the giant tortoise? 2Where doss itive? ‘3 How long does tive? “4Wat does it ext? 5 Wren was the fist one discovered? 66 How much can a giant tortoise weigh? Grammar 2A 1X Incorrect. We don't use the definite aniole with the names of towns and ‘most counties, 2v Corect 3¥ Corect 4 incorrect. We use the definite arbole with decades. 5X Incorrect. We use the definite article vith the names of seas. By Conact 7X Incorrect. We don't use the definite arice with meas. 8X Incorrect. We use the definite article with singular nouns which stand for @ ‘general type. 0 Correct 107 Correct (@) Anewer key (@) sevarey Grammar 2B the 6- 2- 8 Ste Tithe ame 8 Grammar 3 1 as just setting cown hears got Aputon 8 walked S opened wasn't shining had been 8 wee fighting 10 stepped 41 moved 42 t00% 43 had lat 14 sammes 48 jumped Vocabulary 14 theresy Blew in the face ‘3 muttering 4 infamous S recanted Vocobulary 18 1 doubtiss 2eonvinees 3 without question sue 5 have reservations 6 coubttu Vocabulary 1¢ 16 21 8¢ 40 Sb 6a Vocabulary 2 Correct How many did you get right? {re you sura this is the right place? ‘Sasha's right. We have been here before, ‘One side of the body Drive straight down here and take the fst tuning on the right. ‘Ace you right-handed? Something you are (not) allowed to do orhave ‘We can't crve down there. There's no right of way, I dont think you have any right to complain ve been here a lot longer than you. Exactly, Immediately or completely 1m sore. do it right away, ‘What do you mean you can't see it? I's right in font of you! Vocabulary 28 4 Ave you sure this isthe right place? _2Drive straight down here and take the first turning onthe right. ‘its fghtin front of you 44 How many did you get right? 6 fm sory Ico it right away. Vocabulary 3 1 misspell 2misquoted ‘3 mispronounce 4 mishesrd Smisuse 6 misunderstand Extend your vocabulary 1A 4 undemand 2hign Stall 4 upstanding Sebove 6 stoop Tlow Extend your vocabulary 1B 1D 2H 3D 4H 5H 6D 70 Extend your vocabulary 2 ‘heroism 2agesm 3 Buschism 4 spoonerism S sexiem 6 communism 7 bilingualism Listening 1 television presenters 2an English 3 Spoken English day '5200,000, Ga member ofthe public Pronunciation 1 /92/ weak form 2 toa! strong form $3 /0ly weak form 4/04 weak form 65 02 strong form 6 89 strong form 76s strong form 8 8s weak form — Answer Key Reading Unit 3 Vocabulary 1A 1 4 snow-capped Plagiarism is ‘the process of taking cromuer) 2 ross another person's work, ideas or words, 1 have been flog 3 ling and using them asi rey were your oum, _2have led 4 high Shave meant Bay 2 4 rave also caused 6 aren Your own answers 5 has spoit Teles a 6 has rived Brainorests 9 source 7 have been working eae Shave seen Vocabulary 18 ca Shave been wating “iceouts| 4 chunks chao) 2ierests S combat Borasey acai Grammar 1B ‘cher ‘have seen living Seren 2 2have been S mountain 4 search 3. you as sim 7 desert rina 2eide “4 nas bean changing 3 quotation ‘100k Vocabulary 2 4 copy 6 Have you over stood je 2d ab ae sa Sready 7 nave been ring 8 computer Shave become Vocabulary 3A 6 sae 1 atten Your own ancwers ive Grammer 1e Sevres Writing 4¥ Comect 4 sands 7 2 Incoroct. A fw yours ago + Suge 1. past smote 6 shelf four oun answers Bese coer 2 4 Conect Statements 1b, 20 and 3b are probably 8X correct. Lastyear+ past simple. Yaeabulary 38 true or Sikes 8 ¥ Corect pes TY Coraet Aeross 3 8x Incorect. Yo + present perfect. ae Drespoct, 3 persuasve, 5 tactul a a Grommar 24 eas 1 donityouthinkitsalitle erogantio trough arey B seaweed saythat science has elle answers?; 20d ound siver tide wouldnt itbe more accuratetosay Sa strarge ancient Down that's the tory that bast ftscurcent 4 smal green class Yeurent ‘observations? isn't there oom for ctner _Slovely 18th century 2ecashale \waye of axpaining how the universe was 8big modem seiing tanker created? 