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Sets are fundamental objects in mathematics. A set is a collection of elements or members. It is

desirable to refer to a set as an indivisible entity, one typically denotes it by a single capital letter.

By convention, particular symbols are reserved for the most important sets of numbers:

empty set (also or or {} are common)

C complex numbers
N natural numbers
Q rational numbers
R real numbers
Z integers
set-builder notation is a mathematical notation for describing a set by stating the properties that
its members must satisfy.Forming sets in this manner is also known as set comprehension, set

Table of set theory symbols

Meaning /
Symbol Symbol Name Example

A = {3,7,9,14},
{} Set a collection of elements
B = {9,14,28}

| such that so that A = {x | x , x<0}

objects that belong to set

AB Intersection
A and set B
A B = {9,14}

objects that belong to set

AB Union
A or set B
A B = {3,7,9,14,28}

subset has fewer

AB Subset elements or equal to the {9,14,28} {9,14,28}

proper subset / strict subset has fewer

AB subset elements than the set
{9,14} {9,14,28}

left set not a subset of

AB not subset
right set
{9,66} {9,14,28}

set A has more elements

AB Superset
or equal to the set B
{9,14,28} {9,14,28}

proper superset / strict set A has more elements

AB superset than set B
{9,14,28} {9,14}

AB not superset set A is not a superset of {9,14,28} {9,66}

set B

2A power set all subsets of A

power set all subsets of A

both sets have the same
A=B Equality
all the objects that do not
Ac Complement
belong to set A

A = {3,9,14},
objects that belong to A
A\B relative complement
and not to B
B = {1,2,3},
A \ B = {9,14}

A = {3,9,14},
objects that belong to A
A-B relative complement
and not to B
B = {1,2,3},
A - B = {9,14}

objects that belong to A A = {3,9,14},

AB symmetric difference or B but not to their B = {1,2,3},
intersection A B = {1,2,9,14}

objects that belong to A A = {3,9,14},

AB symmetric difference or B but not to their B = {1,2,3},
intersection A B = {1,2,9,14}

aA element of set membership A={3,9,14}, 3 A

xA not element of no set membership A={3,9,14}, 1 A

(a,b) ordered pair collection of 2 elements

set of all ordered pairs

AB cartesian product
from A and B

the number of elements

|A| Cardinality
of set A
A={3,9,14}, |A|=3

the number of elements

#A Cardinality
of set A
A={3,9,14}, #A=3

empty set = {} A=

universal set set of all possible values

natural numbers / whole

numbers set (with zero) 0 = {0,1,2,3,4,...} 0 0
natural numbers / whole
1 numbers set (without 1 = {1,2,3,4,5,...} 6 1

= {...-3,-2,-
integer numbers set -6

rational numbers set = {x | x=a/b, a,b


real numbers set = {x | - < x <} 6.343434

= {z | z=a+bi,
complex numbers set 6+2i
-<a<, -<b<}


A sequence is an ordered list of elements, which can also be infinite (e.g., the sequence
composed of the real numbers). Since order of elements matter, the sequence (1,2,3) is different
from the sequence (1,3,2) or from the (3,2,1) one. You may also have an empty sequence (), and
you may also have repeated elements. For instance, (1,1,1) is a sequence. A subsequence is
found by deleting some (which might be none or all) elements of the sequence, while keeping the
order of the others.

A tuple is also an ordered list of elements, and it also may include repeat elements. The only
difference between sequences and tuples is that tuples have a finite number of elements
necessarily, while sequences might have finite or infinite elements. A tuple with n elements is
called an n-tuple. There is only one 0-tuple, an empty sequence. An -tuple is defined
inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Tuples are usually written by listing the
elements within parentheses " " and separated by commas; for example,
denotes a 5-tuple.


The general rule for the identity of two -tuples is

if and only

Thus a tuple has properties that distinguish it from a set.

1. A tuple may contain multiple instances of the same element, so

tuple ; but set .
2. Tuple elements are ordered: tuple , but
set .

