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9 visualizzazioni9 pagineMathematical Notation of Sets

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Mathematical Notation of Sets

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9 visualizzazioni9 pagineMathematical Notation of Sets

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desirable to refer to a set as an indivisible entity, one typically denotes it by a single capital letter.

By convention, particular symbols are reserved for the most important sets of numbers:

C complex numbers

N natural numbers

Q rational numbers

R real numbers

Z integers

set-builder notation is a mathematical notation for describing a set by stating the properties that

its members must satisfy.Forming sets in this manner is also known as set comprehension, set

abstraction.

Meaning /

Symbol Symbol Name Example

definition

A = {3,7,9,14},

{} Set a collection of elements

B = {9,14,28}

AB Intersection

A and set B

A B = {9,14}

AB Union

A or set B

A B = {3,7,9,14,28}

AB Subset elements or equal to the {9,14,28} {9,14,28}

set

AB subset elements than the set

{9,14} {9,14,28}

AB not subset

right set

{9,66} {9,14,28}

AB Superset

or equal to the set B

{9,14,28} {9,14,28}

AB superset than set B

{9,14,28} {9,14}

set B

A={3,9,14},

both sets have the same

A=B Equality

members

B={3,9,14},

A=B

all the objects that do not

Ac Complement

belong to set A

A = {3,9,14},

objects that belong to A

A\B relative complement

and not to B

B = {1,2,3},

A \ B = {9,14}

A = {3,9,14},

objects that belong to A

A-B relative complement

and not to B

B = {1,2,3},

A - B = {9,14}

AB symmetric difference or B but not to their B = {1,2,3},

intersection A B = {1,2,9,14}

AB symmetric difference or B but not to their B = {1,2,3},

intersection A B = {1,2,9,14}

AB cartesian product

from A and B

|A| Cardinality

of set A

A={3,9,14}, |A|=3

#A Cardinality

of set A

A={3,9,14}, #A=3

empty set = {} A=

0

numbers set (with zero) 0 = {0,1,2,3,4,...} 0 0

natural numbers / whole

1 numbers set (without 1 = {1,2,3,4,5,...} 6 1

zero)

= {...-3,-2,-

integer numbers set -6

1,0,1,2,3,...}

2/6

}

= {z | z=a+bi,

complex numbers set 6+2i

-<a<, -<b<}

A sequence is an ordered list of elements, which can also be infinite (e.g., the sequence

composed of the real numbers). Since order of elements matter, the sequence (1,2,3) is different

from the sequence (1,3,2) or from the (3,2,1) one. You may also have an empty sequence (), and

you may also have repeated elements. For instance, (1,1,1) is a sequence. A subsequence is

found by deleting some (which might be none or all) elements of the sequence, while keeping the

order of the others.

A tuple is also an ordered list of elements, and it also may include repeat elements. The only

difference between sequences and tuples is that tuples have a finite number of elements

necessarily, while sequences might have finite or infinite elements. A tuple with n elements is

called an n-tuple. There is only one 0-tuple, an empty sequence. An -tuple is defined

inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Tuples are usually written by listing the

elements within parentheses " " and separated by commas; for example,

denotes a 5-tuple.

Properties:

if and only

if

tuple ; but set .

2. Tuple elements are ordered: tuple , but

set .

3. A tuple has a finite number of elements, while a set or a multiset may have an infinite

number of elements.

FUNCTIONS AND RELAIONS:

A relation is any association or link between elements of one set, called the domain or the set

of inputs, and another set, called the range or set of outputs. Some people mistakenly refer to

the range as the codomain(range), but as we will see, that really means the set of all possible

outputseven values that the relation does not actually use. For example, if the domain is a set

Fruits = {apples, oranges, bananas} and the codomain(range) is a set Flavors = {sweetness,

tartness, bitterness}, the flavors of these fruits form a relation: we might say that apples are

related to (or associated with) both sweetness and tartness, while oranges are related to

tartness only and bananas to sweetness only. (We might disagree somewhat, but that is

irrelevant to the topic of this book.) Notice that "bitterness", although it is one of the possible

Flavors (codomain)(range), is not really used for any of these relationships; so it is not part of

the range (or image) {sweetness, tartness}.

Another way of looking at this is to say that a relation is a subset of ordered pairs drawn from

the set of all possible ordered pairs (of elements of two other sets, which we normally refer to as

the Cartesian product of those sets). Formally, R is a relation if

R X Y = {(x, y) | x X, y Y}

for the domain X and codomain(range) Y. The inverse relation of R, which is written as R-1,

is what we get when we interchange the X and Y values:

PROPERTIES:

Reflexive

aRa

Symmetric

a R b implies b R a

Transitive

a R b and b R c implies a R c

Antisymmetric

Operations on Relations

There are some useful operations one can perform on relations, which allow to express some of

the above mentioned properties more briefly.

Inversion

Concatenation

Let R be a relation between the sets A and B, S be a relation between B and C. We can

concatenate these relations by defining

Diagonal of a Set

D(A) := {(a,a) | a in A}

FUNCTONS:

A function is a relationship between two sets of numbers. We may think of this as a mapping; a

function maps a number in one set to a number in another set. Notice that a function maps

values to one and only one value. Two values in one set could map to one value, but one

value must never map to two values: that would be a relation, not a function.

For example, if we write (define) a function as:

A function is a relation that has exactly one output for every possible input in the domain.

Types of functions:

INJECTIVE Functions are functions in which every element in the domain maps into a unique

elements in the codomain.

SURJECTIVE Functions are functions in which every elements in the codomain is mapped by

an element in the domain.

'BIJECTIVE' Functions are functions that are both injective and surjective.

