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The spread of this book is the simplicity of language. Transmits the matter in a
practical way enabling the reader to start immediately and has sufficient theor
etical notions to a first approximation to the matter. This methodological appro
ach facilitates learning for professionals in all areas.
Many experts in various areas want practical knowledge about fiber glass for it
without having to master the theory of the chemistry of plastics.
The reader should read the full book, even if certain parts are not in their int
erest, because there are important technical details for all areas explained in
specific sections.
Introduction ..................................... 01 glass fiber ........ .....
................... 04 .................. 06 organization of space tools and ute
nsils ................ ............................... 08 raw 09 site preparatio
n and repair of the resin 10 ..... .................... ............. 11 molds g
uidance to the project .............................. 13 ................ ... ..
............... 16 general recommendations .18 Marketing and sales .............
........... 22
Plastics are synthetic organic materials, ie they are artificially made. Althoug
h they are part of artificially synthesized organic compounds due to the presenc
e of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms form with other elements such as hydrogen, o
xygen, nitrogen, etc. molecules of this product. Are formed by arrays of large m
olecules called polymers which are comprised of basic molecules called monomers.
The polymers are obtained by polymerisation reactions where calls are grouped m
olecules containing various monomer units that are divided into three categories
moleculares.São elastomers (rubbers), fibers and plastics. The polymer used in
the glass fiber is polyester which is produced by more than one type of monomer,
which may have different chemical characteristics and mechanical properties sui
table for many different applications.
Plastics are classified into two categories regarding the effects of changes in
physical state when exposed to heat: termofixos.Os thermoplastics and thermoplas
tics are those that can be melted and molded at other times, after already harde
ned. While thermosets can not be softened after their healing. The polyester res
in is a thermosetting type of plastic, once hardened can not be softened and mol
ded again. The material used in fiber glass is actually a plastic reinforced wit
h glass fiber FRP.
The glass fiber (glass fiber) is a type of reinforced plastic widely used in var
ious applications that have features. such as high mechanical strength and corro
sion, durability, retain their mechanical properties over time easy application,
easy maintenance, lightweight, fast curing, excellent appearance, easy finish,
lots of raw material supply, enables innovation in applications as creativity. T
he cost benefit of this material is excellent in various industrial applications
Used to manufacture furniture, tiles, helmets, plates, boats, car bodies, decora
tions, swimming pools, flooring, tubs, buckets, aero-models, prototypes, ornate,
public telephones, kiosks, counters, varadepesca, toys, kayaks, Oreillons , oar
s, Christmas ornaments, pipes, rails, furniture, sentry boxes, hoods, lamps, pla
tes, chairs, bumpers, panels, boxes, sinks, washbasins, mascots, tubes, canoes e
tc etc etc. In many cases is irreplaceable, either because economic issues, ease
of implementation or its characteristics as an engineering material. Profession
al engineering and architecture has been using glass fiber reinforcements in str
uctural, acoustic insulation, electrical insulation, civil aircraft and military
equipment and commercial banking. In industries dental medical glass fiber is u
sed for example in some types of prostheses. There are many innovative research
undertaken by these professionals. The trend is of great growth in these sectors
There are great opportunities for professional staff well trained in the manufac
ture of objects, in construction or repairs. This book will be your first step o
n this journey.€Perhaps you the reader will not undertake research and experimen
tal surprise the market with different material that responds adequately to requ
irements not yet satisfied. Please, even just enjoying the leftover material.
Our goal is to bring the reader the basic knowledge about repair and lamination
mold, enabling it to start this business, supervise or participate in profession
al teams on projects. The language is very simple and will facilitate the reader
to understand.
Besides the technology industry, another sector where it has been widely used gl
ass fiber is the object of art. There are countless applications of this branch
is an excellent source of income in the highest quality work. Stained glass, orn
aments, key rings, fountains, sculptures, mosaics, drawings on fiberglass, fixtu
res and more. Take advantage of this lode. In this sector the work can be with o
r without the blanket fibra.Há cases where only the resin prepared is placed in
the mold of silicone rubber or other material adequado.Os molds are usually back
ed silicone rubber from other objects by pouring silicone rubber carefully in th
e model can be dissolved in silicone oil (100%) with a maximum of 10% oil. Howev
er they can be purchased ready. For those who have talent this sector is very pr
omising. You can innovate by creating objects and the most diverse applications.