3. A tuple has a finite number of elements, while a set or a multiset may have an infinite
number of elements.

A relation is any association or link between elements of one set, called the domain or the set
of inputs, and another set, called the range or set of outputs. Some people mistakenly refer to
the range as the codomain(range), but as we will see, that really means the set of all possible
outputseven values that the relation does not actually use. For example, if the domain is a set
Fruits = {apples, oranges, bananas} and the codomain(range) is a set Flavors = {sweetness,
tartness, bitterness}, the flavors of these fruits form a relation: we might say that apples are
related to (or associated with) both sweetness and tartness, while oranges are related to
tartness only and bananas to sweetness only. (We might disagree somewhat, but that is
irrelevant to the topic of this book.) Notice that "bitterness", although it is one of the possible
Flavors (codomain)(range), is not really used for any of these relationships; so it is not part of
the range (or image) {sweetness, tartness}.

Another way of looking at this is to say that a relation is a subset of ordered pairs drawn from
the set of all possible ordered pairs (of elements of two other sets, which we normally refer to as
the Cartesian product of those sets). Formally, R is a relation if

R X Y = {(x, y) | x X, y Y}

for the domain X and codomain(range) Y. The inverse relation of R, which is written as R-1,
is what we get when we interchange the X and Y values:

R-1 = {(y, x) | (x, y) R}


A relation is reflexive if, we observe that for all values a:


In other words, all values are related to themselves.


A relation is symmetric if, we observe that for all values of a and b:

a R b implies b R a

A relation is transitive if for all values a, b, c:

a R b and b R c implies a R c

A relation is antisymmetric if we observe that for all values a and b:

a R b and b R a implies that a=b

Operations on Relations

There are some useful operations one can perform on relations, which allow to express some of
the above mentioned properties more briefly.


Let R be a relation, then its inversion, R-1 is defined by

R-1 := {(a,b) | (b,a) in R}.


Let R be a relation between the sets A and B, S be a relation between B and C. We can
concatenate these relations by defining

R S := {(a,c) | (a,b) in R and (b,c) in S for some b out of B}

Diagonal of a Set

Let A be a set, then we define the diagonal (D) of A by

D(A) := {(a,a) | a in A}

A function is a relationship between two sets of numbers. We may think of this as a mapping; a
function maps a number in one set to a number in another set. Notice that a function maps
values to one and only one value. Two values in one set could map to one value, but one
value must never map to two values: that would be a relation, not a function.
For example, if we write (define) a function as:

A function is a relation that has exactly one output for every possible input in the domain.

Types of functions:

Functions can either be one to one (injective), onto (surjective), or bijective.

INJECTIVE Functions are functions in which every element in the domain maps into a unique
elements in the codomain.

SURJECTIVE Functions are functions in which every elements in the codomain is mapped by
an element in the domain.

'BIJECTIVE' Functions are functions that are both injective and surjective.


In computability theory, primitive recursive functions are a class of functions that are defined
using primitive recursion and composition as central operations and are a strict subset of
the total -recursive functions. Primitive recursive functions form an important building block on
the way to a full formalization of computability. These functions are also important in proof theory.

Most of the functions normally studied in number theory are primitive recursive. For
example: addition, division, factorial, exponential and the nth prime are all primitive recursive. So
are many approximations to real-valued functions.[1] In fact, it is difficult to devise a computable
function that is not primitive recursive, although some are known. The set of primitive recursive
functions is known as PR in computational complexity theory.

The basic primitive recursive functions are given by these axioms:

1. Constant function: The 0-ary constant function 0 is primitive recursive.

2. Successor function: The 1-ary successor function S, which returns the successor of its
argument , is primitive recursive. That is, S(k) = k + 1.

3. Projection function: For every n1 and each i with 1in, the n-ary projection
function Pin, which returns its i-th argument, is primitive recursive.

Primitive recursive functions tend to correspond very closely with our intuition of what a
computable function must be. Certainly the initial functions are intuitively computable (in their
very simplicity), and the two operations by which one can create new primitive recursive
functions are also very straightforward. However the set of primitive recursive functions does not
include every possible total computable functionthis can be seen with a variant of Cantor's
diagonal argument. This argument provides a total computable function that is not primitive

Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.
Computable functions are the formalized analogue of the intuitive notion of algorithm. They
are used to discuss computability without referring to any concrete model of
computation such as Turing machines or register machines. Particular models of
computability that give rise to the set of computable functions are the Turing-computable
functions and the -recursive functions.

