Sei sulla pagina 1di 23

DINAMICADEGLIINQUINANTIA.A.

20122013



PROPRIETADELLATMOSFERA
STRATOLIMITECLASSIDISTABILITA

PROF.RENATOBACIOCCHI
1. ATMOSFERA
STRATO LIMITE ATMOSFERICO

3UHVVRFKp OD WRWDOLWj GHL IHQRPHQL GL LQTXLQDPHQWR


DWPRVIHULFR DYYLHQH QHOOD SRU]LRQH SL EDVVD
GHOODWPRVIHUD FKLDPDWD 3ODQHWDU\ %RXQGDU\ /D\HU
6WUDWR/LPLWH3ODQHWDULR 6/3R$WPRVIHULFR 6/$ 
R3%/

,O 3%/ FRPSUHQGH OD SDUWH GL WURSRVIHUD QHOOD TXDOH OD
VWUXWWXUD GHO FDPSR DQHPRORJLFR ULVHQWH GHOOLQIOXHQ]D
GHOODVXSHUILFLHWHUUHVWUHHSXzHVWHQGHUVLILQRDROWUH
.PGLDOWH]]D

/RVSHVVRUHGHO3%/q YDULDELOHQHOORVSD]LRHQHOWHPSR

30
1. ATMOSFERA
STRATO LIMITE ATMOSFERICO
$OOLQWHUQR GHO 3%/ OD VWUXWWXUD GHO FDPSR GL PRWR GHO IOXLGR DWPRVIHULFR
SUHVHQWDXQDQRWHYROHYDULDELOLWj VSD]LRWHPSRUDOH

*HQHUDOPHQWHLOPRWRGHOIOXLGR VLVFKHPDWL]]DDWWUDYHUVR
XQDFRPSRQHQWHGLWUDVSRUWRFKHWLHQHFRQWRGHOOHFDUDWWHULVWLFKHPHGLHGHO
FDPSRGLPRWR
XQWHUPLQHGLGLVSHUVLRQHWXUEROHQWDFKHWLHQHFRQWRGHOOHRVFLOOD]LRQLDWWRUQR
DOYDORUHPHGLR

/HIIHWWR GL WUDVSRUWR FKH LQIOXHQ]D VRSUDWWXWWR L PRWL RUL]]RQWDOL YLHQH


TXDQWLILFDWRDWWUDYHUVRODFRQRVFHQ]DGHOODVWUXWWXUDGHOFDPSRGLYHQWRPHGLR
LQWHUPLQLGLPRGXORHGLUH]LRQHGHOODYHORFLWj 

/D GLVSHUVLRQH WXUEROHQWD LQIOXHQ]D SULQFLSDOPHQWH OH FDUDWWHULVWLFKH GHL PRWL


YHUWLFDOLGHOIOXLGRDWPRVIHULFRHGq JHQHUDWD
GDO ULVFDOGDPHQWR GHOOD VXSHUILFLH WHUUHVWH WXUEROHQ]D GL WLSR
FRQYHWWLYR 
GDOODSUHVHQ]DGLULOLHYLHUXJRVLWj WXUEROHQ]DPHFFDQLFD 

31
1. ATMOSFERA
STRATO LIMITE ATMOSFERICO

$OOLQWHUQR GHO 3%/ L SL LPSRUWDQWL IDWWRUL PHWHRURORJLFL FKH LQWHUHVVDQR L


IHQRPHQLGLLQTXLQDPHQWRDWPRVIHULFR VRQR =DQQHWWL 

OD VWDELOLWj DWPRVIHULFDFKHq XQLQGLFDWRUHGHOODWXUEROHQ]DDWPRVIHULFDDOOD


TXDOHVLGHYRQR LULPHVFRODPHQWLGHOODULDHTXLQGLLOSURFHVVRGLGLOXL]LRQHGHJOL
LQTXLQDQWL

OHLQYHUVLRQLWHUPLFKH FKHGHWHUPLQDQRODOWH]]DGHO3%/

LO YHQWR RUL]]RQWDOH YHORFLWj H GLUH]LRQH  JHQHUDWR GDOOD FRPSRQHQWH


JHRVWURILFD HPRGLILFDWRGDOFRQWULEXWRGHOOHIRU]HGDWWULWRGHOWHUUHQRHGD
HIIHWWL PHWHRURORJLFL ORFDOL FRPH EUH]]H PDULQH GL PRQWH H GL YDOOH
FLUFROD]LRQLXUEDQRUXUDOLHFF