Fiberglass is the result of applying the resin poiliéster on the roving, tissue,
or blanket of glass fiber. The blanket or fabric are made with flexible wire gl
ass resin is a viscous liquid mixed with a solvent, this mixture is added a cata
lyst and an accelerator. There are types of resins that are suitable for special
applications such as resistance to attack by chemical products. The most common
type of resin is called ortoftálica.Considere well the type of application it i
s intended for the object that will produce and report on the your provider abou
t the most appropriate type of resin. The resin common, general use, intended fo
r the manufacture of furniture, tanks, boats and many outras.Existem special res
ins for applications where there is risk of severe chemical corrosion, other app
lications subject to constant exposure to sunlight, self-extinguishing, high hea
t distortion etc.. The solvent leaves the resin viscosity at the ideal point as
the catalyst causes the other subsâncias react chemically. The accelerator speed
s up the reaction. The application process is called lamination and can be manua
l or by spray. Lamination employ one or more layers of cloth, chopped or whole,
or fabric of glass fiber as the desired thickness. In manual rolling beats up th
e brush or spatula to pass with resin. The lamination is known as manual hand la
y-up, is used widely in many industrial processes where we use the whole blanket
There are rugs and fabrics of different densities and mechanical properties whic
h implemented the amount of layers specified in the tables provide the resistanc
e specified in the project. Since our work is primarily designed for beginners a
nd repair, will present some practical data. We recommend the reader not to get
involved with working parts that will be
subjected to high pressures, such as large swimming pools, etc. without proper g
uidance of engineers or technicians.
Recommended average thickness ranges from 1 to 5mm or so, according to the stren
gth you want. Bodyworks have thicknesses greater in some cases, in general it us
es 1-3 layers of cloth in common applications. Objects that are not undergoing m
ajor efforts will generally have a layer. For more espesuras laminate use is ind
ustrial talc and other fillers mixed with resin for reasons of economy and stiff
ness. Some objects can or should be made with fillings of materials such as wood
, polyurethane foam and others. With both structural purpose as the economic asp
ect. Here is a great practical tip Go to stores that sell these objects, observe
the details, ask about the thickness, strength, material behavior under effort,
obtain as much information as you can. If you have access to objects discarded
deprive them of all information puder.E, if any, to take advantage of them as te
ORGANIZATION OF SPACE is a concept almost natural in all human activities. Techn
ically called layout to facilitate the delivery of service and avoid waste of ti
me, unnecessary fatigue and accidents. While it is natural to man to organize th
eir activity environment, we found that even children at play,€it is necessary t
hat they will pursue productive activities are very careful about this. Raw mate
rials, tools, utensils, counter tops should be in a safe and easy access. Keep a
ll products in accordance with the rules of fabricante.Procure coming together a
nd in order to use their tools. Remove the road any object that can cause accide
nts. Set aside an appropriate location for each part of your activity whenever p
ossible example: a place for rolling, the other for polishing and painting, and
so on. Look to buy time but without any risk of accidents and no waste. In some
projects will require easels, equipment for lifting loads etc.. In most common a
pplications this will not be so important. A good work bench or a table will be
This is not an excess of zeal, well if you do not organize their activity will h
ave many losses that could be avoided. All these losses can be translated into r
eal or dollar.
Remember: the closer you are to your ferramneta generally yield more production.
Assess the situation well, do the best you can and when there is a perfect oppo
rtunity. Work in well ventilated place with maximum comfort and productivity as
you can. Keep chemicals and tools away from children. At first the smell of resi
n may annoy some, over time the person gets used, but the use of mask is essenti
al in all types and stages of labor.
01.chave slit - to open 02.vasilha metal cans (tins), or glass - to prepare resi
n 03.pincel - to apply resin (size according to the service) can use wool roller
, gun or spatula. 04.balança or measuring cup (with meter is very handy) 05.lâmi
na saw may also be useful. 06.espâtula - apply weight or resin 07.máscara protec
tion (with your health care and employee) 08.rolo strip bubbles - bubbles remove
the laminate (plastic or metal) 09.máquina sticking with sander. (Or separated)
10.pazinha to mix. obs: heavy jobs require professional sander. Entrepreneurs w
ill need larger picotadeira, gun enforcement, industrial sander, racks, greenhou
ses and others.
Keep tools clean, wash the brush with thinner to finish the job, leaving the sau
ce not to harden. A small well-sharpened knife can be useful in many cases. We r
ecommend purchasing a meter thick which serves as a template to confirm the reco
mmended thickness. It is very practical. To paint, you can either outsource it a
s acquiring a suitable compressor. Productions exist for small compressors and c
omplete kits with affordable price. Being able to use spray paint in certain cas
es. Generally measured in flasks is much better than regret and much more for th
e components in small quantities. These are measured dropper, pipette or by calc
ulating the amount straight from the bottle.