7 beaut! cool aaa 2 admit take your point can see why 828 old re wooden rowing ‘argue claim Extend your vocabulary 4wat | wanted 0 say; What meant Grammar 2B ee tosay 1 the deep dark bus sea 2iand sSucly 2an old wooden Viking ship Soounties 5 ‘S.anoisy white seagul lend 4 a mysterious gant monster om Siand 10 2a Sf 4c 5b be oe oe 5. beautiful ong saling boat 8 a long colourful woollen scat Tasmall ancient laian atlas Ba lovely cool sea breeze Answer Key listening 1 roling 2 9008, 3.dramatic 4 beauti S sudden 6 whole Temazing Beasy Pronunciation 1 1Digla 2 gonna 3 gimme 4 kinda S gotta 6 Dencha Pronunciation 2 ‘iy ~ 900, fe, koy fu! allowed, loud, now iu ~ ery, Quide, right fev ~ day, rey take ‘ia! —feat, here, ier Reading 1 tb 2a 3b 4 Be 6a Ta 3 1 True 2 False. The part was played by five ferent colons. 3 False. His atitude changed after Kathy, the doiphin, died. stve 65 False, He founded The Dolphin Project, in 1988, 6 False, it was @ book he wrote, The fn was called The Cova 4 1 have always played 2have often appeared 3 don't have 4 comes Shas stucled has also written, to raise @ sever [Suggested answer for question 1] He probably became attached to the dolphins and understood them more while he was working on the TV series. Maybe he thought Kathy might have lived longer inthe wi Writing 1 Yeur oun answers 2 1 Winat to do 2Geiting around Baring & departing 4 Wren to vist ‘5 Where to eat 3 1 air-conditioned (bus) 2 convenientiy situated (bus station) ‘3 near perfect (westher) 4 reasonably priced (axis) 5 stress-free (pedestian walkway) 6 tours-riendly (restaurant service) 4 1 undoubtedly 2 probably S.arguably 4.cerinly Sidefiitely 5 probably, arguably 6 Suggested answer: February to May is best. The seas calm ‘and thee isn't much rain. There are tourists though, Unit 4 Grammar 1A Certain 1348 Possible 2567 Grammar 18 4 might 2must ‘Smust cant S might Beould T must 8 might Grommar 2 1 Iti sais that Ifyou break a mieor youl have seven years’ bad luck. 2 itis rumoured that touching the lat {oot of the statue of John Harvard wl increase your inteligence. 8 itis reported that if you visit the Tower cof London at midnight you will se2 the hosts of two young boys. 4t ie said that if you finde foureaved Clover you willbe lucky. ‘tis epored that bathing in the Dead ‘Sea will help make you healthier. 6 itis rumoured that by crinking herbal tea ‘vary morning you won't become ill ‘0 frequent. Grammar 3A ‘had wten had been renting ‘Shad aready been living “4had been working Shad known: had iost Ghad been working Thad spent Grommar 3B 1 had been: knew realised; hac met ‘Shad been wating “had decised SS ha'd soan; hadn't 6 had been running: broke Thad exolained; enjoyed Vocabulary 14 41 musician attendant 3 sailor 4 bankecs, S director 6 waiter 7 poltician Vocabulary 18 1 spectator 2 optician 3 professor 4 soldier S accountant 6 magician 7 carpenter 8 eectician Vocabulary 2 1 the Joneses 2 Joba Doe 3 Tom, Dick orHary 4 Joe Bloggs a or rh ereth Bey greeny