ODTXRWDVXOOLYHOORGHOPDUH

LPRYLPHQWLDWPRVIHULFLYHUWLFDOL GRYXWLDVLVWHPLEDURFOLQL RGRURJUDILFL

32
1. ATMOSFERA

STABILITA ATMOSFERICA

Consideriamo una particella elementare di aria che si muove verticalmente in


modo adiabatico. (ES. Particella immessa nellatmosfera da camino)
Se si sposta verso lalto, la pressione diminuisce, quindi questa si raffredda e si
espande adiabaticamente.
Analogamente accade se si sposta verso il basso.
Il gradiente di temperatura di tale particella pari a circa 1C ogni 100 m:

T
gradiente _ termico = 0 .0098 [ C / m ]
z

Tale ritmo di raffreddamento e di riscaldamento, che vale unicamente per laria


non satura, pu essere rappresentato da una retta (adiabatica secca).
secca

33
1. ATMOSFERA

STABILITA ATMOSFERICA
Possiamo
Stabilit atmosferica
individuare 150
caso 1: Retta di inversione termica
cinque distinte
caso 2: Retta superadiabatica
situazioni:
altezza (m)
100

caso 3: Retta subadiabatica


50
caso 4: Retta di inversione termica

caso 5: ADIABATICA SECCA


0
0 1 2
temperatura (C)

ATMOSFERA NEUTRA stabilit indifferente (caso 5):


Gradiente della adiabatica secca = Gradiente termico effettivo dellatmosfera.
atmosfera
(T/z)adiabatica secca = (T/z)atmosfera
La particella elementare di aria, se spinta verso lalto o verso il basso, sempre
in equilibrio, poich la sua temperatura interna coincide con quella esterna.
La dispersione verticale determinata solo dalla turbolenza meccanica.
34
1. ATMOSFERA

STABILITA ATMOSFERICA
ATMOSFERA INSTABILE (caso 2):
Gradiente della adiabatica secca > Gradiente termico effettivo dellatmosfera.

(T/z)adiabatica secca > (T/z)atmosfera


La particella elementare di aria, se spinta verso lalto tende a salire
(Tparticella > Tatmosfera) , mentre se spinta verso il basso tende a scendere.
4XHVWD FRQGL]LRQH q GHWHUPLQDWD GDL PRWL
] (48,/,%5,2,167$%,/( FRQYHWWLYL LQQHVFDWL GDO ULVFDOGDPHQWR GHO WHUUHQR
QHOSHULRGRGLXUQR HVRSUDWWXWWRLQHVWDWH ,QWDOH
FDVR LO ULPHVFRODPHQWR GHOODULD q IDYRULWR H JOL
LQTXLQDQWLYHQJRQRGLVSHUVLLQYROXPLGLDULDPROWR
JUDQGL  NP LQ YHUWLFDOH  4XHVWD VLWXD]LRQH q
&DVR DFFRPSDJQDWDGDYHQWLGLGHEROHLQWHQVLWjSHUFXL
JOL LQTXLQDQWL WHQGRQR D GLVSHUGHUVL OXQJR OD
& YHUWLFDOHPDYLFLQRDOODVRUJHQWH6LKDTXLQGLXQD
7DWP 7S
IRUWHGLOXL]LRQHYHUWLFDOH H XQDVFDUVDGLVSHUVLRQH
ODWHUDOH 35
1. ATMOSFERA