RAW MATERIAL 01. polyester resin for general use or for specific special project
s in 2002. blanket or fabric (or roving) 03. accelerator (decreasing time of hea
ling) or coat of cobalt naphthenate 04. catalyst - mek (start the reaction) 05.
styrene monomer (diluent) 06. gel coat (resin with pigment - color, protection,
finish) can buy ready in 2007. calcium carbonate or talc, industrial - do mass (
stiffness, economy) 08. thinner (general cleaning) or acetone 09. parting (PVAl
spray, waxes, paraffins, cellophane) note: consult the supplier about types of m
aterial more suitable for applications special targeting more resistance or work
under special conditions .. You can buy the kit that comes complete repair of b
oats, cars, jewelry, carts, helmets, swimming pools, ponds, and more. MATERIAL F
INISHING sandpaper, polishing pastes, paints etc. the chopped roving is more eco
nomical, used for open molds of large parts, but is used with a gun.
PREPARATION OF LOCAL AND REPAIR 01. remove the damaged pieces and chop the outli
ne to facilitate the adhesion of the new material. 02. sand the spot where you w
ill apply the layers with fine sandpaper. 03. clean with a cloth, rag, brush, et
c. 04. apply a little thinner or acetone to clean the piece and let dry. 05. pro
vide against a mold with mold release if any hole. 06. apply a little resin on s
ite 07. place a piece of cloth or fabric 08. put another layer of resin 09. repe
at the layers of resin and mat to the desired thickness. 10. sanding 11. do the
finishing with pasta or resin in the desired color and polish Note: 01.pode to u
se gel coat finish and have to apply antidesmoldante. 02.if cavity may need to u
se talc mixed with industrial resin, use 30% more or less. Before preparing the
resin to prepare the piece that will be repaired and arrange the tools in place
that it is within reach. For the resin hardens in a short time getting sticky an
d very viscous is not for lamination. Do not prepare very large amount of resin,
even an extensive area of rolling the resin must be prepared in quantity to be
used before starting to harden. Do not forget the original format of the parts f
or repair, so the format with durable material such as cardboard, etc. respectin
g the detalhes.Verifique if the curves and surface detail will be preserved for
its original lamination repair and fill the place you got the part impaired fill
ing is possible with the same piece of material or other compatible.
PREPARATION OF RESIN general use in 2001. measure the amount of resin to be used
(not limited to harden) 02. placing the monomer (30-10%) mix well 03. placing t
he catalyst-mek (1-3%) mix well 04. put the accelerator - mix (1-2%) Examples of
measures of strength
Resin 100ml 300ml 500g
Other components 1ml 3ml 1% 3% 5g 15g 3ml 9ml 5% 5ml 15ml 10ml 30ml 25g 50g 10%
ml-milliliter g - gram
Be careful not to forget the components of the formula, increase or decrease a l
ittle (within limits) some of them to the point. The temperature also influences
a lot.
to use other measures the proportion of these as the amount of resin weighed or
measured and the percentage of other components. I advise you to start by smalle
r percentages and increase when necessary, but within limits. practical experien
When you need color the layer that will be visible, add 10% more pigment or pain
t the piece go menos.Caso pigmentation use sparingly as a basis for pintura.Pode
use as a gel coat finish, which acts as a pigmented resin giving excellent fini
shing and protection for part or prepare a pigmented resin. If you need less fle
xibility in industrial talc to add laminate resin 20-30%, or another charge in a
ppropriate proportions. Always apply the resin first, then add one by one the ot
her one Componenet stirring well each time. Consult the supplier because the dos
ages vary conentrações There resin pre accelerated these you should not mix acce
lerator. For handicrafts is very common to use pre-accelerated resin crystal mix
ture of which only the catalyst and pigment if any. The author is not liable for
any damage or injury, recommends caution and recalls the need to consult provid
ers about doses, health risks etc.. Was indicated also for guidance on safety is
sues at work with the doctors, engineers or technicians.
Molds are made of plaster, wood, metal, polyurethane, fiberglass and other mater
ials. Should be well polished in the final layer and varnished up if necessary a
nd provide conditions that facilitate the removal of mold in the case of open mo
lds. There are also templates that are in part shaped like a filling, are called
sandwiches. Many molds for common parts we can buy ready. Can be produced in mo
lds from glass fiber used parts, provided they are adequately prepared for this.