Each computable function f takes a fixed, finite number of natural numbers as arguments. Note
that the functions are partial in general, i.e. they may not be defined for every possible choice of
input. If a computable function is defined for a certain input, then it returns a single natural
number as output. These functions are also called partial recursive functions. In computability
theory, the domain of a function is taken to be the set of all inputs for which the function is
defined. Hartley Rogers remarks that "recursive partial functions" would have been a better
name, but that the formerly mentioned order of the adjectives ("partial recursive") has become
standard. (Rogers [1967], p. 18)

A function which is defined for all possible arguments is called total. If a computable function is
total, it is called a total computable function or total recursive function.

The notation f(x1, ..., xk) indicates that the partial function f is defined on arguments x1, ..., xk,
and the notation f(x1, ..., xk) = y indicates that f is defined on the argumentsx1, ..., xk and the
value returned is y. The case that a function f is undefined for arguments x1, ..., xk is denoted
by f(x1, ..., xk) .

a graph is an ordered pair G = (V, E) comprising a set V of vertices or nodes together with a
set E of edges or links, which are 2-element subsets of V . The vertices belonging to an edge
are called the ends, endpoints, or end vertices of the edge. A vertex may exist in a graph and
not belong to an edge.

V and E are usually taken to be finite, and many of the well-known results are not true (or are
rather different) for infinite graphs because many of the arguments fail in the infinite case.
The order of a graph is (the number of vertices). A graph's size is , the number of edges.
The degree of a vertex is the number of edges that connect to it, where an edge that connects to
the vertex at both ends (a loop) is counted twice.

For an edge {u, v}, graph theorists usually use the somewhat shorter notation uv.

Adjacency relation:
The edges E of an undirected graph G induce a symmetric binary relation ~ on V that is
called the adjacency relation of G. Specifically, for each edge {u, v} the
vertices u and vare said to be adjacent to one another, which is denoted u ~ v.

Undirected graph

An undirected graph is one in which edges have no orientation. The edge (a, b) is identical to the
edge (b, a), i.e., they are not ordered pairs, but sets {u, v} (or 2-multisets) of vertices. The
maximum number of edges in an undirected graph without a self-loop is n(n - 1)/2.

Directed graph

A directed graph or digraph is an ordered pair D = (V, A) with

V a set whose elements are called vertices or nodes, and

A a set of ordered pairs of vertices, called arcs, directed edges, or arrows.

An arc a = (x, y) is considered to be directed from x to y; y is called the head and x is called
the tail of the arc; y is said to be adirect successor of x, and x is said to be a direct
predecessor of y. If a path leads from x to y, then y is said to be a successor of
x and reachable from x, and x is said to be a predecessor of y. The arc (y, x) is called the arc
(x, y) inverted.
A directed graph D is called symmetric

Mixed graph
A mixed graph G is a graph in which some edges may be directed and some may be
undirected. It is written as an ordered triple G = (V, E, A) with V, E, and A defined as above.
Directed and undirected graphs are special cases.


A loop is an edge (directed or undirected) which starts and ends on the same vertex; these may
be permitted or not permitted according to the application. In this context, an edge with two
different ends is called a link.

The term "multigraph" is generally understood to mean that multiple edges (and sometimes
loops) are allowed. Where graphs are defined so as to allow loops and multiple edges, a
multigraph is often defined to mean a graph without loops,[6] however, where graphs are defined
so as to disallow loops and multiple edges, the term is often defined to mean a "graph" which can
have both multiple edges and loops,[7] although many use the term "pseudograph" for this

Simple graph

As opposed to a multigraph, a simple graph is an undirected graph that has no loops (edges
connected at both ends to the same vertex) and no more than one edge between any two
different vertices. In a simple graph the edges of the graph form a set (rather than a multiset) and
each edge is a pair of distinct vertices. In a simple graph with nvertices, the degree of every
vertex is at most n-1.

Weighted graph

A graph is a weighted graph if a number (weight) is assigned to each edge.[9] Such weights might
represent, for example, costs, lengths or capacities, etc. depending on the problem at hand.
Some authors call such a graph a network.Weighted correlation networks can be defined by soft-
thresholding the pairwise correlations among variables (e.g. gene measurements).