STABILITA ATMOSFERICA
ATMOSFERA STABILE (caso 3):
Gradiente della adiabatica secca < Gradiente termico effettivo dellatmosfera.
(T/z)adiabatica secca < (T/z)atmosfera
La particella elementare di aria, se spinta verso lalto tende a scendere
(Tparticella < Tatmosfera), mentre se spinta verso il basso tende a salire.
La dispersione verticale degli inquinanti bassa.
INVERSIONE TERMICA (caso 1,4):
]
&DVR &DVR
La temperatura non varia o aumenta con
la quota.
Si ha una forte stabilit verticale.
( XQD VLWXD]LRQH JHQHUDWD GDO UDIIUHGGDPHQWR
QRWWXUQR GHOOD WHUUD FKH FHGH FDORUH DOODWPRVIHUD
SHULUUDJJLDPHQWR
& /DOWH]]DGLTXHVWRVWUDWRq JHQHUDOPHQWHOLPLWDWRD
7S 7DWP &DVR 7DWP &DVR  P GDO SF PD SRVVRQR YHULILFDUVL DQFKH
FDVLGLLQYHUVLRQHLQTXRWD 36
1. ATMOSFERA

STABILITA ATMOSFERICA

] (48,/,%5,2,167$%,/( ] (48,/,%5,267$%,/(
&DVR &DVR

] ]

] ]

& &
7 DWP 7 DWP 7 DWP 7 DWP
7 S 7 S 7 S 7 S

= =! 7 DWP 7 DWP  7 S 7 S  = =! 7 DWP 7 DWP  7 S 7 S 

7 DWP 7 DWP 7 S 7 S  7 DWP 7 DWP !7 S 7 S 

7
7
] DWP  ] S 7
7
] DWP ! ] S

7 DWP 7 DWP  ! 7 S 7 S  7 DWP 7 DWP   7 S 7 S 


37
7
] DWP !
7
] S 7
] DWP 
7
] S
1. ATMOSFERA

STABILITA ATMOSFERICA
(IIHWWLGHOODVWUXWWXUDWHUPLFDGHOODWPRVIHUDVXOODGLVSHUVLRQHYHUWLFDOHGL
XQDVRUJHQWHLQTXRWD

] $7026)(5$ ,167$%,/(q
IDYRULWDODGLVSHUVLRQHYHUWLFDOH

7
] $7026)(5$ 1(875$OD
GLVSHUVLRQHq SUHYDOHQWHPHQWH
RUL]]RQWDOH

7
]
$7026)(5$ 67$%,/(OD
GLVSHUVLRQHq VRORRUL]]RQWDOH

7 38
1. ATMOSFERA

STABILITA ATMOSFERICA
(IIHWWLGHOODVWUXWWXUDWHUPLFDGHOODWPRVIHUDVXOODGLVSHUVLRQHYHUWLFDOHGL
XQDVRUJHQWHLQTXRWD
,19(56,21($/682/2JOL
LQTXLQDQWLWHQGRQRDULVDOLUH
] 6LYHULILFDLQJHQHUHGXUDQWHOD
QRWWHHOHSULPHRUHGHOJLRUQR
SRLFKp ODULDLQSURVVLPLWj GHOVXROR
VLUDIIUHGGD&RQLOVRUJHUHGHO
VROHOLQYHUVLRQHWHUPLFDVFRPSDUH
7
,19(56,21(,14827$JOL
LQTXLQDQWLWHQGRQRDVFHQGHUH

] 6LYHULILFDTXDQGRVLKDQQRIHQRPHQL
GLVXEVLGHQ]DODULDVFHQGHDTXRWD
SL EDVVDHVLFRPSULPHDXPHQWDQGR
GLWHPSHUDWXUD,QSURVVLPLWj GHOOD
VXSHUILFLHXQDFHUWDWXUEROHQ]D
7 LPSHGLVFHLOIHQRPHQRGLVXEVLGHQ]D
QHOODSDUWHLQIHULRUHGHOODWPRVIHUD
7 39
1. ATMOSFERA