These parts should be repaired and receive an excellent finish with a good laye
r of resin and polimento.É need to be aware of the dimensions and characteristic
s of the part to be molded by analyzing how they use their molde.Ver preparation
and repairs. AFTER CLEAN laminating mold 01. applying release agent to facilita
te removal later, if caso.Alguns projects require application of mold release wa
x, polish and then the spray 02. apply resin pigmented GEL COAT (outer layer) le
t dry 03. apply a coat of resin, there are cases where the blanket goes first. 0
4. apply the first layer of fiber 05. repeated applications of resin and fiber t
o the required thickness. 06. finish with resin and covering the blanket 07. let
it dry more or less 4 hours or more depending on the project. 08. Carefully rem
ove the mold 09. can use a rubber hammer, wedge etc. 10. remove burrs before hea
lers total. 11. to the finish. Notice the order of the layer that is external, t
he cast is male or female. Check the color layer that will receive, not spend pi
gment layer that will not be visible.
With creativity you can make molds, especially for small objects. Maybe even tak
e leftovers promptly and cast resin crafts, jewelry and more. By pouring the res
in into the mold ready. It is common to make molds of objects of glass fiber to
reproduce them,€small objects is used to make molds with silicone rubber. Remove
the bubbles using the roll-strip bubbles, always observing carefully rolling yo
u are running. There are projects from which to make an entire blanket layer (ve
il) and others with manta sting. You must take into account the way for withdraw
al of the form. There are cases where you need to laminate sides and join them b
efore the final finish. May in some cases cut the object unfinished to allow for
removal and then put the pieces giving the finish.
SUPPLIERS Siligel Rua General Bruce No. 260 - St. Kitts-Rio de Janeiro Leo glass
av 2102 S. Santo Amaro Av Peter Paul II -222 Rio de Janeiro Rua Bela Reforplás
978 St. Kitts - Rio de Janeiro Casa silicone street Para Agua Verde 1670 - Curit
iba Street Interplas Carvalho and Souza 1998-A Madureira, Rio de Janeiro street
Romar Carvalho and Souza 73 Madureira - RJ Aerojet road to peace 637 São Paulo
Search in industrial malls in your area, look for paint stores in the yellow pag
es and the Internet. Compare prices carefully.
You can use the polyester resin combined with other materials, but it is good to
consult your vendor and other sources. Used in the early 80s, resin mixed with
sawdust for repairing holes in fiberglass boats who had holes in the laminate an
d the structural material which was of wood, leaving only apply resin powder in
the final part, the it is very economical because the sawdust is free. The miner
al fillers (talc and others) reduce the cost when the project requires greater t
hicknesses. Just add it to the resin at a ratio of 20% to 30% approx. industrial
talc, or other cargo, should be employed whenever the project requires less fle
xibility in the laminate. Reinforce the most sensitive places such as curves app
lying pieces of cloth to the sense of cross-lamination. There are products that
need strengthening of other materials, wood, steel etc., others need a thicker l
aminate, some surfboards receive special reinforcements. There are products for
special applications. Ex: some that prevent runoff, types for extra fast drying,
you should seek to know more about this assunto.Peça manufacturer catalogs, rea
d magazines on the subject, try to understand the tables that indicate the type
of material, its density and its use for the resistance and desired application.
Beware the final cost because many products for special applications are much mo
re expensive and can cripple their sales. The pools are made of several layers w
ith different types of quilts and fabric and should only be manufactured by spec
ialized technicians. Cut the appropriate size blanket in avoiding losses and sto
re the leftovers in a place not wet. The resin can not be applied to certain pla
stics, but after the healing you can join plastic parts to the piece of fibergla
ss for decorations and crafts, but ask the supplier to best
01. Start with simple activities, without jeopardizing expensive objects and wor
k on projects without much risk. 02. The pure resin, without blanket can be used
in making handicrafts. 03. Try experimenting with other combinations of mixed s
olid materials to cast small objects, but check before the supplier or by the ma
nufacturer. 04. Do not invent mixes with chemicals can be very dangerous. 05. Be
ware, do not mix catalyst with a accelerator directly over the other. 06. Do not
use wet blankets for surely jeopardize your project. 07. As the service manta s
ting or powder can be melhor.Principalmente fills when you need to do, consider
this possibility. 08. Get to get the KIT of fiberglass in the shops in the busin
ess, or if your lot financially compensate. The kit is complete and gives the be
ginner training before making major investments. 09. Remove stains from parts wi
th detergent. 10. You can use acetone to clean the parts and dilution 11. You ca
n improvise a meter graduated, but not ordinary plastic, only glass, metal or fi
ber glass. 12. Bijouterias use 10% more or less pigment. 13. The gel coat can re
place paint in some cases 14. The resin heats up when prepared, the chemical rea
ction heat is released, you can use a can to work. You can put a cable in a can
but if you have a permanent support that can take and put cans easily save time.