In computability theory, primitive recursive functions are a class of functions that are defined

using primitive recursion and composition as central operations and are a strict subset of

the total -recursive functions. Primitive recursive functions form an important building block on

the way to a full formalization of computability. These functions are also important in proof theory.

Most of the functions normally studied in number theory are primitive recursive. For

example: addition, division, factorial, exponential and the nth prime are all primitive recursive. So

are many approximations to real-valued functions.[1] In fact, it is difficult to devise a computable

function that is not primitive recursive, although some are known. The set of primitive recursive

functions is known as PR in computational complexity theory.

2. Successor function: The 1-ary successor function S, which returns the successor of its

argument , is primitive recursive. That is, S(k) = k + 1.

3. Projection function: For every n1 and each i with 1in, the n-ary projection

function Pin, which returns its i-th argument, is primitive recursive.

LIMITATIONS:

Primitive recursive functions tend to correspond very closely with our intuition of what a

computable function must be. Certainly the initial functions are intuitively computable (in their

very simplicity), and the two operations by which one can create new primitive recursive

functions are also very straightforward. However the set of primitive recursive functions does not

include every possible total computable functionthis can be seen with a variant of Cantor's

diagonal argument. This argument provides a total computable function that is not primitive

recursive.

COMPUTABLE FUNCTIONS:

Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.

Computable functions are the formalized analogue of the intuitive notion of algorithm. They

are used to discuss computability without referring to any concrete model of

computation such as Turing machines or register machines. Particular models of

computability that give rise to the set of computable functions are the Turing-computable

functions and the -recursive functions.

Each computable function f takes a fixed, finite number of natural numbers as arguments. Note

that the functions are partial in general, i.e. they may not be defined for every possible choice of

input. If a computable function is defined for a certain input, then it returns a single natural

number as output. These functions are also called partial recursive functions. In computability

theory, the domain of a function is taken to be the set of all inputs for which the function is

defined. Hartley Rogers remarks that "recursive partial functions" would have been a better

name, but that the formerly mentioned order of the adjectives ("partial recursive") has become

standard. (Rogers [1967], p. 18)

A function which is defined for all possible arguments is called total. If a computable function is

total, it is called a total computable function or total recursive function.

The notation f(x1, ..., xk) indicates that the partial function f is defined on arguments x1, ..., xk,

and the notation f(x1, ..., xk) = y indicates that f is defined on the argumentsx1, ..., xk and the

value returned is y. The case that a function f is undefined for arguments x1, ..., xk is denoted

by f(x1, ..., xk) .

GRAPHS:

a graph is an ordered pair G = (V, E) comprising a set V of vertices or nodes together with a

set E of edges or links, which are 2-element subsets of V . The vertices belonging to an edge

are called the ends, endpoints, or end vertices of the edge. A vertex may exist in a graph and

not belong to an edge.

V and E are usually taken to be finite, and many of the well-known results are not true (or are

rather different) for infinite graphs because many of the arguments fail in the infinite case.

The order of a graph is (the number of vertices). A graph's size is , the number of edges.

The degree of a vertex is the number of edges that connect to it, where an edge that connects to

the vertex at both ends (a loop) is counted twice.

For an edge {u, v}, graph theorists usually use the somewhat shorter notation uv.

Adjacency relation:

The edges E of an undirected graph G induce a symmetric binary relation ~ on V that is

called the adjacency relation of G. Specifically, for each edge {u, v} the

vertices u and vare said to be adjacent to one another, which is denoted u ~ v.

TYPES OF GRAPHS:

Undirected graph

An undirected graph is one in which edges have no orientation. The edge (a, b) is identical to the

edge (b, a), i.e., they are not ordered pairs, but sets {u, v} (or 2-multisets) of vertices. The

maximum number of edges in an undirected graph without a self-loop is n(n - 1)/2.

Directed graph

An arc a = (x, y) is considered to be directed from x to y; y is called the head and x is called

the tail of the arc; y is said to be adirect successor of x, and x is said to be a direct

predecessor of y. If a path leads from x to y, then y is said to be a successor of

x and reachable from x, and x is said to be a predecessor of y. The arc (y, x) is called the arc

(x, y) inverted.

A directed graph D is called symmetric

Mixed graph

A mixed graph G is a graph in which some edges may be directed and some may be

undirected. It is written as an ordered triple G = (V, E, A) with V, E, and A defined as above.

Directed and undirected graphs are special cases.

Multigraph

A loop is an edge (directed or undirected) which starts and ends on the same vertex; these may

be permitted or not permitted according to the application. In this context, an edge with two

different ends is called a link.

The term "multigraph" is generally understood to mean that multiple edges (and sometimes

loops) are allowed. Where graphs are defined so as to allow loops and multiple edges, a

multigraph is often defined to mean a graph without loops,[6] however, where graphs are defined

so as to disallow loops and multiple edges, the term is often defined to mean a "graph" which can

have both multiple edges and loops,[7] although many use the term "pseudograph" for this

meaning.[8]

Simple graph

As opposed to a multigraph, a simple graph is an undirected graph that has no loops (edges

connected at both ends to the same vertex) and no more than one edge between any two

different vertices. In a simple graph the edges of the graph form a set (rather than a multiset) and

each edge is a pair of distinct vertices. In a simple graph with nvertices, the degree of every

vertex is at most n-1.

Weighted graph

A graph is a weighted graph if a number (weight) is assigned to each edge.[9] Such weights might

represent, for example, costs, lengths or capacities, etc. depending on the problem at hand.

Some authors call such a graph a network.Weighted correlation networks can be defined by soft-

thresholding the pairwise correlations among variables (e.g. gene measurements).

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