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Temperature Profile Study

Counter Current Flow

Water Temperature vs Cold Water Flow Rate with Fixed Hot Water Flow Rate at 3LPM
50.0
45.0

Water Temperature (C) 40.0


35.0
30.0
1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

Cold Water Flow Rate (LPM)

Hot Water Outlet Cold Water Outlet

Water Temperature vs Hot Water Flow Rate with Fixed Cold Water Flow Rate at 4LPM
50.0

45.0

Water Temperature (C) 40.0

35.0

30.0
1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Hot Water Flow Rate (LPM)

Hot Water Outlet Cold Water Outlet


Co-current Flow

Water Temperature vs Cold Water Flow Rate with Fixed Hot Water Flow Rate at 3LPM
50.0

45.0

Water Temperature (C) 40.0

35.0

30.0
1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

Cold Water Flow Rate (LPM)

Hot Water Outlet Cold Water Outlet

Water Temperature vs Hot Water Flow Rate with Fixed Cold Water Flow Rate at 4LPM
50.0

45.0

Water Temperature (C) 40.0

35.0

30.0
1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Hot Water Flow Rate (LPM)

Hot Water Outlet Cold Water Outlet


DISCUSSION

The temperature profile study shown that for fixed hot water flow rate, both the outlet
temperature for hot water and cold water will decrease as the cold water flow rate
increased. This is due to the increasing heat transfer between cold and hot water. As
observed from the overall heat transfer coefficient, the heat transfer rate increase and
the cold water flow rate increase. This can be explained theoretically where there will
be nett heat energy transfer when a temperature difference exists between 2 surfaces.
When the 2 surfaces are in contact, there will be heat energy transfer in either
convection or conduction in both direction, however, the surface with higher
temperature tends to release more heat energy to achieve temperature equilibrium
between the 2 surfaces. When the cold water flow rate increase, the heat capacity of
cold water increase, the heat transfer will increase as the ability of cold water to
absorb heat increase, which validated our experiment results.

When the cold water flow rate is fixed, both the hot and cold water outlet temperature
sees an increasing trend as the hot water flow rate increase. This is due to the
increasing heat transfer rate as well. As the hot water flow rate increase, more heat
energy is stored in the hot water stream, hence more heat energy will be transferred to
the lower temperature cold water, causing the cold water temperature to increase. As
the cold water flow rate is fixed, the heat capacity of the cold water is fixed as well, as
a result the ability of cold water to absorb heat energy from the hot water remains the
same even when the hot water flow rate increases. As a result, the heat transfer from
hot water to cold water will be limited, causing temperature increase in both hot and
cold water outlet.