15. In some projects can reinforce critical areas with putting pieces of cloth
placed so they produce better effect resistência.Isto is done to counter the eff
ect would be damaging, without harming the appearance or functionality of the pr
oduct. 16.€The lamination can only support efforts after complete cure. 17. Repa
irs can be used in staples, tape, wires to hold the piece up to dry, then give a
good finish with resin, gel coat, and polishing away the failures. But be caref
ul not to deform your object. This theme is very rich and every day brings news,
update yourself. ............
HANDS TO WORK Grave and the characteristics of the materials, make small changes
as service learning in practice and go, choose the right product for each appli
cation. Do not forget. Fiberglass resin is diluted in the monomer, catalyst and
accelerator, which are applied by brush or roller hit on blankets of fiberglass.
If you want consistency you use talc or other industrial load, and these are al
so used in finishing. Do not wet many layers on each other but let it dry a litt
le to continue. There are applications that use resin without a blanket, some je
welry for example. The finishes are made with thin gelcoat (resin with pigment)
and can replace the painting. If you want to use the mass amount of talc to a po
int generally near the plastic and if you leave a certain amount ready for futur
e use and not only put before the resin, the catalyst, which will be placed on t
ime and in proportion to the amount be employed. Check with the vendor in the am
ount drops to meet the dosages because of the concentration. You can make object
s of wood and other materials coated with a layer of fiber glass and have a chea
per product. But be careful not to damage the quality of your project NOR THEIR
CLIENTELE. Think again on the final weight, cost and quality. There are special
paints and wood for shipbuilding and other industries. The balsa wood is one exa
mple. The covering shipbuilding sector must be of excellent quality and may need
very special equipment and products. The accelerator may be unnecessary if he h
as gas emissions. The high temperature reduces the curing time. As for the silic
on die should wait 24 hours full cure. Natural drying. .................. See si
tes such as: home silicone and Aerojet homepage conduct searches in search engin
es and read about it.
The Aerojet site homepage has tips for those wanting to work with jewelry, stain
ed glass, boards and others. The barracuda has excellent tips on boats and surfb
oards. Remember that you can bill and very much shaping as making repairs, if an
y can assemble your team of repairs. Essential first steps. Reread the book to m
aster the subject. 2. Put into practice by doing minor repairs on parts of small
value or even discarded objects. Evaluate results and take notes. 3. Practice m
aking small objects. 4. Make some small molds, can be of plaster or silicone. 5.
Train your team (people you trust) you can mount a quote before spending the ra
w material. 6. Test your team, you need people balanced, responsible, able to fi
nd solutions and make decisions. Note the practical answers that will give probl
ems posed. 7. Teach all notions of security, use of mask, do not mix catalyst wi
th accelerator etc directly. Good luck
Simple as it is the business that wants to start, there is essential information
that you can not give up. To obtain such information is necessary a market stud
y for the type of product that will sell. In the absence of conditions for a hir
ed hand to do so, the player itself will have to perform this study. This inform
ation relates to the consumer, supplier, competition and sales potential and are
: First try to know well their customers first. Purchasing power - how will you
pay, etc. 2. Cultural issues - there are hard to change habits, innovations are
not always well accepted. 3. Finance. As the condition of its consumer market, i
t would help you make a deeper analysis (x-ray) and reach the final consumer, up
to guide your client that often ignores the potential for certain types of prod
uct. This can be done directly or indirectly, and may experience some special pr
oducts, leaving them on consignment for a period. Check for other product manufa
cturers in the region What is your differential to them - price, time of payment
, delivery, quality, guarantees, loan holders for product display, posters, manu
als etc. Price evaluate suppliers, delivery , time, quality, service,€Other Sale
s Potential assess the level of demand for the product (demand) and if there is
to encourage increased demand I know from experience that with kindness, honesty
, patience, quality and price will always be consistent market. It's already hap
pened a few times, traders who bought in large companies giving me a monthly fee
or take turns moving on the purchases.
September 30, 2004
Fiberglass Lamination and repairs in practice
A. Reis 2004
Another author's work: brooms STEP BY STEP
Reference source
01.MÓVEIS OF FIBRE GLASS - SEBRAE 02.APRENDA The molded plastic and make repairs
Manasseh BRITO - EDIOURO 03. CECAE - USP 04. SITE Aerojet in 2004. HOME SITE OF
Example of mechanical properties
Thickness mm
R.tração Kg / cm ²
R.flexão Kg / cm ²
móduloelast Kg / cm ²
Weight Kg
man ta
28% glass 600g / m² 700 1300 6200 0 2.5 3.3
man ta
47% glass 2.5 4 50 g / m ² 1750 2200 7800 0 4.4