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Separation Processes

CHEN3341

Dr Afaf Geith
Dr Mohamed Salah

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Course Topics
Separation techniques
Vapor-liquid phase equilibrium
Flash Distillation
Binary distillation
Multicomponent distillation
Liquid-liquid extraction
Solvent Extraction (Leaching)
Batch Distillation
Selective topics
Course Assessment
Project s 15%

Quizzes (2 nos. avg. of two ) 10%

Midterm Exams (2 nos. avg. of two) 30%

Final Exam 45%


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Book
P. C. Wankat, Separation Process Engineering,
2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2006.
C.J. Geankoplis, Transport Processes and Unit
Operations, 3rd edition, Printice Hall, 1993.
J. Benitez, Principles and Modern Applications of
Mass Transfer Operations, 2nd edition, Wiley,
2009.
R. S. Brodkey and H. C. Hershey, Transport
Phenomena, McGraw-Hill, 1988.
J. R. Welty, C. E. Wicks, and R. E. Wilson,
Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass
Transfer, 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
S. Middleman, An Introduction to Mass and Heat
Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

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Methods of Separating
Components of Mixtures

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Separating Mixtures

Substances in a mixture are physically


combined, so processes bases on
differences in physical properties are used
to separate component
Numerous techniques have been
developed to separate mixtures to study
components

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Physical Property
a characteristic that a sample of matter exhibits
without changing its identity.

Examples include:
Color Physical State
Melting Point (solid, liquid, gas)

Boiling Point Hardness


Solubility Taste
Density Smell
Magnetism Electrical Conductivity

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Chemical Property
a property that can be observed only when
there is a change in the composition of the
substance.
Examples:
Ability to burn (flammability)
Ability to react with oxygen (Iron will form
rust, silver will tarnish)
Ability to react with acids (for all metals)
Inability to react is also a chemical property

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Separation processes
Mechanical separations e.g. filtration of a
solid from a suspension in a liquid,
centrifugation, screening etc
Mass transfer operations e.g. distillation,
extraction etc

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Hierarchy of Separation Technologies

Physical Separations Easy


Decantation, Coalescing, Filtration, Demisting

Evaporation
Single Effect, Multiple Effect

Distillation
Simple, Azeotropic, Extractive, Reactive

Difficulty
Extraction Of
Simple, Fractional, Reactive
Separation
Adsorption
Pressure Swing, Temperature Swing

Crystallization
Melt, Solvent

Membranes
MF, UF, NF, RO
Difficult
Mass transfer operations nature of
interface between phases
Gas-liquid contact e.g. absorption,
evaporation, distillation etc
Liquid-liquid contact e.g. extraction
Liquid-solid contact e.g. crystallization,
adsorption, Leaching
Gas-solid contact e.g. adsorption, drying etc

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Mass transfer operations controlling
transport phenomenon
Mass transfer controlling e.g.distillation,
absorption, extraction, adsorption etc
Mass transfer and heat transfer controlling
e.g. drying, crystallisation
Heat transfer controlling e.g. evaporation

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Methods of operation
Non steady state concentration changes
with time e.g. batch processes
Steady state
Stage
Differential contact

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When both phases are flowing:
Co-current contact

Stage 1 Stage 2 etc

Cross flow

1 2

Counter-current flow

1 2

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Choice of separation process
Factors to be considered:
Feasibility
Product value
Cost
Product quality
selectivity

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Separation Techniques

The separation of mixtures may be done to


enhance the purity of substances
Accomplished using different characteristic
properties, such as density, boiling point,
melting point, solubility, etc

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Some Types of
Separation Techniques

Filtration
Mechanical separation
Floatation
Centrifugation
Distillation
crystallization
Chromatography
Ect

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Filtration
Used to separate heterogeneous
mixtures composed of solids and
liquids
Uses a porous barrier to separate
the solid from the liquid
Liquid passes through leaving the
solid in the filter paper
Sand and water
Broken glass and water

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Mechanical Separation

Physical separation methods that involve


the use of tools such as forceps and
sieves, to separate the components of a
mixture.
Ex. Gravel and sand.
a porous material is used to separate
particles of different sizes.

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Flotation
Separation method
in which some solids
of a suspension
mixture are allowed
to settle and the less
dense material is
poured off.

Ex. Panning of gold

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Decantation
Decanting is done to
separate particulates
from a liquid by allowing
the solids to settle to the
bottom of the mixture
and pouring off the
particle-free part of the
liquid. Another method
is to allow two
immiscible liquids to
separate and the lighter
liquid is poured off.

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Centrifugation Speeds up the
separation of a solid
from a liquid through
the centripetal force
developed during the
rotation of the
centrifuge.

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Centrifuges rotate containers of
liquids to separate suspended
materials with different densities.

Centrifuges separate different


components of human blood or milk and to
clarify solutions. A high speed separator
can rotate at great speed to separate fat
(cream) from milk.

The spin drier in washing machines is a


type of centrifuge that throws out the
liquid by the "centrifugal force" of the
rotation. 22
Distillation

This is the separation technique where


two miscible liquids (liquids that mix
together) are separated.
It is made possible due to the fact that
each liquid has its unique boiling point.

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Types of Distillation

Simple distillation
Fractional distillation

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Simple Distillation
This is a technique
used to separate a
mixture of a soluble
substance and a
solvent.
E.g salt and water

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Fractional distillation

This is the technique used to separate a


mixture of two miscible liquids with
different boiling points.
E.g. water and ethanol
The boiling point for water is 100 while
for ethanol it is 78.

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Fractional Distillation

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Another way of classifying distillation column
type is to look at how they are operated. Thus
we have:
batch: the feed to the column is introduced
batch-wise. That is, the column is charged with a
'batch' and then the distillation process is
carried out. When the desired task is achieved, a
next batch of feed is introduced and
continuous columns: process a continuous feed
stream. They are capable of handling high
throughputs and are the most common of the
two types
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Crystallization
Separation technique that results
in the formation of pure solid
particles from a solution
containing the dissolved
substance
As one substance evaporates, the
dissolved substance comes out of
solution and collects as crystals
Produces highly pure solids
Rocky candy is an example of this 29
Fractional Crystallization

Fractional crystallization is done by


lowering of temperature of a mixture or
solution so that the more insoluble
component crystallizes out first. (Uses
solubility to separate substances)

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A magnet
Can be used to separate a magnetic substance
from a non-magnetic substance

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Chromatography
Separates components of a mixture
based on ability of each component to
be drawn across the surface of another
material
Mixture is usually liquid and is usually
drawn across chromatography paper
Separation occurs because various
components travel at different rates
Components with strongest attraction
for paper travel the slowest

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Chromatography ( colour writing) is
used to separate small amounts of
chemicals so that they can be
analysed.
Different substances or different
components move at different speeds
through a strip of wet paper a gel or a
gas.

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Thanks

Dr Afaf Ghais Abadi


Dr Mohamed Salah

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