CLASSI DI STABILITA ATMOSFERICA


/DVWDELOLWj q XQLQGLFDWRUHGHOODWXUEROHQ]DDWPRVIHULFDHTXLQGLGHOODFDSDFLWj GLXQFRQWDPLQDQWH
GL GLVSHUGHUVL QHO PH]]R 4XHVWD GLSHQGH SULQFLSDOPHQWH GDOOD YHORFLWj GHO YHQWR GDOOD
WXUEROHQ]DPHFFDQLFDHFRQYHWWLYD WHUPLFD 
Per stimare la stabilit atmosferica possibile utilizzare il criterio di
classificazione di Pasquill-Gifford, Gifford che esprime la classe di stabilit in
funzione della velocit del vento, della radiazione solare totale e della
copertura nuvolosa.
,QSDUWLFRODUHGLVWLQJXHODVWDELOLWj DWPRVIHULFDLQVHWWHFODVVLGLVWDELOLWj $%&'()* /DFODVVH
$ q OD SL LQVWDELOH PHQWUH OD FODVVH * q OD SL VWDELOH 7DOL FODVVL VRQR ULFDYDWH LQ EDVH D
FLQTXHFODVVLGLYHQWRLQFRUULVSRQGHQ]DGHOODVXSHUILFLHWUHFODVVLGLLQVROD]LRQHHGXHFODVVLGL
QXYRORVLWj GXUDQWHOHRUHQRWWXUQH
Velocit del vento a 10 m Radiazione solare Incidente Copertura nuvolosa
dal p.c. (m/s) (GIORNO) (NOTTE)
Forte Moderata Debole 50 % < 50%
calma -- -- -- -- G
<2 A AB B E F
23 AB B C E F
35 B BC C D E
56 C CD D D D
>6 C D D D D 40
1. ATMOSFERA

CLASSI DI STABILITA ATMOSFERICA


Lapplicazione dello schema sopra riportato nelle ore notturne richiede la
conoscenza della nuvolosit, non facilmente ottenibile nelle comuni stazioni di
monitoraggio. In alternativa, si pu quindi individuare la classe di stabilit
atmosferica in funzione del gradiente verticale della temperatura.

*UDGLHQWH
&DWHJRULDGL
*UDGRGLVWDELOLWj WHUPLFRYHUWLFDOH
3DVTXLOO
&P
,QVWDELOLWj IRUWH $ 
,QVWDELOLWj PRGHUDWD % 'DD
,QVWDELOLWj GHEROH & 'DD
1HXWUDOLWj ' 'DD
6WDELOLWj GHEROH ( 'DD
6WDELOLWj PRGHUDWD ) 'DD
6WDELOLWj IRUWH * !
41
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte
1HOORVWXGLRGHOODGLQDPLFDDWPRVIHULFDGHJOLLQTXLQDQWLLOIHQRPHQRGHOOHLQYHUVLRQLWHUPLFKH QHLEDVVL
VWUDWLDWPRVIHULFLDFTXLVWDXQDSDUWLFRODUHLPSRUWDQ]D4XHVWRSHUFKp JOLVWUDWLGLLQYHUVLRQHSRVVRQR
GLYHQWDUHXQRVWDFRORDOODGLOXL]LRQHGHJOLDJHQWLLQTXLQDQWL

