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# Hydraulic Structures Structural Design of Syphon

## Design of Syphon Barrels

Design barrels of the canal syphon as reinforced concrete box. The data is given below:

1. Number of barrels =2
2. Size of barrel =3 m 2.5 m
3. Bank level =254 m
4. Drain H.F.L =253.25 m
5. Uplift at base of barrel =4.5 t/m2
6. Unit weight of dry earth =1.6 t/m3
7. Unit weight of saturated earth =2.0 t/m3
8. Weight of submerged earth =1.0 t/m3
9. Angle of internal friction in all =30
conditions

Design
Assume the thickness of the frame 30 cm all through so that the effective length of horizontal
and vertical members are 3.3 m and 2.8 m.

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Hydraulic Structures Structural Design of Syphon

1. Distribution factors

At joint A For A B,
2.8
For AB 0.46 For A D,
2.8 3.3
Therefore, distribution factors:
3.3
2.8 3.3 For

At joint D

For D A=0.54

D C=0.46

## Depth of dry earth over barrel 254 253.25 0.75m

Depth of saturated earth 253.25 251.4 1.85m
Weight of dry and saturated earth 0.75 1.6 1.85 2 4.9t m 2

## Weight of top slab (0.3 m thick) 0.3 2.4 0.72t m 2

Weight on the top slab including its own weight = 4.9 0.72 5.62t m 2

Weight of barrels per meter of length 4 3.3 3 2.8 0.3 2.4 15.6t m
Total dead load/m of length of barrels 15.6 4.9 6.9 49.4t m

## Uplift per one meter length 4.5 6.9 31.05t m

Net vertical load acting on foundation 49.4 31.05 18.35t m
Pressure on foundation soil (Soil reaction) 18.35
2.66 t m 2
6.9
Pressure acting on the base slab + uplift =Soil reaction
2.66 4.5 7.16t m 2
Net upward pressure on the base slab 7.16 0.72 6.44 t m 2
Say 6.5t m 2

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Hydraulic Structures Structural Design of Syphon

3. Earth pressure

## The earth pressure shall comprise of the following:

a. Dry earth pressure above saturation line (from R.L. 253.25 m to R.L. 254.00 m)
b. Saturated earth pressure (from R.L. 253.25 m to R.L. 248.45 m).

1 sin 1
Corresponding to 30 , c p
1 sin 3

## Pressure at A = Surcharge due to dry earth+ surcharge due to saturated earth

c p 254 253.25 c p s 253.25 251.25 253.25 251.25
1 1
1.6 0.75 1.0 2 1 2 3.07 t m 2
3 3
Pressure at D 3.07 c p s 251.25 248.45 251.25 248.45
1
3.07 1 2.8 1 2.8 6.8t m 2
3

4. Fixing moments
w 2 5.62 3.32
a. On span AB 5.1t m
12 12
6.5 3.32
b. On span CD 5.9 t m
12
3.07 2.82 3.73 2.82
12 30
3.07 2.82 3.73 2.82
M DA 3.475t m
12 20

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Hydraulic Structures Structural Design of Syphon

Joint C D A B
Member CD DC DA AD AB BA
D. factor 0.46 0.54 0.54 0.46
F.E.M. -5.9 +5.9 -3.475 +2.985 -5.1 +5.1
Balance -1.115 -1.31 +1.142 +0.973
C.O. -0.5575 +0.57 -0.655 +0.485
Balance -0.2622 -0.3078 +0.3537 +0.3013
C.O. -0.1311 +0.177 -0.1539 +0.151
Balance -0.081 -0.096 +0.083 +0.0708
C.O. -0.041 +0.042 -0.048 +0.035
Balance -0.019 -0.023 +0.026 +0.022
-6.630 +4.423 -4.423 +3.733 -3.733 +5.771

5. Design moments
a. Span AB
Net moments at center and face of span AB
5.62 3.3 5.62 0.152
Sagging moment at face 0.15 1.33t m
2 2
3.15
Fixing moment at face 3.73 5.771 3.73 5.68t m
3.3
Net fixing moments at face 5.68 1.33 4.35t m

5.62 3.32
Sagging moment at center 7.65t m
8
3.73 5.771
Fixing moment at center 4.75t m
2
Net sagging moment at center 7.65 4.75 2.9t m
b. Span CD
6.5 3.3 6.5 0.152
Sagging moment at face 0.15 1.54 t m
2 2
3.15
Fixing moment at face 4.423 6.63 4.423 6.529 t m
3.3
Net fixing moment at face 6.529 1.54 4.98t m

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Hydraulic Structures Structural Design of Syphon

6.5 3.32
Sagging moment at center 8.85t m
8
6.63 4.423
Fixing moment at center 5.53t m
2
Net sagging moments at center 8.85 5.53 3.32t m

## Sagging moment at face:

i. Due to rectangular portion
3.07 2.8 3.07 0.152
0.15 0.61t m
2 2
ii. Due to triangular portion
3.73 2.8 2
2.8 R D 2.8
2 3
3.73 2.8
RD
3
Sagging moment
3.73 2.8 3.53 0.152
0.15 0.483t m
3 2
Total sagging moments 0.61 0.483 1.09t m
2.65
Fixing moment at face 3.73 4.423 3.73 4.39t m
2.8
Net fixing moment at face 4.39 1.09 3.3t m
Sagging moment at center
3.07 2.82
i. Due to rectangular portion 3.01t m
8
ii. Due to triangular portion
3.73 2.8 2.8
2.8 R A
2 3
3.73 2.8
RA
6
3.73 2.8 2.8 1.865 1.4 1.4
MC 1.83t m
6 2 2 3
Total Sagging moment at center 3.01 1.83 4.84t m
4.423 3.73
Fixing moment at center 4.08t m
2
Net sagging moment at center 4.84 4.08 0.76t m

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Hydraulic Structures Structural Design of Syphon

Span Fixing moment (-ve) at face (t.m) Sagging moment (+ve) at center (t.m)
AB 4.35 2.9
16 mm bars@ 12.5cm c/c (up) 12 mm bars@ 10 cm c/c (down)
CD 4.98 3.32
16 mm bars@ 11.25cm c/c 16 mm bars@ 16.25cm c/c
16 mm bars@ 16.25cm c/c 12 mm bars@ 25cm c/c

6. Thickness of members
Maximum moment in the barrels=4.98 t.m
The minimum effective thickness (d) required for bending moment is
M
d
bQ
4.98 1000 100
23.29 cm
100 9.18

Adopt 27.5 cm effective depth and 30 cm overall thickness for all members.
7. Reinforcement
a. Span AB and BE
At face (hogging moment, -ve steel)
4.35 1000 100
At 15.38cm 2
6
1200 27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 12.5 cm c/c (up)
At center (sagging moment, +ve steel)
2.9 1000 100
At 10.25cm 2
6
1200 27.5
7
Provide 12 mm bars @ 10 cm c/c (down)

b. Span CD and CF
At face
4.98 1000 100
At 17.6 cm 2
6
1200 27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 11.25 cm c/c
At center
3.32 1000 100
At 11.74 cm 2
6
1200 27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 16.25 cm c/c

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Hydraulic Structures Structural Design of Syphon

At face
3.3 1000 100
At 11.7 cm 2
6
1200 27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 16.25 cm c/c
At center
0.764 1000 100
At 2.70 cm 2
6
1200 27.5
7
Provide 12 mm bars @ 25 cm c/c

2

4
12 1.13
14 1.54
16 2.01
18 2.54