/RVSHVVRUHGHOOR6/$QRQq FRVWDQWHPDq YDULDELOHQHOWHPSRHQHOORVSD]LRH


SUHVHQWDXQFDUDWWHULVWLFRDQGDPHQWRJLRUQRQRWWH

'XUDQWH OD QRWWH FRPH QHO FRUVR GHOOD VWDJLRQH IUHGGD OR 6/3 WHQGH DG
DVVRWWLJOLDUVLPHQWUHGXUDQWHLOJLRUQRFRPHQHOODVWDJLRQHFDOGDHVVRWHQGH
DGLVSHVVLUVL
$OVRUJHUHGHOVROH LOVXRORLQL]LDOPHQWHIUHGGRYLHQHULVFDOGDWRGDOODUDGLD]LRQH
VRODUH FDXVDQGR FRVu LO IRUPDUVL GHL IOXVVL GL FDORUH FKH ULVFDOGDQR ODULD
FLUFRVWDQWH
'RSR LO WUDPRQWR LO WHUUHQR LQFRPLQFLD D UDIIUHGGDUVL D FDXVD GHOODVVHQ]D GL
LUUDJJLDPHQWR FHGHQGR FDORUH YHUVR ODOWR UDIIUHGGDQGR FRVu DQFKH L SULPL
PHWULGLDULD

42
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte
/DQGDPHQWRWLSLFRJLRUQRQRWWH JHQHUDORVWUDWROLPLWHUDSSUHVHQWDWRQHOODILJXUD
VHJXHQWH

 


2UH 2UH 2UH 2UH 2UH


WUDPRQWR DOED

)LJXUDOHYROX]LRQHWHPSRUDOHGHOFLFORGLXUQRDSDUWLUHGDPH]]RJLRUQRSHURUHGD6WXOO  

6LSRVVRQRGLVWLQJXHUHWLSLGLFRQGL]LRQL
 VWUDWRFRQYHWWLYR GLXUQR LQVWDELOH ]RQDLQJULJLRVFXUR 
 VWUDWRUHVLGXDOHQHXWUR ]RQDLQJULJLRFKLDUR 
 VWUDWRVWDELOH QRWWXUQR ]RQDLQQHUR 
43
DQFKHVHODWPRVIHUDGLXUQDSXzDQFKHHVVHUHQHXWUDRVWDELOH
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte
/R6WUDWR&RQYHWWLYR 
/H FRQGL]LRQL FRQYHWWLYH FRPLQFLDQR DG LQWHUHVVDUH ODWPRVIHUD FLUFD PH]]RUD GRSR LO
VRUJHUHGHOVROHHODOWH]]DGHO3%/ FRQWLQXDSRLDGDXPHQWDUH VLQRDUDJJLXQJHUHLO
VXRYDORUHPDVVLPRQHOWDUGRSRPHULJJLR
1RQ DSSHQD L UDJJL VRODUL FRPLQFLDQR D VFDOGDUH OD VXSHUILFLH WHUUHVWUH H
LQGLUHWWDPHQWHODULDDFRQWDWWRFRQHVVD LQL]LDOPHQWHIUHGGD VLIRUPDQRGHLIOXVVLGL
FDORUH FKH ULVFDOGDQR ODULD FLUFRVWDQWH VL VYLOXSSD FRVu XQR VWUDWR FRQYHWWLYR
WXUEROHQWRGRYXWRDOPRWRDVFHQVLRQDOH GLSHQQDFFKLGDULDFDOGD VRJJHWWLDXQDIRU]D
GL JDOOHJJLDPHQWR SRVLWLYD FRPSHQVDWR GDO PRWR GLVFHQGHQWH GL FRORQQH GDULD SL
IUHGGD /HYROX]LRQH GHOOR VWUDWR ULPHVFRODWR q GXQTXH GHFLVDPHQWH OHJDWD DO
ULVFDOGDPHQWRGHOWHUUHQRGDSDUWHGHOVROH

/XQJR LO FRUVR GHOOD JLRUQDWD DYYLHQH


ODFFUHVFLPHQWR GHOOR VWUDWR FRQYHWWLYR
WUDPLWH OD FDWWXUD HQWUDLQPHQW  GL
DULD GDOOR VWUDWR VRYUDVWDQWH PHQR
WXUEROHQWR FKH SXz HVVHUH OR VWUDWR
OLPLWH VWDELOH R OR VWUDWR UHVLGXDOH  ILQR
DG XQ PDVVLPR TXDQGR QHO SRPHULJJLR
OD WHPSHUDWXUD VXSHUILFLDOH GHO VXROR
SHUYLHQHDOVXRYDORUHSL DOWR 44
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte

/R6WUDWR&RQYHWWLYR 

,Q WDOL FRQGL]LRQL GL ULPHVFRODPHQWR GHOODULD JOL LQTXLQDQWL HYHQWXDOPHQWH SUHVHQWL LQ
DWPRVIHUDYHQJRQRGLVSHUVLLQYROXPLGDULDPROWRJUDQGLHGLOSHQQDFFKLRGLLQTXLQDQWH
PRVWUD XQ FDUDWWHULVWLFR FRPSRUWDPHQWR D YROXWH FKLDPDWR ORRSLQJ  UHVWDQGR JOL
LQTXLQDQWL LQWUDSSRODWL QHOOR VWUDWR FRQYHWWLYR D FDXVD GHOOLQFDSDFLWj GHOOH FRUUHQWL
WHUPLFKH GL SHQHWUDUH OD VRYUDVWDQWH DWPRVIHUD OLEHUD 4XHVWR VL YHULILFD SHUFKp DO
OLPLWH VXSHULRUH GHOOR VWUDWR FRQYHWWLYR VL KD XQLQYHUVLRQH GL WHPSHUDWXUD OD TXDOH
VRSSULPHTXDVLGHOWXWWRODWXUEROHQ]DGHOLPLWDQGRLOSDVVDJJLRDOODWPRVIHUDOLEHUD

45
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte

/R6WUDWR5HVLGXDOHQHXWUR 

&LUFD PH]]RUD SULPD GHO WUDPRQWR OH FRUUHQWL FRQYHWWLYH GLPLQXLVFRQR GLQWHQVLWj H
TXLQGLODWXUEROHQ]DFRPLQFLDDGHFDGHUHORVWUDWRFRQYHWWLYRVLWUDVIRUPDQHOORVWUDWR
UHVLGXR
6LJHQHUDFRVu XQRVWUDWRGRYHDSDUWHODYDULD]LRQHGHOODVWUXWWXUDGHOODWXUEROHQ]DH
ODPRGLILFD]LRQHGHOJUDGLHQWHYHUWLFDOHGHOODWHPSHUDWXUDFKHSDVVDGDOODSUHFHGHQWH
FRQGL]LRQH GL VWUDWLILFD]LRQH LQVWDELOH D TXHOOD QHXWUD ODQGDPHQWR GHOOH ULPDQHQWL
YDULDELOL DWPRVIHULFKH QRQ VXELVFH YDULD]LRQL GL ULOLHYR ULVSHWWR D TXHOOR FKH
SUHVHQWDYDQRQHOORVWUDWRFRQYHWWLYRSUHFHGHQWHODIRUPD]LRQHGHOORVWUDWRUHVLGXDOH
(VVHQGR OR VWUDWR UHVLGXDOH FDUDWWHUL]]DWR GD VWUDWLILFD]LRQH QHXWUD FRQ XQ JUDGLHQWH
WHUPLFR DGLDEDWLFR OXQLFR PHFFDQLVPR FKH JHQHUD OD WXUEROHQ]D q TXHOOR PHFFDQLFR
FRQFDUDWWHULVWLFKHSUDWLFDPHQWHXJXDOLLQWXWWHOHGLUH]LRQL LVRWURSLD 

46
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte
/R6WUDWR5HVLGXDOHQHXWUR 
&RPH ULVXOWDWR OD GLVSHUVLRQH GL LQTXLQDQWL LPPHVVL q OD VWHVVD VLD YHUWLFDOPHQWH FKH
ODWHUDOPHQWH WHQGHQGR D GLIIRQGHUVL VLPPHWULFDPHQWH DWWRUQR DO SURSULR DVVH
GHWHUPLQDWRGDOWUDVSRUWRFLRq GDOYHQWRPHGLR RULJLQDQGRFRVu XQSHQQDFFKLRGDOOD
WLSLFDIRUPDFRQLFD FRQLQJ  ,OSURILORYHUWLFDOHGHOODYHORFLWj GHOYHQWRSDUWHGDOVXROR
FRQLQWHQVLWj QXOODHGDXPHQWDQRWHYROPHQWHFRQODOWH]]D7XWWRTXHVWRGHWHUPLQDLQ
VHQRDOODPDVVDGDULDPRWLRUJDQL]]DWLHUHJRODUL SLFFROLYRUWLFL HFRPHFRQVHJXHQ]D
GL TXHVWR WLSR GL PRWR LO SHQQDFFKLR XVFHQWH GDO FDPLQR VL PDQWLHQH SLXWWRVWR
FRPSDWWRHUDJJLXQJHLOVXRORDGXQDGLVWDQ]DPDJJLRUHGHOFDVRFRQYHWWLYRLQROWUHOR
VEDQGLHUDPHQWR FLRq UHSHQWLQR FDPELDPHQWR GL GLUH]LRQH  GHOOHIIOXHQWH H

QRWHYROPHQWHULGRWWR

)LJXUDGXUDQWHODQRWWHODVWDELOLWj VWDWLFDGHFUHVFHFRQODTXRWDUDSSUHVHQWD]LRQHVFKHPDWLFDGHO
FRPSRUWDPHQWRGHLSHQQDFFKL 6WXOO  47
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte
/R6WUDWR6WDELOH 
&RQ LO WUDPRQWR GHO VROH H ODYDQ]DUH GHOOD QRWWH OD SRU]LRQH LQIHULRUH GHOODWPRVIHUD
YLHQH WUDVIRUPDWD LQ XQR VWUDWR VWDELOH D FDXVD GHO UDIIUHGGDPHQWR GHOOD VXSHUILFLH
WHUUHVWUHFKHFHGHFDORUHDOODWPRVIHUDSHULUUDJJLDPHQWR
6LIRUPDFRVu OR6WUDWR6WDELOHFDUDWWHUL]]DWRGDXQDLQYHUVLRQHGLWHPSHUDWXUDFRQEDVH
DOVXROR,QIDWWLORVWUDWROLPLWHVWDELOHq DGLUHWWRFRQWDWWRFRQLOWHUUHQR
/D VXD IRUPD]LRQH LQL]LD JLj SRFR SULPD
GHO WUDPRQWR H FRQ LO SURJUHGLUH GHOOD
QRWWH OD VXD SURIRQGLWj DXPHQWD GDO
VXROR YHUVR ODOWR D VSHVH GHOOR VWUDWR
UHVLGXDOH VRYUDVWDQWH PDQ PDQR FKH LO
SURFHVVR GL UDIIUHGGDPHQWR GHOOR VWUDWR
GDULDDSL GLUHWWRFRQWDWWRFRQLOWHUUHQR
SURJUHGLVFH
,QTXHVWHFRQGL]LRQLVLJHQHUDSHUFLzXQR
VWUDWR GLQYHUVLRQH DO VXROR HG L PRWL
YHUWLFDOL GHOODULD WHQGRQR DG HVVHUH
VRSSUHVVL SRLFKp RJQL HYHQWXDOH PRWR
LQL]LDOH GL SDUWLFHOOH GDULD YLHQH
DWWHQXDWR VLD YHUVR ODOWR VLD YHUVR LO
EDVVR 48
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte
1HOOD VLWXD]LRQH GL DWPRVIHUD VWDELOH GXQTXH FRPH JLj QHO FDVR GL VWUDWLILFD]LRQH
QHXWUD  VL q YLVWR FKH JOL HIIOXHQWL VRSUDWWXWWR VH HPHVVL DOOD VRPPLWj GHOOR VWUDWR
VWDELOHRSSXUH GLUHWWDPHQWHQHOOR VWUDWRUHVLGXDOHDFDXVDGHOODVFDUVDLQWHQVLWj GHOOD
WXUEROHQ]D VL GLIIRQGRQR GLIILFLOPHQWH YHUVR LO VXROR FRVu HVVL SRVVRQR HVVHUH
WUDVSRUWDWLGXUDQWHODQRWWHDQFKHDFHQWLQDLDGLFKLORPHWULGDOODVRUJHQWH
1HOORVWUDWRUHVLGXDOH LSHQQDFFKLGLIXPRVLSRVVRQRGLIIRQGHUHYHUVRLOEDVVRILQFKp
QRQ LQFRQWUDQR OD VRPPLWj GHOOR VWUDWR VWDELOH D IDU ORUR GD VEDUUDPHQWR TXHVWD
FRQILJXUD]LRQHq GHWWD ORIWLQJSHUFKp OHIIOXHQWHVFRUUHOXQJRODSDUWHVXSHULRUHGHOOR
VWUDWRGLLQYHUVLRQHVHQ]DDEEDWWHUVLDOVXRORDSSXQWRSHUFKp LQFRQWUDXQRVWUDWRGDULD
DIRUWHVWDELOLWj FKHIDGDVFXGRDOVXRORVRWWRVWDQWH

)LJXUD5DSSUHVHQWD]LRQHVFKHPDWLFDGHOORIWLQJGD6WXOO 49
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte
'RSR ODOED LQL]LD D VYLOXSSDUVL OR VWUDWR FRQYHWWLYR FKH HURGH YLD YLD OR VWUDWR
VWDELOHTXDQGRODVXDVRPPLWj UDJJLXQJHODTXRWDDOODTXDOHODGLVFHVDGHJOLHIIOXHQWL
GXUDQWH OD QRWWH HUD VWDWD EORFFDWD GDOOLQYHUVLRQH KD OXRJR OHQWUDLQPHQW GHJOL
LQTXLQDQWL QHOOR VWUDWR FRQYHWWLYR H OD ORUR UDSLGD GLIIXVLRQH YHUVR LO WHUUHQR 4XHVWR
SURFHVVR q GHWWR IXPLJD]LRQH IXPLJDWLRQ  /D IXPLJD]LRQH SXz HVVHUH XQ SURFHVVR
FULWLFRGDOSXQWR GL YLVWD DPELHQWDOH SHUFKp LQ FRQGL]LRQL SDUWLFRODUPHQWH VIDYRUHYROL
SXzSURGXUUHFRQFHQWUD]LRQLDOVXRORPROWRULOHYDQWL

)LJXUD5DSSUHVHQWD]LRQHVFKHPDWLFDGHOODIXPLJDWLRQGD6WXOO 

50
1. ATMOSFERA
Inversioni termiche: Andamento giorno-notte

HYLGHQWH FKH LO FLFOR GLXUQR UDUDPHQWH VL SUHVHQWD LQ PRGR FRVu VFKHPDWLFR H
VHPSOLILFDWRSRLFKp ODQXYRORVLWj HLOYHQWR QHLQIOXHQ]DQRO
HYROX]LRQH

/DSUHVHQ]DGHOOHQXYROH ULGXFHLQIDWWLVLDLOULVFDOGDPHQWRGLXUQRVLDLOUDIIUHGGDPHQWR
QRWWXUQR $G HVHPSLR VXELWR GRSR LO WUDPRQWR H QHO VXFFHVVLYR FRUVR GHOOD QRWWH OD
SUHVHQ]D GL QXYROH ULIOHWWHQGR SDU]LDOPHQWH OD UDGLD]LRQH LQIUDURVVD HPHVVD GDOOD
7HUUDUDSSUHVHQWDQRXQDEDUULHUDFKHQHLPSHGLVFHLOORURSHUFRUVRYHUVRO
DOWR

,O YHQWR FRQWULEXLVFH DO ULPHVFRODPHQWR GHOO


DWPRVIHUD LQIOXHQ]DQGR LO JUDGLHQWH GL
WHPSHUDWXUD LQ PRGR WDOH GD GHWHUPLQDUH XQR VWDWR GL HTXLOLEULR LQGLIIHUHQWH SURILOR
DGLDEDWLFR 

51